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INSIGHTS

IAS MAINS TEST SERIES - 2018

INSIGHTS IAS MAINS TEST SERIES 2018

TEST – 1

GENERAL STUDIES PAPER – 1

SYNOPSIS

1. From ancient to medieval India, the land grants implied more than
the transfer of lands. Illustrate. (250 Words, 12.5M)

Source: NCERT Class XII Themes in Indian History, Book-1, Page - 40-42

http://www.insightsonindia.com/2009/10/27/brahmadeya-devadana-and-agrahara-
land-grants/

Approach :

1) Introduction can briefly explain what were land grants


2) The body can explain how land grants were more than transfer of lands by taking
examples from ancient and medieval india in a chronological order.
3) Conclusion can sum up the answer by reiterating various roles played by the land
grants.

Answer :

Land grant are the legal documents recording the land donations. While the earlier land
grants were made to the vedic priest (Brahmadeya), from the 5th to13th CE, such grants
were made to the temple (Devadana), non Brahmanical religious institutions as well
(Buddhist sanghas and jain basadis) and for secular purposes like to schools
(Shalabhoga), to state officers in lieu of salaries. The objective behind these grants
ranged from religious merit to economic, social and political purposes thus implying
more than mere transfer of land.

1) Religious merit
There was universal belief that donating the land and also receiving the same is pious
and sacred act bringing merit to both the donor and the donee destroying their sins,
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both in heaven and on earth. This was substantiated by Smritis, Puranas and
Dharmashastra.

2) Economic context
a) To bring virgin soil under cultivation: The lands donated were often the
wastelands and the forested regions. The donee brought these lands under cultivation
with the help of the labourers who are transferred as part of the land grants. As a result
there was GROWTH OF AGRARIAN ECONOMY.
Ex: Srikalahasti inscription
b) Emergence of self sufficient economic units and general decline of trade :
One of the striking features of the land grants made in settled areas was the transfer by
the donors of not only villages with various kinds of dues but also with weavers,
brewers, cowherds and other subjects (Dhenkanal plates inscription of Tribhuvana
mahadevi ).
This lead to the development of SELF-SUFFICIENT UNITS OF PRODUCTION AND
CONSUMPTION which had little to do with outside trade. Though essentials like salt,
iron tools etc., were obtained from merchants, in general there was a decline in trade.
c) Development of local trade and commerce around the temples.
Ex:Brihadeshwara temple of Tanjore gave impetus to settlement of weavers, bell metal
crafters etc

3) Social significance
a) Brahmanisation and acculturation of the tribal people who acquired
knowledge of script, calendar, art, literature and a new way of higher life. This lead to
the spread of Brahmanical culture across the regions and segregation of the tribal
society along with spread of material culture.
b) It reinforced caste hierarchy as the beneficiaries were mainly Brahmins.

4) Political importance
The Brahmanas who received the land grants helped the kings in IDEOLOGICAL
LEGITIMATION OF KING’S AUTHORITY. They also constructed the genealogies of
kings drawing from Itihasa-purana tradition. This helped the king to establish
superiority over subject.

5) Administrative significance
king appears to have transferred the right of punishing the offenders and right to
collect the revenue to donees along with land grants. Hence it was an administrative
mechanism for MAINTAINING LAW AND ORDER IN THE FAR FLUNG AREAS where
the central authority was felt least owing to the communication difficulties of the times.

6) Historical importance

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The Puranas prescribed the recording of the land grants in copper plate inscription.
These inscriptions had often become tool for kings to write about themselves and their
rule which is valuable source of the period today.

7) Cultural significance
The land grants had played important role in SPREAD OF VEDIC RELIGION as the
initial beneficiaries were vedic priests and temples. This lead to growth of TEMPLE
CULTURE which played major role in the preservation of culture.
Ex: The devadasi system that flourished in the temples (Ex: Brihadeshwara temple,
Tanjore) is at the root of preservation of Bharatanatyam.
The Bhakti cult developed around the temples which were supported by land grants.

As whole land grants contributed to agrarian growth and the growth of the temple
culture but there were few fallouts in the long run.
1) The landed aristocracy are supposed to have brought about the fragmentation of
political power and subjection, degradation of the artisans etc.
2) led not only to the loss of revenue to the state to some extent but also loosened its
strict control over donated land
3) R. S. Sharma suggests that the origin and development of POLITICAL
FEUDALISM is to be sought in the land grants made to brahmanas from the first
century A.D onwards

Thus, Land grants have played a very vital role in the socio-economic history of ancient
and medieval India and have been assigned a key role in historical transformation from
ancient to the medieval period.

2. Analyse the parallels between emergence of Mahayana Buddhism and


Puranic Hinduism.
Source: NCERT Class XII Themes in Indian History, Book-1, Page - 103 - 104

Approach:

1) Explaining the origin of Mahayana Buddhism and puranic Hinduism can be the
introduction
2) The body has to bring out the similarities between the two while pointing out
their uniqueness
3) You can conclude by summing up.

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Answer:

The similarities can be drawn between Mahayana Buddhism that took birth during the
4th Buddhist Council held by Kanishka and the Puranic Hinduism that found the
expression during the Gupta age.

1) Deitification
Mahayana Buddhism believed Buddha to be the God who came down to earth to help
people cross the sea of life. So the Buddha can be worshipped as a God because he is
eternal. With this started the IDOL WORSHIP OF BUDDHA.
Similarly Puranic Hinduism incorporated the DASHAVATARA OF VISHNU and SHIVA
and SHAKTI CULTS who takes on incarnations to ameliorate the suffering of people.
Further Buddha came to be regarded as one of the incarnation of the Vishnu.

2) Concept of Heaven
Mahayana Buddhism saw the emergence of ‘DOCTRINE OF BODY’ connected with
which emerge the concept of HEAVENLY BUDDHA AND HEAVEN.
Puranic Hinduism too encompasses the concept of heaven.
‘Heaven’ concept was intended to inspire people to right actions.

3) Future Saviour
MAITREYA was believed to be the future Buddha in the Mahayana Buddhism and the
KALKI in the puranic hinduism who will take birth to end the suffering of people.’

4) Spiritual guide
Mahayana Buddhism believes in BODHISATTVAS who will assist even the smallest
being to reach highest goal. The puranic Hinduism also believes that the SAINTS AND
THE ASCETICS (Ex: Nayanars and alvars)helps people to attain the moksha.

5) Bhakti cult
Both mahayana Buddhism and Puranic Hinduism advocated the devotion to the deity
(Buddha in Mahayana and the Shiva or Vishnu in the Puranic Hinduism).

6) Salvation
Mahayana Buddhism talks of ending cycle of rebirth in the heaven (Sukhavati) and the
puranic Hinduism MOKSHA to be the end of cycle of birth and death

7) Art and Architecture

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Mahayana Buddhism gave impetus to emergence of VIHARAS AND STUPAS (ex: Ajanta
caves). Similarly the puranic hinduism saw the brilliant phase of TEMPLE construction
especially in the southern India.

Both the religions found expression even in PAINTINGS.


Ex: Mahayana Buddhism - Ajanta - Vajrapani and padmapani
Puranic hinduism - Bagh cave of Gupta period and the Lepakshi paintings

In addition to these we can also see


a) RITUALS being incorporated as important part of worship
b) COMPASSION that stood for other regarding held as supreme
c) belief of world to be consisting of both GOOD AND EVIL with ultimate triumph
of good
d) Use of SANSKRIT
e) EMOTIONAL APPEAL
Common to both Mahayana Buddhism and the puranic Hinduism.

3. The period between 1858 and 1919 was that of “bureaucratic


despotism”, while the will of the civil servant was diminished by
gradual democratisation of the polity between 1919 to 1947. Analyse.

Source: From Plassey to Partition and After, Chapter - 2, Pages 110-113

Approach :

1) Introduction : we can start by defining what bureaucratic despotism is and how it


helped the British to establish the control over India
2) Body : The reasons can be explained for the despotic nature of bureaucracy. Then
we can explain how the democratisation brought after 1919 curtailed the will and
discretion of civil servants.

Answer:

Bureaucracy was the strongest edifice of the colonial government that played pivotal
role in the expansion of the British control over India. This steel frame of
administration exercised of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way
which is came to be regarded as ‘bureaucratic despotism’. Though the government of
India act 1858 ended the company rule providing for the direct control of British
parliament the inherent nature of bureaucracy remained despotic.

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1) The Viceroy and secretary of state had powers to issue ORDINANCES and
EMERGENCY POWERS that gave these functionaries absolute power over the affairs of
British government.

2) The difficulties of communication owing to the long distance between London


and India meant the company officials had large amount of discretion while discharging
their functions.

3) There was dearth of Indian participation in the administration owing to the


European domination of Indian civil services and also the other administrative
machinery.

4) The participatory institution like the provincial councils had no real


powers. For example the COUNCIL ACT OF 1892 authorized the councils to discuss
budget but they couldn’t vote upon it. Plus the prevalence of official majority and the
power of viceroy and secretary of state to overturn the act of councils reduced these
institutions to mere rubber stamp.

5) The executive council of the viceroy had no Indian participation till the minto morley
reforms of 1909.

In addition to these there was merely any scrutiny over the acts of bureaucratic actions
in the British Parliament. These gave the functionaries free hand in discharge of duties.
The main concern of the administration was the safeguard of British interests which
made the rule to ignore the Indian interests. All this made the bureaucracy in India
despotic.

However the initial decades of 20th CE saw the emergence of nationalism in form
of home rule movement, congress, western educated intelligential that exerted pressure
on the colonial government to democratize the Indian polity i.e., to make the British
government more responsive to needs of people by increasing participation of Indians in
the administration, the beginning of which can be traced to the MONTAGU
DECLARATION OF 1917 that had the objective of introduction of responsible
government in India.

1) Act of 1919
a) It relaxed central control over the provinces by demarcating central and
provincial subjects. The transferred subjects in the provinces were to be administered
with the aid of the ministers which were responsible to legislative councils. Along with
this provinces legislatures were provided for their own budget

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This meant the decrease of the discretionary power of the bureaucracy and civil
servants who are now have to obey the provincial ministries at least in case of
transferred subjects.

2) Act of 1935
a) It established the responsible government in the provinces which meant the
bureaucracy is now answerable to the ministries for all its actions and inactions.

b) The introduction of list system that divided powers between the center and the
provinces further eroded the will of bureaucracy

3) Both the acts of 1919 and 1935 provided for the expansion of the franchise and
the direct elected majority which meant better representation of the Indian
interests in the participatory institutions and scrutiny of the government policies and
the bureaucratic actions which further whittled down the power of the civil servants
owing to the fact that these institutions were being filled up by the nationalists.

4) There was increasing participation of Indians in the polity as well as the


civil services. This also played role in making administration responsive to people
needs.

Thus we can say that gradual democratisation of the polity between 1919 to 1947
curtailed will of civil servants there by transforming it’s character from despotic to the
responsive.

4. The contradictions in moderate politics not only alienated greater


mass of the Indian population, they also allowed the colonial
government to project itself as the real protector of the poor. Analyse
critically.
Source: From Plassey to Partition and After, Chapter - 5, Pages 231-233
Approach :

1) We can start by defining what moderate politics is and brief introduction about
the moderates and their style working in India.
2) The body can be the elaboration on the inherent contradictions in the methods of
their working and how it alienated masses from India creating vacuum for the
colonial government.
3) We can end by delineating the achievements of moderates to conclude that
moderates were nationalists who worked for the freedom of country.

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Answer :

Moderate politics involved the CONSTITUTIONAL AGITATION WITHIN CONFINES


OF LAW and showed slow progress. The early nationalists led by Dadabhai Naoroji,
R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others who dominated the congress in the early
phase were staunch believers in the moderate politics. But the inner contradictions in
the methods they adopted not only alienated the masses but also made the Colonial
government to project itself as the real protector of people.

1) Social background : many of the moderates were propertied classes that forbid
them to grievances of the vulnerable sections of the society alienating them from
congress

a) Many of the moderate leaders were landed aristocrats (ex: Jotedars in Bengal)
which made them to oppose the peasant reforms brought by the colonial
government.
Ex: The moderates opposed the Bengal tenancy reform act of 1885 and are also
opposed to the cadastral surveys

b) The capitalist interests of the moderate leaders made them to oppose the
Factory acts of 1881(brought by Rippon) and 1891 and also not to consider their
grievances. They differentiated between the labourers in the european
plantations and Plantation owned by Indian capitalists

c) Many of the moderate leaders were of upper caste Hindus that alienated the
Muslims and also the lower caste. The Justice party of Naicker and Phule later
Ambedkar distanced themselves from the Congress. Their silence during the cow
protection movement, communal riots drove the muslim masses from the
Congress to Muslim league

Because of this the Dufferin called moderates as ‘BABU POLITICIANS’ and all these
sections were supported by the colonial government by way of legislative measures,
official actions etc. which made it to be the real protector of poor and vulnerable.
Ex: The British actively supported the muslims by way of separate electorate,
reservation

2) Social base : The moderates believed that masses are divided by the class, caste
distinction and are not ready for participating in the national movement. Hence their
social base was limited to the URBAN MIDDLE CLASS because of which they couldn’t
take stand against the colonial government. This limited their success which fuelled the

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discontent of youth who eventually rallied behind the extremists after the surat split of
1907.

3) Belief in the Paternalistic Imperialism of British : The moderated belief in


the BENEVOLENT CHARACTER OF THE COLONIAL RULE made them not to oppose
the rule by itself but instead demand the indian participation in it by awakening public
opinion in England as well in India. This was likely to invite premature repression and it
made the masses to perceive Colonial government to be the harbinger of modern times.

4) Moderates also believed that the government has to be run by the expediency
not by the ethics and moral laws. This made them to support measures like ordinances
that were intended to repress the extremists and revolutionaries.

Because of these inherent contradictions moderate politics couldn’t build an all


encompassing movement. The vacuum was filled by the colonial government which
claimed to be the ‘MAI-BAAP’ SARKAR (Lord Curzon) of the indians.

But having said so it must not be presumed that the Moderate leaders fought for their
narrow interests. Their programmes and policies represented nation-wide interests
against colonial exploitation. Their economic critique of colonialism and their council
work undermined the of the colonial government and formed base to build the future
national movement.

5. Gandhi's conception of womanhood and women empowerment was


constructed on an extraction and reformulation of received social
ideas in moral terms. Comment. Also examine how Gandhi’s idea of
womanhood is a stark contrast to the idea of womanhood as
advocated by the socio-religious reformers of 19th centuries.

Source: From Plassey to Partition and After, Chapter - 7, Pages 381 - 392

Approach :

1) We can start with the brief introduction about the Gandhi’s perception on the
womanhood and women empowerment.
2) The answer should consists of two parts. In first part one has to explain the
Gandhi’s idea of womanhood and women empowerment and how it is related to
the existing social idea and moral terms. The second part has to explain how this
perspective different from the the socio-religious reforms of 19th century.

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3) Then we can conclude by stating how the Gandhi’s perspective was forerunner in
women liberation.

Answer :

Gandhi desired to build a new society in free India i.e. a society based on social justice,
peace and harmony. He firmly believed that freedom was a birthright of every nation, as
well as of every human being. He never failed to include women in his concept of
‘HUMAN BEING’. It was in South Africa that he had realized the power of self-less
sacrifice that women could offer and decided to harness it in the service of the nation.

Gandhi, in conceptualizing the ideal Indian womanhood, shifted the focus from
motherhood to sisterhood, by negating women's sexuality. But it was
constructed on the extraction and reformu:
lation of received social ideas in moral terms that has its root in his perception about
social emancipation.

1. To Gandhi social emancipation has its fold political emancipation. He


opened the public sphere to women by allowing them to participate in the
national movement. But while doing so he didn’t invert the doctrine of two
separate spheres of private and public space. This can be seen in the roles that
women were given like picketing that didn’t involve direct confrontation. Thus
Gandhi redefined the political participation by creating space for politics at
home.

2. Gandhiji advocated the education for women. But according to him women
should be taught the management of the home, the things that they should or
should not do during pregnancy and the nursing and care of children etc. It is
because he believed while men and women both are fundamentally equal, as far
as form is concerned, there is a vital difference between the two, and hence the
vocations of the two must be different.

3. Gandhi had an immense faith in the inner strength of women. He held


that women by nature are endowed with the qualities of love, non – violence,
forgiveness and a remarkable capacity for sacrifice. Gandhi found women to be
worthier interpreters of non- violence than men.

4. While advocating the equal economic rights for women Gandhi accepted the
natural division of labor between two sexes and believed that women had a duty

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to look after the hearth and house. Hence he advocated spinning of Khadi,
weaving as vocations for women.

All these confirmed to the existed social ideas of women being soft, tender hearted,
sympathetic at great extent. In addition his clarion call to women was couched in a
language full of religious metaphors that did not appear to be subversive of the
traditional values about femininity. Sita-Damayanti-Draupadi were his role models for
Indian women.

Although taken from Indian mythology, these symbols were reconstituted and loaded
with new meanings. These women were represented as no slaves of their husbands, but
extremely virtuous, and capable of making supreme sacrifice for the welfare of their
family, society and the state.

Though Gandhi’s socio-political philosophy, as far as the question of gender equality, is


constructed on ‘patriarchal values’ it was progressive and was in stark contrast to the
idea of womanhood as advocated by the socio-religious reformers of 19th centuries.

1) The women were treated as subjects of the modernizing project not conscious
equals claiming agency for their own emancipation. Whereas Gandhi treated woman
and man as one. He ensured active role for women in not only freedom struggle but also
in the uplift of themselves. Thus we can say while earlier reform movements were
confined to the domestic households

Gandhi extended this to the public sphere. Plus early movements saw women as passive
recipients while Gandhi saw women as active participants capable of making
self-sacrifices.

2) The movement for female education started as part of the colonized man's search
for the ‘new women’. With the Victorian ideal of compassionate marriage, the concept of
womanhood embodied self -sacrificing wife and Victorian helpmate. Thus education far
from being emancipatory confined women to idealized roles as good wives and
better mother.

Gandhi advocated education to create self - consciousness of women and


their emancipation, even when he stressed the gender difference.

3) The valorization of domestic roles emptied women of their economic


value. The reproductive role of women was considered more important than labor.

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But Gandhi believed that economic freedom would play vital role in the
empowerment of women. He consistently inspired and motivated women for
spinning yarn and weaving cloths.

4) While the earlier movements perceived women to be weaker than man Gandhi
had an immense faith in the inner strength of women. He held that women by
nature are endowed with the qualities of love, non – violence, forgiveness and a
remarkable capacity for sacrifice. Gandhi found women to be worthier interpreters of
non- violence than men.

Thus Gandhi while remaining within the middle class tradition of conceptualizing
womanhood ad accepting women biological weakness made relentless efforts which not
only paved the way for women participation in the nationalist movements but also
inculcated the spirit of dignity, self-respect, social equality and individual freedom
among women.

6. How did the demolition of Berlin Wall transform Europe and


capitalism? Discuss.

Source:
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/11218533/Fall-of-the-Berlin-Wall-
opened-a-world-of-opportunity.html
http://www.kas.de/upload/Publikationen/Panorama/2009/1/kuehnhardt.pdf

Approach :

1) The answer can be started by stating few facts about Berlin wall like when it was
established, what was its effect and when it was brought down etc
2) The answer has to consists of two parts : First part dealing with the effect on the
Europe and the second dealing with how capitalism got strengthened with fall of
Berlin wall.
3) Lastly one can conclude by bringing in new changes facing Europe and stating
that though there are problems fall of Berlin wall is watermark event in European
history.

Answer :

The Berlin wall was built in 1961 to divide eastern and western Germany and to
divide the Capitalist Europe with the Communist Europe. It divided the

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Europe not only ideologically and geographically but also culturally, politically and
economically.

Fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 symbolized the end of cold war era and fall of communism
as well. It signified deeper changes in the Europe.

1) Geographical significance: The fall of Berlin wall resulted in the redrawing of


the map of Europe.

● It resulted in unification of Germany with coming together of eastern and


western Germany
● The fall of the wall hastened the disintegration of the Soviet union which
resulted in the emergence of New nations in the central and eastern Europe
2) Political effects

● The period of European integration that started with the TREATY OF


MAASTRICHT and the effect of the breakdown of communist regimes in Central
and Eastern Europe ended with the implementation of the institutional reforms
of the Treaty of Lisbon and the breakthrough of the politicization and
Europeanization of politics in the European Union.
● Before joining the EU, the new member states had to go through a tough period
of internal transformation in the course of which they had to adopt the EU’s
acquis communautaire. Through this daunting process, they became formally
more Europeanized than most of the “old” EU member states.
● Many of the newly established states embraced Democracy as the form of
government.
● Deeper European integration lead to establishment of many European
overarching political institutions like European council, European bank,
European Union and European Parliament later.
● The European Constitution was enacted on 2004 that further lead to the
fraternity and feeling of cooperation among the member states

3) Economic Transformation
● The establishment of EU and the unification of Germany accelerated the path
towards the European monetary union. It paved way for the emergence of
Euro as the dominant currency of World.
● In 2007 schengen area was enlarged to most new EU members in central
Europe. Further Single European Payments Area (SEPA) was inaugurated
in 2008 to provide for the cost-free cashless financial transactions across the
European Union.
All this resulted in larger market area that brought a golden opportunity for many
businesses and companies across Europe. More trade with the new participants of the

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European market substituted for exhausted consumerism and recession in Western


Europe.

4) Social aspects of integration


● The SCHENGEN ZONE created by the TREATY OF AMSTERDAM in 1999
provided for the free movement of people in the Schengen area. This lead to
the development of people to people contact and enhanced cooperation among
the nations in addition to boosting the commerce.
● The fear of uncontrolled migration led to developments of the labor
movements across Europe.

The cold war was essentially a tussle between the ideology of Capitalism and the
Communism. With the fall of Berlin wall and subsequent disintegration of the Soviet
Union lead to establishment of Capitalism as the dominant ideology for the organization
of society and economy.

Post 1990 we can see the strengthening of the capitalist institutions like IMF,
World bank etc. There established the institutions like European bank for
reconstruction and development whose founding principle is the capitalism.

We can also see the liberation – privatization – globalization (LPG) reforms


being pushed by the capitalist financial institutions in the newly decolonized and the
third world countries. (Ex : LPG reforms of India in 1991).

Thus the fall of berlin wall brought in the sweeping changes in the Europe. Though there
are current problems like rise of terrorism, protectionism, debt crisis it can’t be denied
that the fall of Berlin wall was instrumental in the emergence of Europe as strong and
dominant power in the geostrategic arena of world.

7. The identities of southeast Asian nations were shaped by events that


took place during their decolonisation. Discuss.

Source:
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2zm.9?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
(for hint)

https://www.sps186.org/downloads/basic/588650/ch34_2.pdf

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Approach :

1) Introduction : Explain briefly about the factors that influenced the decolonisation
process in the south east Asia
2) Body : Explain how the identiries were shaped during the decolonisation process
taking example.
3) Conclusion : one can sum up the decolonisation process or highlight how these
identities are still relevant today.

Answer :

Decolonisation of Southeast Asia occurred between 1945 and 1960 was the direct
result of world war II. Japanese occupied much of southeast Asia, France, Dutch lost
many of their colonies as did others. With Axis Power (Germany, Italy and Japan) losing
the war to Allies (France, USA and UK) there was renewed efforts by the colonial powers
to reestablish their control over their previous colonies. This triggered the independence
movements in the colonies like Vietnam, Cambodia etc

These independence movements were lead by fractions like socialist, nationalist or


military. This lead to the formation of identities which are still relevant in today’s world.

Vietnam : got independence in 1954. The 3o years war as process of decolonisation


first with Japanese then with French and later the USA lead to rise and establishment of
Communist party of Vietnam. Here communism is mixed with nationalism by
Ho chi Minh and even today Vietnamese have one party system dominated by
communists. And they have strong nationalist stance against Chinese interference in
South China sea and their sovereignty.

Indonesia : First Japan liberated them from sutch and then they resisted the attempt
of recolonisation by Dutch. This lead to Indonesia having strong alliance with
third world. The hosting of Afro Asian conference in 1956 at Bandung and leaning
towards socialism by Sukarno were linked to decolonisation process which is

Philippines : post liberation from Japanese USA voluntarily gave it


independence. This lead Philippines to be an important ally of first world and
accepted capitalism and it became part of SEATO (Manila pact). This can be seen
from the fact of Philippines supporting the USA in the Vietnamese war.

Malaysia: Case of civil war like situation between Chinese and Malays and
racial tensions which lead to formation of a federation in Malaysia.

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Singapore becoming a city state and its subsequent transition to a hub of


commerce is also linked to the process of decolonisation from Britain

Myanmar : Decolonisation linked to japanese military advancement. This lead


to a division in the nation among socialists and military junta which lead to
assassination of Aung sun and then Munnar becoming a dictatorship. The racial
bitterness then developed is still finding its expression in the assassination of
Rohingyas.

Thus we can see that identities of southeast Asian nations were shaped by events that
took place during their decolonisation.

8. Discuss the development in sculpture and architecture associated


with the rise of Vaishnavism and Shaivism.

Source: NCERT Class XII Themes in Indian History, Part - I

Approach :

1) Introduction : one can start with the brief introduction of Vaishnavism and
shaivism. Ex: the origin
2) Body : Highlight how the shaivism and vaishnavism influenced the growth of
sculpture and architecture in India
3) Conclusion : one can conclude by stating the other contributions of Shaivism and
Vaishnavism to the culture and heritage. Ex: to painting

Answer :

With the vedic gods being relegated to the lower hierarchy the Vishnu and
Shiva came to be regarded as the chief deities with which emerged the Vaishnavism that
reigns supremacy of Vishnu and the Shaivism centered around the Shiva being supreme
god during Gupta period. Both shaivism and vaishnavism gave impetus to the
development of architecture and sculptural developments in ancient and medieval
India.

Sculpture
The sculptures depicted gods as grotesque figures with multiple arms and hands. They
had also combination of human and animal forms

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Vaishnavism : With emergence of Dashavatara friezes of Vishnu the idols were


constructed depicting these avatara to be housed in the garbhagriha of temple or to
adorn the walls of temples.
Ex: Shesha Shayana Vishnu
Trivikrama form (vamana avatara) - Badami cave

Shaivism : Like Vishnu Shiva also came to be represented in various forms in


idols.
Ex: Lingum
Lakulisa and Manusmriti Shiva- Elephanta caves
One of the greatest sculpture associated with shaivism is representation of Shiva in
Nataraja form (Rameshwara cave of Ellora) that found finest expression in the
Chola bronze sculptures. We can see the 108 karanas of dance being represented in
form nataraja in the chidambaram temple built by the Cholas.

Another masterpiece of Indian Sculpture associated with the shaivism is the RAVAN
KI KHAI sculpture that depicted the King Ravan lifting the mount Kailash in Ellora
cave (Rashtrakuta shaivites)

It is also to be noted that there came to be worship of both Shiva and Vishnu in
form of Harihara that has been depicted in the sculpture of Badami caves.

Architecture
With the emergence of vaishnavism and shaivism there was brilliant development of
architecture in form of cave architecture and temple architecture

Cave architecture
These are the temples were carved out of huge rocks and were dedicated to either
Vishnu or Shiva or Both.
Vaishnavism
a) Dashavatara temple of Ellora - excavated by Rashtrakuta
b) varaha caves of Bagh - excavated by Gupta
Shaivism
a) Kailasnath Temple of Ellora - excavated by Krishna I of Rashtrakuta
b) Elephanta caves - Excavated by Rashtrakuta
c) Badami caves depicting shiva in Nataraja form
d) Ravana phadi cave of Aihole - Excavated by Chalukyas of Badami

Temple architecture
Both Vishnu and Shiva temples have been built in Nagara, Dravida and Vesara styles.
Nagara style

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a) Vaishnavism -- Dashavatara temple of Deogarh built during the Gupta period


b) Shaivism -- Koh and Bhumara temple of Guptas
Dravida Style
a) Vaishnavism -- Padmanabhaswamy temple, Trivandrum
Vitthala temple of Hampi (Built by Devaraya II)
b) Shaivism -- Brihadeshwara temple of Tanjore (Built by Rajaraja Chola)
Virupaksha temple at Hampi (Built by Devaraya II)
Vesara style
a) Vaishnavism -- Chennakeshwara temple of Belur built by Hoysalas
Huchimalli gudi temple of Aihole of Badami Chalukya
b) Shaivism -- Ladkhan Temple of Aihole built by Badami Chalukya

In addition to the sculpture and the architecture vaishnavism and shaivism are also
associated with the development of Paintings and literature.
Ex: Thirumurai of Nayanars
Divya Prabandha of Alwars

Thus these two sects of Hinduism Contributed immensely to the treasure trove of Indian
culture.

9. What united Nehru and Sardar Patel was more significant and of
abiding value than what divided them. Elaborate.

Source: India Since Independence - Bipan Chandra Chapter 14

Approach :

1) Introduction : Brief hint about the nature of personality of Nehru and Patel
2) Body :Answer can be done in two parts. First part highlighting the differences
between two leaders and second part the fundamental unity between two.
3) Conclusion : We can conclude by stating how the contrasting nature of these two
leaders was necessary for the newly born democracy.

Answer :

A newly born India had two greater leaders at it service - one visionary and idealist -
Nehru and the other a pragmatist and realist - Patel. These two stalwarts undoubtedly
differed in their temperament and political ideologies.

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1) Economic policy
Nehru envisioned a socialist India with social service and cooperation taking
place of competition. He replicated the Soviet planning commission and its Five Year
Plans while severely restricting the scope of private enterprise.

Patel on the other hand believed that capitalism could be ‘purged of its hideousness’.
He did not view the spirit of enterprise with disdain. For him, creation of wealth for
ushering in societal prosperity was a desirable trait.

Patel also emphatically denied the inevitability of class struggle which was an
article of faith for the Marxists. Patel affirmed his faith in the capitalists, industrialists
and economists who ‘when approached in the right manner’ offered promising
prospects for both production and just remuneration for labour.

2) Foreign policy
While Nehru was internationalist in his outlook Patel was more inclined
towards nationalist approach. This along with the pragmatism made Patel to
support the recognition for the Israel, oppose India relinquishing the rights over Tibet in
favor of China.

3) Military policy
While Patel stood for modernization of Indian army, Nehru with more idealist
approach wouldn’t be able to perceive the security threat simmering over India from its
neighbors and hence wasn’t in support of the same.

4) Political ideology
Nehru was believer of liberalism and came to be associated with the leftist of
congress. On the other hand Patel was conservative in his political ideology and was
part of right wing of Congress.

While Nehru wanted the unification of country by democratic way Patel didn’t
hesitate to use other ways like police action and military action to achieve the
unification of India. In addition the while Nehru gave expression to the congress
ideologies and the vision of India Patel was organisational man who worked in the
background.

But in those defining years, what united them was far more important than what divided
them.

1) Politicians with impeccable integrity


Nehru and Patel both enjoyed the great respect and legitimacy among people

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and also the congressmen. Both were known for their determination as well the
integrity. It made both the leaders to bring in consensus among congressman on
conflicting issues which was much needed for the nascent democracy.

2) Deep love of their country


Both the leaders were fierce patriots who had always placed country and welfare
of countrymen above their interests.

3) Abiding commitment to India’s unity


Nehru and Sardar stood for and defended the Unity of India not only during the
national struggle but also after the independence. It is because of Nehru’s
opposition that Wavell’s Balkan plan was withdrawn. On the other hand it’s Patel who
achieved the unification of India to complete the map of united India after
Independence.

4) Faith in Mahatma Gandhi


Both Nehru and Patel acknowledged the leadership of Gandhi and reposed
faith in Gandhian methods of struggle.

5) Belief in Constitutionalism
Nehru and Patel both wanted to establish India as sovereign, democratic
republic on strong edifice of Constitution. Both being members of constituent
assembly and heads of committees played pivotal role in drafting constitution of India.
While Nehru drafted the objective resolution Patel played vital role in drafting
fundamental right provision of Indian Constitution.

6) Protection of Minorities.
Both Nehru and Patel championed causes of minorities. Nehru with his Secular
approach played important role in integration of India muslims. It is to be remembered
that it is Patel who was the chairman of committee on fundamental rights and welfare of
minorities in the constituent assembly.

7) Both were untiring workers, allowing themselves practically no rest, either


physical or mental.

All these factors made both the leaders to share love and respect for each other and work
together for betterment of country. Though there were differences these fundamental
unity bonded two leaders to each other.

Thus we can say Nehru and Patel are like great diamonds, with this difference, that if
Sardar Patel is rough-hewn, valued intrinsically high, Nehru is the finished product, cut

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with many facets and therefore shining in many directions. It is to the good fortune of
the country that it had in Pandit Nehru and Sardar Patel two personalities who have
characteristics each complementary to each other for never has there been a
combination of humanism and realism so complete as in Jawaharlal and Vallabhbhai.

10. Bhoodan was an attempt at land reform, at bringing about


institutional changes in agriculture through a movement and not
simply through government legislation. Discuss.

Source: India Since Independence - Bipan Chandra Chapter 31

Approach :

1) Introduction : We can write about the brief history of Bhoodan.


2) Body : highlight the major changes in the institutions brought by the Bhoodan.
Here emphasise on how these changes are brought without legislation.
3) Conclusion : one can conclude by highlighting the success of Bhoodan though
there were shortcomings.

Answer :

Bhoodan movement started by the Vinoba Bhave in 1951 was a land reform movement
aimed at bringing about institutional changes in agriculture through a movement and
not simply through government legislation via voluntary land donations.

It drew upon Gandhian techniques and ideas such as constructive work and trusteeship.
If the landlords failed to behave as trustees or as ‘equal’ sharing of property, then a
satyagraha, in the Gandhian mould, could be launched against them.

An federation of constructive workers was organized called sarvodaya samaj who would
do padyatra from village to village and persuade landlords to give up their land to the
landless and poors.

The movement was quite successful in the start and about 4 million hectares land was
given by landlords. This resulted in changes like

1) Social institution
The movement tried to bring about a social order based on equality of opportunities by
ensuring balanced economic distribution. To some extent it also helped in reducing
exploitation of the poor cultivators by the rich zamindars.

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2) Economic structure
It brought in decentralization of economic holdings and powers by undertaking
redistribution of land from landlords to the landless laborers.

3) It aided in the direction of tax burden. When no compensation amount is to be


paid, less amount will be needed on that account; which means less burden which when
viewed in Indian context where the people are already over taxed

4) It helped in bringing more land under plough. Even uncultivable land is


cultivated

The movement was christened in to Gramdan movement in the late 1950s.

Although there are shortcomings like most lands donated being infertile or under
litigation Bhoodan movement acquires great significance in the context of urgent
change. It underlines traditions that are Implicit in the Indian way of life. It recaptures
the idea of the social order based on equality.

11. The historical evidence on the ‘Tiger of Mysore’ Tipu Sultan can be
read as competing narratives ranging between visionary to freedom
fighter to bigot. Discuss critically relevance and significance of such
narratives today.

Source: Secure - October 2017

http://www.insightsonindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/GS-I-2.pdf

Approach :

1) Introduction : Bring in the contradiction in the narrative of Tipu


2) Body : The answer can be written in two section. First has to deal with the
narrative of Tipu being visionary leader and freedom fighter. And the second part
should bring in the narrative of Tipu being the bigot while bringing in the secular
portrayal of Tipu. Each part has to be substantiated with the relevance and
significance in today’s world.
3) Conclusion : it has to be in positive line highlighting the first narrative of TipU.

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Answer :

True nature of a person like Tipu can only be found by the way of looking at
achievements and failures without judging him on Socio-Political, Religious & Cultural
Point of view, but judging one on Moral, Ethical and Visionary point of view.

Visionary leader and freedom fighter


The Silver pages of History remembers Tipu sultan as the Tiger of Mysore who fought
against the major powers back in his time like a brave and courageous soldier. In
addition to being brilliant general he was also a radical economic and social
reformer and a great geostrategist that testifies his being visionary and an able
administrator

1) Military reforms
Tipu Sultan was a great believer in the modern system of Militarization. He armed
infantry with musket and bayonet manufactured in Mysore. He understood
the importance of blue water navy that gave supremacy to British. He modernized the
naval forces after 1796 and also built 2 dockyards.

These reforms still hold beacon light for India owing to the India’s geographical position
in proximity to the global terrorism center and India being the largest importer of arms
(SIPRI report). The rising threat to the maritime freedom calls for the modernization of
Indian navy given 90% of our trade by volume is carried out via sea route and it holds
important energy and communication lines for the country.

2) Revenue and peasant reforms


He devised a land revenue system based on detailed surveys and
classification, in which the tax was imposed directly on the peasant, and collected
through salaried agents in cash, widening the state’s resource base.

He also modernized agriculture, gave tax breaks for developing wasteland, built
irrigation infrastructure and repaired old dams, checked illegal cess and promoted
agricultural manufacturing and sericulture.

All this has made peasants of mysore state prosperous and his revenue system became
basis for Ryotwari system of the Munro.

Even today the agriculture forms the basis of livelihood of 50% of our population and is
backbone of village economy. The problem of intermediaries, rainfed agriculture, dearth
of markets etc still haunts continues to haunt the Indian peasants. Though there were
reforms like Fasal Bima yojana, E-NAM, Krishi Sinchai Yojana the reforms brought by

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Tipu are still relevant today which can be adopted based on the agro-ecological
characteristics of region.

3) Trade and Industrial policy


Tipu commissioned a “state commercial corporation” to set up factories. As
Mysore traded in sandalwood, silk, spices, rice and sulphur, some 30 trading outposts
were established across Tipu’s dominions and overseas. Sugar and paper factories
were established for the first time under him. Sword, blades and gunpowder were
manufactured locally

He also set up Trading company was set up on the lines of European


companies. Tipu had established trading houses for Mysore products worldwide in
France, Turkey,Iran, China to expand the trade.

These factories provided employment and income generating opportunities to


the people and motivated the manufacturers to produce quality goods and services and
achieved acclaim beyond India and earned profits through exports.

With the India’s manufacturing sector witnessing the slow growth and the need for
India to expand employment opportunity for the youth the industrial revolution of
Mysore brought by Tipu still remains relevant.

4) International outlook
Tipu was statesman who supported the American war of independence
financially and also morally and took interest in the French Revolution. He was
the first Asian ruler to recognise the newly independent United States He became
member of Jacobian club and also planted liberty tree at Srirangapatna. He also tried
building relation with the Ottoman Turk.

The diplomacy being the important tool of today’s multipolar world this international
outlook of Tipu and his acumen of geostrategy is worth emulating.

5) Technological innovator of India


The rockets of Tipu were prototype of the modern Missile system. In addition he
introduced the new calendar, Coinage, new scale of weight and measures.

This technological vision of Tipu is still inspiration for India given the upcoming era of
fourth industrial revolution where technology will be the key driver of economy and the
emerging challenges like security threats (cyber attacks), new health issues
(antimicrobial resistance) etc

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6) Social Reform
He introduced social reforms both among Hindus and Muslims.
Ex : strict ban on the non sensible and anti Islamic practices among the Muslims
Forbid the human sacrifice in temple (Ex: Kali temple of Mysore).
With the social evils like dowry, child marriage, female feticide still prevailing in the
Indian society these reforms of Tipu stand out till today.

Even in personal life Tipu wa free from vices and avoided luxury which is of worth
emulation for the public servants.

Narrative of Tipu being bigot


In another different narrative Tipu is being projected as the religious bigot.

1. Demolition of places of worship of Hindu and christian : The Historian


William Logan has mentioned (in the “Malabar Manual”) that Thaliparamba and
Trichambaram temples of Chirackal Taluka, Ponmeri Temple of Badakara, and
Thiruvengadu of Tellicherry were among the major temples smashed by Tipu
Sultan.

2. There are also written records of forced conversion to Islam and religious
prosecution of Hindus and Christians in the Kodagu, Thrissur and Cochin.

But there is a dispute among Historians in the narrative of Tipu being Bigot as there
were evidences to support the tolerant attitude of Tipu.

1) Tipu had rebuilt Hindu temples that were destroyed and looted by the Hindu
Maratha army in his kingdom. Ex: Sringeri temple

2) He gave grants and gifts to the temples. Ex: Melkote temple

3) Tipu had close contact with the Sringeri Math and the letters Tipu wrote show
reverence to the saints and priests of Hinduism. This shows high esteem in
which Tipu held the Hindu holy men of his kingdom.

4) Tipu had appointed the Hindus to the post of high officials (ex: Pornaiya as
finance minister) and also maintained learned Brahmins as civil officials.

5) Tipu respected the religious practice of all. All non-Muslims, Hindus and
Christians alike, were free to follow their own religion. For example he instructed that
his non-Muslim officers be guaranteed that the food provided to them would meet their

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religious requirements and that they be allowed to take their oaths of office according to
their own religious beliefs.

While this tolerant image of Tipu is significant today amid rise of Religious
fundamentalism the religious bigot image of Tipu is litting new fire in the secular fabric
of country.

The historical evidence on the ‘Tiger of Mysore’ can be read as competing narratives. It
serves no purpose to view Tipu’s multi layered personality through the prism of religion.
What is more important in his progressive reforms of the period and the bravest
resistance he put up against the dominant foreign power of the time against all the odds
of the time.

12. “Robert Clive founded the British Raj, Lord Macaulay sowed the seeds
of its end.” Critically comment.

Source: Secure - October 2017

http://www.insightsonindia.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/GS-I-2.pdf

Approach :

1) Introduction: Brief idea about the Clive


2) Body : It should consists of two parts. One elaborating how clive strengthened the
British rule in India. The second part has to elaborate on the reforms brought by
Mcaulay i.e., the education which proved to be the main reason for the demise of
British colonial power over India.
3) Conclusion : We can conclude by saying that along with the reforms of Macaulay
it’s the relentless efforts of freedom fighters like Gandhi that lead India to
freedom.

Answer :

Robert Clive was largely responsible for the English East Indian Company getting the
control of Bengal thus leading to whole of India later on. He has been called
“CONQUEROR OF INDIA”. Clive’s role can be seen in two parts

1) In the Southern India

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When English were losing ground and the French were gaining success in the second
Carnatic war and in the whole of the Deccan the British prestige was at the lowest point,
Clive stepped into show the talent both in ideas and action. Under his leadership the
capital of Carnatic Arcot was attacked and captured that suddenly turned the course of
the Second Carnatic War.

The French army was defeated and the British influence was restored in the south. That
unexpected and measured move of Clive brought the decline of Dupleix and the fame of
Clive and the English as well.

This defeat made Dupleix to be recalled which proved to be in favor of the British during
3rd Anglo-French war.

2) In Bengal
Grave situations developed in Bengal when the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula
humiliated the English. Clive brokered the treaty of Alinagar with the nawab to buy the
temporary peace. And after it he started charting plan to establish the English
Supremacy over Bengal

In 1757 Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah. Robert Clive
persuading commanders of Siraj Ud Daulah not to fight was a significant factor
contributing to the victory of Company against Nawab.

Clive became the first Governor of Bengal and started his dual system of Government.

The battle of Plassey was instrumental in establishment of British control over India
because
1) British got undisputed free trade right in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and Zamindari of
24 parganas.

2) English status was raised to the major contender to the Indian emperor.

3) Rich revenues of Bengal helped British to organize strong army that became the
strongest defender of colonial government in the country. The British met the cost of
conquest of rest of the country from the revenue of Bengal.

4) The revenues of Bengal were now being used to purchase the export goods from
Indian merchants. This stopped flow of bullion out of England and the beginning of
economic drain of India.

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5) The control of Bengal and hence over the Bay of Bengal proved decisive role in the
Anglo-French struggle in India that led to the establishment of English as the sole
dominant power in India.

With all these factors Clive was acclaimed as the founder of British rule in India.

Later in 1832, when British government wanted to spend 1 lakh rupees on the Education
of Indians & the British officials were divided over the point of envisaging Indian or
English education.

Lord Macaulay was given the authority to decide upon the dispute on the position of law
and education in India so that to create New Penal Code and Educational System. Lord
Macaulay suggested enriching other languages so that they became vehicles of European
Scientific and literary expression. This led to English being introduced as a medium of
education form class 6th onwards.

Though the main aim behind MACAULAY’S MINUTE presented in 1835 was to produce
Indian clerks through educating them in English which would consolidate the British
Empire and westernization of Indian culture by “producing the Indians looking Indian
in physical features but British in thinking, behavior & mind”.

But Macaulay’s educational scheme proved to be the cause of end of British Raj as the
Access to English, opened door for Indians to learn modern ideas of freedom,
democracy and liberty. This played crucial role in spread of nationalism amongst the
people of India in leaps and bounds. From the social reformation alongside cultural
rejuvenation, the establishment of Congress in 1885 to its widening mass base under
Gandhiji can be attributed to English education.

The English educated became to constitute the urban middle class who provided the
leadership to the national movement in every stage.

In addition the learned Indians who visited the western countries saw the working of
political institutions in free country and compared the situation with India where even
basic liberties were denied to Indians. This created urge for swarajya in them who
became staunch supporter of the Indian freedom struggle.

The English education also helped Indians to recognize social and political injustices of
the British and absorb developments around the world. This awakening ultimately led to
the demise of the British Raj.

Though Macaulay is said to sow the seed of End of British Raj in India, but this “seed”
grew because of the water supplied by the use of truth, non-violence, Satyagraha of
Gandhi and the sacrifice of many others.

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