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Switched Mode Power Supply Design Solutions

Lei Xia, Ph.D. Application Engineer

Switched Mode Power Supply Design Solutions Lei Xia, Ph.D. Application Engineer

Overview

  • w Introduction to Ansoft SMPS Design Resources

    • w Simplorer SMPS Library

    • w PExprt

    • w PEmag

    • w Streamlined Design Flow

  • w Example #1 - Buck Converter Design

  • w Example #2 - Forward Converter Design

  • Overview w Introduction to Ansoft SMPS Design Resources w Simplorer SMPS Library w PExprt w PEmag

    Simplorer SMPS Library

    Simplorer SMPS Library w SMPS Library written by University of Madrid w Insert library (SMPS6.smd) in
    • w SMPS Library written by University of Madrid

    • w Insert library (SMPS6.smd) in the Add Ons tab on the Model Tree

    • w Five sections in the library:

    Simplorer SMPS Library w SMPS Library written by University of Madrid w Insert library (SMPS6.smd) in
    Simplorer SMPS Library w SMPS Library written by University of Madrid w Insert library (SMPS6.smd) in

    1) Advanced 2) Controllers 3) Control Modules 4) Power Converters (MAIN SECTION) 5) System Modeling

    Simplorer SMPS Library w SMPS Library written by University of Madrid w Insert library (SMPS6.smd) in

    1) SMPS Library - Advanced

    Advanced section contains components necessary for constructing:

    • w AC-DC supplies using diodes and thyristors

    • w 3 phase Averaged Power Supplies and Inverters

    1) SMPS Library - Advanced Advanced section contains components necessary for constructing: w AC-DC supplies using
    1) SMPS Library - Advanced Advanced section contains components necessary for constructing: w AC-DC supplies using
    1) SMPS Library - Advanced Advanced section contains components necessary for constructing: w AC-DC supplies using
    • w Park Transformation models to convert between ABCand dq0components

    2) SMPS Library - Controllers

    Controllers section contains:

    • w Type 1, type 2 and type 3 controllers (integral, proportional- integral, and proportional-integral- derivative

    • w These are simple linear regulators used as the control loop in DC-DC converters or AC-DC converters

    2) SMPS Library - Controllers Controllers section contains: w Type 1, type 2 and type 3
    2) SMPS Library - Controllers Controllers section contains: w Type 1, type 2 and type 3
    Type 1- I controller Type 2- PI controller Type 3- PID controller
    Type 1- I controller
    Type 2- PI controller
    Type 3- PID controller

    3) SMPS Library - Control Modules

    3) SMPS Library - Control Modules Control Module section contains: w Elements commonly used to create
    3) SMPS Library - Control Modules Control Module section contains: w Elements commonly used to create

    Control Module section contains:

    • w Elements commonly used to create power converters such as: MOSFETS, PWM, Optocouplers, ...

    • w These control modules are used to create converters (topologies) not included in power converters section of the library

    3) SMPS Library - Control Modules Control Module section contains: w Elements commonly used to create
    3) SMPS Library - Control Modules Control Module section contains: w Elements commonly used to create

    4) SMPS Library - Power Converters

    Power Converters section contains: w Average and Switch level models w Non-isolated and Isolated (transformers and
    Power Converters section contains:
    w
    Average and Switch level models
    w
    Non-isolated and Isolated
    (transformers and inductors)
    w
    Ideal and Non-ideal (includes
    switch R,C parasitics or none)

    5) SMPS Library - Power Converters

    5) SMPS Library - Power Converters Average Models w Can be used for both AC and

    Average Models

    • w Can be used for both AC and transient analysis

    • w Can be used to design control loops (must use AC analysis)

    • w Both ideal and non-ideal (includes switch R,C parasitics or none)

    • w Better for complicated systems such as multi-phase converters

    • w Can switch between continuous and discontinuous mode

    6) SMPS Library - Power Converters

    Switch-level Models

    • w Only non-ideal models which contain parasitic effects of switches, such as resistance and capacitance

    • w Can be used to determine losses of entire converter

    6) SMPS Library - Power Converters Switch-level Models w Only non-ideal models which contain parasitic effects
    6) SMPS Library - Power Converters Switch-level Models w Only non-ideal models which contain parasitic effects

    7) SMPS Library - System Modeling

    System Modeling

    • w Includes solar model for light source (irradiance) and power source (solar cell)

    • w Two types of battery models

    • w Includes a variable load (as opposed to a variable resistance) for changing load

    7) SMPS Library - System Modeling System Modeling w Includes solar model for light source (irradiance)
    7) SMPS Library - System Modeling System Modeling w Includes solar model for light source (irradiance)

    Example 1:

    Buck Converter

    Example 1: Buck Converter

    Summary of Design Process

    1) Use Simplorer to simulate a SMPS model 2) Use PExprt to design inductor 3) Use PExprt Modeler [PEmag] to generate a detailed netlist model 4) Use Simplorer to simulate the circuit with PExprt inductor model 5) Use Simplorer (AC) to design feedback Control loop 6) Use Simplorer to Simulate the complete System

    Simplorer

    PExprt

    PEmag

    Simplorer

    Summary of Design Process 1) Use Simplorer to simulate a SMPS model 2) Use PExprt to

    Simulate in Simplorer with SMPS library

    Simulate in Simplorer with SMPS library Use switch level Buck Converter from SMPS library Change duty

    Use switch level Buck Converter from SMPS library

    Change duty cycle

    and inductor value

    to achieve desired

    output voltage

    Simulate in Simplorer with SMPS library Use switch level Buck Converter from SMPS library Change duty

    Design Inductor with PExprt

    Design Inductor with PExprt Easy transition from Simplorer to PExprt Build a waveform based inductor or
    Easy transition from Simplorer to PExprt Build a waveform based inductor or buck converter in PExprt
    Easy transition from
    Simplorer to PExprt
    Build a waveform
    based inductor or
    buck converter
    in PExprt

    Design Inductor with PExprt

    Run the PExprt model and select the design you prefer PExprt design results, including constructive data
    Run the PExprt
    model and select
    the design
    you prefer
    PExprt design results, including constructive data

    Generate Model with PExprt Modeler [PEmag]

    Generate a Can include core non-linear effects
    Generate a
    Can include core non-linear effects

    using Jiles-Atherton model if the core

    1D Analytical

    or a 2D FEA

    based model

    is operating in the nonlinear range
    is operating in the nonlinear range

    Import and Simulate with PExprt Inductor Model

    PExprt Model and Symbol
    PExprt Model and Symbol

    Simulate the PExprt

    model in Simplorer

    Import and Simulate with PExprt Inductor Model PExprt Model and Symbol Simulate the PExprt model in

    Design Feedback Loop in frequency domain

    This controls This controls Add PID duty cycle of duty cycle of controller switch to switch
    This controls
    This controls
    Add PID
    duty cycle of
    duty cycle of
    controller
    switch to
    switch to
    Design of the control loop
    from the
    maintain
    maintain
    constant
    with AC analysis of the Converter
    constant
    output voltage
    output voltage
    Specifically, select R and C

    in the PID controller

    SMPS library

    Design Feedback Loop in frequency domain This controls This controls Add PID duty cycle of duty

    Feedback Loop Test: Simplorer Time Domain

    Finally, return to the time domain analysis

    to see how the buck converter performs Load Step Regulated Output Voltage
    to see how the buck converter performs
    Load Step
    Regulated Output Voltage

    PID regulator from the SMPS library

    Feedback Loop Test: Simplorer Time Domain Finally, return to the time domain analysis to see how
    Feedback Loop Test: Simplorer Time Domain Finally, return to the time domain analysis to see how

    Example 2:

    Forward Converter

    Example 2: Forward Converter

    Summary of Design Process

    1) Basic design using Simplorer 2) Study saturation effects using JA Model 3) Detailed design using PExprt 4) Model Generation with PExprt Modeler [PEmag]

    5) Use Simplorer to simulate the detailed PExprt model

    Simplorer

    PExprt

    PEmag

    Simplorer

    Summary of Design Process 1) Basic design using Simplorer 2) Study saturation effects using JA Model
    Summary of Design Process 1) Basic design using Simplorer 2) Study saturation effects using JA Model

    Step 1: Basic topology design in Simplorer

    Step 1: Basic topology design in Simplorer Since no leakage inductance, no over-voltage at the switch
    Step 1: Basic topology design in Simplorer Since no leakage inductance, no over-voltage at the switch

    Since no leakage inductance, no

    over-voltage at the switch (and

    MOSFET cannot be selected)

    Converter output

    voltage can be checked

    Converter Losses: 1W

    (core only, no winding

    losses included)

    with Jiles-Atherton

    model (No leakage

    inductances, no

    winding resistances)

    based on duty cycle chosen
    based on duty cycle chosen

    Step 2: Study saturation effects using JA Model

    As load is increased the Jiles-Atherton core model shows saturation

    Inductor Saturation
    Inductor Saturation
    JA Model
    JA Model
    Step 2: Study saturation effects using JA Model As load is increased the Jiles-Atherton core model
    Impact of the saturation on current waveform
    Impact of the saturation on current waveform
    Step 3: Detailed design using PExprt Easy transition from Simplorer to PExprt Voltage, power, frequency, and
    Step 3: Detailed design using PExprt
    Easy transition from Simplorer to PExprt
    Voltage, power, frequency, and
    duty cycle can be input quickly
    Use PExprt
    Use PExprt
    to include
    to include
    leakage
    leakage
    inductance
    inductance
    and
    and
    AC winding
    AC winding
    resistance for
    resistance for
    MOSFET
    MOSFET
    selection and
    selection and
    for efficiency
    for efficiency

    Step 3 (cont): Detailed design using PExprt

    PExprt design results, including performance results and constructive data
    PExprt design results, including
    performance results and constructive data

    Step 4: Model Generation with PExprt Modeler [PEmag]

    Very easy procedure to generate Simplorer model, including the symbol
    Very easy procedure to generate
    Simplorer model, including the symbol

    Step 5: Simplorer analysis using PExprt model

    PExprt Transformer Model
    PExprt
    Transformer
    Model
    Step 5: Simplorer analysis using PExprt model PExprt Transformer Model Over-Voltage at the Switch because of

    Over-Voltage at the Switch because

    Step 5: Simplorer analysis using PExprt model PExprt Transformer Model Over-Voltage at the Switch because of
    of the leakage Inductance Converter Losses: 1.7 W
    of the leakage Inductance
    Converter Losses: 1.7 W

    Summary

    1) A Well Defined Design Flow 2) Detailed Design of Magnetic Components 3) Design and Simulation of Complete Circuit and System

    Simplorer

    PExprt

    PEmag

    Simplorer

    Summary 1) A Well Defined Design Flow 2) Detailed Design of Magnetic Components 3) Design and