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BORQUEL, KING RICK M.

DHVTSU Date Due: July 2, 2018

CE 5B ENGR. RAUL O. DUYA Date Submitted:


CE 513a July 2, 2018

RESEARCH PAPER IN REINFORCED CONCRETE

1. Definition of Reinforced Concrete


As with most rocklike mass,
concrete has a very high compressive
strength but have a very low tensile
strength. As a structural member, concrete
can be made to carry tensile stresses (as in
beam in flexure). In this regard, it is
necessary to provide steel bars to provide
the tensile strength lacking in concrete. The
composite member is called reinforced
concrete.
Reinforced concrete is a
combination of concrete and steel wherein
the steel reinforcement provides the tensile
strength lacking in the concrete. Steel
reinforcing is also capable of resisting
compression forces and is used in columns as well as in other situations.
The idea of reinforcing concrete with steel has resulted in a new composite
material, having the potential of resisting significant tensile stresses, which was
hitherto impossible. Thus, the construction of load-bearing flexural members, such
as beams and slabs, became viable with this new material. The steel bars
(embedded in the tension zone of the concrete) compensate for the concrete’s
incapacity for tensile resistance, effectively taking up all the tension, without
separating from the concrete.

2. Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Member


1. It has considerable compressive strength per unit
cost compared with most other materials.
2. Reinforced concrete has great resistance to the
actions of fire and water and, in fact, is the best
structural material available for situations where
water is present. During fires of average intensity,
members with a satisfactory cover of concrete over
the reinforcing bars suffer only surface damage
without failure.
3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.
4. It is a low-maintenance material.
5. It is usually the only economical material available
for footings, floor slabs, basement walls, piers, and
similar applications.
6. As compared with other materials, it has a very long
service life. Under proper conditions, reinforced
concrete structures can be used indefinitely without
reduction of their load carrying abilities. This can be explained by the fact that the
strength of concrete does not decrease with time but actually increases over a
very long period, measured in years, because of the lengthy process of the
solidification of the cement paste.
7. A special feature of concrete is its ability to be cast
into an extraordinary variety of shapes from simple
slabs, beams, and columns to great arches and
shells.
8. In most areas, concrete takes advantage of
inexpensive local materials (sand, gravel, and
water) and requires relatively small amounts of
cement and reinforcing steel, which may have to be
shipped from other parts of the country.
9. A lower grade of skilled labor is required for erection as compared with other
materials such as structural steel.

3. Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Member


1. Concrete has a very low tensile strength, requiring the use of tensile reinforcing.
2. Forms are required to hold the concrete in place
until it hardens sufficiently. In addition, falsework or
shoring may be necessary to keep the forms in
place for roofs, walls, floors, and similar structures
until the concrete members gain sufficient strength
to support themselves. Formwork is very
expensive.
3. The low strength per unit of weight of concrete
leads to heavy members. This becomes an
increasingly important matter for long-span structures, where concrete’s large
deadweight has a great effect on bending moments. Lightweight aggregates can
be used to reduce concrete weight, but the cost of the concrete is increased.
4. Similarly, the low strength per unit of volume of concrete means members will be
relatively large, an important consideration for tall buildings and long-span
structures.
5. The properties of concrete vary widely because of variations in its proportioning
and mixing. Furthermore, the placing and curing of concrete is not as carefully
controlled as is the production of other materials, such as structural steel and
laminated wood.

4. Materials Used in Reinforced Concrete


 Cement
Cement may be described as a material
with adhesive and cohesive properties that make
it capable of bonding mineral fragments
(‘aggregates’) into a compact whole. In this
process, it imparts strength and durability to the
hardened mass called concrete.
A binder, a substance used for construction
that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials,
binding them together.
Portland Cement is the most commonly used kind of cement in
construction.
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) recognizes five
types of Portland cement:
Type I – The common, all-purpose cement used for general construction work.
Type II – A modified cement that has a lower heat of hydration than does Type I
cement and that can withstand some exposure to sulfate attack.

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Type III – A high-early-strength cement that will produce in the first 24 hours a
concrete with a strength about twice that of Type I cement. This cement
does have a much higher heat of hydration.
Type IV – A low-heat cement that produces a concrete which generates heat
very slowly. It is used for very large concrete structures.
Type V – A cement used for concretes that are to be exposed to high
concentrations of sulfate.

 Aggregates
Aggregate is formed from natural sources by the process of weathering
and abrasion, or by artificially crushing a larger parent (rock) mass.
The aggregates used in concrete occupy about three-fourths of the
concrete volume. Since they are less expensive than the cement, it is desirable
to use as much of them as possible. Both fine aggregates (usually sand) and
coarse aggregates (usually gravel or crushed stone) are used. Material of a
larger size is coarse aggregate.
Aggregates must be strong, durable, and clean. Should dust or other
particles be present, they may interfere with the bond between the cement paste
and the aggregate.
o Fine Aggregates
Any aggregate that passes a No. 4 sieve
(which has wires spaced 14 in. on centers in
each direction) is said to be fine aggregate.
Sand, taken from river beds and pits, is
normally used as fine aggregate, after it is
cleaned and rendered free from silt, clay and
other impurities; stone (quarry) dust is
sometimes used as a partial replacement for
sand.
o Coarse Aggregates
Any aggregate that has particle size larger
than 4.75 mm is categorized as coarse
aggregate. Gravel and crushed rock are
normally used as coarse aggregate. The
maximum size of coarse aggregate to be used
in reinforced concrete work depends on the
thickness of the structural member and the
space available around the reinforcing bars.

 Water
Water has a significant role to play in the making of concrete — in mixing
of fresh concrete and in curing of hardened concrete. In order to ensure proper
strength development and durability of concrete, it is necessary that the water
used for mixing and curing is free from impurities such as oils, acids, alkalis,
salts, sugar and organic materials.

 Admixtures
Materials added to concrete during or
before mixing are referred to as admixtures. They
are used to improve the performance of concrete
in certain situations as well as to lower its cost.
Admixtures are additives that are
introduced in a concrete mix to modify the
properties of concrete in its fresh and hardened
states.

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Some of the more important chemical admixtures are briefly described here:

1. Accelerators
chemicals (notably, calcium chloride) to accelerate the hardening or the
development of early strength of concrete; these are generally used when
urgent repairs are undertaken, or while concreting in cold weather;
2. Retarders
chemicals (including sugar) to retard the setting of concrete, and thereby
also to reduce the generation of heat; these are generally used in hot weather
concreting and in ready-mixed concrete;
3. Water-reducers (or plasticizers)
chemicals to improve plasticity in the freshconcrete; these are mainly used
for achieving higher strength by reducing the water-cement ratio; or for
improving workability (for a given water-cement ratio) to facilitate placement of
concrete in locations that are not easily accessible;
4. Superplasticizers (or high-range water-reducers)
chemicals that have higher dosage levels and are supposedly superior to
conventional water-reducers; they areused for the same purposes as water-
reducers, viz. to produce high-strength concrete or to produce ‘flowing’
concrete;
5. Air-entraining agents
organic compounds (such as animal/vegetable fats andoils, wood resins)
which introduce discrete and microscopic air bubble cavities that occupy up to
5 percent of the volume of concrete; these are mainly used for protecting
concrete from damage due to alternate freezing and thawing;
6. Bonding admixtures
polymer emulsions (latexes) to improve the adherence of fresh concrete
to (old) hardened concrete; they are ideally suited for repair work.

 Reinforcing Steel Bar


Steel embedded in concrete, called
reinforcing steel, can effectively take up the
tension that is induced due to flexural tension,
direct tension, ‘diagonal tension’ or environmental
effects. Reinforcing steel also imparts ductility to a
material that is otherwise brittle.
Reinforcing steel is generally provided in
the form of bars, wires or welded wire fabric.

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