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Design for steel bridge construction


From Steelconstruction.info

To ensure that a steel bridge design can be safely, economically and reliably executed (fabricated, assembled and erected),
designers should be aware of the processes of fabrication and erection, the capabilities and limitations of the steelwork
contractor and how the design choices affect those processes. This article provides guidance on design for construction: it
generally follows the sequence of activities undertaken by the steelwork contractor.

The objectives of ‘design for construction’ are:

To maximize the efficiency of the construction


process
To minimize the need for clarification and
change

Achieving these objectives will reduce costs, reduce


the construction period, enhance quality and
increase the safety of the work.

The activities for the steelwork contractor include


planning, ordering, modelling, fabricating,
assembling, coating and erecting.

Contents
1 Planning
Lagentium Viaduct, A1(M) Darrington to Dishforth
1.1 Traditional design
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
1.2 ECI – Early Contractor
Involvement
1.3 Constraints
1.4 Standard for execution of
steelwork
1.5 CDM Regulations

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2 Ordering
2.1 Materials and components
2.1.1 Bolt sizes
2.1.2 Shear stud sizes
2.2 Geometry
2.2.1 Allowances for
permanent deformation
2.2.2 Curvature in plan
2.3 Bearing information
2.4 Timely and sufficient definition
3 Modelling the structure
4 Fabricating the steelwork
4.1 Pre-assembly butt welding
4.2 Cutting & drilling
4.3 Assembly
4.4 Welding
4.4.1 Access for welding
4.4.2 Weld type and size
4.4.3 Cope holes in stiffeners
4.4.4 Weathering steel Holmfield Viaducts, A1(M) Darrington to Dishforth
components (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
4.4.5 Grinding of butt weld
caps
4.5 Stiffeners and bracing
4.5.1 Web stiffeners
4.5.2 Bearing stiffeners
5 Detailing for assembly
5.1 Web and stiffener verticality
5.2 Alignment of surfaces
5.3 Joint gaps
5.4 Connections
5.4.1 Bolting
5.4.2 Welding
5.5 Shear studs on cover plates
5.6 Cover plate / packing plate
thickness
5.7 Enclosed spaces
6 Protective treatment
6.1 Access for painting
6.2 Stiffener end protection
6.3 Top flange paint return
6.4 Edge grinding
7 Transportation
8 Bridge erection
8.1 Installation of bearings Sheppey Crossing (http://www.steelconstruction.org/resources/design-
8.2 Erection using cranes awards/2007/award/sheppy-crossing-isle-of-sheppy.html)
8.3 Specialist transport (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
8.4 Launching
8.5 Strand jacking
8.6 Influence of erection durations
8.6.1 Erection on greenfield
sites
8.6.2 Erection during
possessions
8.7 Stability during erection
9 Deck construction
10 References
11 Resources
12 See also

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Planning
There are two basic approaches to design and construction:

Traditional approach – the Designer makes the structural choices and the Steelwork Contractor builds to the drawings
Early contractor involvement (ECI) – The Designer and Steelwork Contractor liaise at an early stage to optimize the
construction process

Traditional design

Under traditional arrangements, at concept stage and at detailed design stage, the designer of the permanent works produces a
completed design that then passes, with an accompanying technical specification, and usually via a main contractor, onto the
steelwork contractor. The designer assumes a particular method of erection and makes the decisions regarding an appropriate
design solution for allowing the structure to be constructed safely, within programme and budget in accordance with that
method.

For design to the Eurocodes, the technical requirements for the steelwork are described in BS EN 1090-2[1] and this refers to
the “design basis method of erection”, the method that the designer has assumed in developing the design. Tenderers can put
forward alternative construction methods (see GN 4.04), depending on the particular expertise or facilities that they can offer
but whichever is the chosen method, the original or the alternative, the link between design and construction is at the heart of
an efficient and economic solution.

ECI – Early Contractor Involvement

Early Contractor Involvement is a form of contract in which the main contractor and the steelwork contractors are involved
much earlier in the design process. Obviously, the significant advantage of this type of contract is that the designer is able to
call on the advice of the ‘specialists’ to assist on the development of the most appropriate solution. This can offer benefits in:

Development of the scheme


Value Engineering
Buildability

Constraints

Each site has a different environment and infrastructure and


each will present different constraints and opportunities for
the designer to consider, before defining the structural form.
The site can have a considerable influence on the structural
form and how it can be erected. Particular factors include:

Location of the structure


Constraints of the site
Access
Phasing of the erection
Availability and size of erection plant
Requirements for rapid installation, e.g. during
possession
Working over or adjacent to water

Before the structural form is selected, it is important to


check each option against the basic construction issues, and
to compare practicable methods of delivering and erecting
the bridge. Rapid installation during a road closure
Shoreditch High Street bridge
Standard for execution of steelwork (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

The ‘reference standard’ in the Eurocodes for the execution


of steelwork is BS EN 1090-2[1]. That standard is a comprehensive document with a range of options and alternatives, to suit
the individual project; for UK bridges a ‘model project specification’ (MPS) has been drafted and this provides clauses, with
commentaries, that will be appropriate for most highway bridge projects.

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CDM Regulations

The CDM regulations[2] require everyone involved in the project to identify hazards early on so that they can be eliminated or
reduced at design stage. It is pointless to complete a design first and then try to address the risks associated with the design. By
then, all decisions will have been made and any changes will cost time and money. Eliminating hazards from the design, so far
is reasonably practicable, will remove the associated risk and is therefore the best option.

Getting the concept method of erection right at the commencement of the project is fundamental to the overall success of the
project.

Ordering
Materials and components

The most economical way to procure plate and section is from the mills in sizes to suit the project. Stockholders charge much
more per tonne and the use of stock sizes will require additional butt welds and more waste. It is important therefore that the
provision of the information for material ordering is timed to suit the lead times required by the mills. The information that the
steelwork contractor needs to prepare orders is as follows:

Geometry

Plan layout
Levels at bearings
Final profile of top flange
Haunch definition (if any)
Dead load precamber – total and
breakdown
Camber tolerance (if any)
Web to flange weld sizes (for
shrinkage and camber)
Orientation of splices and girder ends

Make-up

Plate and section dimensions


bolts – quantity, type, diameter,
plating
Shear stud – quantity, length, diameter

Specification Plates in a steelwork contractors stockyard


(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
Steel grade for different thicknesses of
plate and sections
Restrictions on butt weld positions (if any)
Options on geometric tolerances (see GN 5.03), surface quality, testing, CEV etc (if any)

Various items of additional information and options listed in BS EN 1090-2[1] Annex A should be provided by the designer,
and guidance on this is given in the SCI Model Project Specification

Bolt sizes

Splices should be designed using M24 preloaded bolts where possible because they are easier to tighten than M30 bolts and are
more likely to be available from stock to replace losses or accommodate design changes. Non-standard sizes such as M22 and
M27 should be avoided because suppliers do not keep them in stock.

Shear stud sizes

Stud shear connectors suitable for bridgework are available in diameters of 19, 22 and 25 mm but steelwork contractors prefer
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19 mm studs. All available sizes can be welded satisfactorily but as the size increases the level of weld defects and the wear on
the welding equipment also increase.

Geometry

The first key information that the steelwork contractor needs is the geometry of the fabricated shape and this information is
usually conveyed on drawings. For a composite highway bridge the designer will specify the intended final geometry at
completion but to determine the fabricated shape of the steelwork additional information is required giving the allowances for
permanent deformation, for the assumed erection sequence (“design basis method of erection” according to BS EN 1090-2[1]).
The information must also show clearly, which elements are intended to be truly vertical, which elements are curved and, in
connections, which surfaces are to meet and align.

Allowances for permanent deformation

Permanent deformations arise as a result of shrinkage during fabrication, and of deflections due to the self weight of the
structure, superimposed dead loads and shrinkage of the concrete deck. The steelwork contractor will calculate the allowances
to be made for changes in shape during fabrication because they are under his control. The allowances for deflection of the
structure and the final profile information however must be given on the drawings and are needed at an early stage for material
ordering. The separate components for a simply-supported bridge are shown below.

Schematic illustration of shaping of steel girders

Notes:

1. The required final profile is determined by the highway or railway engineer


2. The construction allowance is calculated by the designer to allow for self weight deflection, pre-stress, concrete
shrinkage etc. It should be split into steel self weight and other permanent loads so that the levels on completion of
steelwork erection can be calculated.
3. The fabrication allowance is determined by the steelwork contractor and can be in either direction, upward or downward
depending on the details.

Curvature in plan

Plan curvature in girders can be easily accommodated by steelwork contractors.


As well as being aesthetically more pleasing than using girders which are curved
by a series of straight sections, girders which are curved in plan will simplify the
construction of deck cantilevers along the length of the structure.

As with curvature in elevation, plan curvature should be defined by the designer


using either clearly defined radii of curvature, or a series of co-ordinates.

In practice, a flange that is curved in its plane is formed, using numerically


controlled cutting equipment, as a series of straight chords, usually no longer than
500 mm for radii up to 125 m, or no longer than 1000 mm for radii over 125 m. It
is not usual for the designer to specify this.
Example of girders curved in plan
Hunslett Viaduct, Leeds
Bearing information
(Image courtesy of Tata Steel
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(http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com) ) Some designers believe that, as
bearings are typically available from
manufacturers on an eight week lead
time, they do not have to sort out the bearing requirements until eight weeks before
the commencement of steel erection on site. The eight week bearing lead time is
actually the manufacturing period for the bearing and if there are any special
requirements on the project (e.g. uplift restraint), the bearing manufacturer will
have to design the bearing and have design approval prior to this manufacturing
period.

In addition, the steelwork contractor needs the tapered bearing plate details and
orientation of bearings at the commencement of his fabrication process, i.e. the A typical bridge bearing
bearing information is required for the steelwork contractor much sooner than the
bearing manufacturer.

The purpose of the bearing, and its orientation relative to the main steelwork members to which they are attached should also
be clearly defined on the steelwork drawings to avoid errors during fabrication.

Timely and sufficient definition

The designer should provide sufficient information to enable the steelwork contractor to carry out a series of cross checks and
so ensure that the information provided is accurate. For instance, it is advisable to show on the drawings both the basis of the
final profile of the bridge and the levels at the supports. This allows the critical interface between steelwork and substructure to
be independently verified.

Also, if the right level of information is provided on the steelwork drawings at an early stage, it will minimise the amount of
‘Requests For Information’ (RFI’s) which a steelwork contractor would need to raise to fully define the steelwork
requirements. As well as minimising work for both the steelwork contractor and the designer, this will in turn reduce the time
between the issue of the steelwork information and the commencement of the fabrication process. In order to plan and execute
his work efficiently, the steelwork contractor needs all necessary information to be complete and agreed before he starts work,
and this is reflected in the requirements of clause 4.1.1 of BS EN 1090-2[1].

Modelling the structure


Once the steelwork requirements are fully defined, the information can be used by the steelwork contractor to create a
two-dimensional or three-dimensional model of the steelwork using CADCAM software such as Strucad.

This software will create the list of components (girder webs and flanges, stiffeners, bracing members etc) required for the
structure and produce the programs for each of the machines to be used in the fabrication process.

The model can also be used as a ‘virtual trial erection’ of the steelwork, allowing the steelwork contractor to look at the
steelwork details from any angle. This is particularly useful when dealing with complicated details, for example, the ends of
tied-arch bridges, as it enables the steelwork contractor to check the accessibility of the detail as part of design development
prior to the commencement of fabrication.

CADCAM modelling
(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

An example of the steelwork at the end of a large tied-arch bridge is shown below. This shows internal stiffening and bolted
connections, as well as the flange and web plates.

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Part of a 3D model of a tied arch bridge - some external plates not shown, for clarity
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Fabricating the steelwork


The principal activities at the fabrication works are:

Pre-assembly butt welding


Cutting and profiling
Drilling and edge preparation
Assembly
Welding
Fitting of stiffeners
Shear connectors
Trial erection (rarely carried out)
Coating application

Pre-assembly butt welding

The steelwork contractor usually butt welds the flanges and web plates to full length in the shop before assembly of the girder.
This means that such shop joints can be in different positions in the two flanges and do not have to line up with any shop joint
in the web. If possible, the full width of plate supplied (from which several components will be cut) will be butt welded, as this
will reduce the number of run-on/run-off plates and minimise butt weld testing requirements.

Pre-assembly butt welding


(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Cutting & drilling

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Flame or plasma cutting equipment is used to cut flanges to length and
width, webs to profile and camber, and stiffeners to shape. Plates up to 35
mm thick can be profiled using plasma cutting equipment. Plates greater
than 35 mm thick will usually be cut using oxy-propane, which is safer than
using oxy-acetylene.

In addition to the geometric requirements of plan curvature and precamber


defined by the designer, the steelwork contractor will also take into account
the allowances required for thermal cutting, and shrinkage such that the
final girder geometry matches that required.

Some plate cutting machines also have the ability to mark stiffener positions
on web and flange plates, and drill bolt holes for splice connections.
Otherwise, the cut plates are hand marked and drilled later. See GN 5.06 for
further information on thermal cutting of structural steels
An example of a CNC plasma cutting, marking
Keeping bolt diameters and the resulting bolt hole diameters constant in a and drilling machine
structure avoids potentially costly errors. Where additional tolerance is (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
required in a Bolted connections|bolted connection or rebar hole, it is easier
and cheaper to specify a larger diameter hole rather than a slotted hole.

Plate preparation
(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Assembly

The ability of a steelwork contractor to use his automated equipment to


fabricate steelwork can greatly reduce fabrication costs and improve the
quality of the finished product. This is probably most important in the
assembly of flat plates into fabricated components.

On particularly complex fabrications, a designer is very unlikely to produce


the most cost effective detail without the input of the steelwork contractor
who will be carrying out the work. It is useful to bear in mind that different
steelwork contractors have different equipment, and therefore different
capabilities.

Some steelwork contractors have T & I machines which are used to


assemble flat plates into ‘T’ sections and then ‘I’ sections. These machines
will have limits on girder length, height, width, weight, curvature (in plan
and elevation) and haunching which can be accommodated, which will
differ between steelwork contractors. The larger machines can produce
girders up to 4 m deep and 1.5 m wide. Welds can be built up in multiple
passes through the machine but short lengths of built-up weld have to be
done by hand.

As mentioned above, the more suited a structure is to automated assembly,


the more cost-effective its fabrication will be. Designing beams as ‘I’
girders rather than box girders will make them more suited to automated
assembly. Typically, an ‘I’ girder will involve 85% automated assembly, A typical T&I Machine
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
with only the stiffening being carried out manually (unless robot technology
is used). An open top box will involve 70% automated assembly, with
automated welds between the webs and the top flanges, welding of the stiffeners to the webs and bottom flanges to formed

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stiffened plates by robot, and with welding of the bottom flange to the webs being carried out manually. A closed top box will
involve 35% automated profiling and marking of plates only, and all other fabrication (box assembly and stiffening) being
carried out manually.

Automated section assembly


(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Welding

Access for welding

Wherever possible, girder stiffeners should


be detailed to enable the steelwork
contractor’s welding equipment to access the
stiffener welds as required. This is a
particular issue at support locations, where
the close spacing of bearing and jacking
stiffeners is necessary.

Generally, for robot welding, the clear


distance between adjacent stiffeners should
not be less than 400 mm or the width of the
stiffener, whichever is the greater, taking
Access for welding
account of the skew of any stiffeners.
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
The detailing of stiffener welds to main
girder webs should also reflect the skew of the stiffener needed. These should always be specified as double sided fillet welds
until the angle of the stiffener to the girder web is less than 30 degrees, at which point a single sided Full Strength Butt Weld
(note – NOT a Full Penetration Butt Weld) should be specified.

Section stiffening
(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Weld type and size

It is tempting for designers to over-size welds for quickness of design, however a combination of large stiffener welds and thin
girder webs can lead to a visible distortion of the web, more commonly known as the ‘hungry horse’ effect. Similarly,
oversized welds at bearing stiffener ends can cause local distortions which make it difficult to provide a satisfactory surface for
the bearing plates. Stiffener welds should therefore be designed and sized for their intended purpose, and no more. All welded
joints should be detailed so that there is a landing length 5mm greater than the leg length of the weld. This will ensure a good
quality weld whilst avoiding the need for unnecessary plate edge preparation.

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Landing for fillet welds


(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Cope holes in stiffeners

When detailing stiffeners, the designer should consider how best to deal
with the girder web to flange welds.

Traditionally, a cope detail would be used to ensure that the stiffener is clear
of the girder weld; however, this leads to difficulty in getting sufficient
protective treatment inside the cope hole. This problem is even worse for
the maintenance of these details throughout the life of the structure. For
painted bridges, this can be avoided by the use of a ‘sniped’ stiffener which
is close fitted over the girder web to flange weld; the stiffener weld is then
passed over the girder weld to form a ‘weld on weld’ detail with no limited
areas of access for protective treatment.

For weathering steel bridges, however, there is no protective treatment


system, but there is a need to provide sufficient drainage, so a stiffener with
a 50 mm radius cope hole is preferable at the bottom flange location where Cope holes on a weathering steel bridge
the drainage is required. Sniped corners (45° cut across the internal corner) A34/M4 Junction 13, Chieveley
should be avoided in weathering steel bridges because the access is worse (Image courtesy of Tata Steel
than a cope hole and the acute angle can give rise to cracking of the weld. (http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com) )

Weathering steel components

Rolled sections are not available in weathering steel, so secondary bracing


members need to be designed as flat plates welded into the section required, in lieu
of rolled angles or channels. These need to be detailed so that each weld has a
suitable landing detail.

Weathering steel bolts are not readily available in metric sizes, so they should be
designed as M24 (or possibly M30) size but the bolt spacings should be such that
1" (or 1¼") bolts can be substituted.

Grinding of butt weld caps

Many clients believe that a butt weld becomes invisible when the capping runs are
ground flush with the parent metal. This is not the truth in practice; grinding flush
butt welds only serves to spread the ground area over a larger area adjacent to the
weld, and this is clearly visible, even on a painted structure. Once they have had
the opportunity of witnessing the appearance of a ground flush butt weld, most
clients agree it is aesthetically better to ‘dress’ such butts (i.e. to remove weld
A fabricated weathering steel ‘angle’ spatter etc.) than to grind the butt weld flush. See GN 5.02 for guidance on
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) post-weld dressing.

From a design point of view, a ground flush butt weld is a better fatigue detail than
a butt weld which has not been ground flush; however, the common presence of nearby stiffeners usually makes this irrelevant.

Notwithstanding the above, welds to the top surface of main girder top flanges will need to be ground flush to facilitate seating
of permanent and cantilever formwork, also welds to the top surface of main girder bottom flanges on weathering steel bridges
need to be completely ground flush to facilitate run-off of rain water.
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Stiffeners and bracing

Web stiffeners

A typical arrangement for a simple single intermediate web stiffener is a flat plate welded onto one face of the web and
connected to one flange, usually the top flange. Flat stiffeners are preferred as they are easily welded onto web and flange
plates using all-round fillet welds. They are normally attached after the web has been joined to the flanges.

Stiffening is a relatively expensive operation, and intermediate stiffeners should only be provided where necessary to attach
intermediate bracing members to the girders.

Bearing stiffeners

The webs of plate girders and rolled beams are normally designed with
transverse load-bearing stiffeners at each support position. The usual
arrangement is for the bridge girder to be placed with the bottom flange
seated on top of the bearing and the stiffeners concentrically above the
bearing. A tapered bearing plate is almost always required between the
upper surface of the bearing and the underside of the flange so that the
bearing remains horizontal.

The ends of a bearing stiffener need to be adequately connected to both


flanges and it is usual for the stiffener to be ‘closely fitted’ to the flange
subject to concentrated load. This is almost always the bottom flange. The
end of the bearing stiffener will need to be ground to ensure that this
requirement is achieved.

Bearing stiffeners should be wide enough to control the squareness of the


main girders at support positions. On heavily skewed bridges, additional
stiffeners adjacent to the bearing stiffeners may also need to be provided to
control the squareness of the girders.
Bearing stiffeners on a weathering steel girder
Bearing and jacking stiffeners should be specified as being ‘fitted’ to the top (Also shows jacking stiffeners and web stiffneres
surface of the bottom flange of the member to which they are connected. at a change in bottom flange direction)
Due to tolerances in plate flatness and girder squareness which are River Eden Bridge, Temple Sowerby Bypass
achievable, it is not practical to specify a bearing level of fit-up to both (Image courtesy of Tata Steel
flanges. (http://www.tatasteelconstruction.com) )

Detailing for assembly


The assembly of steelwork can have a considerable influence on the detailing of steelwork. For example, bolts should not be
positioned within 100 mm of the face of a girder web or stiffener to enable them to be tightened using standard equipment.
Special consideration should also be given when attaching bracing members to skewed stiffeners, as access for tightening
equipment to the back of the stiffener will be limited.

Web and stiffener verticality

Designers should specify that girder webs are to be vertical at the supports upon erection of the steelwork (see GN 7.03). There
will often be transverse rotations of the steel girders, particularly in skew bridges, so it is necessary to state at which stage they
are vertical. The actual rotations due to permanent actions are sometimes small in practice because of restraint from the
formwork, the bracing and the vibrated concrete but it is impossible to predict what will happen.

The secondary forces produced if the webs rotated as predicted would normally be small and resisted by the bracing /
diaphragm at the support. The design should allow for these forces.

Stiffeners should be square to the flanges if possible, rather than vertical. When stiffeners are cut out initially, the edges are cut
square, so if the ends meet the flange at an angle they usually have to be bevelled to limit the weld gap. Bearing stiffeners are
usually set nominally vertical.

Alignment of surfaces

At a change in flange thickness the step should be on the inside face so that the overall depth of the girder is constant. The web
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can easily be profiled to the shape of the step when it is cut from the plate, and a smooth outer face makes handling in
automatic girder welding machines easier.

Where webs of different thickness are joined, the steps occur on both sides of the web, to keep the web central to the girder
section.

Joint gaps

The gap between main girders in bolted splices should not be specified as being less than 6mm to accommodate the tolerances
in fabricated length of the main girders and in the position of bolt holes in the connection.

On ladder decks, the gap between the ends of cross girders and the main girders to which they are connected should not be
specified as being less than 10 mm to accommodate the tolerances in cross girder length, the straightness of the main girders,
the accuracy in the profiling of main girder stiffeners and the positioning of bolt holes.

Joint gaps in main girder splices Joint gaps on latter deck cross girders
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Connections

Shop connections are almost invariably welded while most site connections are bolted for reasons given below. Splices should
be positioned to suit transport limits and also a viable erection method. Attention should be given to ready access for welding,
and space for installation and tightening of bolts using power tools.

Bolting

Some clients do not like the appearance of bolted splices, but it should be
remembered that bolted splices are relatively small. Generally, bolted splices are
preferred for site connections as they are cheaper than welded connections, faster to
install (as not all bolts need to be fitted during initial erection), less dependent on
the weather, and temporary supports are seldom required. All blast cleaning is done
in the steelwork contractors works - zinc plated bolts are used for short term
protection to avoid blast cleaning before painting.

Nearly all bolted connections in UK bridgeworks are designed as slip resistant


connections, using preloaded bolts traditionally referred to as high strength friction
grip (HSFG) bolts. These enable forces to be transferred from member to member
by friction generated between lapping parts of the joint. The performance depends
on the condition of the surface of the interfaces.

Before final tightening and after bedding, the bolt group must be inspected to
ensure that all interfaces are in contact. Then all bolts are fully tensioned using the
chosen method. A variety of tightening methods are available:

Torque-control method
Part-turn method
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Direct tension indicators A bolted splice on a large plate girder
‘System HRC’ assemblies (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

The project specification should give the steelwork contractor the freedom to use the method of his choice. Most companies
have a favourite method which they consider to be most economical and most reliable. Guidance on the installation of
preloaded bolts is available in GN 7.05.

Welding

Welded splices give a cleaner line to the steelwork, but they are still visible, even if
ground flush (as mentioned previously). However, welded splices are generally
more expensive than bolted splices on site, take longer to complete, and introduce
an element of programme risk from bad weather and/or the possible repair of
defects.

The process of making a welded splice requires temporary supports or landing


cleats to support and align the girder until welding is complete, and a weatherproof
tent around the splice. The welds are carried out in a planned sequence usually
flanges first then webs. All welds are subject to inspection, usually requiring a 48
hour long period before testing. Upon completion, the welded splice region will
require blast cleaning and the application of the coating system. For large projects
with more than 500 connections, site welding may be more economical due to
establishment costs. See GN 7.01 for further guidance on site welding.

Typical shelter for a site welded splice


(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Post-fabrication welded splice


(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Shear studs on cover plates

Shear studs on the cover plates of bolted


splices can interfere with bolt tightening.
This should be considered by the designer
when detailing the bolted splices. The
number of shear studs on cover plates should
be kept to the minimum and located on the
longitudinal centreline (as far as possible
from the bolts). Shear studs should not be
less than 75 mm apart, otherwise the
welding gun used for shear stud connection
will not have sufficient room. Shear stud
spacing is limited to a maximum of 800 mm Layout of shear studs on a cover plate
by BS EN 1994-2[3] (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Cover plate / packing plate


thickness

Cover plates which are greater than 30 mm thick can become too stiff to enable preloaded bolts in the splice connection to bed
down properly. Where splice cover plates greater than 30 mm thick are required, the steelwork contractor will often propose a
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combination of thinner plates that are flexible enough to cope with small ripples, angular changes and steps. Pack plates are
available in thicknesses down to 1 mm. In splices where the difference in thickness between connecting members is less than
2mm, packing plates should not be required.

Example of multiple thinner cover plates


(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Enclosed spaces

Under current CDM legislation[2], work within ‘confined spaces’ must be avoided
wherever it is cost-effective to do so. ‘Open top’ box girders produce such a
confined space once the deck slab has been constructed, and maintenance of the
internal protective treatment system will become an issue to the client. Closed box
girders produce a confined space once the closing plate of the box girder section has
been placed during assembly. Such boxes therefore also become an issue to the
steelwork contractor during fabrication and during any initial internal painting.

All internal painting can be cost-effectively avoided by the use of weathering steel.
The additional steel costs are not completely offset by the avoidance of internal
painting but the premium is small, especially when the costs and risks associated
with the maintenance of the internal system are taken into account.

Fabrication work inside the box also needs to be minimised as much as possible.
The designer can contribute to this by detailing the corner welds for the closing
plate in the box girder section as external welds, and by designing the box girder so
that welded connections between any internal stiffeners and the closing plate are not
required.

Where this is not possible, a safe system of work needs to be set up for the box
girder fabrication. In addition to sufficient fume extraction, this will often entail Example of access holes in a box girder
access holes being cut into the box girder web adjacent to any butt welds or internal (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
stiffeners, which can be closed after fabrication has been completed using infill
panels which are butt welded to the girder web using single sided external butt
welds to internal backing flats.

All of the above will add considerable cost to any box girder fabrication.

Protective treatment
Protective treatment is usually carried out after all the fabrication activities have been completed but before any bolted
components have been assembled. As well as the specification of what is to be protected, information must be clearly given
about which surfaces are not to be protected at this stage.

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Protective treatment
(Video courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
Coating application on a finished girder
Access for painting (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Designers should consider the access required to apply protective treatment to all
areas of exposed steelwork where required. This can often be an issue at the ends of skewed bridges, where a combination of
skewed bearing / bracing stiffeners and square end plates / jacking stiffeners can produce semi-enclosed steelwork which is
difficult to access for painting.

Stiffener end protection

Where intermediate stiffeners are curtailed clear of the main girder bottom flange, the limiting length between the underside of
the stiffener and the bottom flange required by BS EN 1993-1-5[4] is insufficient to enable the protective treatment to be
adequately applied to the ends, if the stiffener is cut square. Cutting the end of the stiffener at a 45° angle will avoid this
problem.

A typical web stiffener Top flange paint return


(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Top flange paint return

The return of protective treatment along the edges of the main girder top flanges should not extend beyond the outer face of the
shear studs. Otherwise the paint has to be applied by brush because it cannot be sprayed without the risk of some studs being
painted. The designer needs to bear this in mind when detailing his formwork seating arrangements and his shear studlayout.
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Edge grinding

Historically, the edges of exposed plates were specified as being rounded to a 3mm
radius. However, with the use of modern Epoxy protective treatment systems with
chemical curing processes (older Acrylated Rubber systems relied on an
evaporative curing process), which can be applied in thicker single coats and the
use of stripe coats, it has been recognised by both the Highways Agency and
Network Rail that exposed edges need only be rounded to a 1mm radius, which is
approximately one-ninth of the cost of a 3mm radius.

Transportation
To maximise the amount of work carried out within the fabrication works, thus
achieving the highest quality, the steel structure is fabricated in pieces as large as
can reasonably be transported to site. The designer should anticipate how the Automated edge grinding machine
structure will be split into separate components for delivery to site, particularly in (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
considering member sizes and splice positions. The limitations relating to the
transportation of fabricated items by road within the UK are summarised below:

R25 Fig25.PNG

The limitations given are subject to change and local restrictions may apply,
therefore the above table should only be used as guidance. Refer to GN 7.06 for
further advice.

The limits set by the Highways Agency relate to movement of loads on major
roads, and do not take account of physical restrictions, such as street furniture, tight
bends and hump back bridges that exist near to the fabrication works or adjacent to
the bridge site.

Access to the site and positioning of the erection plant has to be planned and
sequenced to ensure that disruption to adjacent services / infrastructure is Transport of long girder
minimised. Access onto site has to be coordinated with the traffic management (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
scheme to ensure that craneage and steelwork can be brought onto site and
mobilised with minimum disruption.

The 35 m long haunched girders illustrated here were delivered to site as a braced pair, for a single span integral bridge. The
ability to transport the girders full length avoided the need to design site splices and the need for space on site to assemble
girders into long lengths or into pairs.

Bridge erection
How the bridge is designed and how it is built are linked. Ensuring that this link is recognised will have an effect on the safety
and quality of the construction. Methods of erecting steel bridge structures vary considerably from site to site and from project
to project. The subject of erection aspects is therefore a wide and varied subject. This section focuses on the aspects that should
be considered during the initial design and detailed design phases.

Further information is available in the Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges.

Installation of bearings

The first pieces of steelwork to be erected on site are the bridge bearings. The function of a bearing is to transfer weight of the

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superstructure to the substructure. They may also transfer transverse and
longitudinal forces. They carry large forces but can be easily damaged by
inappropriate handling or installation. Manufacturers supply bearings as complete
units held together by transit bolts which are primarily for transportation and
installation. Once the bearing is in place and the girder is landed, it is essential that
the cleats are released in order to allow the steelwork to ‘breathe’ in a controlled
manner.

Bearings can be supplied attached to the girders but it is more common for them to
be aligned and levelled on the substructure and attached to the girders afterwards.
The designer needs to give clear instructions about line, level and setting of
bearings to ensure that they function as intended in service. Bearings are either
A typical bearing
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) bolted to a taper plate (in tapped holes) or through the taper plate and flange,
however this last one is not preferred as it uncouples the late provision of bearing
information from the fabrication of the girders. Because it is now a general
requirement that bridge bearings must be designed to be replaceable, the attachment details must be chosen to facilitate
replacement.

The designer must allow for safe access for precise installation of bearings. The means of access may need to be retained for
maintenance and replacement of bearings.

Erection using cranes

Erection using cranes is considered the most cost effective erection method for the majority of structures. However, note that
only crawler cranes and some small rough terrain mobile cranes are able to traverse the site with a load. The site areas adjacent
to the bridge will affect the position and size of crane that can be used and this will affect capacity of lift and therefore choice
of crane and the piece size. The area for preassembly will also influence lift size.

Erection of Porth Bridge using mobile cranes Lagentium Viaduct, A1(M) Darrington to Dishforth
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

The compact and busy site (above left) shows the construction of a bridge crossing a river, railway and a road; the bridge is
close to adjacent buildings. A tied-arch was chosen for the main bridge and a ladder deck for the river span. This choice
allowed the decks to be erected piece-small onto temporary trestles and the arch to be erected later. Due the available area for
preassembly and positioning cranes, each arch was erected as three separate pieces, with a maximum weight of 102t at 35 m
radius, using a 1000 t crane with 200 t superlift.

The main river span of the Darrington-Dishforth link (above right) required the lifting of 50m long paired girders at a large
radius. Each girder pair was lifted by cleats attached to the top flanges. The girders had to be checked for this high local tensile
force and for stability under hogging bending in its midspan regions. The temporary works engineer will usually position the
lifting cleats and check the stability of the girders during lifting operations. The permanent works designer is not normally
required to look at this temporary condition.

Click here (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlCS44w8f1U&feature=youtu.be) to see Mallard Bridge on White Rose Way,


Doncaster being installed over the East Coast Main Line using one of the largest mobile cranes in the UK.

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Specialist transport

Where lifting into position is not suitable, for example when there is a lack of space
for a crane or there are overhead cables in the vicinity, one option is to assemble
steelwork at low level away from (but close to) the actual bridge site. The
assembled steelwork is then jacked up to allow specialist transportation units
beneath the deck. The units are then used to transport the deck into position.

Transportation is most suitable where the whole bridge can be transported as a unit.
It can thus be preassembled on temporary supports that do not impose high local
forces or lock in stresses that depend on an erection sequence. Preassembly away
from the site also allows the client to continue with the construction of the bridge
piers and abutments for example without disrupting the assembly of the steel.

Click here (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xk2g8RIBr1U) to see Borough High


Street Bridge, London being installed using specialist transporters. Transporting a preassembled deck
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
Launching

Launching the steelwork over road or river, involves assembly of steelwork, typically behind an abutment, on the highway
approach. The steelwork is assembled on low resistance rollers or a sliding system at each pier or temporary support. A haulage
and restraint system is used. The steelwork requires plenty of construction alignment to ensure adequate fit up prior to
launching and needs to have sufficient time in the programme to allow for this. However, assembly is normally near ground
level, with the use of much smaller and less expensive cranes and minimum work at height.

Strand jacking

Strand jacking is not commonly used as an erection technique as it is best suited to


large lifts that cannot be carried out by crane. The temporary works for strand
jacking are usually complex and expensive; the division of the structure into an
erectable portion has to be influenced by the capabilities of the equipment.

Strand jacking is perhaps most commonly used for lifting long midspan river
sections from a barge but it is suited to other cases such as the Usk River arch,
shown left. The photo shows the arrangement for strand jacking the central portion
of the arches of the 190 m span. The central portions of the arch were lifted onto
the deck and transported into position beneath the jacking towers. The main lift
was 640 tonnes. The arch members had to be designed for the locked-in bending
stresses due to spanning between lift positions.
Usk River Crossing
(http://www.steelconstruction.org Influence of erection durations
/resources/design-awards/2005/award
/river-usk-crossing-newport-southern- Erection durations are generally dictated by the client’s programme, the features of
distributor-road.html) the site, and the principal contractor’s programme. Site erection durations control
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) the balance between pre-assembly in the fabrication yard or on site adjacent to the
proposed bridge, and the elements of the structure that can be erected directly off
the transport.

Erection on greenfield sites

Greenfield sites allow a free choice for erection methods and usually plenty of time. The steel superstructure can be erected
directly off the transport and the elements spliced together in position. The amount of preassembly in this situation is dictated
by the site programme advantage of pre-assembling the steelwork in the fabrication yard.The bridge below shows erection over
a haul road, which meant that although access for cranes was free of constraint, temporary intermediate supports may not have
been possible.

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Construction on a greenfield site


M6 Toll

Erection during possessions

The requirement to maintain traffic flow, whether road, rail or water, may severely
limit the duration of erection operations. In such cases erection has to take place
within a fixed or defined “possession” period.

Working within any form of possession, requires careful and precise planning.
Often the cost penalty of over running can be extreme for both parties. If this is the
case, it may be beneficial for most of the structure to be pre assembled prior to
erection. Then the whole bridge can be lifted into place using a large crane
positioned adjacent to the site.

The design needs to allow for as much assembly of construction as possible before
erection, with only the minimal amount of location and fixing activities once the
bridge is in position. In some cases deck construction can continue after erection Shoreditch High Street bridge
but in others the deck has to be cast beforehand. The use of permanent formwork is (Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)
very advantageous for erection under possession as it provides a safe working
platform for the completion of the deck slab.

The tied-arch bridge shown here, which carries the East London Line Extension over Shoreditch High Street, was assembled
behind one of the abutments and lifted in by crane during a 36 hour road possession. Permanent formwork and deck
reinforcement were placed before lifting. The total weight was 353 t. Possession of the road was booked several months in
advance.

Stability during erection

The efficient design of plate girders with a number of parallel steel plate girders using composite construction tends to produce
small top flanges. This makes them prone to lateral torsional buckling during construction, before the slab has hardened. There
is also a risk of instability during handling, delivery and exposure to high winds. Hence, designers should consider slenderness
in the various erection conditions.

The most common way to improve stability is to assemble girders into braced pairs which makes them more stable during
lifting and when in place compared to a single girder. The improved stability may also reduce the need for support trestles. As a
consequence, site erection will be shorter, as a high percentage of bolting up and painting will have been completed prior to the
structure being erected. However transport of braced pairs increases transportation costs.

Ideally, designers should make use of any temporary bracing for performance in service and thus make it permanent. Generally,
making bracing permanent is more economic and avoids hazards of its removal. The operation of temporary bracing removal is
inherently hazardous due to the limited headroom, following casting of the deck. This makes it difficult to install a suitable
means of lowering what are often considerably heavy pieces of steel. This hazard is further compounded if the bracings are
located over a road or railway.

Deck construction
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Pre

Erection of girders complete with cantilever falsework and


formwork
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.)

Manchester Ship Canal – Manchester Metro Link assembly for composite construction can be used to fit critical falsework
(Image courtesy of Mabey Bridge Ltd.) and formwork, temporary and permanent walkways and edge protection,
before lifting the bridge section into place. The advantage of this is
two-fold. The formwork can be fitted at low level, which is inherently safer, and it also eliminates this operation from the
critical path. The formwork would otherwise be fitted after completion of the erection.

Falsework systems such as that shown above have been developed such that they can be attached and removed without any
significant risk of damage to protective treatment (or contamination of the surface of weathering steel). This eliminates the
need for subsequent surface treatment, saving time and costs.

References
1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 BS EN 1090-2:2008+A1:2011, Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures. Technical
requirements for steel structures, BSI
2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM) 2007 (http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction
/cdm.htm)
3. ^ BS EN 1994-2:2005, Eurocode 4. Design of composite steel and concrete structures. General rules and rules for
bridges. BSI.
4. ^ BS EN 1993-1-5:2006, Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Plated structural elements, BSI

Resources
Steel Bridges: A practical approach to design for efficient fabrication and construction, 2010, (Publication no. 51/10),
BCSA,
Chapter 4 Bolting
Chapter 5 Welding
Chapter 6 Accuracy
Chapter 7 Costs
Chapter 8 Case studies
Steel Bridge Group: Model Project Specification for the Execution of Steelwork in Bridges (P382), 2012, SCI
Hendy, C.R.; Iles, D.C. (2010) Steel Bridge Group: Guidance Notes on best practice in steel bridge construction (5th
Issue). (P185). SCI
Guidance Note 4.02 Weld procedure tests
Guidance Note 4.04 Consideration of alternative construction methods and sequences
Guidance Note 5.01 Weld preparation
Guidance Note 5.02 Post-weld dressing
Guidance Note 5.03 Geometrical tolerances

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Guidance Note 5.04 Plate bending
Guidance Note 5.05 Marking of steelwork
Guidance Note 5.06 Thermal cutting of structural steels
Guidance Note 5.07 Straightening and flattening
Guidance Note 5.08 Hole sizes and positions for preloaded bolts
Guidance Note 5.09 The prefabrication meeting
Guidance Note 6.01 Control of weld quality and inspection
Guidance Note 6.02 Surface inspection of welds
Guidance Note 6.03 Sub-surface inspection of welds
Guidance Note 6.04 Hydrogen / HAZ cracking and solidification cracking in welds
Guidance Note 6.06 Visual inspection after welding
Guidance Note 7.01 Site welding
Guidance Note 7.02 Temperature effects during construction
Guidance Note 7.03 Verticality of webs at supports
Guidance Note 7.04 Trial erection and temporary erection
Guidance Note 7.05 Installation of preloaded bolts
Guidance Note 7.06 Transport of steelwork by road
Guidance Note 7.08 Method statements
Safe Site Handover Certificate and Checklist, 2008, BCSA
Guide to the Erection of Steel Bridges, 2005, (Publication no. 38/05), BCSA

See also
Multi-girder composite bridges
Ladder deck composite bridges
Integral bridges
Box girder bridges
Tied-arch bridges
Weathering steel
Bridges - initial design
Bracing systems
Stiffeners
Connections in bridges
Bridge articulation and bearing specification
Plan curvature in bridges
Skew bridges
Specification of bridge steelwork
Welding
Preloaded bolting
Accuracy of steel fabrication
Surface preparation
Paint coatings
Appropriate specifications (for corrosion protection systems)
Fabrication
Health and safety

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