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# Presentation Based On:

Analysis-Workshop

2015 SDPWS

## By: R. Terry Malone, PE, SE

Presented by: Senior Technical Director
Architectural & Engineering
Solutions

terrym@woodworks.org
Complete Example with narrative and calculations

• WoodWorks.org website
• Publications-Media tab
• Wood Solutions Papers

http://www.woodworks.org/publications-media/solution-papers/
Course Description

## This presentation will provide a review of a method of analysis that

can be used to address irregularities that commonly occur in todays
structures. Topics will include:

## • Diaphragms with horizontal offsets

• In-plane and out-of-plane offset shear walls
• Diaphragms with openings
• Tall shear walls
Learning Objectives
• Basic Information
Discuss boundary elements, complete lateral load paths,
diaphragm flexibility and review an analytical method used for
solving complex diaphragms and shear walls.

## • Diaphragms With Horizontal Offset

Learn how to analyze a diaphragm with a horizontal offset and
how to transfer forces across areas of discontinuity.

## • In-plane and Out-of-plane Offset Shear Walls

Learn how to analyze in-plane and out-of plane offset shear walls.

## • Diaphragms With Openings

Learn how to analyze a diaphragm with an interior opening and
opening at the support wall line, which creates a discontinuity in
the diaphragm web.
Presentation Assumptions
Assumptions:
• Loads to diaphragms and shear walls
• Strength level or allowable stress design
• Wind or seismic forces.

## Code and Standards:

• ASCE 7-10 “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures”
• 2015 IBC
• 2015 SDPWS (Spid-wiz)-”Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic”

## Analysis and Design references:

• The Analysis of Irregular Shaped Structures: Diaphragms and Shear Walls-
Malone, Rice
• Woodworks-The Analysis of Irregular Shaped Diaphragms (paper)
• NEHRP (NIST) Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 10-Seismic Design of
Wood Light-Frame Structural Diaphragm Systems: A Guide for Practicing
Engineers
• SEAOC Seismic Design Manual, Volume 2
• Design of Wood Structures- Breyer, Fridley, Pollock, Cobeen
• Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook-Faherty, Williamson
• Guide to the Design of Diaphragms, Chords and Collectors-NCSEA
Evolution to Complex Buildings
• Simple structures Complex structures

## • The method of analysis is:

 Can be used for all construction types.
 Straight forward and simple to use. “A rational method of
analysis based on simple statics !”
 Well Documented over several decades

## • Today’s presentation focuses on:

• Developing continuous load paths across areas of discontinuities.
• Flexible wood sheathed or un-topped steel deck diaphragms.
Can also be used for semi-rigid diaphragms.

Wood diaphragms are well suited for these shapes as they can be
easily adapted to the building shape and are cost effective.
Mid-rise Multi-family

## Marselle Condominiums 5 stories of wood over 6 stories concrete

Structural Engineer engineer: Yu & Trochalakis, PLLC (podium) 2 above grade
Photographer: Matt Todd Photographer
Mid-rise Multi-family

## Lds. Discontinuous struts

Longitudinal

Cant.

Lds.
SW SW SW SW SW

Discontinuous chords
Transverse
SW SW SW SW SW

No exterior
Shear walls

## Flexible, semi-rigid, or rigid???

Openings in
Vertically offset diaphragm Offsets in the diaphragm
Diaphragms? and walls

## Harrington Recovery Center

Structural engineer: Pujara Wirth Torke, Inc.
Photographer: Curtis Walz
Basic Information
• Boundary Elements
• Diaphragm Flexibility
• Method of Analysis
W ( plf)

Chord

SW SW

Collector
Strut

Chord

Diaphragm Diaphragm
support support

## Strut- receives shears from one side only*.

Collector- receives shears from both sides.

## Struts, Collectors, and Chords- (my) Terminology

Diaphragm Boundary Elements
Fundamental Principles: • Diaphragm Boundary Elements:
A shear wall is a location where • Chords, drag struts, collectors, Shear walls,
diaphragm forces are resisted frames
(supported), and therefore defines • Boundary member locations:
a diaphragm boundary location. • Diaphragm and shear wall perimeters
• Interior openings
• Areas of discontinuity
Note: All edges of a diaphragm
• Re-entrant corners.
shall be supported by a boundary
element. (ASCE 7-10 Section 11.2) • Diaphragm and shear wall sheathing shall not be used
to splice boundary elements. (SDPWS 4.1.4)
• Collector elements shall be provided that are capable of
transferring forces originating in other portions of the
structure to the element providing resistance to those
1 2 forces. (ASCE 7-10 Section 12.10.2) 3
Required for
Seismic and
A
Chord wind
Strut

SW3

SW2
Diaphragm 1 Diaphragm 2
B Boundary (typical) Boundary (typical)
SW1

Diaphragm 1 Diaphragm 2
Collector

## Note: Interior shear walls

Strut
require a full depth collector unless a
Strut

## complete alternate load path is provided

Chord Chord
C
Note:
Diaphragm sections act as notched beams
(shear distribution-diagonal
High stress concentrations at end of the wall
tension or compression)

Shear Shear
wall wall

## Shear Code does not allow the sheathing to be

wall used to splice or act as boundary elements

Collector

Shear
Shear wall
wall

Shear
wall

## Shear Distribution if Continuous Collector

A
Chord Chord

Strut
Diaphragm 2
SW1 Deflection Boundary
if tie

Diaphragm 1 Diaphragm 2

Collector
SW4
Diaph.
Boundary Deflection
Strut

(Longitudinal

Strut
if no tie
Chord
B
Collector

3
Re-entrant corner
Tearing will occur if collectors
Diaphragm 1 are not installed at re-entrant corner.
SW2 boundary
SW3
Chord
C

1 2

## Deflected curve if proper tie

Deflected curve if no tie

Basic Information
• Boundary Elements
• Diaphragm Flexibility
• Method of Analysis
5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 A
SW6 Strut/chord
B
Strut/chord SW5
Strut

Collector (typ.)
Collector

MRF1
(typ.)
Collector

Strut

Strut
Open
SW1

Strut
C
Strut /chord Collector Collector chord
(typ.) (typ.)
Strut (typ.)

Strut/chord
Support D Support
SW2 Strut chord Collector Offset
E strut
Multiple Strut/chord SW3 SW4
F
offset
diaphragm 4

## Analysis: ASCE7-10 Sections:

• 1.3.1.3.1-Design shall be based on a rational analysis
• 12.10.1-At diaphragm discontinuities such as openings and re-entrant
corners, the design shall assure that the dissipation or transfer of edge
(chord) forces combined with other forces in the diaphragm is within shear
What does and tension capacity of the diaphragm.
this mean?
Discontinuous
diaphragm 5 6 7 8 9 10
chord
1 2 3 A
SW6 Strut/chord
B
Strut/chord SW5 Discont.
Strut

Collector (typ.)
diaphragm
Collector
chord
(typ.) Open
Collector

MRF1
Strut

Strut
SW1

Strut
C
Strut /chord Collector Collector chord
(typ.) (typ.)
Discont.
Strut (typ.)

diaph.
chord Strut/chord
Support D Support
SW2 Strut chord Collector
E
Strut/chord SW3 SW4
F
Discont. Discontinuous
diaphragm 4 diaphragm
chord chord/strut

## ASCE7-10 Section 1.4-Complete load paths are required

including members and their splice connections

## Complete Continuous Lateral Load Paths

5 6 7 8 9 10
Offset shear
1 walls 2 3 A
SW6 Strut/chord
B
Strut/chord SW5
Strut

Collector (typ.)
Collector
(typ.) Open
Collector

MRF1
Strut

Strut
SW1

Strut
C
Strut /chord Collector Collector chord
(typ.) (typ.)
Strut (typ.)

Strut/chord
Support D Support
SW2 Strut chord Collector
E
Strut/chord SW3 SW4
F

and struts

## ASCE7-10 Section 1.4-Complete load paths are required

including members and their splice connections

## Complete Continuous Lateral Load Paths

5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 A
SW6 Strut/chord
B Vertical
Strut/chord SW5
Strut

offset in

Collector (typ.)
Collector diaphragm
(typ.) Open
Collector

MRF1
Strut

Strut
SW1

Opening
in diaph.
Strut
C
Strut /chord Collector Collector chord
(typ.) (typ.)
Strut (typ.)

Strut/chord
Support D Support
SW2 Strut chord Collector
E
Strut/chord SW3 SW4
F

Design:
• IBC 2305.1.1-Openings in shear panels that materially effect their strength shall be fully
detailed on the plans and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all
shear stresses.

## Complete Continuous Lateral Load Paths

Basic Information
• Boundary Elements
• Diaphragm Flexibility
• Method of Analysis
ASCE7-10 Section 12.3 Diaphragm Flexibility Seismic
Section 12.3.1- The structural analysis shall consider the relative stiffnesses of diaphragms and the
vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system.

## 1 & 2 family Vertical elements one Light framed construction

Dwelling of the following : where all of the following are
met:
1. Steel braced frames 1. Topping of concrete or
2. Composite steel and similar material is not
concrete braced frames placed over wood structural
Yes 3. Concrete, masonry, steel SW panel diaphragms except Idealize
Yes
or composite concrete and for non-structural topping as
steel shear walls. not greater than 1 ½” thick. flexible
2. Each line of vertical
Is diaphragm elements of the seismic
Start

## untopped steel force-resisting system

decking or Wood No
complies with the allowable
Structural Panels story drift of Table 12.12-1.

## Is diaphragm concrete Is span to depth ratio ≤ 3 Yes Idealize

No Yes as rigid
slab or concrete filled and having no horizontal
steel deck ? irregularities ? No
No
(Could apply to CLT or Heavy timber diaphragms)
Average drift
Idealize as Yes Maximum diaphragm
of walls
flexible deflection
Is maximum diaphragm
Structural analysis must
deflection (MDD) >2x average
explicitly include consideration
story drift of vertical elements,
of the stiffness of the diaphragm No using the Equivalent Force
(i.e. semi-rigid modeling).
Procedure of Section 12.8?
Semi-rigid (Envelope Method)
ASCE7-10, Section 26.2 Diaphragm Flexibility Wind

## Is diaphragm untopped steel

decking , concrete filled steel Diaphragm can
Yes
Start decks or concrete slabs, each be idealized as
having a span-to-depth ratio rigid
of two or less?

No

## Is diaphragm of Yes Diaphragm can

Wood Structural be idealized as
Panels ? flexible

No

## Is diaphragm untopped steel

decking , concrete filled steel Yes Calculate as
decks or concrete slabs, each flexible or
having a span-to-depth ratio semi-rigid
greater than two ?
Basic Information
• Boundary Elements
• Diaphragm stiffness/Flexibility
• Method of Analysis
The Visual Shear Transfer Method
How to visually show the distribution of shears through the diaphragm

## + Sheathing element symbol

for 1 ft x 1 ft square piece of
sheathing in static equilibrium FY Lds.
(typ.) +M

FX

Positive + -
Direction
+ -
Transverse Direction (shown)

+
Transfer + -
shears

## Unit shear acting on sheathing element (plf)

Unit shear transferred from the sheathing
element into the boundary element (plf)

## Shears Transferred Into Boundary Elements

1 Diaphragm 2
C.L.

A
+ -
SW C
Resisting
wall SW 1 + - Strut in
(+) Compr.
shears
(-) C
T Strut in (-) Diaphragm shear transferred
tension into boundary element (typ.) SW 3
Resisting
+ wall
-
Strut in shears (+)
1 ft. x 1 ft. square sheathing
C comp. element symbol at any location
T
in the diaphragm.
Resisting (-) Strut in
+ - (-)
wall (+) SW 2 tension
shears T
B
Strut Forces SW Strut Forces
Support Maximum Support
Positive sign moment
convention - Negative diaph.
Pos. shear elements
Positive diaph. Neg.
+ Basic Shear Diagram
shear elements
All edges of a diaphragm shall be supported by a boundary element (chord, strut, collector) or
other vertical lateral force resisting element (shear wall, frame).
Shear Distribution Into a Simple Diaphragm
The Visual Shear Transfer Method
Introduction to Transfer Diaphragms
and Transfer Areas
Transfer Diaphragm
• Sub-diaphragm-don’t confuse w/ sub-diaphragms
supporting conc./masonry walls
Chord (support)
• Transfers local forces out to primary
chords/struts of the main diaphragm. ( Based on
method, ASCE 7 Section 1.4 and SDPWS 4.1.1)

## Transfer Diaph. length • Maximum TD Aspect Ratio=4:1

(Similar to main diaph.)
Collector

Collector

## Framing members, blocking, and connections shall extend

TD1 into the diaphragm a sufficient distance to develop the force
transferred into the diaphragm.
(SDPWS 4.2.1) What does
this mean?
T Collector
(strap/blocking Collector Length?-My rule of thumb:
or beam/truss) • Check length by dividing discontinuous force by the
Transfer Area nailing capacity (other issues need to be considered)
Chord (support) • Length=full depth of transfer the diaphragm, set by A/R
T
Transfer • If L<=30’ o.k. to use strap/blocking, If > 30’ use beam/truss
Diaph. depth • Increase TD depth if shears are too high in transfer area
2’

## TD aspect ratio 8:1

4:1 maximum allowed

16’

Warping/racking Over-stressed.
(Notice deformation
in transfer diaphragm)

## TD Aspect Ratio Too High

Diaph.
1 2 3 4
C.L.
W ( plf)

A
Diaphragm chord

SW
• The length of the collector is often
determined by dividing the collector
force by the diaphragm nailing capacity.
(Caution-other issues need to be considered!)
SW
• The collector is often checked for
tension only. (Wrong!) Compression forces
occur when the loads reverse direction.

Drag strut
Discontinuous
diaphragm
chord
B
Diaphragm chord
Transfer
Area Diaphragm chord
C
Diaphragm
support
Longitudinal Collector
Typical callout Diaphragm
Steel tie strap x ga. x width x length with support
(xx) 10d nails over 2x, 3x or 4x flat
blocking. Lap x’-y” onto wall.

## Transfer Diaphragm Members and Elements

Example of Partial Strut/Collector
Bearing perp.
to grain? Alt. 4x blk’g.
2x flat blk’g WSP
(tight fit) sht’g. Tie strap
Potential
gaps

Joists
Use Z clip to keep Diaphragm unit
blocking level shear (plf) transfers
Note: If open web joists, continuous 2x into blocking
members can be nailed to blocking to Cont. tie
take compression forces. strap over
Strut/collector force diagram
Typical Section
F(total)=∑F1+F2+F3+F4
F1 F2 F3 F4
+ + +

## For compression, blocking

acts as mini strut/collector No gaps allowed. Diaphragm
and transfers (accumulates) sheathing is not allowed to
forces into the next block. transfer strut/collector tension
or compression forces.

## Collector force distribution

A
Support Main
SW SW
chord

Transfer
Diaphragm
( Beam)
This force must be

Chord/Collector

Chord/Collector
transferred out to Resisting
TD1

Resisting
the main chords. forces

forces
path is required.
(ASCE 7 Section 1.4 Discontinuous
and SDPWS 4.1.1) diaphragm
Disrupted chord
chord Collector B Collector
B
Chord Full depth

Strut
Rotation Main
of section Support chord
C C
SW
Transfer Disrupted 2 3
1 2 3
area chord
NOTE:
Transfer area without transverse collectors Collector must extend
the full depth of the
transfer diaphragm
Transfer Mechanism
Transfer using beam concept
1 2
Transfer
1 2 Diaph. depth
Transfer Discont.
Diaph. depth F
F (a) Chord / strut F (a)
RA  RA 
Chord, strut L RA Chord, strut b RA
A A
or shear wall Support or shear wall Support

## Transfer Diaph. length

b
Transfer Transfer

Diaphragm

b
Diaphragm
TD1 TD1

L
L

## Chord, strut Support

a

Discont. Collector F B
F B or shear wall F ( L) RB
Chord / strut RB 
b

a
Chord, strut Support Discont.
C F C F
or shear wall RC Chord / strut
F (b)
RC 
L

## Simple Span Transfer Diaphragm Propped Cantilever Transfer Diaphragm

Analogous to a simple span Analogous to a propped cantilever beam

## Simple Span and Propped Cantilever Transfer Diaphragms

Method of Analysis-Method by Edward F. Diekmann
1 2 3 T(a)
VA= , Shear = VA
LTD DTD
Main -75 plf
A C
Chord (TD support) chord -

Subtract

## Transfer diaphragm length

vnet =+225–(75)= +150 plf from basic
shears
The transfer diaph.
Aspect Ratio should

b
SW
be similar to the TD1
Collector

LTD
Collector

LTD
main diaphragm.

## Chord force at Add to basic

vnet =+225 +(250)
discontinuity diaphragm
= +475 plf
shears
Disrupted Collector T
B T
chord

a
vnet=+300+(250)= +550 plf +
(TD support) Main
C T
chord +250 plf
No outside force VC
TD depth T(b)
No outside force is changing the VC= , Shear =
DTD LTD DTD
is changing the +500 +300 basic diaphragm
basic diaphragm plf plf shear in this area Transfer Diaphragm Shears
+ +225 +225 Analogous to a beam with a
shear in this area plf plf concentrated Load.
Basic Shear Diagram at transfer diaphragm
2 3
+225 plf +150 plf • Place the net diaphragm shear
on each side of the collector
+ +
Net direction • Place the transfer shears on each side
B
Collector of shears acting of the collector
Direction of shear + + on collector • Sum shears on collector (based upon
transferred into direction of shears transferred onto
collector +550 plf +475 plf collector).
Net shears
Note: The net shears Shear left=+550-225= +325 plf
will not always be
325 plf 325 plf equal. Shear right=+475-150=+325 plf

## Resulting net • Collector force=area of shear diagram

shear diagram
acting on collector Lcollector Dir. of force Fcollector=(325+325)(Lcollector)
on collector 2

Collector Force
Diagram

## Shear Distribution Into The Collector

Diaphragms with Horizontal Offsets
Irregularity Requirements for Diaphragms with Horizontal End Offsets-Seismic

A Type 2 Horizontal Irregularity (Re-entrant corner) exists where both projections > 15%
of plan dimension in given direction. SDC D-F
• Triggers Section 12.3.3.4
• Can also trigger a Type 3 Horizontal Irregularity- abrupt discontinuity or
variation in stiffness in diaphragm SDC D-F

A
Support Diaph. chord
Strut

Diaph.
C.L.

Collector

Collector
SW2
SW1 TD1
Strut

Strut
Diaph. chord Collector
B

## Support Support Diaph. chord

C

Support
1 2 3 4
Discontinuous
Elements and Varying depth and stiffness
forces
Irregularity Requirements for Diaphragms with Horizontal End Offsets-Seismic

ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.4 –A 25% increase is required in diaphragm (inertial) design forces (Fpx) for
Type 2 or Type 3 horizontal irregularities located in (SDC D-F) for the following elements:
• Connections of diaphragm to vertical elements and collectors (diaphragm supporting elements-TD)
• Collectors and their connections to vertical elements
Exception: Forces using the seismic load effects including the over-strength
factor of Section 12.4.3 need not be increased.
Diaph.
C.L.

A
Support Diaph. chord
Design collector and Strut
connections to SW using
25% increase per ASCE 7-10 SW2

Collector

Collector
Section 12.3.3.4. (Grid lines
1 and 4) SW1 Design transfer diaphragm
TD1
Connection connection to collector using
Design diaphragm design with 25% increase per ASCE 7-10
connections to SW and 25% incr. Section 12.3.3.4.
Strut

## struts using 25% increase

Strut
per ASCE 7-10 Section Diaph. chord Collector
12.3.3.4. (Grid lines 1 and 4) B
Support Support Diaph. chord
C
• Diaphragm shears
3 Support
are not required to 1 2 Design transfer diaphragm connections to 4
be increased 25%.
boundary elements (chords) at Transfer
See 12.10.2 & 12.10.2.1 Diaphragm using 25% increase per ASCE 7-10
for collectors Section 12.3.3.4. (Grid line C and A)
Calcs

w=200 plf

A
Support Diaph. chord
Diaph.
C.L.
1 2

TD chords
200 plf
TD chords

Collector
Collector

SW 1 A F2A
TD1 ∑M=0
35’ SW 2
35’
50’
A/R=2.5:1 B F2B
M2B ft.-lb 25’
F2B=7142.9 lb 12500 lb
Diaph. chord Collector Free body for F2B
B
15’

## Support Diaph. chord

C
Support
RL =12500 lb + -
7500 lb

3500 lb

Discontinuous
diaphragm chord Sign Convention Support
25’ 20’ 80’ RR=12500 lb

1 2 3 4
Calcs
Transfer Diaphragm and Net Diaphragm Shear
Diaph.
C.L. 2142.9 lb
A

## 357.1 plf +70

-107.1

214.3 plf
+357.1
150 plf v= 7142.9(15) = -107.1 plf
70 plf 50(20)
Basic shear diagram
+214.3 +42.9 -37.1 +70 35’

TD shear diagram
SW 1 -250

Neg.
35’
v=150-(107.1) v=70-(107.1) -250 plf
=+42.9 plf =-37.1 plf
(Net resulting shear) (Net resulting shear)
SW 2
+357.1 +214.3 +42.9 -37.1 +70
7142.9 lb 7142.9(35)
B v= = +250 plf
50(20)

Pos.
7142.9 lb 15’ +250 -250
15’

## +400 +320 +70

12500 lb
C
5000 lb
v=150+(250)= +400 plf
(Net resulting shear) v=70+(250)= +320 plf + -
Can be > 3x basic shear (Net resulting shear) 12500 lb
Sign Convention
25’ 20’ 80’
No net change Net change No net change
1 2 occurs in TD 3 Legend 4
375 plf Basic diaphragm shear
(240 plf) Transfer diaphragm shears
=xxx plf Net shears (basic shear +/- TD shears)
+42.9 Calcs
+230 lb 9.27’
10.72’ -172.1 lb
-37.1 Diaph.
7142.9 lb
C.L.
A

## +357.1 +214.3 C -250

F=7812.5 lb
F=7200 lb
+42.9 -37.1

0 plf
SW 1
SW 2
F=7142.9 lb
F=7142.5 lb
F=7812.5 lb
+357.1 +214.3 T +42.9 -37.1 +70

B
357.1 plf
7142.9 lb net T
15’

70 plf 0 plf
C
Support
F =7200 lb
+ - Support
25’ 20’ 17.5’
Sign Convention
1 2 3 4

Calcs
Diaph.
C.L.
A

+357.15

## 171.4 plf net 107.1 plf net

+214.3 +42.9 -37.1 +70
Special nailing
(sum of shears to collector or highest
T C boundary nailing-greater of)
SW 1
F=6000 lb F=3748.5 lb SW 2

B
15’

## +400 +320 +70 250 plf net

C

F=6000 lb F=3750 lb
(this is not an insignificant force.)

## 25’ 20’ 80’

1 2 3 4
+ -

Sign Convention
Transverse Collector Force Diagrams
P Diaph. Diaphragm Deflection Equations
C.L.
w2 Equation variables for offset diaphragms
w1
1
• Concentrated loads from discontinuous shear walls
• Varying moments of inertia, and sometimes
b’ Deflection of b • Different support conditions
rectangular
diaphragm
2 Deflection of ATC7
offset diaph. • Modify the bending and shear portion of the
3 standard rectangular deflection equation to fit
the model:
A B C 𝚺(𝜟𝑪 𝐗)
𝜟𝑻𝑳 = 𝜟𝑩 + 𝜟𝑺 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝐋𝒆𝒏 + 𝟐𝒃
L
𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞
I1 I2 𝒃 𝒎𝑴 𝒄 𝒎𝑴
𝜟𝑩 = 𝒂 𝐄𝑰 𝐝𝐱 + 𝒃 𝐄𝑰𝟐
𝐝𝐱, 𝐚𝐧𝐝
𝟏
SDPWS combines Cannot use 𝒃𝒕 𝒃 𝒘𝒙 𝒄 𝑳 𝒗𝑽
𝜟𝑺 = 𝟐𝐆𝑨𝟐 𝒂 𝒃′ 𝟐
𝐝𝐱 + 𝒘𝒙𝒅𝒙 = 𝐝𝐱
𝟓𝒗𝑳𝟑 𝒗𝑳 𝜮 𝜟𝑪 𝑿 𝐈𝐁𝐂 𝐄𝐪. 𝟐𝟑 − 𝟏
𝒃 𝟎 𝑮𝒕
∆𝑻𝑳 = + + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝑳𝒆𝒏 + 𝒃
𝟖𝑬𝑨𝒃 𝟒𝑮𝒕 𝟐𝒃 APA equation
Shear Deflection -USDA Research Note FPL-0210
Bending Nail slip Chord • Simplification of the conventional energy method.
Shear • The integrations of the equations can be reduced to
uniform nailing multiplying the total area of the shear diagram
deflection
(ATC-7/APA)
Standard deflection equation for shear diagram due to a dummy load applied at the
simple span, rectangular, rigid desired point of shear deflection.
supports, fully blocked, uniformly NOTE: Multiply deflection x 2.5 for unblocked diaphragm
loaded, constant cross section (∆ at C.L.) Multiply nail slip by 1.2 if not Structural I plywood
VSW
W3
W1 W2 W3
Seismic W1 W2
VSW Seismic
W W
Wind Wind
Configuration 1 Configuration 2
Plan Plan
Shear wall
above

I1 I2 I3 I2 I1 I3

## Diaphragm Bending Deflection Modeling- Other Layouts

x1 x2 x3 x4 Special nailing along
collectors

357.2 plf

214.3 plf

37.1 plf
42.9 plf
320 plf

285 plf

70 plf
Sum of shears to collector or
highest boundary nailing-
greater of

357.1 plf
Transfer diaphragm
214.3 plf Boundary (Typ.)
150 plf
70 plf
Basic shear diagram

10d @ 6/12 UB
10d @ 6/6/12 B
10d @ 4/6/12 B

10d @ 6/12 UB

10d @ 6/12 UB
Callout all nailing on drawings:
Case I
• Standard diaphragm nailing

Case I

Case I
• Boundary nailing
• Collector nailing
Diaphragm boundary

10d @ 4/6/12 B
1
Check the shear capacity of the
nailing along the collector Transfer area Boundary
2 3
(High shear area)

Boundary locations

Calcs
Diaph.
C.L.
SW 2
A Drag strut
5’ 10’ 5’

## 40 plf 160 plf

Transfer
200 plf

35’
diaphragm
Collector and

Collector and
TD chords

TD chords
Diaphragm 1 TD1
Diaphragm 2 50’
Chord

Chord
Discontinuous
Drag strut Collector
B
200 plf
15’

200 plf
Discontinuous Drag strut SW 1
C
Drag strut 15’

## 25’ 20’ 80’

1 2 3 4
Pos. + -

direction
Sign Convention
Vsw=5000 lb Calcs
vsw=500 plf
448.6 plf net 210 lb 4090 lb
A
700 lb -40.9 plf

## Basic shear diagram

-51.4 SW 2 -10.5 -
-28
10’ Vsw=5000 lb
v=-40.9-(10.5)=-51.4 plf 𝒘𝑳

## Basic shear diagram

𝑽=
𝟐

W=40+160=200 plf
Neg.
35’

Diaph.
C.L.
50’
v=+15.1-(10.5)=+4.6 plf
(Net resulting shear)
v=+15.1+(24.5)

W=200 plf
+28 +4.6 +4.6 =+39.6 plf 𝒘𝑳
700 lb 𝑽=
700 lb 𝟐
B +15.1 plf
+15.1 Vsw=5000 lb
+39.6 +39.6

Pos.
15’

+69.6 +69.6
+24.5 + +45.1 15’ SW 1
+45.1
C
v=+45.1+(24.5) 490 lb 4510 lb Vsw=5000 lb
1 =+69.6 plf 2 3
vsw=333.3 plf
2 3 288.3 plf net
Pos. Transfer area
direction B
Legend
+39.6 +39.6
+ - 375 plf Basic diaphragm shear 4
=xxx plf Net diaphragm shears (basic shear +/- TD Shears)
Sign Convention (240 plf) Transfer diaphragm shears +69.6
+69.6

## Transfer Diaphragm and Net Diaphragm Shear C

F=3529 lb Calcs
F=700 lb 448.6 plf
net
5’ 5’
A
-51.4 SW 2 +40.9
-28 10’ -51.4 -40.9
23.4 plf F= -957 lb 10.5 plf
net net

35’
50’
F=819 lb
F=700 lb
+28 F=368 lb
+28 +4.6 +4.6

B
35 plf +15.1
net
+39.6 +39.6
15’

F=368 lb
+69.6 +69.6 +45.1 +45.1 15’ SW 1
C

## F=700 lb 288.3 plf

net
F= -819 lb F=4323.5 lb strut
4050 lb chord
25’ 20’ 80’
Pos. + -
1 2 3 direction 4
Sign Convention

## Longitudinal and Transverse Collector/Strut Force Diagrams

A
200’

SW 1

• No calculations
SW 2
• No collector
Horizontal offset
in chord/strut
100’ F=20 kips
B
Strut/chord

Window wall
1 100’
C

C.L. Strut/chord
diaphragm
2 3
4

Example-Actual Project
95 ft.
v=304 plf v=328 plf
v=504 plf v=390 plf v=997 plf
v=997 plf v=244 plf v=588 plf (designed)

F=22500 lb @ Diaphragm
c.l. diaphragm Shears
Steel (My calc=25278 lb)
decking
F=25230 lb F=24905 lb Transfer diaphragms
45 ft. and collectors are
required

## F=7626 lb F=7454 lb 4 ft. F=6991 lb F=7512 lb

offset

Critical
NOTE: connections v max=1748 plf
v max=1864 plf

## • Diaphragm designed as a simple rectangular diaphragm, no offset,

• Checked only diaphragm shear and chord force (maximum depth,
not offset depth).
• No collectors, connection designs or details at re-entrant corners.
• Forces on trusses at collectors were not called out on drawing.

Example-Actual Project
A Quick Note on Segmentation
1 6 7
Diaphragm 1 Cantilever
3 4
L1 L2 L3 L4
2 5

W Www W
A
w1 w2 w3
Collector Collector
w4 w5 w6

WL w
Www

OMRF
Collector

Collector

d1
Open
SW

TD1 TD2 W
Diaphragm 2

## Chord Collector Collector

B

w7 w8

d2
W

Support

Collector
SW Chord Collector
C
shear
Offset

walls

WL w

d3
w9
W

SW
D

L5 L6 L7
Support
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Designed as diaph.
with opening
W=200 plf (wind) W=200 plf Www=123 plf W=200 plf (wind)
A
Chord Collector Chord Chord Collector Chord
Chords force

Rigid frame
Collector

Sub-Chord
Collector transferred

Collector

Collector
to TD2

## W=200 plf (wind)

TD1
Chord Sub-Chord Collector Collector
B
Collector Chord
Strut

Support TD2

Collector
Chord Chord Chord Cant.
Collector
C Diaph.
WLw=77 plf Strut
Chord Chord
D

Support

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Support
A
Strut SW Diaph.2 Collector SW Strut
Www=123 plf

WLw=77 plf
Chord

Rigid frame
Collector Strut

Collector

Collector
Collector

Collector
Strut force
Diaph.1 transferred
to TD2
Strut Collector Strut Collector Collector
B
Strut
Diaph.4
W=200 plf

Chord

Chord
TD1
Diaph.3 TD2

Chord
SW Strut Collector Diaph.5
C
W=200 plf

Chord
SW SW
D
Support

1 2 3 4
W=200 plf
8000 lb 8000 lb
A
+200 Chord -200

Collector
300 plf
100 plf 200 plf

Neg.
Collector
Pos.

## Basic Shear Diagram

20’ TD1 -100 plf
-200 plf
-300 plf
TD2
+500 +300 +200
B
Collector Chord Collector 16000 lb
16000 lb
+100 -100 F=16000 lb
20’

Pos.
Neg.

+200
-200 C Chord Chord
V=4000 lb

8000 lb

V=4000 lb
8000 lb
Transfer Diagram Transfer Diagram
12000 lb 12000 lb Shear
Shear

Sign Convention
120’
+ -

## Analysis Option 1-Analyze as Diaphragm with Intermediate Offset

1 2 3 4
2000 lb W=200 plf 2000 lb
W=100 plf W=100 plf

Collector

Collector
Chord
500 plf

W=200 plf

W=100 plf
W=100 plf
300 plf
200 plf
20’

## Basic Shear Diagram

-200 plf
+500 +300 +200 -300 plf
500 300 200 -500 plf
B
Chord Chord Chord
2000 lb

2000 lb
Chord 40’ Chord
100 -100
W=100 plf

F=16000 lb
20’

W=100 plf
+100 -100

## Basic Shear Diagram Assumes small Basic Shear Diagram

C diaphragms are
Chord supported off of
Chord
40’ main diaphragm 40’
12000 lb
120’ 12000 lb

1 2 3 4
W=200 plf

A
Chord

## 600 plf A/R=6:1>4:1, ∴ N.G.

200 plf Fchord=18000 lb
200 plf Options 1, 2 and 3
20’

## Basic Shear Diagram

Values Options -200 plf 200 plf
+500 +300 +200
1 and 2
-600 plf
B
40’ Chord 40’
40’
F=16000 lb
12000 lb 12000 lb
Still must make
a connection
20’

Assumes main
diaphragm takes
C Lower diaphragms
are ignored.
120’
Analysis Option 3-Ignoring lower diaphragm sections
(Not recommended)
Aspect ratios
Using partial sections ????
(Not recommended) Cont. collector
all diaphragms
required (full
4:1 max.
4 depth of diaph).
1 2 3

Cant.

SW Diaphragm 1 SW

Transfer
area SW Diaphragm 2 SW Diaphragm 3 SW

Shear walls ride off of main
designated diaph.’s Non-shear wall

Shear wall
Offset Shear Walls

SW 1

Collector
Collector

Collector

SW 2

## Out-of-plane Offsets In-plane Offsets

Relevant Irregularities Per ASCE 7-10
Horizontal Irregularities Table 12.3-1 and Vertical Irregularities Table 12.3-2

## Transfer diaphragm grid line ASCE 7 Table 12.3-1

1 to 3 See Section 12.10.1.1 Type 4 horizontal irregularity: out-of-
plane offset discontinuity in the LFRS
ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2 load path
A.25
Type 4 vertical irregularity: in- ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2
1
plane offset discontinuity in A
Type 4 vertical irregularity: in-
the LFRS (if no H.D. at A.25) 2
plane offset discontinuity
B
3

A.75

A.33

## The deflection equation must Potential buckling Elements requiring

uniformly distributed load plus columns and beams combinations
the transfer force.
Type 4 Horizontal & Vertical Offset Irregularity-Seismic
Type 4 horizontal irregularity-Out-of-plane offset irregularity occurs where there is a
discontinuity in lateral force resistance load path. Out-of-plane offset of at least one of
the vertical lateral force resisting elements.
Type 4 vertical irregularity-In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral force resisting
element occurs where there is an offset of vertical seismic force resisting element
resulting in overturning demands on a beam, column, truss, wall or slab.
• ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.3 (SDC B-F)
Elements supporting discontinuous walls or frames.
• ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.4 (SDC D-F)
Increases in force due to irregularity
1 3
Diaphragm
2

A
Chord
SW1 Strut

SW3

SW2
B Shear wall is not continuous to
foundation. Type 4 horizontal
Collector

## and vertical irregularity

Strut
Strut

C Chord
Continuous member

## ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.3 (SDC B-F)

Elements supporting discont. Walls or
frames:

## Blocking Applies to:

or shear •Beams, columns, slabs, walls or trusses.
panels
•Requires over-strength factor of Section
12.4.3

requirements.

Connection

## Type 4 Vertical Irregularity SDC D-F

(Interior collector similar)
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.4 (SDC D-F) -Type 4 Horizontal and Type 4 vertical irregularity
requires a 25% increase in the diaphragm (inertial) design forces determined from 12.10.1.1 (Fpx) for
the following elements:
• Connections of diaphragm to vertical elements and collectors.
• Collectors and their connections to vertical elements.
Exception: Forces using the seismic load effects including the over-strength factor
of Section 12.4.3 need not be increased.
1 3
Diaphragm 1
2

## A SW3 • Diaphragm shears

Chord are not required to
SW1 Strut

SW2
B
be increased 25%.
Shear wall is not
continuous to Design diaphragm connections • The transfer force
Collector

## foundation. to SW and struts (Grid lines 1, 2 (SW3) in SDC D-F

and 3)

Strut
must be increased
by rho, per 12.10.1.1.
Strut

## See 12.10.2 & 12.10.2.1

C Chord for collectors

## Collectors and their

connections to vertical
(Grid lines 1, 2 and 3)

## Type 4 Horizontal Irregularity-Seismic

Continuous member

## ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.4 (SDC D-F)

• Type 2 Horizontal Re-entrant corner
Irregularity
• Type 3 Diaphragm discontinuity
irregularity
• Type 4 horizontal or vertical
irregularity:
Requires a 25% increase in the diaphragm
design forces (Fpx) determined from 12.10.1.1
for the following elements:
• Connections of diaphragm to
Blocking vertical elements and collectors.
or shear
panels

## • Collectors and their connections,

including their connections to
vertical elements.
Alt. Collector/
strut Connection
Type 2 Horiz., Type 3 Horiz., and Type 4 Vert. & Horiz. Irregularity SDC D-F
(Interior collector similar)
Struts and Collectors-Seismic

## Struts / collectors and their connections shall be designed in

accordance with ASCE 7-10 sections:
12.10.2 SDC B - Collectors can be designed w/o over-strength
but not if they support discontinuous walls or frames.

12.10.2.1 SDC C thru F- Collectors and their connections, including connections to the vertical resisting
elements require the over-strength factor of Section 12.4.3, except as noted:

## Shall be the maximum of:

𝛀𝒐𝑭𝒙 - Forces determined by ELF Section 12.8 or Modal Response Spectrum Analysis
procedure 12.9
𝛀𝒐 𝑭𝒑𝒙 - Forces determined by Diaphragm Design Forces (Fpx), Eq. 12.10-1 or

𝑭𝒑𝒙 𝒎𝒊𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝑺𝑫𝑺 𝑰𝒆 𝒘𝒑𝒙 - Lower bound seismic diaphragm design forces determined by
Eq. 12.10-2 (Fpxmin) using the Seismic Load Combinations of section
12.4.2.3 (w/o over-strength)-do not require the over-strength factor.
𝑭𝒑𝒙 𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝑺𝑫𝑺 𝑰𝒆 𝒘𝒑𝒙 - Upper bound seismic diaphragm design forces determined by
Eq. 12.10-2 (Fpxmax) using the Seismic Load Combinations of section
12.4.2.3 (w/o over-strength)-do not require the over-strength factor.
Exception:

1. In structures (or portions of structures) braced entirely by light framed shear walls, collector
elements and their connections, including connections to vertical elements need only be designed
to resist forces using the standard seismic force load combinations of Section 12.4.2.3 with forces
determined in accordance with Section 12.10.1.1 (Diaphragm inertial Design Forces, 𝑭𝒑𝒙 ).
A.25
A B
Dhr
Column elements Vr
Strut/Collector
are designed for
Shear wall anchorage

Support column
Wall element is designed for is designed for
combinations 2.3
or 2.4.
ASCE 7-10 Sections 2.3 or 2.4. SW1 combinations of
Sections 2.3 or 2.4.
Dh2
Strut/Collector V2

Support column

## Shear wall hold downs are

over-strength per

Collector
combinations of Sections ASCE 7-10 Section
SW2 12.3.3.3 (SDC B-F)
2.3 or 2.4.
and/or 12.3.3.4 (SDC
D-F)
Ftg. Ftg.

Assuming no
hold down
ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2-Type 4 vertical
irregularity- In-plane offset
discontinuity in the LFRS
See struts and collectors
Shear wall system at grid line 1
In-plane Offset of Wall
A A.33 B
Dhr
Wall element is designed for
Collector
Vr
of ASCE 7-10 Sections 2.3 or
2.4.
Shear wall hold downs
and connections are SW3
designed for standard Dh2
ASCE 7-10 Sections 2.3 V2
Support beam/collector
or 2.4. Dv
Connection is

Support column
Collector and columns shall
Support column
designed for
be designed in accordance standard load
with ASCE 7-10 section: 12.3.3.3 combinations of
Footings are not
Elements supporting discontinuous Sections 2.3 or 2.4.
required to be
walls or frames require over-strength
designed for
Factor of Section 12.4.3.
over-strength.
Ftg. Ftg.

## ASCE 7 Table 12.3-1-Type 4 horizontal

irregularity- out of-plane offset
discontinuity in the LFRS
See struts and collectors
Shear wall system at grid line 2
Out-of-Plane Offset
B A.75 A.33 A
Wall element, hold downs, Dhr
and connections are
designed for standard Collector Vr
ASCE 7-10 Sections 2.3 Wall element
or 2.4. designed for
SW4
combinations of
Dh2
Sections 2.3 or 2.4.

## Connections are Support beam/collector V2

designed for standard Connections are
Support column

Support column
load combinations of designed for standard
Sections 2.3 or 2.4. load combinations of
SW5 ASCE 7-10 Sections
Footings are not required Gr. Bm. 2.3 or 2.4.
DL
to be designed for over-
strength.

## Collector and columns shall be designed in

accordance with ASCE 7-10 section: 12.3.3.3
ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2-Type 4 vertical Elements supporting discontinuous walls or
irregularity- In-plane offset discontinuity frames require over-strength factor of Section 12.4.3.
in the LFRS
See struts and collectors

## Shear wall system at grid line 3-In-plane Offset

Out-of-Plane Offset Shear Walls
Assumed to act in the Same Line of Resistance

Transfer
SW area • Offset walls are often assumed to act in the
same line of lateral-force-resistance.
Collector Collector
• Calculations are seldom provided showing how
Drag
strut

## the walls are interconnected to act as a unit, or

to verify that a complete lateral load path has
Collector been provided.
Discont.
drag strut
Loads • Collectors are required to be installed to
Offset SW transfer the disrupted forces across the offsets.
Drag
Collector strut

## Discont. ASCE 7-10 Section 14.5.2

drag strut Where offset walls occur in the wall line, the
Collector
shear walls on each side of the offset
SW should be considered as separate shear
walls unless provisions for force transfer
Collector
around the offset are provided. In the plane of
the diaphragm
Typical mid-rise multi-family
Check for Type 2 horizontal irregularity
structure at exterior wall line Re-entrant corner irregularity
Mid-rise Multi-family

Cant.

SW SW SW SW SW

SW SW SW SW SW

No exterior
Shear walls

## Flexible, semi-rigid, or rigid???

SW3 SW3
1 1

Beam
TD1
SW1 SW1
TD1
2 2

Strut
TD2 Collector
(typ.) TD2
3 3
Higher shears Transfer Area
SW SW4
and nailing Higher shears
requirements and nailing SW4
Reqmts.

Strut/chord
Collector
Higher shears Main diaphragm
SW2 and nailing SW2 becomes TD3
TD3
Reqmts.

## Multi Story, Multi-family SW5

Collector
Wood Structure (typ.) SW5
I1 I2
Optional Framing
I1 I2
Layouts
I3

## ASCE7-10 Diaphragm stiffness changes

1.3.5 - Cont. ld. Paths
12.1.3 - Cont. ld. paths-inter-conn. Ties
12.10.1-Openings, re-entrant. –transfer of dis-cont. forces
combined with other forces
12.10.2-Collector elements
Example 3-Diaphragm with Horizontal End Offset
Drag strut SW 2 Drag strut Support
A
25’ 5’ 10’ 5’ 80’
Assumptions:
1. Assume shear walls at grid lines B and C
act along the same line of lateral-force-
Chord

resistance.
200 plf

## 2. Assume the total load distributed to grid lines

TD1
A and B/C= wL/2 .
35’
collectors

collectors
50’
Chord

Chord

Chord
Offset
SW
SW 1 Drag strut Collector
B
8’
200 plf

Offset SW
15’

## 12’ SW 3 Drag strut SW 4

C Drag strut
8’ 45’ 15’ Support
Drag strut is
Pos. direction + -
discontinuous

## 25’ 20’ 80’

1 2 3 4
Total Shear to Shear Walls (Assumed) Calcs

## Vsw2=wL/2=200(50)/2=5000 lb, vsw2=5000/10=500 plf

Vsw1, sw3, sw4=wL/2=200(50)/2=5000 lb, vsw=5000/(8+8+15)=161.3 plf
+177.1 lb -4090 lb
-700 lb SW 2 (+8.85 plf) (-40.9 plf)
A
(-28 plf) 10’ +8.85
-28

## 40 plf 160 plf

Basic shear diagram 1
200 plf

## Basic shear diagram 2

Pos.
35’
F=1066.3 lb
F=590.3 lb 50’

+28
SW 1 590.3 lb 1510 lb
B 590.3 lb
+700 lb 17’ (+15.1 plf)
8’
200 plf

Neg.
200 plf
(+28 plf)
-20.66
8’
vsw=+161.3 plf C
SW 3 -413.2 lb 4510 lb
vnet=+133.29 plf (-20.66 plf) (+45.1 plf)
1
2 2 3

## Determine Force transferred Pos. + -

Into Transfer Diaphragm direction
Sign Convention
Basic Diaphragm Shears and Transfer Diaphragm Shear
vsw=500 lb Calcs
-4090 lb
vnet=467.95 plf (-40.9 plf)
A
SW 2 +8.85
-28 -28 -40.9 -40.9
-32.05 -32.05

v=-40.9+(8.85)
=-32.05 plf

Pos.

## Basic shear diagram

35’
50’
v=+15.1+(8.85)
=+23.95 plf

+28
+28 +23.95 +23.95 +15.1
1510 lb
B (+15.1 plf)

Neg.
8’ SW 1
15’

+45.1
vsw=161.3 lb +45.1
-20.66
8’ 15’
C
vnet=133.3 plf
SW 3 4510 lb SW 4
vsw=161.3 lb (+45.1 plf) vsw=161.3 lb
v=+15.1-(20.66)=-5.56 plf -5.56 -5.56
vnet=116.2 plf vnet=116.2 plf
v=+45.1-(20.66)=+24.4 plf +24.4 +24.4
(Net resulting shear) Pos. + -
direction
25’ 20’ 80’
No net change No net change Sign Convention
Net change
1 2 In TD 3 Legend 4
375 plf Basic diaphragm shear
=xxx plf Net diaphragm shears (basic shear +/- TD Shears)
Net Diaphragm Shears (240 plf ) Transfer diaphragm shears
Calcs
SW 2
A

## Net shear (TD tension chord and

Diaph.2 compression chord)

F=141.7 lb
F= 309.8 lb

+28
+28 +23.95 +23.95 +15.1 F= 309.9 lb
B
8’ SW 1 -5.56 -5.56
15’

+45.1
1 +-24.4 +24.4 8’ SW 3 15’ SW 4
C
20.7 plf net
F=141.6 lb
5.56 2 3
2.78’

F=-7.73
Pos. + -
12.22’

direction
F=+149.33 Sign Convention

## 24.4 So far, so good

Transverse Collector Force Diagrams
F=+3819.3 lb F=+387 lb Calcs
F=-700 lb (Error)
5’ SW 2 5’ 80’
A
10’ F=+3659 lb
-28 -28 -32.05 -40.9 -40.9
-32.05

F=-860 lb vsw=500 lb
vnet=467.95 plf Note: Neither force
diagram closes to zero,
therefore error.
Notice that they do not
F=590.3 lb close by the same
amount.
F=1066.3 lb F= 590.2 lb

## +28 vsw=161.3 lb vsw=161.3 lb

+28 +23.95 +23.95
vnet=116.2 plf vnet=116.2 plf
B
8’ SW 1
5.56 5.56 +45.1
15’

+45.1
24.4 24.4 SW 3 45.1 15’ SW 4
C
12’ 8’ 45’

F=-488.8 lb F =-100.5 lb
F=-1030 lb F =-2129.9 lb
F =-386.9 lb
25’ 20’ 80’ (Error)
1 2 3
Pos. + -
direction
Longitudinal Strut Force Diagrams Sign Convention
Calcs F=3236 lb Revised Calculated
F=3388.5 lb forces forces
4600 lb
A
Line needs to
SW 2
move in this
F=700 lb direction F=36 lb
F=802.5 lb
The shear wall shears
needs to be lower in Load distribution
order to move the force needs to increase
diagram in this direction towards line B/C.
to B/C by the
The shear wall shears
amount off +/-.
needs to be higher in
F=1169.6 lb order to move the force
F=364 lb diagram in this direction

B F=18 lb
SW 1 Line needs to move
15’

in this direction
F=87.5 lb SW 3 SW 4
C
15’ 5400 lb
F=693.6 lb
F=416.6 lb F=75 lb

F=957.8 lb F=1954.5 lb
25’ 20’ 80’

1 2 3

## Adjusted Longitudinal Strut Force Diagrams (8% increase to B/C)

[Amount shifted to B/C depends on the offset to span ratio of the transfer diaphragm]
Tying Shear Walls Across the Corridor ??
Special nailing of the sheathing to the
collector is required the full length of the
collector (typ.)

Transfer
SW SW SW

Collector
Area (typ.)

Collector
SW

Collector
Collector
Collector
Corridor
Collector

walls
Corridor
walls

Collector

Collector
Collector

Collector
Section

SW SW SW SW SW

collectors

## Layout 1 Layout 2 Layout 3 Layout 4 Layout 5 Layout 6

Tie straps at 2x6/2x8
SDPWS 4.3.5.1 all Joints (typ.)
3. Collectors for shear transfer
Jst. Jst.
to individual full-height wall Mech.
segments shall be provided.
Typical Corridor Section
Common Transverse Wall Layouts
Layout 1-Full length walls aligned

1 2 3
W=200 plf
A

156 244

SW1
22’ 1200 vSW=454.55 plf
vNet=54.55 plf
B

## 6’ Diaphragm 1 Diaphragm 2 50’

C

1200
22’ RL=RR=200(78/2)=7800 # RL=RR=200(122/2)=12200 #
SW2

## vR=7800/50=156 plf vR=12200/50=244 plf

156 244
D

78’ 122’
7800 # Sum=20000 # 12200 #
Sum=40000 #
=200 plf(200’)
Example 4-Offset Shear Walls Across the Corridor-Layout 6
Layout 6, Case1-Full length offset walls

1 2 3 4
W=200 plf
A

## 78’ 156 244 Transfer Area 122’

RL=RR=24(4/2)=48 #
4368 # vL=vR=48/6=8 plf

SW1

88 plf
112 plf

## RL=RR=112(78/2)=4368 # RL=RR=88(122/2)=5368 # 5368 #

22’
vR=4368/28=156 plf 244 vR=5368/28=244 plf
B
156 SW3

24 plf
6’ Diaphragm 1 8 8 Diaphragm 2 50’
C
236
SW4 4’
164

112 plf
RL=RR=112(118/2)=6608 #
88 plf

22’ RL=RR=88(82/2)=3608 #
SW2
vR=6608/28=236 plf
vR=3608/22=164 plf 6608 #
3608 #
164 236
D
82’ 118’
Sum=7976 # Sum=20048 # Sum=11976 #
Sum=40000 #
=200 plf(200’)
Case 1-Smaller resulting forces at corridor
Total load to grid lines 2 & 3

R23=4368+3608+48+5368+6608+48=20048 # O.K.
2 3
LSW=22+22=44’
Summing V=0 VSW=20048 #
A
vSW=20048/44=455.64 plf
156 244
vnet SW1=455.64-156-244=55.64 plf
vnet SW2=455.64-164-236=55.64 plf Checks, they
SW1

## 1224 244 240 should be equal

240
156
160 SW3
B SW1
88 F2AB=55.64(22)=1224 #
C 236
F2BC=(156+8)6=984 #
240

## SW4 160 F2C=1224-984=240 #

164 1224
240
SW2

SW2 O.K.
164 236 F3CD=55.64(22)=1224 #
D
F3CB=(236+8)6=1464 #
F3B=1224-1464= -240 #
Summing V=0
Sum=20048 # FB23=FC23=240(4)/6=160 #

All forces in lb., all shears in plf Shear at transfer area=240/6+8=48 plf
Layout 6, Case2-Full length plus partial length offset shear walls

1 2 3 4
W=200 plf
A
78’ Transfer Area 122’
4368 # 156 244
RL=RR=24(4/2)=48 #
vL=vR=48/6=8 plf

88 plf
SW1
112 plf

## 22’ RL=RR=112(78/2)=4368 # RL=RR=88(122/2)=5368 # 5368 #

vR=4368/28=156 plf vR=5368/28=244 plf
244
B
156 SW3

24 plf
6’ Diaphragm 1 8 8 Diaphragm 2 50’
C 236
SW4 4’
164 10’

112 plf
88 plf

22’ RL=RR=112(118/2)=6608 #
RL=RR=88(82/2)=3608 #
SW2

## 12’ vR=6608/28=236 plf

vR=3608/22=164 plf 6608 #
3608 #
164 236
D
82’ 118’
Sum=7976 # Sum=20048 # Sum=11976 #
Sum=40000 #
=200 plf(200’)
Case 2-Larger resulting forces at corridor
Total load to grid lines 2 & 3

R23=4368+3608+48+5368+6608+48=20048 # O.K.
2 3

LSW=22+12=34’
A
Summing V=0 VSW=20048 #
vSW=20048/34=589.65 plf
156 244
vnet SW1=589.65-156-244=189.65 plf

3188.24
22’
SW1
vnet SW2=589.65-164-236=189.65 plf Checks, they
4172.24 3188.24
244 should be equal
2125.49 SW3
B
SW1
156 8 8 6’
C
F2AB=189.65(22)=4172.24 #
SW4 236 2125.49 F2BC=(156+8)6=984 #
3188.24

## 164 10’ F2C=4172.24-984=3188.24 #

3188.24
SW2

12’ O.K.
2275.76 SW2
164 236 FSW2 =189.65(12)=2275.76 #
D FSW2 to 3B=(236+8)6+(236+164)10=5464 #
F3B=2275.76-5464= -3188.24 #
Summing V=0
Sum=20048 # FB23=FC23=3188.24(4)/6=2125.49 #

All forces in lb., all shears in plf Shear at transfer area=3188.24/6+8=539.37 plf
Layout 6, Case3 - Partial length offset shear walls

1 2 3 4
W=200 plf
A
78’ Transfer Area 122’
4368 # 156 244
RL=RR=24(4/2)=48 #

SW1
10’
vL=vR=48/6=8 plf

88 plf
112 plf

## 22’ RL=RR=88(122/2)=5368 # 5368 #

RL=RR=112(78/2)=4368 # 12’
vR=4368/28=156 plf vR=5368/28=244 plf
244
B
156 SW3

24 plf
6’ Diaphragm 1 8 8 Diaphragm 2 50’
C 236
SW4 4’
164 10’

112 plf
88 plf

SW2

## vR=3608/22=164 plf 12’ vR=6608/28=236 plf

6608 #
3608 #
164 236
D
82’ 118’
Sum=7976 # Sum=20048 # Sum=11976 #
Sum=40000 #
=200 plf(200’)
Case 3-Smaller resulting forces at corridor

## Total load to grid lines 2 & 3

2 3
R23=4368+3608+48+5368+6608+48=20048 # O.K.
Summing V=0
A LSW=12+10=22’
156 244 VSW=20048 #
vSW=20048/22=911.27 plf
SW1
10’

671.24
671.24 vnet SW1=911.27-156-244=511.27 plf
12’ 244
5112.7 vnet SW2=911.27-164-236=511.27 plf Checks, they
120 SW3 should be equal
B 156
8 8 6’
C SW1
SW4 236 120 FSW1=511.27(10)=5112.7 #
164 10’ FSW1 to 2B=(156+244)12=4800 #
671.3

671.3 F2BC=(156+8)6=984 #
SW2

12’ F2C=5112.7-4800-984=-671.3 #
6135.24
164 236
D SW2 O.K.
FSW2=511.27(12)=6135.24 #
Summing V=0
FSW2 to 3B=(236+8)6+(236+164)10=5464 #
Sum=20048 #
F3B=6135.24-5464= 671.24 #

## Shear at transfer area=671.3/6+8=119.9 plf

In-plane Offset Shear Walls
Example 5-In-plane Offset Segmented Shear Wall -with Gravity Loads

VHdr=450 lb
DL=150 plf
2000 lb
4 Hdr

Wd
SW1 Sections do not
8’ comply with the
VHdr=960 lb
required aspect
DL=250 plf ratio for a perforated
Sill
or FTO shear wall.
3000 lb
1’ Blk’g. or rim joist
Hdr/collector
Nail shtg.
To each
2x stud Wd
Collector

8’ SW2

## Sill ASCE 7 Table 12.3-2-Type 4

vertical irreg.- in-plane
A B C discontinuity in the LFRS
if no hold down at B.
No hold down
4’ 8’
(option 1) 12.3.3.3 & 12.3.3.4
Hold-down 12’ 6’ 1’ SDC B-F SDC D-F
(option 2)
Ends of wall panels do not line up.
Requires special nailing of sheathing
into stud below.

Requires same
number of studs
above and below
with boundary
nailing each stud Solid blocking
required

Hold down

## Nailing found No hold-down below

in field was 12” Hold down
o.c.
Photo-In-plane Offset Segmented Shear Walls
5000 lb
Rim joist 1’
VHdr=450 lb 12’
416.67 lb 416.67 lb
w=230 plf (incl. wall DL) 1080 lb
2000 lb 330 plf (incl. wall DL)

1260 lb 4’ 8’ 1620 lb
+ + (-157.5) - + (+202)
1020

+250 plf
135 365 (-127.5) - shears
SW1 8’ 1260
(-157.5) 1620
Aver.=250 plf + 60 (+202)
(+7.5) + shears
TD shears-lbs. (plf)
8’ 3370
416.67 1080 416.67
1080 lb 2920 lb
+450 lb 5000 lb VHdr=960 lb
3370 lb
Upper Shear Wall +

Collector

Basic Shear
+259.2

+416.67 plf
SW2
8’
1 2
Pos. direction + -
+ + +
Sign Convention +424.1 +289.2 +618.7
4’ 8’
Wall and Transfer Diaphragm Shears 2490 lb Lower Shear Wall 9700 lb
2000 lb Roof 2000 lb Roof
C

+ SW1 + C 8’ + SW1 +
135 365 135 365 8’
416.67 365(8)+450=3370
416.67
3000 lb T 8’ 3000 lb 8’
1’ 2nd floor Rim joist VHdr=990 lb 2nd floor Rim joist 1’
C
+ T +

Depth TD
Depth TD
+259.2 SW2 +259.2 SW2
1 2 8’ 1 2 8’

+ + + + + +
T +424.2 +289.2 +618.7 C +424.2 +289.2 +618.7

4’ 8’ T 4’ 8’ C
2490 lb 9700 lb 2490 lb 9700 lb

## Vertical Collector Forces Horizontal Collector Forces

Pos. direction + -

## Collector Force Diagrams Sign Convention

Diaphragms With Large Openings
Interior and End Openings
ASCE 7-10 Section 12.3.3.4 (SDC D-F) -
1 2 3 4 Diaph. 5 Horizontal irregularity Type 3 requires a
C.L. 25% increase in the diaphragm design
w plf forces determined from 12.10.1.1 (Fpx) for
the following elements:
A
• Connections of diaphragm to vertical
collector collector
B elements and collectors (diaphragm
supporting elements).
• Collectors and their connections to
vertical elements.
collector collector
C Exception: Forces using the seismic
D load effects including the over-strength
factor of Section 12.4.3 need not be
increased.
Diaphragm shears are not
required to be increased 25%. • Use of over-strength forces is not
commonly considered to be triggered
for boundary elements at diaphragm
openings. However, the 25% increase
does apply.
Type 3 Horizontal Irregularity-SDC D-F-Diaphragm Discontinuity Irregularity.
Diaphragm discontinuity irregularity exists where there is an abrupt discontinuity or variation in
stiffness, including a cut-out or open area greater than 50% gross enclosed diaphragm area, or a
change in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50% from one story to the next.
Roof pop-up section
with opening below.

## Skylight or atrium opening

Clerestory windows

End opening

Stairwell access
to roof

Openings in
diaphragm

## Harrington Recovery Center

Structural engineer: Pujara Wirth Torke, Inc.
Photographer: Curtis Walz
Interior Openings

1 2 3 4 Diaph. 5
C.L. w plf

A
B

C
D
IBC 2305.1.1
Openings in shear panels that Local Local
materially effect their strength shears shears
shall be fully detailed on the higher lower
plans and shall have their edges
adequately reinforced to transfer Basic Shear Diagram
all shear stresses.

FPInnovations
Design example: Designing for
openings in wood diaphragm

## It is strongly recommended that analysis for a Location and Magnitude of Shear

diaphragm with an opening should be carried out
except where all four of the following items are
satisfied:
a. Depth no greater than 15% of diaphragm depth;
b. Length no greater than 15% of diaphragm length;
c. Distance from diaphragm edge to the nearest Stairwells
opening edge is a minimum of 3 times the larger Elevators
opening dimension;
d. The diaphragm portion between opening and
diaphragm edge satisfies the maximum aspect
ratio requirement. (all sides of the opening)

## Most openings of any significant

size should be checked. Size of opening
Affect of Size and location in Diaphragm
L
Opening size is not a factor if: External loads are not
included in the check.
1. Calculated strap length does not The unit shears in upper 𝑯
exceed L or H section are constant vert. Lh 𝑭𝒗 = 𝒗𝟒
𝟐
2. Shear does not increase beyond and horiz. across upper
nailing capacity section

Collector
v v2
v Lv
L L Collector
Collector
Upper Lower
Bound Bound
H 𝑭𝒉 = 𝒗𝟐𝑳 𝑳
v1 𝑭𝒉 = 𝒗𝟐 v4 v4 H
for left 𝟐
H Opening Steel straps collector for right
and blocking collector

v3

IBC/Diekmann

Minimum recommended
steel strap lengths if 1. 2015 IBC Section 2308.4.4.1: If opening > 4 ft. use Figure
opening size is not a 2308.4.4.1(1)
• 16 ga. X 1 ½” x L or H strap w/ (16)16d or engineered
factor.
2. Diekmann, ATC-7: Rule of thumb as shown above.

## Diekmann Method Of Checking If Opening Size Is A Factor

2 External loads not 2 Pattern nailing has to
increase-n.g. 2
included in check,
480 plf Nail capacity 480 plf
has to increase
10’ 180 150 318plf 10’ 360 300 318 plf n.g. 10’ 360 150
𝟏𝟐
𝑨. 𝑹. = 𝟏𝟎 1080 lb 2160 lb 2160 lb
=1.2:1 10’ 150 300 150
10’
6’ 6’
60’ 60’ 35’ 318 plf 60’

## 180 150 360 300 150

6’
40’ 318 plf 318 plf 40’ 318 plf 318 plf

## 180 150 360 300 15’

360 150

C.L. opening v=150 plf C.L. opening v=300 plf v=150 plf

## 𝟏𝟓𝟎(𝟏𝟎) 𝟑𝟎𝟎(𝟏𝟎) 𝟏𝟓𝟎(𝟑𝟓)

𝑭𝑽 = = 𝟕𝟓𝟎 𝐥𝐛 𝑭𝑽 = = 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝐥𝐛 𝑭𝑽 = = 𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝐥𝐛
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
𝟕𝟓𝟎 𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝟐𝟔𝟐𝟓
𝑳𝑽 = = 𝟓. 𝟒𝟑′ < 𝟏𝟎′ 𝑳𝑽 = = 12.5’ > 10’ n.g. 𝑳𝑽 = = 𝟐𝟏. 𝟖𝟖𝟓′ < 𝟑𝟓′
𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟏𝟖𝟎 o.k. 𝟒𝟖𝟎 − 𝟑𝟔𝟎 𝟒𝟖𝟎 − 𝟑𝟔𝟎 But > depth
Lower 𝑭𝑯 = 𝟑𝟔𝟎 𝟔 = 𝟐𝟏𝟔𝟎 𝐥𝐛 Lower 𝑭𝑯 = 𝟑𝟔𝟎 𝟔 = 𝟐𝟏𝟔𝟎 𝐥𝐛 Lower
𝑭𝑯 = 𝟏𝟖𝟎 𝟔 = 𝟏𝟎𝟖𝟎 𝐥𝐛
bound bound bound
𝟏𝟎𝟖𝟎 𝟐𝟏𝟔𝟎 𝟐𝟏𝟔𝟎
𝑳𝑯 = = 𝟔. 𝟒𝟐′ < 𝟏𝟐′ 𝑳𝑯 = = 𝟏𝟐𝟎′ > 𝟏𝟐′ n.g. 𝑳𝑯 = = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟖𝟓′ > 𝟏𝟐′
𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟏𝟓𝟎 𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟏𝟓𝟎 n.g.
o.k.
Opening is not a factor Opening is a factor Opening is a factor
12’ L x 10’ H Opening 12’ L x 10’ H Opening 12’ L x 35’ H Opening
Located at low shear Located at high shear Located at low shear
Check If Size and Location of Opening In Diaphragm Is A Factor
M V

M M=0

## Some examples apply load to

one side of the diaphragm only
1 2 3 4 5
I.P.
A
W
T .
B C V V C
T
C
T .
C V C
D
V
T
I.P.
R
C.L. Vierendeel truss R
Local forces
opening action
Chord forces are assumed
to be zero at these locations
due to contraflexure
(inflection points). M=0

## Displacement and Local Forces

Shear distribution
follows analysis

## Shear Distribution in Diaphragm

Opening
A/R A/R
Opening
A/R A/R Easy to visualize if header
section is replaced by a wire.
Analyze by envelope method:
• Diaph. with opening
• Diaphragm w/ interior offset

## ATC 7, Diekmann, FPInnovations

A/R If the sections above, below or on
each side of the opening does not
Transfer meet code aspect ratio limits it
Opening Diaphragm should be ignored (not stiff enough).
(TD)
Transfer diaphragms are
A/R A/R A/R required if the opening
size does affect the shear
TD TD or tension capacity of the
diaphragm.

## All sections must meet Code

required aspect ratios.

## Aspect Ratio Issues

3
Inflection Typical method of analysis (APA Report 138),
1 2 4 5 Diaph. ATC-7, and FPInnovations
w plf point.
F4 C.L.
F2 F3
A 1. Calculate the chord forces at grid lines 2, 3,
Element II Element I and 4 using FBD’s.
B 2. Determine the basic diaphragm shears
F=0 without an opening.
Opening 3. Determine the diaphragm shears with an
TD1 TD2 opening.
F=0
C 4. Break the sections above and below the
Element IV Element III opening into elements as shown.
D 5. Determine the local forces at each corner
F2 F3 F4 of each segment by FBD’s.
R 6. Determine the net resulting shears and
M 2  0 M 3  0 M 4  0 forces (+/-) by combing the shears with
V1 and without an opening using a table .
V2
V3
Using the visual shear transfer method
V4
V5
1. Determine shear (V4) at grid line 4.
Basic shear diagram without openings 2. Break the sections above and below the
V2R opening into elements as shown.
V1 V2L V3 3. Calculate the chord force at grid line 3.
V4L
4. Starting at grid line 4 and moving to the left,
V4R sum forces at each corner of each segment
V5
to determine the local forces, by FBD’s.
5. Calculate all chord, collector forces, and
Basic Shear Diaphragm With Opening transfer diaphragm shears and forces
using the visual shear transfer method.
Opening Analysis-Diekmann method
Example 6-Pop-up Roof Section
A/R main diaphragm and upper
section=3.33:1 1 2 3 4 5 Diaph. 6
A/R TD1=TD2=3.0:1 o.k. C.L.
W=200 plf W=200 plf
Main A
W=200 plf W=50 plf

12’
At opening B

1600 lb
1600 lb
Open to

20’
Ww=123 plf
Lw=77 plf below
C

60’
At pop-up (20 psf)
TD1 W=30 plf TD2
Ww=50 plf
Lw=30 plf

28’
1 2 3

W=200 plf D
W=123 plf
13280 W=77 plf
A RL=25120 RR=21280
W=50 plf F3A 20’ 40’ 20’
B 200’
1600 lb

Sub-Chord
V=25120

V=19520

V=6720

V=2720
V=21120

V=8320
V=13920

Sub-Chord
C

## TD1 W=30 plf v2R

v1 v2L v3 8’
v4L SW

𝚺𝑴 = 𝟎 F3D v4R v5
D v6 Open to
13280 below
W=77 plf Basic Shear Diaphragm With Opening (plf)
RL=25120
3 4
Wwind 𝐔𝐧𝐢𝐭 𝐬𝐡𝐞𝐚𝐫 𝐫𝐢𝐠𝐡𝐭 = = 𝟏𝟏𝟐 𝐩𝐥𝐟
used in rough calc., 𝟔𝟎
except SW reaction 𝟖𝟑𝟐𝟎
𝐔𝐧𝐢𝐭 𝐬𝐡𝐞𝐚𝐫 𝐥𝐞𝐟𝐭 = = 𝟐𝟎𝟖 𝐩𝐥𝐟 (includes 1600 lb.)
𝟒𝟎
Upper limit 318 plf 318 plf
12’
8320 lb 208 112 𝟏𝟏𝟐(𝟐𝟎)
𝑭𝑽 = = 𝟏𝟏𝟐𝟎 𝐥𝐛
𝟐
20’ 4160 lb
112 𝑳𝑽 = = 𝟏𝟎. 𝟐 < 𝟐𝟎 𝐨. 𝐤.

1600 lb
𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟐𝟎𝟖 depth, o.k.
20’
𝑭𝑯 = 𝟐𝟎𝟖 𝟐𝟎 = 𝟒𝟏𝟔𝟎 𝐥𝐛 Lower bound
112 60’ for right collector
40’ 𝟒𝟏𝟔𝟎
𝑳𝑯 = = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟐 < 𝟒𝟎′ 𝒐. 𝒌. ≈ DTD
C.L. 𝟑𝟏𝟖 − 𝟏𝟏𝟐
opening Detailed analysis is not required
208 112 However, a check for the upper bound (left side of
FPInnovations: opening will produce :
• Increased nailing
V4L=8320 lb
V4R=6720 lb
Hgt.> 0.15 dDiaph. 28’
318 plf 318 plf • Vertical and horizontal collector lengths >
Width>0.15 Ldiaph.
opening width and height
End dist.< 3x width
Therefore, a detailed analysis is required
Detailed analysis required
v= 419 plf, nail cap.= 480 plf
Use 8d @ 4/6/12 Blocked, H.F.
v= 352 plf, nail cap.= 358 plf
208 Use 8d @ 6/6/12 Blocked, H.F.
v= 112 plf
112 318 plf all
nail cap.= 318 plf
Use 8d @ 6/12 Unblocked, H.F.
Shears w/ opening

## 40’ W x 20’ H Opening Basic Shear Diaphragm Without Opening (plf)

Nailing Pattern (ASD Values)
Check If Size and location of Opening in Diaphragm is Critical
200 plf 123 plf 200 plf Diaph.
123 plf
C.L.
A F2A 13280 lb F4A
470 lb F3A 20340 lb

(496.3 plf)
(784.6 plf)

(208 plf)
2496 lb

(112) plf)
2496 lb
(352 plf)

(496.3plf)
9416 lb

5956 lb
9416 lb

5956 lb
Element II Element I
12’
+ +
B F2B F4B
0 0
1600 lb 12810 lb Sub-Chord 7076 lb 1600 lb
50 plf 50 plf
SW 1 Start here
𝚺𝑴 = 𝟎 𝚺𝑴 = 𝟎
20’ 𝚺𝑽 = 𝟎
TD1 TD2

30 plf 30 plf
F2C Sub-Chord
C 0 0 F4C
6453 lb 20’ 20’ 4924 lb

(284.4 plf)
(360.9 plf)

(284.4 plf)

(208 plf)

(112) plf)
7964 lb

7964 lb
(352 plf)

5824 lb

5824 lb
10104 lb
10104 lb

## Element IV Element III

28’
+ +
20’ F2D F3D F4D 20’
D
6827 lb 𝚺𝑴 = 𝟎 13280 lb 𝚺𝑴 = 𝟎 18204 lb
RL=25120 lb 77 plf 77 plf
V1 V2 V3 V4L=8320 lb V4R=6720 lb
1 2 3 4 5
V4  5824  2496  The sum of the section
V2  10104  9416  1600  21120 Lb shears must match the
112(60)  1600  8320 Lb
V3  7964  5956  13920 Lb basic diaphragm shear
Values without an
opening, ∑V=0.
Free-body of Chord Forces and Segment Forces
1 2 3
20’

w 7236.6 lb
A
Neg.

784.6
-
12810 lb -361
B
12810 lb
418.7-361=+57.7
352-361=-9

## 418.7+278.7=+639.7 +278.7 Pos.

352+278.7= +630.7
T.D.1
1600 lb
352-44=+308

6453 lb
C
360.9 6453 lb

Neg.

418.7-44=+374.7 -44
360.9

D
20’ 879.6 lb
+374.7
418.7 Transfer diaphragm shears
+ - 352

Sign convention
Basic Shear Diagram Net Shears-Left Transfer Diaphragm
vnet=112-168.2 4 5
=-56.2 plf w
3363 lb
A
Neg.
7076 lb -168.2
45.33 B
7076 lb
vnet=45.33-168.2
45.33
=-122.8 plf
vnet=112+185.7
+185.7 =+297.7 plf
vnet=45.33+185.7
Pos. 1600 lb =+231.02 plf
TD2

vnet=112-60.55 45.33
=+51.45plf vnet=45.33-60.55
=-15.22 plf
4924 lb
C
4924 lb
45.33
Neg.
-60.55
45.33
D
1211 lb 20’
Transfer diaphragm shears
+112
+ - +45.33
Sign convention

1 2 3

57.7 9 w
A
9 784.6
697.3 630.7
C
B
C
630.7
F=9524 lb
F=12800 lb

1600 lb
F=6453 lb
TD1

630.7
T
C

## 697.3 630.7 T 308 360.9

F=1476 lb
347.7 308
308 360.9
D

+ -

Sign convention
Collector Force Diagrams-Left Side
56.2 122.8
3 3.6 4
2.67’ 2.83’
297.7 231.03
w
A
F=7076 lb
2496

56.15 45.33
122.8
T B

T C
297.7 231.03 45.33
F=3170 lb F=2018 lb
1600 lb

TD2

F=4384 lb

## 297.7 231.03 45.33

C T
C
C
51.45 15.22 45.33
F=1696 lb
5824

F=4924 lb
51.45 D 15.22 45.33

297.7 231.03
+ -
Collector Force
51.45 15.22 Diagrams-Right Side Sign convention
-12.15 lb Aver.=640.5

## +498.9 lb Aver.=352.2 Aver.=89.5

1 2 3 4 5 Closes to
zero
13.6’ 106.4’
A
57.67 9 784.6 496.3 496.3 208 56.2 122.8 45.33 0
C

F=486.7 lb
470 F=13295 lb F=18550 lb 18868
F=18858 lb
13280 F=20340 lb
20340

F=18206 lb
18204 F=18876 lb 18868
F=13282 lb F=18568 lb
13280
F=6829 lb
6827
T
374.9 308 360.9 284.4 284.4 208 51.45 15.22 45.33 0
D
20’ 40’ 20’
Aver.=352.2 -34.75 lb
+397 lb Closes to
zero
Aver.=341.5 Aver.=322.65

## Chord Force Diagrams

1 2 3 4 5

B C T C
C T

SW 1 TD1 TD2 SW 2

C T C T
T C

## Final Strut/Chord Force Diagrams

Diaph.
A B C P C.L. D Diaphragm Deflection Equations
w1 w1 Equation variables for offset diaphragms
w2
b’ • Concentrated loads from discontinuous shear
sum walls
b b • Varying moments of inertia
ATC7
2 Deflection of
• Modify the bending and shear portion of the
b’ diaph. w/ opening
3 standard rectangular deflection equation to fit
w3 the model, where:
𝚺(𝜟𝑪 𝐗)
𝜟𝑻𝑳 = 𝜟𝑩 + 𝜟𝑺 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝐋𝒆𝒏 + 𝟐𝒃
L
𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞
𝒃 𝒎𝑴 𝒄 𝒎𝑴 𝒅 𝒎𝑴
I1 I2 I1 𝜟𝑩 = 𝒂 𝐄𝑰𝟏
𝐝𝐱 + 𝒃 𝐄𝑰𝟐
𝐝𝐱 + 𝒄 𝐄𝑰𝟏
𝐝𝐱, 𝐚𝐧𝐝

SDPWS combines 𝒃𝒕 𝒃 𝒄 𝒘𝒙
𝜟𝑺 = 𝒘𝒙𝒅𝒙 + 𝒃 𝒃′ 𝟐
𝐝𝐱 +
Cannot use 𝟐𝐆𝑨𝟐 𝒂
𝟓𝒗𝑳𝟑 𝒗𝑳 𝜮 𝜟𝑪 𝑿 𝐈𝐁𝐂 𝐄𝐪. 𝟐𝟑 − 𝟏
𝒃
∆𝑻𝑳 = + + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝑳𝒆𝒏 +
𝟖𝑬𝑨𝒃 𝟒𝑮𝒕 𝟐𝒃

## Bending Nail slip Shear Deflection -USDA Research Note FPL-0210

Chord
deflection Adjusted for non- slip • Simplification of the conventional energy method
Shear • The integrations of the equations can be reduced to
uniform nailing
deflection multiplying the total area of the shear diagram
(ATC-7/APA)
Standard deflection equation for shear diagram due to a dummy load applied at the
simple span, rectangular, rigid desired point of shear deflection.
supports, fully blocked, uniformly NOTE: Multiply deflection x 2.5 for unblocked diaphragm
loaded, constant cross section (∆ at C.L.) Multiply nail slip by 1.2 if not Structural I plywood
Opening
(typ.)
Collectors
(typ.)

TD TD

## Skylight, atrium, mechanical

openings, stairwell openings,
etc.

## Multiple Opening Issues

End Openings

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Diaph. 5
C.L. w plf

A A
B B

Does not
meet A/R
(Envelope)
C C
D D
Example 7- Intermediate Horizontal Offset at End Wall With Strut
1 2 3 4
w1 plf (WW) w plf

A
Chord
w1
SW 1 12’ 1 2
TD1 A
Section A A/R=3.73
V3A
+ B F2B
10’ Collector Section A
B Chord Uniform shear Sum
Collector

Collector
in walls and in
Strut

## Skylight Shears SW 3 56’

18’ diaph. at grid
w2
(Enclosed area) line 1
Chord C F2C
C V3B
Collector
D
+
SW 2 16’ Section B
Section B R1
16’ 15’ Chord
D

w2 plf (LW)
150’

Varies Diaph.
+ C.L.

## Basic Shear Diagram

-
1 1 2 3

VA
A
Net Shear

-
SW 1

Neg.
T
vdiaph

T
C F2B
C T
B
transferred
No shear

Strut
Strut

Pos.
C
SW 3
+
C C
T F2C
Net Shear

Neg.
SW 2
-

D
VD
Net shear Transfer
diagram diaphragm
shears
Support Support

## Resulting Strut, Collector and Chord Force Diagrams if Strut

Example 8 -Intermediate notch at End Wall Without Strut
1 2 3 4
W=200 plf
W=123 plf
A
Chord W=123
SW 1 1 2
12’ Section A TD1
6428 lb A
V=6831.6 lb
A/R=3.73
if strut 22’ v=310.5 plf
(-38%) 10’ + 16’
B
Chord Collector F2B=5684.4 lb
B
R1B=8800 lb

Collector

Collector
8800 lb Section A
56’ R1B=8800 lb Open +6200 lb SW 3
(v=400 plf) 18’ W=77
area 15000 lb 1 2
F2C=5584 lb
Shear in C
C
Chord
diaphragm 16’ V=4968.4 lb
Collector at grid line 2 16’
D v=310.5 plf
SW 2 + Is based on
8571 lb 16’ depth
Section B R1D=6200 lb
if strut
(+38%) Section B 119’
D
16’ 15’ Chord
V=11800 lb

V=8800 lb

W=77 plf
150’ Forces in red are from
R1D=6200 lb Sum
(V=387.5 plf) Shears previous example
Diaph. R=15000 lb
Shear + C.L.
Basic Shear Diagram
Varies
+210.7 plf
+310.5 plf

+157.1 plf

R=15000 lb -
1 2 3 2 3

1855.8
A
-123.7 +310.5 87 +157.1
SW 1 v=210.7-(123.7) v=157.1-(123.7)

Neg.
= +87 plf = +33.4 plf

F2B=5684.4 33.4
B
465.9
R1B

Pos.
v=210.7+(255.24) v=157.1+(255.24)
+255.2 412.3
= +465.9 plf = +412.3 plf
C F2C=5584
93.7

Neg.
SW 2 v=210.7-(117) v=157.19-(117)
= +93.7 plf = +40 plf -117
+310.5 40 +157.1
D 1755.4
Transfer diaphragm Transfer Transfer Forces
R1D diaphragm
varies
net shears to Collectors
shears
+310.5 plf
+210.7 plf
+157.1 plf + -
+

1 2 3

SW 1
12’
F=5684 lb

## 10’ 400 310.5 87 33.4

B
465.9 412.3 F=5584 lb
R1B F=5684 lb
18’
F=5584 lb SW 3
465.9 412.3
C
387.5 310.5 93.7 40

16’ SW 2

16’ 15’
D

R1D
Support

## Longitudinal Chord Force Diagrams

1 Vsw=8800 lb 2 3
vsw=733.33 plf
vnet=733.3-400=333.33 plf
A
+333.33 plf

SW 1 87 157.1
F=4000
33.4
F=4917 F=2271.4
-400 plf

87
400 310.5 33.4
B
F=1872.2
Net shear 465.9

## diagram R1B=8800 412.3

465.9 157.1 SW 3
F=3469.2 412.3
C
93.7
387.5 310.5 157.1
Vsw=6200 lb 40
vsw=387.5 plf F=3469.2 F=1872.2 lb
93.7
vnet=0 plf
SW 2 40 157.1
D

R1D=6200 lb

## Traverse Strut/Collector Force Diagrams

Relevant 2015 SPDWS Sections
(Diaphragm Stiffness, Distribution of Shears and Open Front / Cantilever Diaphragms)

(a) SW SW SW
(b) (c)
SW
SW Force L’ Force SW
Open front SW Force L’

## W’ Open front L’ Open front

Cantilever Diaphragm W’ Cantilever W’ Cantilever
Plan Diaphragm Diaphragm
Plan
Figure 4A Examples of Open Front Structures

Cantilever
New definitions added: Open front Diaphragm
(d)
• Open front structures
• Notation for L’ and W’ for L’
cantilever Diaphragms SW
• Collectors SW
Force
Relevant Revised sections: SW
• 4.2.5- Horizontal Distribution L’
SW
of Shears
• 4.2.5.1-Torsional Irregularity
• 4.2.5.2- Open Front Structures Open front Cantilever
W’ Diaphragm
Maximum
4.2.5 Horizontal Distribution of Shear (Revised) diaphragm
Average drift deflection
Distribution of shear to vertical resisting elements shall be based on: of walls

## • Analysis where the diaphragm is modeled as :

o Idealized as flexible-based on tributary area.
• Can under-estimate forces distributed to the corridor walls Maximum diaphragm deflection
(long walls) and over-estimate forces distributed to the (MDD) >2x average story drift of
exterior walls (short walls) vertical elements, using the ELF
• Can inaccurately estimate diaphragm shear forces Procedure of Section 12.8?
Calculated as Flexible
o Idealized as rigid
 Distribution based on relative lateral stiffnesses of vertical-resisting elements of the
story below.
 Can be idealize as rigid when the computed maximum in-plane deflection of the
diaphragm is less than or equal to two times the average deflection of adjoining
vertical elements of the LFRS under equivalent tributary lateral load.
• More accurately distributes lateral forces Note:
to corridor, exterior and party walls Offsets in diaphragms can also
• Allows better determination of building drift affect the distribution of shear
in the diaphragm due to changes
o Modelled as semi-rigid. in the diaphragm stiffness.
 Not idealized as rigid or flexible
 Distributed to the vertical resisting elements based on the relative stiffnesses of the
diaphragm and the vertical resisting elements accounting for both shear and flexural
deformations.
 It shall be permitted to use an enveloped analysis -Larger of the shear forces resulting
from analyses where idealized as flexible and idealized as rigid (Minimum analysis).
4.2.5.2 Open Front Structures: (Figure 4A)
For resistance to seismic loads, wood-frame diaphragms in open front structures shall comply with all
of the following requirements:
1. The diaphragm conforms to:
a. WSP-L’/W’ ratio ≤ 1.5:1 4.2.7.1
b. Single layer-Diag. sht. Lumber- L’/W’ ratio ≤ 1:1 4.2.7.2
c. Double layer-Diag. sht. Lumber- L’/W’ ratio ≤ 1:1 4.2.7.3
2. The drift at edges shall not exceed the ASCE 7 allowable story drift ratio when subject to
seismic design forces including torsion, and accidental torsion (Deflection-strength level
amplified by Cd. ).
3. For open-front-structures that are also torsionally irregular as defined in 4.2.5.1, the L’/W’
ratio shall not exceed 0.67:1 for structures over one story in height, and 1:1 for structures
one story in height.

a. Model as semi-rigid (min.), shall include shear and bending deformation of the diaphragm,
or idealized as rigid.
b. Drift at edges of the structure ≤ the ASCE 7 allowable story drift ratio when
subject to seismic design forces including torsion, and accidental torsion. Torsion
(Deflection-strength level amplified by Cd. )
5. The diaphragm length, L’, (normal to the open side) does not exceed 35 feet.
Exception:
Where the diaph. edge cantilevers no more than 6’ beyond the nearest line of vertical
elements of the LRFS.

4.2.5.2.1 For open front structures of 1 story, where L’≤25’ and L’/W’ ≤1:1, the diaphragm shall be
permitted to be idealized as rigid for the purposes of distributing shear forces through torsion.
Example-Open Front Diaphragms

Side wall L’
Limit= 35’

∆𝒔𝒘
Strut SW1 Strut . Strut SW1 Strut
Side wall . ∆𝑫𝒊𝒂𝒑𝒉
Check drift at edges
Seismic (extreme corners)
Strut

Strut
including torsion

Corridor
Strut/chord
End wall plus accidental
W’ W’ End wall or
torsion (Deflection-
Corridor wall
strength level x Cd. )
Strut

Strut
Location of strut/chord
depends on framing
Strut SW2 Strut SW2 orientation
Side wall Side wall
L’
Limit= 35’ Corridor only shear walls
4.2.6.1 Framing requirements:
• Diaphragm boundary elements shall be provided to transmit design
tension, compression and shear forces.
• Diaphragm Sheathing shall not be used to splice boundary elements.
Example-Simple Open Front Diaphragm Deflection (APA)

## Boundary element not

∆𝒔𝒘 restrained for bending
∆𝒔𝒘𝟏 Side wall
L
∆𝒔𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒘𝒂𝒍𝒍 w
Side wall
𝜽
End wall
F
b Open Strut SW1 Strut
end
∆𝑬𝒘 𝜽
∆𝑨
∆𝒔𝒘

Strut
V
APA Figure

Strut / chord
W’ e

## Shear Nail rotation End shear

Defl. slip wall lateral End wall
𝜽

Strut
translation
𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝑳 𝟐∆𝒔𝒘 𝑳
∆𝑨 = + 0.376L’𝒆𝒏 + + ∆𝒆𝒘 Strut SW2
𝟐𝑮𝒕 𝒃
F
∆𝑨
Note:
If there are splices in the struts, chord slip must ∆𝒔𝒘𝟐 Side wall
L’
be added to the deflection equation

## Bending term required if

chords cont. across corridor

## Rotation term needs to be

wall lengths
Tall Shear Walls
Testing shows that the traditional deflection
equation cannot be used for walls with
aspect ratios higher than 2:1, because

Flexibility
Effects?
deflections can not be adequately predicted.

Tall Wall
Method
∆𝟐:𝟏 ∆𝟑.𝟓:𝟏
(Dolan, et. al.)

## • Traditional Method good for 3 stories or less.

Method
• Tall walls greater than 3 stories require h=12’
consideration of flexure and wall rotation.

∆𝑻 = ∆𝒔𝒘𝟏+∆𝒔𝒘𝟐 + ∆𝒔𝒘𝟑
Walls assumed
to be pinned at
VR top and bottom
at each floor

V3 + A/R
h/d ≤ 2:1
A/R
h/d ≤ 3.5:1
Tall Wall

## A/R, Stiffness of Shear Walls

V2 +
𝟖𝒗𝒉𝟑 𝒗𝒉 𝒉∆𝒂
∆𝑺𝑾 = + + Methods Used:
𝑬𝑨𝒃 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑮𝒂 𝒃
• Shiotani/Hohbach Method
• Thompson Method
Not valid for multi-story shear walls • FPInnovations Method
FPInnovations-Deflections of Stacked Multi-story Shear Walls
”A Mechanics-Based Approach for Determining Deflections of Stacked Multi-Storey Wood-Based Shear
Walls”, Newfield (metric units) Ls
• Mechanics based approach
• Uses 5 part deflection equation

## ∆𝒏 5 part deflection equation

Lc
∆𝒊 = ∆𝒃,𝒊 + ∆𝒔,𝒊 + ∆𝒏,𝒊 + ∆𝒂,𝒊 + ∆𝒓,𝒊
ytr

## Panel Anchor Rotation I = discrete hold down

Shear Elongation Itr = continuous hold down
Where Uses transformed composite section
where continuous tie down (ATS)
𝑽𝒊 𝑯𝟑𝒊 𝑴𝒊 𝑯𝟐𝒊
∆𝒃,𝒊= + 𝑯𝒊 𝜽𝟏 + 𝜽𝟐 + ⋯ 𝜽𝒊−𝟏 ∆𝒃,𝒊
𝟑 𝑬𝑰 𝒊 𝟐 𝑬𝑰 𝒊

𝑽𝒊 𝑯 𝒊 𝜶𝟏 + 𝜶𝟐 +
𝑯𝒊
∆𝒔,𝒊= Level i … 𝜶𝒊−𝟏 ∆𝒂,𝒊
𝑳𝒊 𝑩𝒗,𝒊
∆𝒏,𝒊= 0.0025𝑯𝒊 𝒆𝒏,𝒊 𝜃𝒊
𝑯𝒊
∆𝒂,𝒊 = 𝒅𝒂,𝒊 (Includes affects of rod elongation
𝑳𝒊 𝑯𝒊
and crushing) 𝒊−𝟏
𝒏 𝜽𝒋
𝑽𝒐 = 𝑽𝒊 𝒊−𝟏 𝑽𝒋 𝑯𝟐𝒋 𝑴𝒋 𝑯𝒋 𝒊−𝟏 𝒅𝒂,𝒋 𝒋=𝟏
𝒊 ∆𝒓,𝒊 = 𝑯𝒊 𝒋−𝟏 + + 𝑯𝒊 𝒋−𝟏 𝑳
𝒊
𝒏
𝟐 𝑬𝑰 𝒋 𝑬𝑰 𝒋 𝒋 𝒊−𝟏

𝑴𝒐 = 𝑽𝒊 𝑯𝒊
Level i-1 α𝒋
𝒊 𝒋
Rotational deflection
shear walls
Exterior
TD1 TD1
TD2 No
TD2 Support
Rigid support or
Partial support

Support Support

I1 I2 I3 I3 I2 I1
Rigid or spring Support Support
Support ?? No support
(Full cantilever)
𝟓𝐯𝑳𝟑 𝒗𝑳 𝚺 𝜟𝑪 𝑿
∆= + + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟖𝟖𝐋𝒆𝒏 + 𝐈𝐁𝐂 𝐄𝐪. 𝟐𝟑 − 𝟏 Adjust terms of the equation for support
If flexible
diaphragm
Condition C
Condition A

Full support No SW
(SW rigid) support
Corridor only SW
Condition B

Partial support
(Decreasing
SW stiffness) Typical Multi-residential Mid-rise unit

No exterior
Shear walls ?? Calculation of drift at corners is
required for all open front or
cantilever diaphragms (seismic only)
Drift by semi-rigid or including torsion and accidental
rigid analysis only torsion (Deflection-strength level
amplified by Cd. )
In summary:
• Complex structural layouts require a more detailed analysis than
conventional layouts due to the irregularities and discontinuities
encountered.

## • Simple calculation methods and software are available to solve

the most difficult problems.

## • The framing and connections are required to maintain complete

load paths and must be fully detailed on the drawings.
QUESTIONS?
This concludes Our Workshop Presentation on