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You are on page 1of 195

David A. Santos

Contents

Preface v

1 An Introduction to C++ 1

1.1 C++ Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1.1 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.1.2 Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.1.3 Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.2 Predefined Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2.1 Notation for Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.3 Variables and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.3.1 Scalar Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.3.2 Aggregate Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.3.3 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.4 Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.5 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.5.1 Unary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.5.2 Arithmetical Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.5.3 Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.5.4 Relational Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

1.5.5 Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

1.5.6 Conditional Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.5.7 Comma Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1.6 Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1.7 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

1.7.1 main() Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

iii

iv CONTENTS

1.7.3 Parameter Passing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

1.8 if{}else{} Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

1.9 switch{} Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

1.10 for(){} Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

1.11 while(){} Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

1.12 Examples of Full Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

2 Essential Techniques 1

2.1 Reductio ad Absurdum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.2 Pigeonhole Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.3 Inclusion-Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.4 Parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3 Counting 19

3.1 Introductory Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.2 Two Basic Counting Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.3 Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.4 Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.5 Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.6 Combinatorial Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3.7 The Binomial Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.8 Multinomial Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

4 Arithmetic 61

4.1 Division Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4.2 The Decimal Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4.3 Non-decimal Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.4 Well-Ordering Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

4.5 Mathematical Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

4.6 Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

4.7 Miscellaneous Problems with Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

5.1 Telescopic cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

5.2 Arithmetic Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

5.3 Geometric Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.4 Fundamental Sums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

CONTENTS v

5.6 Second Order Recursions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.7 Applications of Recursions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

vi CONTENTS

Preface

viii

Chapter 1

An Introduction to C++

1 Definition The C++ alphabet is the collection of the following characters:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z A B C D E F G

H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

+ - * / % \ " ’ # , . ; : ! ? ( ) [ ] { } < > ^ &

~ | _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

the C++ grammar (set of rules of the C++ language). The source of these

characters is the C++ alphabet

The C++ tokens are: the keywords, the identifiers, the constants, the

string-literals, the operators, and the punctuators, which will be defined

shortly.

and vertical tabs, newline characters and comments.

! White space does not belong to the C++ alphabet. Whitespace serves

to indicate where tokens start and end: beyond this, any surplus of whites-

pace is discarded.

1

2 Chapter 1

1.1.1 Comments

C++ code and it is otherwise ignored by the compiler.

Comments in C++ may occur in one of two forms. They may begin with a

double slash and end in the same line where they started, as in

// This is another valid C++ comment.

This is an invalid comment. It does not start with slashes.

comment within an opening comment symbol /∗ (no space between the

slash and the asterisk) and a closing comment symbol ∗/. This method

allows the use of multiple lines, as in

/* ’Twas brillig, And the slithy toves did gyre and gimble

in the wabe. All mimsy were the borogoves and the mome raths

outgrabe. */

code

/* Something /* will go */ awry */

will produce a compiler error. This is because the compiler matches the first

/∗ with the first ∗/ that it encounters, and so the second /∗ is viewed as part

of the outer comment.

the case of the three successive dots ..., a group of characters):

[ ] ( ) { } , ; : ... * = #

C++ Alphabet 3

1.1.2 Blocks

6 Definition A block is a grouping delimited by a left brace { and a match-

ing right brace }. Any two blocks may be either disjoint or nested.

{ // opens block I

.............

} // closes block I { // opens block II

.............

} // closes block II

8 Example In the following example, blocks II and III are disjoint, and both

are nested into block I.

{// opens block I ................

{// opens block II

.................

}// closes block II

{// opens block III

..................

}// closes block III

................. }// closes block I

dealing with nested blocks. Two disjoint blocks at the same level should

have the same indentation, a block nested into another should be indented

towards the right.

1.1.3 Keywords

9 Definition A C++ keyword is a string of characters having a predeter-

mined meaning in the C++ language.

4 Chapter 1

bitor bool break case catch

char class compl const const_cast

continue default delete do double

dynamic_cast else enum explicit export

extern false float for friend

goto if inline int long

mutable namespace new not not_eq

operator or or_eq private protected

public register reinterpret_cast return short

signed sizeof static static_cast struct

switch template this throw true

try typedef typeid typename union

unsigned using virtual void volatile

wchar_t while xor xor_eq

1.2 Predefined Types

10 Definition A type is a set of values that can be associated with given

data items.

• the type bool. This type is the boolean type, which can only assume

the values true or false.

• the type char. This is the character type. Used to represent single

characters like those forming the C++ alphabet.

Predefined Types 5

• the type string. This is the string type. Used to represent strings of

characters.

• the type int. This is the integer type. The range of the integers is

machine-dependent, but we can at least assure ourselves that inte-

gers in the interval [−231 ; 231 − 1] will be represented.

• the type float. This is the real number type. Its range is machine-

dependent, but we can at least assure ourselves that the interval

[3.4 × 10−38 ; 3.4 × 1038 ] will be represented.

• the type double. These are real numbers with double precision. Nor-

mally in the range [1.7 × 10−308 ; 1.7 × 10308 ].

The range of the int type can be modified by the keywords long or short.

For example, in some machines a long int is in the range [−263 ; 263 − 1].

type int for integers or double for real numbers.

C++ distinguishes between decimal (base 10), octal (base 8), and hex-

adecimal (base 16) integers. To indicate the compiler the different type of

base desired, we use:

• (decimal integers) no prefix, the ten digits {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9},

and an optional sign {+, −}.

• (octal integers) the prefix 0 (zero), the eight digits {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7}. The negative sign may not be used in some implementations.

• (hexadecimal integers) the prefix 0x (zero x) or 0X, the digits {0, 1,

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, a, B, b, C, c, D, d, E, e, F, f}. The negative

sign may not be used in some implementations.

234 -10101

6 Chapter 1

0X23A4F 0x10101

To indicate the compiler that we are using a real floating point (decimal)

number we use a decimal point, the ten digits {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9},

the letters e or E to indicate a power of 10, and an optional sign {+, −}.

2. 2.34 -101.01e23 123.01E-23

! The compiler distinguishes between, say, “7” (no decimal point) and

“7.” (with a decimal point). “7” is an integer, “7.” is a floating point number.

the character in single quotes.

’2’ ’A’ ’)’

meanings in the C++ grammar. In order to represent them we need a

backslash character. For example,

next line),

Variables and Constants 7

• ’\r’ denotes the carriage return (return to the beginning of the present

line) character,

To indicate the compiler that we are using a string type, we enclose the

string in double quotes.

14 Example The following are string types ”A” ”Anthony” ”I break for

camels!”

type).

”What is your name silly?”, said the idiot.

we need to type

”\”What is your name silly\?\”,\nsaid the idiot.\n”

1.3.1 Scalar Types

16 Definition An identifier is a finite string of characters which:

R_7 long_nose_size is_prime PI Pi _first_of_many Float

8 Chapter 1

Notice that since C++ is case sensitive, the identifiers PI and Pi are dis-

tinct.

freedom-of-thought //illegal character - 2_out_of_3

//begins with a digit float //keyword £amount

//illegal character £

with a specific address and identifier.

Variables can be modified during the life programme. The type of the

variable specifies how much memory is allocated to the variable.

type identifier;

location for it in the computer memory. Thus a variable cannot be utilised

without first being declared.

C++ allows multiple variables of the same type to be declared on one line

by means of a comma. For instance, the code

int var_a; int var_b; double var_c;

int var_a, var_b; double var_c;

It is possible to declare and initialise a variable at the same time, by

means of the syntax

type identifier = particular_value;

int number_of_humps, a, b, c; double

age_of_camel, x, y; char sex_of_camel; bool

is_the_camel_married; string _name_of_camel;

Variables and Constants 9

initialisations.

int number_of_humps = 3, a = -18, b = 018, c =

0xA32; double age_of_camel = 22.4, x = 1.e22, y = -1.2E-3;

char sex_of_camel = ’M’; bool is_the_camel_married =

true; string _name_of_camel = ”Kabubi”;

Thus the following fragment will produce a compiler error.

int var_a;

int var_a, var_b; //ERROR multiple declaration of var_a

double var_b //ERROR multiple declaration of var_b

23 Definition A 1-dimensional array is an aggregate of homogeneous

types. A 1-dimensional array is declared with the following syntax:

type identifier[size];

24 Example The elements of the array

int a[3];

! C++ does not check for array bounds. Invoking the non-existent “ele-

ments” a[3], a[4], say, of the array in example 24 will result in an error.

array:

int a[4] = {2, 3, 4, 5};

10 Chapter 1

with zeros. Thus in

int a[4] = {2, 3};

initialisers than the size of the array, we will get an error.

the array in an initialisation. Thus, the code

int a[2] = {2, 3};

int a[] = {2, 3};

! We may not omit the size of the array if we are simply declaring the

array. Thus

int a[]; //ERROR

will result in error. The compiler does not know how much space to allocate

to the array.

type identifier[size_1][size_2];

int b[2][3]; are b[0][0], b[0][1], b[0][2], b[1][0]—, b[1][1], b[1][2].

array:

int b[3][5] = {

{1, 2, 3, 4,5}, //initialises the first row

{6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, //initialises the second row

Variables and Constants 11

};

! If we initialise all the elements of the array, we may omit the internal

braces. Thus the above initialisation is equivalent to

int b[3][5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13,

14, 15};

31 Example If

int t[2][3] = {{1, 2}, {3}};

If the braces delimiting the rows are omitted, a totally different answer may

be obtained.

32 Example In

int t[2][3] = {1, 2, 3};

are all 0.

style which includes all the braces.

declaration of a structure has syntax

struct struct_tag {type_1 identifier_1;

type_2 identifier_2;

.

.

.

12 Chapter 1

type_N identifier_N;

}s_instance_1, s_instance_2, ..., s_instance_M;

struct Prince { string country;

int rank;

string name;

double dollar_worth;

} Charles, Abdullah, Cuahtemoc;

struct {string last_name;

char sex;

int age;

double income;

} Peter, Paul, Mary;

instance

Paul = {”Whatever”, ’M’, 66, 75001.03};

Thus for instance, we can provide the following initialisations in the above

structure.

Peter.last_name = ”Seager”; Peter.sex = ’M’;

Mary.last_name =”I_dont_remember”; Mary.sex = ’F’;

when the structure is declared. Instance declaration can be postponed to

Variables and Constants 13

struct terrorist{

...

};

. . . struct terrorist Osama_and_his_Momma,

Ramzi_Rabid_Dog_Yousef;

1.3.3 Constants

ter values throughout the life of a programme.

stants with identifiers.

12 //int 1.2 //double ’A’ //char "A"

//string 012 //octal int 0x12 //hexadecimal int 1.2e3

//double

time. A constant declaration is a statement of the form

const type identifier = fixed_value;

const double conversion_factor = 2.2; const int

weeks_in_a_year = 52; const char sex_of_camel = ’M’; const string

middle_name = ”Anthony”;

The following code is illegal.

const double conversion_factor; conversion_factor = 2.2;

//ERROR illegal code

14 Chapter 1

We will make use of the stream cout for output and the stream cin for

input. These are not commands of C++ properly, they belong to a special

file (the iostream header file).

cout << stuff_to_output ;

is going “out.”

Camels of the World: Unite!

we type

cout << ”Camels of the World: Unite!”;

Camels of the World: Unite!

we type

cout << ”Camels of the World:\nUnite!”;

int a = 5, b = 1; cout << ”The sum a + b ” << a + b <<

”is.”;

is

The sum of a + b 6is.

Notice that there is no space between the “6” and the “i”. Notice that

we did not need quotes around a +b—, since we wanted the computer to

calculate this sum, rather than to output the string a + b.

quote character on the same line. Unmatched double quotes produce

Operators 15

errors.

cout << ”Camels of the World: //ERROR.

Unite!”; //Unmatched double quote.

cin >> stuff_to_input ;

what goes “in” is the stuff_to_input.

int a; string b; cout << ”Enter your number of camels: ”;

cin >> a; cout << ”Enter the name of your favourite camel: ”; cin

>> b;

asks the user for an integer variable to be input (which we enter through,

say, the keyboard, and then press ENTER), and then for a string of charac-

ters to be input. The computer does not know that data has been entered

until the ENTER key is pressed.

int a; cout << ”Enter your number of camels: ”; cin >> a;

cout << ”Enter the name of your favourite camel: ”; cin >> b;

will cause a compiler error. The variable b is called for input, but it has not

been declared.

1.5 Operators

48 Definition An operator is a character, or string of characters, used to

perform an action on some entities. These entities are called the operands.

16 Chapter 1

which it is applied to its operands. Parentheses ( ) are usually used to

coerce precedence among operators. When two or more operators of

the same precedence are in an expression, we define the associativity

to be the order which determines which of the operators will be executed

first. Left-associative operators are executed from left to right and right-

associative operators are executed from right to left.

There are 55 operators in ISO C++, with 18 layers of precedence (17 is the

highest level of precedence, 0 the lowest). Table 1.2 lists some of them.

These are the the unary + (plus) sign and the unary − (minus) sign. They

are used to indicate the sign of an integer, a floating point quantity, or the

exponent of the power of 10 in a floating point quantity.

The usual binary operations of arithmetic may be performed on integers

and floating point numbers: addition, subtraction, multiplication and divi-

sion have the symbols + − ∗ /, and have algebraic precedence rules. As

expected, division by 0 will cause an error.

Integral division, however, truncates the decimal part of the quotient.

For example, 16/3 yields 5 and 20/3 yields 6. If at least one of the

operands is negative, the result is compiler-dependent. Some compilers

choose a/b == ba/bc whilst others choose a/b == da/be. For example,

on some compilers 16/ − 3 == −6 and on others, 16/ − 3 == −5. If we

wish to obtain a decimal value for 16/3 then we must cast at least one of

the numbers into a double.

16.0/3 // or else 16/3.0 // or

else 16.0/3.0 // or else double(16)/3 // or

else 16/double(3) // or else double(16)/double(3)

Operators 17

[] Array Index 16 Left

(type) type casting 16 Left

sizeof size in bytes 16 Left

++ Post-increment 16 Right

-- Post-decrement 16 Right

++ Pre-increment 15 Right

-- Pre-decrement 15 Right

- Unary Minus 15 Right

+ Unary Plus 15 Right

! Boolean NOT 15 Right

* Contents of 15 Right

& Address of 15 Right

* Product 13 Left

/ Division 13 Left

% Remainder 13 Left

+ Addition 12 Left

- Subtraction 12 Left

< Less than 10 Left

<= Less than or equal 10 Left

> Greater than 10 Left

>= Greater than or equal 10 Left

== Equal to 9 Left

!= Not equal to 9 Left

&& Boolean AND 5 Left

|| Boolean OR 4 Left

? : Conditional 3 Right

= Assignment 2 Right

+= Sum Assignment 2 Right

*= Product Assignment 2 Right

-= Difference Assignment 2 Right

/= Quotient Assignment 2 Right

%= Remainder Assignment 2 Right

, Comma Operator 0 Left

18 Chapter 1

decimal part, losing this information forever. The fragment

int a = 3.14;

cout << ”a = ”

<< a

<< ’\n’ ;

float b;

b = a - 0.14;

cout << ”b = ”

<< b;

will print

a = 3 b = 2.86

a % b gives the remainder of a upon division by b. Again, if at least one of

the operands is negative, the result is compiler dependent, but we always

have

(a/b) ∗ b + a%b is identical to a.

The % operator has the same level of precedence as multiplication or divi-

sion, and it is left-associative.

17 = 3 ∗ 5 + 2. 17 % 18 yields 17 since 17 = 0 ∗ 18 + 17.

int a;

a = 5 * 30 / 4 % 7 + 17 % 4 * 2;

cout << ”a = ” << a;

print?

and

17%4 ∗ 2 = (17%4) ∗ 2 = 1 ∗ 2 = 2.

Operators 19

53 Definition The assignment operator = is used to indicate that what is to

the left of it acquires the value to the right of it.

int a = 4; cout << ”a = ” << a << ”.”; a = a + 19; cout <<

”\na = ” << a << ” now.”;

will print

a = 4. a = 23 now.

int a = 4; cout << ”a = ” << a << ”.”; a = a + 19; cout <<

”a = ” << a << ”.”; a = 2*a - 1; cout << ”a = ” << a << ”.”;

will print

a = 4. a = 23. a = 45.

! The assignment operator = does not test for equality. To test for equal-

ity, C++ uses the equality comparison operator ==.

temporary_variable = first_variable; first_variable =

second_variable; second_variable = temporary_variable;

// False swapping: will not work!

x = y;

y = x;

20 Chapter 1

the need to introduce a temporary variable

a = a + b;

b = a - b;

a = a - b;

bound to a variable during the programme execution.

cation associated with the variable.

cannot occur on the left hand side of an assignment operator, i.e., are not

lvalues. Thus

int x = 4, y; //OK, x and y are lvalues x + 1 = 5;

//ERROR, x + 1 is not an lvalue x + y = x //ERROR, x + y is

not an lvalue

statement containing several = operators, we start by reading the

rightmost one. The following multiple assignment assigns the constant 3

to each of i, j, k.

int i = 1, j = 2, k = 4; // i is 1, j is 2, k is 4 i =

j = k = 3; //Now i, j, k are all 3.

The following code is incorrect.

int i = j = k = 3; //ERROR, multiple assignment in

declaration.

Operators 21

int i = 3, j = 3, k = 3;

a += expression; // means a = a + expression; a -=

expression; // means a = a - expression; a *= expression; // means

a = a * expression; a /= expression; // means a = a / expression;

a %= expression; // means a = a % expression;

ing combined assignment operators.

int k = 9; k += 10; // k becomes 19 k -=

3; // k becomes 16 k /= 8; // k becomes 2

code?

int x = 1, y = 3, z = 5; x += y -= z *= -2;

of z becomes z == 5 ∗ (−2) == −10. Next, y == 3 − (−10) == 13. Finally,

x == 1 + 13 == 14.

any given block, the same identifier for a variable can be used in different

blocks. If two blocks are nested, a new declaration in the inner block

hides the declaration in the outer block. If two blocks are disjoint,

declarations are independent of one another. In the following three

blocks, there are three declarations of the variable a.

{//opens block I int a = 1; //the a of block I

{//opens block II

int a = 2; //hides the a in block I

a *= 8; //the a in block II now becomes 16

}//closes block II

a += 4; //the a in block I becomes 5

22 Chapter 1

a += 2;//the a in block I is visible, and becomes 7

int a = -9;//hides the a’s in blocks I and II

a *= 2;//the a in block III now becomes -18

}//closes block III

a -= 8; //the a in block I becomes -1. }//closes block I

increment and the −− pre-decrement/postdecrement operators.

The post-increment and post-decrement operators work as follows. Sup-

pose x is a numerical real number variable and x++ (or x−− ) is encoun-

tered. Then the operation where x++ (or x−−) was involved is performed

first, and upon leaving the statement, the value of x is increased (de-

creased in the case of −−) by 1. These operators have higher precedence

than the arithmetic operators.

following code.

int a, b , c = 3, d = -7; a = c++ * d ; // line 1 b =

(c++) + d++; //line 2 a *= a++; //line 3

now is incremented to 4 upon leaving the statement. On line 2, c == 4 and

d == −7, so b == −3. Observe that upon leaving line 3, c == 5 and d ==

−6. On line 3, a == −21, and it becomes a == (−21) ∗ (−21) == 441. a is

incremented upon leaving the statement, and finally, a == 442. Therefore

a == 442, b == −3, c == 5, d == −6.

an assignment operator, i.e., are not lvalues. The following code will

produce a compiler error.

int a = 8; a++ *= 9; // ERROR

a memory location. Notice that the written expression is not equivalent to

int a = 8;

Operators 23

a *= 9;

a++;

ror.

pression like ++a *= 9; is interpreted as ++a; a *= 9;.

int a = 8; (++a)++;

Solution: First the value of a is increased to 9, and upon leaving the state-

ment is increased to 10. Thus a == 10.

int a = 8; ++a++;

the pre-increment operator, the fragment ++a++ is equivalent to ++(a++).

This means that this code is equivalent to the following.

int a = 8; a++ = (a++) + 1; Since post-increment operators cannot be

on the left hand side of an assignment, the compiler will produce an error.

C++ code can get really perverse due to the fact that most of times

white space is ignored. Consider the following example.

a, b = 2, c = 9; a = b+++c;

operator and an addition (and why not an increment operator and a unary

+?). Is the increment operator pre-increment or post-increment? That is,

do we have (b++) + c or b + (++c)? The compiler will choose (b++) +

c, processing as many characters as can possibly be combined into an

operator token. So we end up with a == 11, b == 3, c == 9.

24 Chapter 1

involving multiple increment and decrement operators, and hence, the use

in expressions like the following should be avoided.

int x, n = 6; x = ++n * (--n) + ++n; //UGLY! avoid writing

code like this

The relational operators <, <=, >, >=, ==, ! = evaluate to 1 if the relation

is true and to 0 if the relation is false. The operator != is read “not equal

to.”

int x = 1, y = 4, z, w, a;

z = x < y ;

w = (x + 5) <= y;

a = y != 5;

false. Finally, a becomes 1 since y!=5 is true.

The logical negation operator ! gives output according to the following

rules:

!1 gives 0 !0 gives 1

The logical AND operator && gives output according to the following rules:

The logical OR operator || gives output according to the following

rules:

Operators 25

A value different from 0 will be interpreted as 1 by these operators.

int a = -1, b = 3, x, y, z, w, r, s; x = a && b; y = (a +

1) || b; z = (a + 1) && (b - 3); w = (a!=b) && (a <= 0); r = (a <

b) || (y==0); s = !b;

C++’s only ternary operator is the conditional operator ?: which has the

following syntax

and evaluates as follows. test is evaluated first. If it is true, then the whole

expression becomes alternative_1, and alternative_2 is not evaluated

at all. If test is false, alternative_1 is skipped, and the whole expression

becomes alternative_2.

int a = 3, b = 6, c;

c = (a==b) ? (a + 1) : (b - 8);

c becomes -2, since a==b is false and so the conditional expression as-

sumes the second alternative b-8.

int_1 >= int_2 ? int_1 : int_2

gives the maximum of int_1 and int_2.

26 Chapter 1

The comma , operator takes its arguments and evaluates them from left

to right and returns the value of the rightmost expression.

int a = 1, b;

b = (a += 1, a += 2, a + 5);

the comma operator first evaluates a+=1 which makes a == 2. The next

expression a+=2 is evaluated and so a == 4. Finally, the last expression

a + 5 is evaluated becoming a + 5 == 9. Hence b == 9.

1.6 Pointers

C++ allows the address of a variable to be accessed through the contents

of another variable.

variable.

type *identifier;

This creates a variable, identifier, which holds the address (“points to”)

of another variable of the same type.

closer to the type rather than identifier:

type* identifier;

type * identifier;

Pointers 27

We will prefer the first way of declaring pointers, as the latter two forms

suggests to some, quite erroneously, that the * distributes over the

identifiers. In fact, if more than one pointer is declared on the same

statement, each identifier must be given an *. For example, in

type *identifier_1, identifier_2; type *identifier_3,

*identifier_4;

are pointers.

When a pointer is declared of a given type, its initialisation is with the

address of a previously declared variable of the same type. Pointers are

initialised as follows:

type identifier_2; ...... ...... type *identifier_1 =

&identifier_2;

syntax is as follows:

identifier_1 = &identifier_2;

! Memory locations are allocated at compile time, and thus are fixed.

Therefore, a variable which is not declared as a pointer cannot be given the

address of another variable, since a variable may be modified.

= &a, *c, d; // OK, b points to an existing

object a int *k = &j, j, q;//ERROR, k is pointing to something

undeclared char *x, y, z; c = &d; //OK, *c and d are of the same

type. *x = &q; //ERROR, *x and q are not of the same type y = &z;

//ERROR, a non-pointer variable cannot hold an address

the second variable indirectly, by means of the dereference (“contents of”)

operator asterisk *.

28 Chapter 1

int x, *y = &x; // y holds the address of x x = 10;

// *y == x == 10 *y += *y; // x == *y == 20

float *p ; *p = 2.2;

Solution: p has not been initialised, it is not pointing to any variable, and

hence, it cannot modify the contents of this variable by inserting the value

2.2.

1.7 Functions

Fragments of code that need to be recycled can be put into functions.

In mathematics, a function is composed of 5 elements: (1) a name, (2) a

rule, (3) the name of a typical input, (4) a domain, and (5) a target set.

Thus a function has the form

A → B

f: ,

x 7→ f(x)

x 7→ f(x) the assignment rule, A is the domain, and B is the target set

(range). In C++ an analogous situation arises. The declaration of a

function f has the form

target_set f(domain).

The domains and target set must come from an available type.

type function_identifier(type var_1, type var_2, ..., type

var_N);

double Area_of_Triangle(double s_1, double s_2, double

s_3);

Functions 29

double Area_of_Triangle(double , double , double );

is

bool g_camel(string name = ”Kabubi”, double height, int

humps = 1);

void nothing();

type function_identifier(type var_1, type var_2, ..., type

var_N)

{

body_of_function

return some_value ;

}

integers a, b, c.

int maximum_of_3(int a, int b, int c)

{

return (a >= b ? a : b) >= c ? (a >= b ? a : b) : c;

}

lengths can form a triangle

bool is_triangle(double a, double b, double c)

{

30 Chapter 1

}

been fed the lengths a, b, c, of its three sides.

double Area_of_Triangle(double a, double b, double c) {

return .25*sqrt((a + b + c)*(b + c - a)*(c + a - b)*(a + b - c));

}

1p

Area =

p

s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) = (a + b + c)(b + c − a)(c + a − b)(a + b − c),

4

where

a+b+c

s=

2

is the semi-perimeter of the triangle. It also uses the square root function

sqrt(), which is found in the cmath header file.

90 Example Here is a function which prompts the user to enter the radius

of a circle

void prompt_radius()

{

cout << ”Please enter the radius of a circle: ”;

}

by a user

double read_radius()

{ double r;

cin >> r;

return r;

}

Functions 31

92 Example Here is a function which finds the area of a circle upon been

fed its radius

double Area_of_Circle(double radius)

{

const double PI = 3.14159;

return PI*radius*radius;

}

93 Example Here is a function which prints the area of a circle upon been

fed with it.

void print_area_of_circle(double Area)

{

cout << ”Area of circle is ” << Area;

}

All C++ programmes must have a function main(){}. Its definition is

int main(int argc, char *argv[])

{

body

return 0;

}

The value 0 returned by main(){} means that everything has gone well.

The optional programme parameters argc and *argv[] are run from the

command line.

int main()

{

return 0;

}

32 Chapter 1

Functions called within the body of main(){} must be declared before

they are called. This can be accomplished in two ways.

• We can declare the functions before main(){} and then define them

after main(){}.

the user to input the radius of a circle and then outputs the area of the

circle (in square units). We will use the functions of examples 90 through

93 in order to illustrate both

void prompt_radius() {

cout << ”Please enter the radius of a circle: ”;

} double read_radius() {

double r;

cin >> r;

return r;

} double Area_of_Circle(double radius) {

const double PI = 3.14159;

return PI*radius*radius;

} void print_area_of_circle(double Area) {

cout << ”Area of circle is ” << Area;

} int main() {

prompt_radius();

print_area_of_circle(Area_of_Circle(read_radius()));

return 0;

}

void prompt_radius(); double Area_of_Circle(double

Functions 33

radius); void print_area_of_circle(double Area); int main() {

prompt_radius();

print_area_of_circle(Area_of_Circle(read_radius()));

return 0;

} void prompt_radius() {

cout << ”Please enter the radius of a circle: ”;

} double read_radius() {

double r;

cin >> r;

return r;

} double Area_of_Circle(double radius) {

const double PI = 3.14159;

return PI*radius*radius;

} void print_area_of_circle(double Area) {

cout << ”Area of circle is ” << Area;

}

For the (tiny) C++ programmes that we will see in these notes we will

prefer the first style of writing programmes.

int foo(int a){return 2*a;} int main() { int b, c = 7; b =

foo(c); cout << ”b = ” << b << ” and c = ” << c; return 0; }

98 Example The scope rules seen in example 65 hold within the bodies of

functions. The fragment

int a = 17, b = -3; int foo(int c)

{

int b;

b = 2*c + a;

cout << ”II: within foo, a = ” << a << ”, b = ”

<< b << ”, and c = ” << c << ’\n’;

return b;

}

34 Chapter 1

void faa(void)

{

int c = b*a;

cout << ”III: within faa, a = ” << a << ”, b = ”

<< b << ”, and c = ” << c << ’\n’;

}

int main() { int a = -5, c = 7; a = foo(c); cout <<”I: within

main, a = ” << a << ”, b = ”

<< b << ”, and c = ” << c << ’\n’;

faa(); return 0; }

will print

II: within foo, a = 17, b = 31, and c = 7 I: within main,

a = 31, b = -3, and c = 7 III: within faa, a = 17, b = -3, and c =

-51

In example 65 we saw how blocks can hide information from other blocks.

Thus if a variable is to be processes by different functions, it must be

external to these functions and it must be declared before these functions

are defined.

original variable is made and it is this copy what the function processes.

The original value is unaffected. This is called passing by value.

int f(int a){a += a; return a;} int main() {

int i = 3;

cout << ”f(i) = ”<< f(i) << ” and i = ” << i;

return 0;

}

Functions 35

will print f(i) = 6 and i = 3, that is, even though the value of i suffered

changes within f(), it was not altered by f().

We see then that simply passing the value of a variable to a function does

not change the contents of the variable. In order to change the contents

of the variable, we must pass the address of the variable rather than it

contents. This is called passing by reference.

int foo(int a) { a = 5;

cout << ”Within foo, a = ” << a << ’\n’;

return 0;

} int faa(int *x) { *x = 5;

cout << ”Within faa, a = ” << *x << ’\n’;

return 0;

} int main() {

int a = 18;

cout << ”Printing I in main, a = ” << a << ’\n’;

foo(a);

cout << ”Printing II in main, a = ” << a << ’\n’;

faa(&a);

cout << ”Printing III in main, a = ” << a << ’\n’;

return 0;

}

will print

Printing I in main, a = 18 Within foo, a = 5 Printing II

in main, a = 18 Within faa, a = 5 Printing III in main, a = 5

102 Example The code following code fragment contains two functions

which purportedly exchange the values of two variables.

int swap_bad(int x, int y) {

int temp;

temp = x;

x = y;

y = temp;

36 Chapter 1

= ” << y << ’\n’;

return 0;

} int swap_good(int *x, int *y) {

int temp;

temp = *x;

*x = *y;

*y = temp;

cout << ”Within swap_good first_var = ” << *x << ” and

second_var = ” << *y << ’\n’;

return 0;

} int main() {

int first_var = 1, second_var = 2;

cout << ”I: in main first_var = ”

<< first_var

<< ” and second_var = ”

<< second_var << ’\n’;

swap_bad(first_var, second_var);

cout << ”II: in main first_var = ”

<< first_var

<< ” and second_var = ”

<< second_var << ’\n’;

swap_good(&first_var, &second_var);

cout << ”III: in main first_var = ”

<< first_var

<< ” and second_var = ”

<< second_var << ’\n’;

return 0;

}

will print

I: In main first_var = 1 and second_var = 2 Within

swap_bad first_var = 2 and second_var = 1 II: In main first_var =

1 and second_var = 2 Within swap_good first_var = 2 and second_var

= 1 III: In main first_var = 2 and second_var = 1

if{}else{} Statement 37

103 Definition The if...else control statement has the following syntax

if (expression)

{statement_1;}

else

{statement_2;}

executed. Otherwise statement_2 is executed.

int a = 3;

if (a < 1 || a > 4)

b = 5;

else

b = 4;

int a = 0;

if (a=0)

cout << ”Aha!”;

will not print anything. a=0 is not a test, it is an assignment, and so this is

equivalent to if(0). The programmer perhaps meant to write

int a = 0;

if (a==0)

cout << ”Aha!”;

segment

int a = 45;

if (0 < a < 5) //ERROR

38 Chapter 1

else

cout << ”The number is not in the right range.”;

because the compiler will first evaluate 0<a giving 1, then it will evaluate

1< 5 giving 1 again. Thus the test evaluates to true. The intended code is

rather

int a = 45;

if (0 < a && a < 5)

cout << ”The number is in the right range.”;

else

cout << ”The number is not in the right range.”;

106 Example The logical AND and the logical OR have a short-circuiting

property that it is at times rather useful. If the first argument in a && b is

0, then b is not evaluated and the output of a && b is 0 no matter what b

might be. Similarly, if the first argument in a || b is 1, then b is not

evaluated and the output of a || b is 1 no matter what b might be. For

example, the programme segment

int a = -3, b = 0;

if ((a + 3) && a/b)

will not cause division by 0, as the test will be short-circuited because a+3

evaluates to 0.

107 Example Care must be exercised with the grouping. C++ ignores

indentation. The fragment

int a = 4, b = 5;

if (a < 3)

b = 7;

a = a + b;

cout << ”a = ” << a;

if{}else{} Statement 39

int a = 4, b = 5;

if (a < 3)

{b = 7;

a = a + b;}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

will print a = 4.

most recent if in the same block that does not have its own else, unless

coerced by means of braces to do otherwise.

108 Example What is the value of c at the end of the following code

fragment?

int a=0,b=1,c=2;

if(a) if(b) c=3;

else c=4;

Solution: First notice that both ifs are in the same block and hence the

else belongs to the nearest if, that is, to if(c) k=3;. Thus this fragment

can be written as

int a=0,b=1,c=2;

if(a) {if(b) c=3; else c=4;}

Now the test in if(a) is false, hence control is passed after the brace.

This means that c has not changed at all, and hence c==2.

109 Example What is the value of c at the end of the following code

fragment?

int a=0,b=1,c=2;

if(a) {if(b) c=3;}

else c=4;

40 Chapter 1

Solution: In this case the else does not to belong to the same block as

if(b), but it is in the same block as if(a), and so it belongs to it. The

test in if(a) evaluates to false and hence control is passed to the else.

This makes c==4.

C++ provides a way to avoid repeated if...else statements.

switch(condition)

{

case constant_1: option_1; break;

case constant_2: option_2; break;

.

.

.

case constant_N: option_N; break;

default : default_option; break;

}

Here condition must be of int or char type, or a related type that can be

converted into one of these two. The cases must all be different. If one of

the cases is met, its option is executed and the control is passed to the

closing brace. If break; does not appear in a case, the next case will be

executed. The default statement is optional, and only one default

statement is allowed.

int a = 2, b = 2;

switch(b)

{

case 1: a = -1; break;

case 2: a = 0; break;

case 3: a = 1; break;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

switch{} Statement 41

will print a = 0.

int a = 2, b = 2;

switch(b)

{

case 1: a = -1; break;

case 2: a = 0;

case 3: a = 1; break;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

there is no break; control is passed to the next case, which assigns 1 to

a.

int a = 2, b = 0;

switch(b)

{

case 1: a = -1; break;

case 2: a = 0; break;

case 3: a = 1; break;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

switch statement does not modify a.

int a = 2, b = 0;

switch(b)

{

case 1: a = -1; break;

case 2: a = 0; break;

case 3: a = 1; break;

42 Chapter 1

default: a = 27;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

int a = 3, b = 1, c = 1;

switch(c)

{

case (a - b): a = -1; break;

case 3: a = 1; break;

default: a = 27;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

int a = 3, b = 2,;

switch(b)

{

case (1||2): a = -1; break;

case 3: a = 1; break;

default: a = 27;

}

cout << ”a = ” << a;

117 Definition The for() loop has syntax

for(initial_condition; test_condition ; loop_changes )

{body of loop}

for(){} Loop 43

Any of the parts in a for loop may be omitted. Here we start with the initial

condition. It if meets the test condition, the body of the loop is executed

and then the loop changes. This procedure goes on until the test

condition evaluates to false.

int a = 2, b = 5, i;

for(i = 3; i < 8; i += 2, b--)

{//opens body of for

a += b;

cout << ”a is ”

<< a

<< ”, b is ”

<< b << ”, and i is ”

<< i << ’\n’;

}//closes body of for

will print

a is 7, b is 5, and i is 3 a is 11, b is 4, and i is 5 a

is 14, b is 3, and i is 7

We start with i == 3. We test whether i < 8, which is true. The body of

the loop is executed and we get a == 7. The loop changes are executed

and we get i == 5 and b == 4. We test again i < 8, which is true. The

body of the loop is executed and we get a == 11. The loop changes are

executed and we get i == 7 and b == 3. We test whether i < 8, which is

true. The body of the loop is executed and we get a == 14. The loop

changes are executed and we get i == 9 and b == 2. We test whether

i < 8, which is false. We stop.

119 Example The code in example 118 could have been written as

int a = 2, b = 5;

for(int i = 3; i < 8; i += 2, b--)

{//opens body of for

a += b;

cout << ”a is ”

<< a

44 Chapter 1

<< ”, b is ”

<< b << ”, and i is ”

<< i << ’\n’;

}//closes body of for

118 the variable i is available for later use, as it is not local to the block in

the for loop. In this second case, some compilers will not make i

available for later use.

long int n;

cout << ”Enter a positive integer: ” ;

cin >> n;

int factorial = 1;

for(int i=1; i <= n; i++) factorial = factorial*i;

cout << n <<”! is ” << factorial << ’\n’;

Since these numbers grow rather fast and memory space is scarce, my

system is only able to calculate up to 16! accurately.

121 Definition The while() loop has syntax

while(test)

{body_of_loop}

The commands in the body of the loop will be executed as long as the

test evaluates to true.

int a = 10, b = 4;

while(a - b)

{

a--; b++;

cout << ”a is ” << a << ” and b is ” << b << ’\n’;

Examples of Full Programmes 45

will print

a is 9 and b is 5 a is 8 and b is 6 a is 7 and b is 7

! Had we written

int a = 10, b = 3;

while(a - b)

{

a--; b++;

cout << ”a is ” << a << ” and b is ” << b << ’\n’;

}

an infinite loop.

We are now ready to write complete C++ programmes. The programmes

here are rather elementary and do not exploit the full capabilities of the

C++ language. I wrote these programmes in a hurry, so if you discover

bugs, please tell me. Remember that in a cout line there must be

matching double quotes. If they don’t match in the presentation here, it is

because of the idiosyncracies of LaTeX. I will improve these programmes

some time in the future.

integer. The programme must prompt the user for a series of integers,

one integer at the time. The programme will stop when the user enters a

negative integer or 0.

will truncate the decimal part of a quotient, and so, effectively,

46 Chapter 1

the following functions: (1) a function that prompts the user for input or to

stop, (2) a function reading the input, (3) a function reversing the digits of

the integer. The programme will then will resemble the one below.

//digit_reversal.cpp

#include <iostream> using namespace std; void prompt_user()

{//opens prompt_user

cout << ”\nLet\’s reverse the digits of a positive integer.\n”;

cout << ”Enter a positive integer.\n”;

cout << ”Enter 0 or a negative integer to stop: ”;

}//closes prompt_user

int read_input()

{//opens read_input

int a;

cin >> a;

if(a <=0) {//opens if

cout << ”You have decided to quit. Good Bye.\n”;

return 0;

}//closes if

else return a;

}//closes read_input

int reverse(int b)

{//opens reverse

int x = 0;

while (b)

{//opens while

x = x *10 + b % 10; //x accumulates the truncated digit

b = b/10; //truncates a digit of the input integer

}//closes while

return x;

}//closes reverse

int main()

{//opens main

prompt_user();

int input_var = read_input();

while(input_var)

{//opens while

cout << input_var

Examples of Full Programmes 47

<< ” reversed is ”

<< reverse(input_var);

prompt_user();

input_var = read_input();

}//closes while

return 0;

} //closes main

where the stream cout is defined. It instructs the compiler to replace the

line #include <iostream> with the contents of the header file iostream.h

Each #include directive requires its own line. For example, you cannot

write \#include <iostream> using.

The statement using namespace std; localises the name of the

directives and functions making reference to them easier. All statements

must end in semicolon.

125 Example Recall that a positive integer p > 1 is a prime if its only

positive integral divisors are 1 and p itself. The series of primes goes thus

like 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, . . .. Write a programme determining whether

a given integer is a prime.

Solution: Our input will only accept positive integers. Observe that 2 is

the only even prime. Thus we test the input integer to see whether it is 1 (

which is neither prime nor composite), 2 (which is a prime), or an even

number greater than 2 (in which case the number is composite). If neither

of these applies, then the number, call it p, is odd and greater than 1. We

then divide p by every odd integer up to p − 2. If p is not divisible by any

of these integers, then p must be prime. Observe that this algorithm

makes about p/2 tests. In the Number Theory Chapter we will see that

√

the same algorithm used here only requires about p tests.

//rudimentary_primality.cpp

#include <iostream> using namespace std; void prompt_user()

{//opens prompt_user

cout << ”\nLet\’s test the primality of a positive integer.\n”;

cout << ”Enter a positive integer.\n”;

cout << ”Enter 0 or a negative integer to stop: ”;

}//closes prompt_user int read_input() {//opens read_input

48 Chapter 1

int a;

cin >> a;

if(a <=0){cout << ”You have decided to quit. Good Bye.\n”;

return 0;}

else if (a==1) {cout << a

<< ” is neither prime nor composite.\n”;

return a;}

else if (a==2) {cout << a << ” is prime.\n”; return a;}

else if (a%2 == 0) {cout << a << ” is an even

number.\n” ; return a; }

else return a;

}//closes read_input void primality_test(int p) {//opens

primality_test

if(p%2!=0) {// opens if(p%2!=0)

bool flag = true;

for(int i=3; i < p; i += 2) if (p%i ==0) {flag = false;

break;}

if (flag) cout << p << ” is prime.\n” << ’\n’;

else cout << p

<< ” is not prime.”

<< ” Its smallest prime factor is ”

<< i << ’\n’;

}//closes if(p%2!=0)

}//closes primality_test int main() {//opens main prompt_user();

int input_var = read_input(); while(input_var)

{//opens while

primality_test(input_var);

prompt_user();

input_var = read_input();

}//closes while

return 0; }//closes main

#include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> #include <ctime>

using namespace std; void prompt_user() {//opens prompt_user

cout << ”\nLet\’s play PAPER, ROCK, or SCISSORS.\n”;

cout << ”Enter \’P\’, \’R’, or \’S\’.\n”;

cout << ”Enter \’Q\’ to stop: ”;

Examples of Full Programmes 49

char a;

bool flag;

do{ cin >> a;

flag=false;

if(!(a ==’P’ || a == ’p’ || a == ’R’ || a == ’r’ || a ==

’S’ || a == ’s’ ||

a == ’Q’ || a == ’q’)){flag = !flag; cout <<”Unrecognised

choice. Try again.\n”; prompt_user();}

else break;

}

while(flag);

if(a == ’Q’ || a == ’q’ ) {cout << ”You have decided to quit.

Good Bye.\n”; exit(1);}

else switch(a)

{case ’p’: return ’P’; break;

case ’P’: return ’P’; break;

case ’r’: return ’R’; break;

case ’R’: return ’R’; break;

case ’s’: return ’S’; break;

case ’S’: return ’S’; break;

}

}//closes user_input char computer_input()

{//opens computer_input

srand(time(NULL));

switch((rand() % 3))

{

case 0: return ’P’; break;

case 1: return ’R’; break;

case 2: return ’S’; break;

}

}//closes computer_input

void decide_winner(char computer, char user) { if(computer==user)

{cout << ”Computer picked ” << user << ” too! It is a

tie!\n”;}

else if ((user == ’P’ && computer == ’S’)

|| (user == ’S’ && computer== ’R’)

|| (user==’R’ && computer== ’P’) )

50 Chapter 1

against your ” << user << ”. Computer wins.”;

else cout << ”Computer picked ” << computer << ”

against your ” << user << ”. User wins.”;

}

int main()

{//opens main

while(1)

{prompt_user();

comp_choice = computer_input();

user_choice = user_input();

decide_winner(comp_choice, user_choice);

}

return 0;

}//closes main

simulates the game “PAPER, ROCK, SCISSORS.” The user plays against

the computer, which prompts him for an option of these three and

produces its random choice (the computer does not cheat!). The function

rand() resides in the header file cstdlib and produces a pseudo-random

integer. In order to further randomise the computer choice, we put a

time-dependent seed via the instruction srand(time(NULL));. Since we

only have three choices, we reduce num_equiv_comp modulo 3 to produce

a random integer in the set {0, 1, 2}.

127 Example Write a programme where the user inputs three numerical

real number coefficients a, b, and c and then solves the equation

ax2 + bx + c. If the equation is quadratic, it must provide for the cases

Examples of Full Programmes 51

when the roots are complex. If the equation is linear, it must tell the user

that it is a linear equation. If the equation is degenerate, it must tell the

user so.

//solving_quadratics.cpp

#include <iostream>

#include <cmath>

using namespace std;

int main()

{ //opens main

double a, b, c, discriminant;

cout << ”Enter a first coefficient: ”;

cin >> a;

cout << ”\nEnter a second coefficient: ”;

cin >> b;

cout << ”\nEnter a third coefficient: ”;

cin >> c;

discriminant = b*b - 4*a*c;

if (a==0 && b==0)

cout << ”\nThe equation axˆ2 + bx + c = 0 is

degenerate.” << ’\n’;

else if (a==0 && b!=0)

{ //opens linear

cout << ”\nThe equation axˆ2 + bx + c = 0 is

linear.”;

cout << ”\nIt has a unique root x = ” << -c/b <<

’\n’;

} //closes linear

else

{ //opens quadratic

cout << ”\nThe equation axˆ2 + bx + c = 0 is

quadratic.”;

if (discriminant < 0)

{ //opens complex

cout << ”\nIt has two complex roots: x_1 = ”

<< -b/(2*a)

52 Chapter 1

<< ” + i”

<< sqrt(-discriminant)/(2*a);

cout << ” and x_2 = ”

<< -b/(2*a)

<< ” - i”

<< sqrt(-discriminant)/(2*a) << ’\n’;

} //closes complex

else

{ //opens real

cout << ”\nIt has two real roots: x_1 = ”

<< (-b + sqrt(discriminant))/(2*a);

cout << ” and x_2 = ”

<< (-b - sqrt(discriminant))/(2*a) <<

’\n’ ;

} //closes real

} //closes quadratic

return 0;

} //closes main

We had to recur to the header file cmath which contains the square root

function. Observe that since we had to use several blocks, we

commented each brace. This is a good practice in general.

128 Example Write a programme where the user inputs three real

numbers a, b, and c and tells whether these numbers form the lengths of

a triangle. If a triangle can be formed with the given input, then it will find

its area by means of Heron’s formula

p

where

a+b+c

s=

2

is the semi-perimeter of the triangle. If at a given point the user enters a

non-positive number, the programme should stop then.

#include <iostream>

Examples of Full Programmes 53

#include <cmath>

using namespace std;

int main()

{ //opens main

double a, b, c;

cout << ”Enter a first length: ”;

cin >> a;

if (a<=0) {cout << ”Bad input.\n”; exit(1);}

cout << ”\nEnter a second length: ”;

cin >> b;

if (b<=0) {cout << ”Bad input.\n”; exit(1);}

cout << ”\nEnter a third length: ”;

cin >> c;

if (b<=0) {cout << ”Bad input.\n”; exit(1);}

if (a + b <= c || a + c <= b || b + c <= a)

cout << ”Sorry, these don’t form a triangle.\n”;

else

{//opens area computation

double s = (a + b + c)/2;

cout << ”The area of the triangle is ”

<< sqrt(s*(s - a)*(s - b)*(s - c))

<< ” square units.\n”;

} //closes area computation

return 0;

} //closes main

when this instruction is reached.

numeral between 1 and 3999 to a roman numeral.

//arabic_to_roman.cpp

#include <iostream>

#include <string>

using namespace std;

int main()

{ //opens main

int input_int;

54 Chapter 1

and 3999: ”;

cin >> input_int;

while(input_int < 1 || input_int > 3999)

{ //opens input-prompting while

cout << ”Sorry, wrong input, try again.\n”;

cout << ”Enter a decimal hindu-arabic number between 1

and 3999: ”;

cin >> input_int;

}//closes input-prompting while

int copy_input = input_int, a[] = {1000, 900, 500, 400,

100, 90, 50, 40, 10, 9, 5, 4, 1}, r_position = 0;

string roman_conv = ””, r[] = {”M”, ”CM”,

”D”,”CD”,”C”,”XC”,”L”,”XL”,”X”,”IX”,”V”,”IV”,”I”};

for(int a_position = 0; a_position<=12; a_position++,

r_position++)

{while(input_int >= a[a_position]){input_int -= a[a_position];

roman_conv += r[r_position]; }}

cout << ”The roman conversion of ” << copy_input << ” is: ”

<< roman_conv << ’\n’;

return 0;

} //closes main

100. Initially all are open. An attendant performs a number of operations

T2 , T3 , . . . , T100 whereby with the operation Tk , 2 ≤ k ≤ 100, the condition of

being locked or unlocked is changed for all those lockers and only those

lockers whose numbers are multiples of k. Write C++ code to determine

which lockers remain open.

chapter we will see that only the lockers whose numbers are perfect

squares remain open.

//locker_problem.cpp

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

Examples of Full Programmes 55

int main()

{ //opens main

bool locker[101];

//setting every locker open == true.

for(int i = 1; i <= 100; i++) locker[i] = true;

for(int j = 2; j <=100; j++)

{for(int k = 1; k <= 100; k++) if(k % j == 0) locker[k] =

!locker[k]; }

for(int l = 1; l <= 100 ; l++ ) if(locker[l]) cout << ”Locker ”

<< l << ” remains open.\n ”;

return 0;

} //closes main

56 Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Essential Techniques

In this section we will see examples of proofs by contradiction. That is, in

trying to prove a premise, we assume that its negation is true and deduce

incompatible statements from this.

√ 1

131 Example Show, without using a calculator, that 6 − 35 < .

10

√ 1 1 √ √

Solution: Assume that 6 − 35 ≥. Then 6 − ≥ 35 or 59 ≥ 10 35.

10 10

Squaring both sides we obtain 3841 ≥ 3500, which is clearly nonsense.

√ 1

Thus it must be the case that 6 − 35 < .

10

numbers 1, 2, . . . , n, where n is an odd number. Prove that the product

is even.

Solution: First observe that the sum of an odd number of odd integers is

odd. It is enough to prove that some difference ak − k is even. Assume

1

2 Chapter 2

summands of odd integers adding to the even integer 0. This is

impossible. Our initial assumption that all the ak − k are odd is wrong, so

one of these is even and hence the product is even.

√

133 Example Prove that 2 is irrational.

Solution: For this proof, we will accept as fact that any positive integer

greater than 1 can be factorised uniquely as the product of primes (up to

the order of the factors).

√ a

Assume that 2 = , with positive integers a, b. This yields 2b2 = a2 .

b

Now both a2 and b2 have an even number of prime factors. So 2b2 has an

odd numbers of primes in its factorisation and a2 has an even number of

primes in its factorisation. This is a contradiction.

134 Example Let a, b be real numbers and assume that for all numbers

> 0 the following inequality holds:

a < b + .

Prove that a ≤ b.

a−b

Solution: Assume contrariwise that a > b. Hence > 0. Since the

2

inequality a < b + holds for every > 0 in particular it holds for

a−b

= . This implies that

2

a−b

a<b+ or a < b.

2

Thus starting with the assumption that a > b we reach the incompatible

conclusion that a < b. The original assumption must be wrong. We

therefore conclude that a ≤ b.

135 Example Show that there are infinitely many prime numbers.

Reductio ad Absurdum 3

Solution: We need to assume for this proof that any integer greater than 1

is either a prime or a product of primes. The following beautiful proof

goes back to Euclid.

Assume that {p1 , p2 , . . . , pn } is a list that exhauts all the primes. Consider

the numberN = p1 p2 · · · pn + 1. This is a positive integer, clearly greater

than 1. Observe that none of the primes on the list {p1 , p2 , . . . , pn } divides

N, since division by any of these primes leaves a remainder of 1. Since N

is larger than any of the primes on this list, it is either a prime or divisible

by a prime outside this list. Thus we have shown that the assumption that

any finite list of primes leads to the existence of a prime outside this list.

This implies that the number of primes is infinite.

136 Example Let n > 1 be a composite integer. Prove that n has a prime

factor p ≤ n.

√ as n =√ab where both

a > 1, b >√ 1 are

√ integers. Now, if both a > n and b > n then

n=√ ab > n n = n, a contradiction. Thus one of √ these factors must be

≤ n and a fortiori it must have a prime factor ≤ n.

The preceding result can be used to test √ for primality. For example, to

show that 101 is prime, we compute b 101c = 10. By the preceding

problem, either 101 is prime or it is divisible by 2, 3, 5, or 7 (the primes

smaller than 10). Since neither of these primes divides 101, we conclude

that 101 is prime.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

137 Problem The product of 34 integers is equal to 1. Show that their sum

cannot be 0.

1 1 1

+ + ··· + = 1.

a1 a2 a2000

4 Chapter 2

symmetric, e.g. 1, 2, 11, 121, 15677651 (but not 010, 0110) are palindromes.

Prove that there is no positive palindrome which is divisible by 10.

√

142 Problem Let 0 < α < 1. Prove that α > α.

where there are at least 2000 nines. Prove

that the decimal expansion of α also starts with at least 2000 nines.

at most two solutions.

a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 then both solutions must be negative.

cannot have a rational root.

The Pigeonhole Principle states that if n + 1 pigeons fly to n holes, there

must be a pigeonhole containing at least two pigeons. This apparently

trivial principle is very powerful. Thus in any group of 13 people, there are

always two who have their birthday on the same month, and if the

average human head has two million hairs, there are at least three people

in NYC with the same number of hairs on their head.

The Pigeonhole Principle is useful in proving existence problems, that is,

we show that something exists without actually identifying it concretely.

Let us see some more examples.

Pigeonhole Principle 5

147 Example (P UTNAM 1978) Let A be any set of twenty integers chosen

from the arithmetic progression 1, 4, . . . , 100. Prove that there must be two

distinct integers in A whose sum is 104.

nineteen groups

{1}, {52}, {4, 100}, {7, 97}, {10, 94}, . . . , {49, 55}.

Since we are choosing twenty integers and we have nineteen sets, by the

Pigeonhole Principle there must be two integers that belong to one of the

pairs, which add to 104.

148 Example Show that amongst any seven distinct positive integers not

exceeding 126, one can find two of them, say a and b, which satisfy

b < a ≤ 2b.

Solution: Split the numbers {1, 2, 3, . . . , 126} into the six sets

{1, 2}, {3, 4, 5, 6}, {7, 8, . . . , 13, 14}, {15, 16, . . . , 29, 30},

{31, 32, . . . , 61, 62} and {63, 64, . . . , 126}.

By the Pigeonhole Principle, two of the seven numbers must lie in one of

the six sets, and obviously, any such two will satisfy the stated inequality.

149 Example No matter which fifty five integers may be selected from

{1, 2, . . . , 100},

prove that one must select some two that differ by 10.

2n consecutive integers, there will always be some two that differ by n.

This is because we can pair the 2n consecutive integers

{a + 1, a + 2, a + 3, . . . , a + 2n}

into the n pairs

{a + 1, a + n + 1}, {a + 2, a + n + 2}, . . . , {a + n, a + 2n},

6 Chapter 2

and if n + 1 integers are chosen from this, there must be two that belong

to the same group.

So now group the one hundred integers as follows:

and

{81, 82, . . . , 100}.

If we select fifty five integers, we must perforce choose eleven from some

group. From that group, by the above observation (let n = 10), there must

be two that differ by 10.

150 Example (A HSME 1994) Label one disc “1”, two discs “2”, three discs

“3”, . . . , fifty discs ‘‘50”. Put these 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 50 = 1275 labeled discs

in a box. Discs are then drawn from the box at random without

replacement. What is the minimum number of discs that must me drawn

in order to guarantee drawing at least ten discs with the same label?

any nine from each of the discs “10”, . . . , “50”, we have drawn

45 + 9 · 41 = 414 discs. The 415-th disc drawn will assure at least ten

discs from a label.

another—each one with all the rest. In their letters only three different

topics are discussed. Each pair of correspondents deals with only one of

these topics. Prove that there at least three people who write to each

other about the same topic.

corresponds with sixteen others. By the Pigeonhole Principle, Charlie

must write to at least six of the people of one topic, say topic I. If any pair

of these six people corresponds on topic I, then Charlie and this pair do

the trick, and we are done. Otherwise, these six correspond amongst

themselves only on topics II or III. Choose a particular person from this

group of six, say Eric. By the Pigeonhole Principle, there must be three of

Pigeonhole Principle 7

the five remaining that correspond with Eric in one of the topics, say topic

II. If amongst these three there is a pair that corresponds with each other

on topic II, then Eric and this pair correspond on topic II, and we are

done. Otherwise, these three people only correspond with one another

on topic III, and we are done again.

152 Example Given any set of ten natural numbers between 1 and 99

inclusive, prove that there are two disjoint nonempty subsets of the set

with equal sums of their elements.

Solution: There are 210 − 1 = 1023 non-empty subsets that one can form

with a given 10-element set. To each of these subsets we associate the

sum of its elements. The maximum value that any such sum can achieve

is 90 + 91 + · · · + 99 = 945 < 1023. Therefore, there must be at least two

different subsets that have the same sum.

153 Example Given any 9 integers whose prime factors lie in the set

{3, 7, 11} prove that there must be two whose product is a square.

factorisation must be even. Any integer in the given set has a prime

factorisation of the form 3a 7b 11c . Now each triplet (a, b, c) has one of the

following 8 parity patterns: (even, even, even), (even, even, odd), (even,

odd, even), (even, odd, odd), (odd, even, even), (odd, even, odd), (odd,

odd, even), (odd, odd, odd). In a group of 9 such integers, there must be

two with the same parity patterns in the exponents. Take these two. Their

product is a square, since the sum of each corresponding exponent will

be even.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

154 Problem Prove that among n integers, there are always two whose

difference is always divisible by n.

155 Problem (A HSME 1991) A circular table has exactly sixty chairs

around it. There are N people seated at this table in such a way that the

next person to be seated must sit next to someone. What is the smallest

possible value of N?

8 Chapter 2

Answer: 20.

156 Problem Show that if any five points are all in, or √

on, a square of side

1, then some pair of them will be at most at distance 2/2.

six people in a room there are at least three who know one another, or at

least three who do not know one another.

158 Problem Show that in any sum of nonnegative real numbers there is

always one number which is at least the average of the numbers and that

there is always one member that it is at most the average of the numbers.

159 Problem We call a set “sum free” if no two elements of the set add up

to a third element of the set. What is the maximum size of a sum free

subset of {1, 2, . . . , 2n − 1}.

sum free. Show that any subset with n + 2 elements is not sum free.

160 Problem (M MPC 1992) Suppose that the letters of the English

alphabet are listed in an arbitrary order.

consonants.

3. Suppose that all the letters are arranged in a circle. Prove that there

must be five consecutive consonants.

161 Problem (S TANFORD 1953) Bob has ten pockets and forty four silver

dollars. He wants to put his dollars into his pockets so distributed that

each pocket contains a different number of dollars.

1. Can he do so?

Pigeonhole Principle 9

problem is most interesting when

(p − 1)(p − 2)

n= .

2

Why?

number obtained from M by writing the same digits in reversed order.

Prove that at least one digit in the decimal representation of the number

M + N is even.

163 Problem No matter which fifty five integers may be selected from

{1, 2, . . . , 100},

prove that you must select some two that differ by 9, some two that differ

by 10, some two that differ by 12, and some two that differ by 13, but that

you need not have any two that differ by 11.

164 Problem Let mn + 1 different real numbers be given. Prove that there

is either an increasing sequence with at least n + 1 members, or a

decreasing sequence with at least m + 1 members.

165 Problem If the points of the plane are coloured with three colours,

show that there will always exist two points of the same colour which are

one unit apart.

166 Problem Show that if the points of the plane are coloured with two

colours, there will always exist an equilateral triangle with all its vertices of

the same colour. There is, however, a colouring of the points of the plane

with two colours for which no equilateral triangle of side 1 has all its

vertices of the same colour.

international conference and discover that amongst any three of them, at

least two speak a common language. If each of the mathematicians can

speak at most three languages, prove that there are at least three of the

mathematicians who can speak the same language.

10 Chapter 2

168 Problem (U SAMO 1982) In a party with 1982 persons, amongst any

group of four there is at least one person who knows each of the other

three. What is the minimum number of people in the party who know

everyone else?

169 Problem (U SAMO 1985) There are n people at a party. Prove that

there are two people such that, of the remaining n − 2 people, there are

at least [n/2] − 1 of them, each of whom knows both or else knows

neither of the two. Assume that “knowing” is a symmetrical relationship.

mathematicians fell asleep exactly twice. For each pair of these

mathematicians, there was some moment when both were sleeping

simultaneously. Prove that, at some moment, some three were sleeping

simultaneously.

2.3 Inclusion-Exclusion

In the Venn diagram below, we mark by R1 the number of elements which

are simultaneously in both sets (i.e., in A ∩ B), by R2 the number of

elements which are in AA but not in B (i.e., in A \ B),

B and by R3 the number

R2 R1 R3

Let |X| denote the number of elements of the set X. Now clearly

R1 + R2 + R3 = |A ∪ B|. This gives the Inclusion-Exclusion Formula for two

sets

[ \

(2.1) |A B| = |A| + |B| − |A B|

Inclusion-Exclusion 11

known that 10 both smoke and chew. How many among the 40 neither

smoke nor chew?

Solution: Let A denote the set of smokers and B the set of chewers. Then

meaning that there are 34 people that either smoke or chew (or possibly

both). Therefore the number of people that neither smoke nor chew is

40 − 34 = 6.

Aliter: We fill up the Venn diagram below as follows. Since |A ∩ B| = 8, we

put an 10 in the intersection. Then we put a 28 − 10 = 18 in the part that

A does not overlap B and a 16 − 10 = 6 in the part of B that does not

overlap A. We have accounted for 10 + 186+ 6 = 34 people that are in at

least one of the set. The remaining

A 40 − 34 B= 6 are outside the sets.$.4in]

18 8 6

172 Definition We use φ(n), the Euler phi function to denote the number

of integers k, 1 ≤ k ≤ n which are relatively prime to n.

173 Example How many integer between 1 and 1000 inclusive, do not

share a common factor with 1000, that is, are relatively prime to 1000?

and thus from the 1000 integer we must weed out those that have a factor

of 2 or of 5 in their prime factorisation. If A2 denotes the set of those

integers divisible by 2 in the interval [1, 1000] then clearly

1000

|A2 | = b c = 500. Similarly, if A5 denotes the set of those integers

2

1000 1000

divisible by 5 then |A5 | = b c = 200. Also |A2 ∩ A5 | = b c = 100.

5 10

This means that there are |A2 ∪ A5 | = 500 + 200 − 100 = 600 integers in

the interval [1, 100] sharing at least a factor with 1000, thus there are

1000 − 600 = 400 integers in [1, 1000] that do not share a factor prime

factor with 1000.

12 Chapter 2

We define φ(1) = 1. Let n > 1 with prime factorisation n = pα1 1 pα2 2 · · · pαk k .

Then it is possible to show by a generalised Inclusion-Exclusion

argument that

φ(n) = n 1 − p11 1 − p12 · · · 1 − p1k

(2.2)

= (pα1 1 − p1α1 −1 )(pα2 2 − pα2 2 −1 ) · · · (pαk k − pαk k −1 )

We now derive the Inclusion-Exclusion formula for three sets. Using the

associativity and distributivity of unions of sets, we see that

|A ∪ B ∪ C| = |A ∪ (B ∪ C)|

= |A| + |B ∪ C| − |A ∩ (B ∪ C)|

= |A| + |B ∪ C| − |(A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)|

= |A| + |B| + |C| − |B ∩ C|

− (|A ∩ B| + |A ∩ C| − |(A ∩ B) ∩ (A ∩ C)|)

= |A| + |B| + |C| − |B ∩ C|

− (|A ∩ B| + |A ∩ C| − |A ∩ B ∩ C|)

= |A| + |B| + |C| − |A ∩ B| − |B ∩ C| − |C ∩ A|

+|A ∩ B ∩ C|.

This gives the Inclusion-Exclusion Formula for three sets. See also figure

1.2.

|A ∪ B ∪ C| = |A| + |B| + |C| − |A ∩ B| − |B ∩ C|

(2.3)

−|C ∩ A| + |A ∩ B ∩ C|

Observe that in the Venn diagram below there are 8 disjoint regions (the 7

that form A ∪ B ∪ C and the outside region, devoid of any element

belonging to A ∪ B ∪ C).$.6in]

174 Example In how many ways can one decompose the set

{1, 2, 3, . . . , 100} into subsets A, B, C satisfying

Solution: The conditions of the problem stipulate that both the region

outside the circles in diagram 1.2 and R3 will be empty. We are thus left

with 6 regions to distribute 100 numbers. To each of the 100 numbers we

may thus assign one of 6 labels. The number of sets thus required is 6100 .

Inclusion-Exclusion 13

175 Example How many integers between 1 and 600 inclusive are not

divisible by neither 3, nor 5, nor 7?

Solution: Let Ak denote the numbers in [1, 600] which are divisible by

k = 3, 5, 7. Then

|A3 | = b 600

3

c = 200,

600

|A5 | = b 5 c = 120,

|A7 | = b 600

7

c = 85,

600

|A15 | = b 15 c = 40

|A21 | = b 600

21

c = 28

600

|A35 | = b 35 c = 17

600

|A105 | = b 105 c = 5

By Inclusion-Exclusion there are 200 + 120 + 85 − 28 − 21 − 17 + 5 = 325

integers in [1, 600] divisible by at least one of 3, 5, or 7. Those not

divisible by these numbers are a total of 600 − 325 = 275.

and 10 speak French. It is known that 5 speak English and Spanish, 5

Spanish and French, and 7 English and French. The number of people

speaking all three languages is 3. How many do not speak any of these

languages?

Solution: Let A be the set of all English speakers, B the set of Spanish

speakers and C the set of French speakers in our group. We fill up the

following Venn diagram successively. In the intersection of all three we

put 8. In the region common to A and B which is not filled up we put

5 − 2 = 3. In the region common to A and C which is not already filled up

we put 5 − 3 = 2. In the region common to B and C which is not already

filled up, we put 7 − 3 = 4. In the remaining part of A we put

8 − 2 − 3 − 2 = 1, in the remaining part of B we put 12 − 4 − 3 − 2 = 3, and

in the remaining part of C we put 10 − 2 − 3 − 4 = 1. Each of the mutually

disjoint regions comprise a total of 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 + 3 = 16 persons.

Those outside these three sets are then 30 − 16 = 14.$.4in]

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

177 Problem How many integers between 1 and 3012 are divisible by 5 or

7 but not by both numbers?

14 Chapter 2

178 Problem Would you believe a market investigator who reports that of

1000 people, 816 like candy, 723 ice cream, 645 cake, while 562 like both

candy and ice cream, 463 like both candy and cake, 470 like both ice

cream and cake, while 310 like all three?

179 Problem (Lewis Carroll) In a very hotly fought battle, at least 70% of

the combatants lost an eye, at least 75% an ear, at least 80% an arm, and

at least 85% a leg. What can be said about the percentage that lost all

four members?

C, were posed. Amongst the participants there were twenty-five students

who solved at least one problem each. Of all the contestants who did not

solve problem A, the number who solved problem B was twice the number

who solved problem C. The number of students who solved only problem

A was one more than the number of students who solved problem A and

at least one other problem. Of all the students who solved just one

problem, half did not solve A. How many students solved only problem B?

Maths. Of them, 92 passed French, 72 English, and 63 Maths. It is also

known that at most 65 passed French and English, at most 54 French and

Maths, and at most 48 English and Maths. Find the largest possible

number of students that could have passed all three subjects.

182 Problem How many integers between 1 and 49000 inclusive are not

divisible by 3, 5 or 7?

183 Problem How many integers from 1 to 1 000 000 inclusive are neither

perfect squares, perfect cubes, nor perfect fourth powers?

x + y = min(x, y) + max(x, y)

Parity 15

2.4 Parity

187 Example Two diametrically opposite corners of a chess board are

deleted. Show that it is impossible to tile the remaining 62 squares with 31

dominoes.

Solution: Each domino covers one red square and one black squares.

But diametrically opposite corners are of the same colour, hence this

tiling is impossible.

188 Example All the dominoes in a set are laid out in a chain according to

the rules of the game. If one end of the chain is a 6, what is at the other

end?

Solution: At the other end there must be a 6 also. Each number of spots

must occur in a pair, so that we may put them end to end. Since there are

eight 6’s, this last 6 pairs off with the one at the beginning of the chain.

189 Definition The midpoint of the line joining (x, y) to (x1 , y1 ) is the point

x + x1 y + y 1

, .

2 2

matter what choice of sign ± is put in between them, the sum will never

be 0.

not affected by the choice of sign, for any choice of sign ±1 ± 2 ± · · · ± 10

will never be even, in particular it will never be 0.

191 Definition A lattice point (m, n) on the plane is one having integer

coordinates.

16 Chapter 2

192 Example Five lattice points are chosen at random. Prove that one

can always find two so that the midpoint of the line joining them is also a

lattice point.

Solution: There are four parity patterns: (even, even), (even, odd), (odd,

odd), (odd, even). By the Pigeonhole Principle among five lattice points

there must be two having the same parity pattern. Choose these two. It is

clear that their midpoint is an integer.

For the following examples we will need to know the names of the

following tetrominoes. $.4in]

L-tetromino T- Straight- Skew-

$.4in] tetromino$.4in]tetromino$.4in]

tetromino$.4in]

Show that an 8 × 8 chessboard cannot be tiles with 15 straight

tetrominoes and one L-tetromino.

A straight tetromino will always cover an even number of red boxes and

the L-tetromino will always cover an odd number of red squares. If the

tiling were possible, then we would be covering an odd number of red

squares, a contradiction.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

193 Problem Twenty-five boys and girls are seated at a round table. Show

that both neighbours of at least one student are girls.

194 Problem A closed path is made of 2001 line segments. Prove that

there is no line, not passing through a vertex of the path, intersecting

each of the segments of the path.

starts erasing any two of them and replacing the deleted ones with their

difference. Will a situation arise where all the numbers on the blackboard

be 0?

straight tetrominoes.

Parity 17

T-tetrominoes and one square tetromino.

18 Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Counting

198 Example n equally spaced points 1, 2, . . . , n are marked on a

circumference. If 15 directly opposite to 49, how many points are there

total?

Solution: Points 16, 17, . . . , 48 are 33 in total and are on the same side of

the diameter joining 15 to 49. For each of these points there is a

corresponding diametrically opposite point. There are thus a total of

2 · 33 + 2 = 68 points.

199 Example How many factors of 295 are larger than 1, 000, 000?

210 = 1024 and so 220 = 1048576. Hence

219 = 524288 < 1000000 < 1048576 = 220 . The factors greater than

1,000,000 are thus 220 , 221 , . . . 295 . This makes for 96 − 20 = 76 factors.

200 Example How many positive divisors does 28 39 52 have? What is the

sum of these divisors?

19

20 Chapter 3

(1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 28 )(1 + 3 + 32 + · · · + 39 )(1 + 5 + 52 )

each factor of 28 39 52 appears and only the factors of this number appear.

There are then, as many factors as terms in this product. This means that

there are (1 + 8)(1 + 9)(1 + 3) = 320 factors.

The sum of the divisors of this number may be obtained by adding up

each geometric series in parentheses. The desired sum is then

29 − 1 310 − 1 53 − 1

· · = 467689684.

2−1 3−1 5−1

The argument works in general. If n = pa1 1 · pa2 2 · · · pas s , where the p’s are

distinct primes and if d(n), σ(n) denote, respectively, the nunber of

positive divisors of n and the sum of these positive divisors of n, then

and

(3.2) σ(n) = · ··· s

p1 − 1 p2 − 1 ps − 1

201 Example A locker room has 100 lockers. Initially, all the lockers are

closed. Person 1 enters, and opens all the lockers which are even and

then leaves. Person 2 enters and opens all the lockers that have numbers

which are multiples of 3, closing those lockers which were already

opened, and then leaves. Person 3 enters and changes the status of the

lockers (from opened to closed and viceversa) on all the lockers which

have numbers which are multiples of 4. This goes on till Person 99 enters

and changes the status of locker 100. Which lockers remained closed?

divisors greater than 1, 1 < d1 < d2 < · · · < dt−1 < dt = n. Person d1 − 1

opens the locker, Person d2 − 1 closes it, Person d3 − 1 opens the locker,

etc. Thus locker n remains closed if and only if n has an even number of

divisors greater than 1. If we add 1 to the number of divisors, we see that

Introductory Problems 21

But from (5.1) d(n) will be odd if and only if n is a perfect square. Thus

the lockers that remain closed are the ones with a perfect square number:

lockers 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, and 100.

202 Example How many positive integers have (i) 2 digits? (ii) 3 digits?

(iii) 4 digits?

1 digit so there are 99 − 9 = 90 positive integers with two digits. Similarly,

there are 999 − 99 = 900 positive integers with three digits and

9999 − 999 = 9000 positive integers with four digits.

203 Example To write a book 1890 digits were utilised. How many pages

does the book have?

Solution: A total of

1 · 9 + 2 · 90 = 189

digits are used to write pages 1 to 99, inclusive. We have of

1890 − 189 = 1701 digits at our disposition which is enough for

1701/3 = 567 extra pages (starting from page 100). The book has

99 + 567 = 666 pages.

204 Example All the natural numbers, starting with 1, are listed

consecutively

123456789101112131415161718192021 . . .

Which digit occupies the 1002nd place?

1 · 9 + 2 · 90 = 189

digits. If we were able to write 999, we would have used

1 · 9 + 2 · 90 + 3 · 900 = 2889

digits, which is more than 1002 digits. The 1002nd digit must be among

the three-digit positive integers. We have 1002 − 189 = 813 digits at our

22 Chapter 3

3

c = 271 three-digit integers, from

100 to 270. When the 0 in 270 is written, we have used

189 + 3 · 271 = 1002 digits. The 1002nd digit is the 0 in 270.

205 Example (A HSME 1994) When n standard six-sided dice are rolled,

the probability of obtaining a sum of 1994 is greater than zero and is the

same as the probability of obtaining a sum of S. What is the smallest

possible value of S?

Solution: Since the probability of obtaining the sum 1994 is positive, there

1994

are n ≥ b c = 333 dice. Let x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = 1994 be the sum of

6

the faces of the n dice adding to 1994. We are given that

(7 − x1 ) + (7 − x2 ) + · · · + (7 − xn ) = S

dice, so putting n = 333 we obtain the minimal S = 7(333) − 1994 = 337.

(a, b, c, d) with 0 < a < b < c < d < 500 satisfy a + d = b + c and

bc − ad = 93?

(a, a + x, a + y, a + x + y), with integers x, y, 0 < x < y. Now,

This gives (x, y) = (1, 93) or (x, y) = (3, 31). In the first case

is in the desired range for 1 ≤ a ≤ 465. The two sets of four-tuples are

disjoint, and so the sought number is 870.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

Two Basic Counting Principles 23

208 Problem The integers from 1 to 1000 are written on a circle. Starting

with 1, each 15th is marked (that is, 1, 16, 31, etc. are marked). This

operation is repeated until a number is marked again. How many integers

remain unmarked

Answer: 800

123456789101112131415161718192021222324 . . .

Which digit occupies the 206790th place?

Answer: 4

210 Problem Four comrades are racing down a dusty staircase. Oli goes

down two steps at a time, Gooh three, Phree four, and Nyck five. If the

only steps with all four’s footprints are at the top and at the bottom, how

many steps have just one footprint?

211 Problem (A HSME 1992) For how many integers between 1 and 100

does

x2 + x − n

factor into the product of two linear factors with integer coefficients?

212 Problem (A HSME 1989) Five people are sitting at a round table. Let

f ≥ 0 be the number of people sitting next to at least one female and

m ≥ 0 be the number of people sitting next to at least one male. Find the

number of possible ordered pairs (f, m).

Answer: 8

We denote by (E) the cardinality (number of elements) of the set E. For

example if E = {x ∈ Z : |x| ≤ 3} then (E) = 7, since x ∈ E if and only if

24 Chapter 3

The Addition Principle: If Em ∩ En = ∅ (the sets are pairwise disjoint)

(E1 ∪ E2 ∪ · · · ∪ Ek ) = (E1 ) + (E2 ) + · · · + (Ek ).

213 Example Find the number of lattice points (x, y) that satisfy

|x| + |y| ≤ 3.

decomposed into the pairwise disjoint sets Ek , where

Ek = {(x, y) : x ∈ Z, y ∈ Z, |x| + |y| = k} and k = 0, 1, 2, 3. Now

1. b0 = {(0, 0)}

E1 = {(−1, 0), (1, 0), (0, −1), (0, 1)}

E2 = {(−2, 0), (2, 0), (0, −2), (0, 2), (−1, −1), (−1, 1), (1, −1)(1, 1)}

E3 = {(−1, −2), (−1, 2), (1, −2), (1, 2)}

Hence

(E) = E0 ∪ E1 ∪ E2 ∪ E3 )

= (E0 ) + (E1 ) + (E2 ) + (E3 )

= 1 + 4 + 8 + 4 = 17.

k

Y

The Cartesian Product Ei = E1 × E2 × · · · × Ek is the collection of

i=1

ordered k-tuples {(e1 , e2 , . . . , ek ) : ei ∈ Ei }.

k

Y

The Multiplication Principle: Let Ei = {(e1 , e2 , . . . , ek ) : ei ∈ Ei } be

i=1

the Cartesian product of the sets Ei . Then

k

! k

Y Y

Ei = (Ei ).

i=1 i=1

provision: it has four characters, the first two characters can be any letter

of the English alphabet and the last two characters can be any digit. How

many different license plates can be made?

Two Basic Counting Principles 25

four-tuples (Letter 1 , Letter 2 , Digit 1 , Digit 2 ). The first letter can be

chosen in 26 ways, the second letter can be chosen in 26 ways, the first

digit can be chosen in 10 ways and the last digit can be chosen in 10

ways. By the multiplication principle, the number of different four-tuples is

26 · 26 · 10 · 10 = 67600.

215 Example How many positive integers have 4 digits? None of the

integers is to have 0 as its leftmost digit.

considered as an ordered four-tuple (a, b, c, d) with a ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 9} and

b, c, d ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9}. By the multiplication principle, the number of such

four-tuples is 9 · 10 · 10 · 10 = 9000.

symmetric, e.g. 1, 2, 11, 121, 15677651 (but not 010, 0110) are palindromes.

How many positive palindromes are there with (i) 4 digits?, (ii) 5 digits?

considered as an ordered four-tuple (a, b, b, a) with a ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 9} and

b ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9}. By the multiplication principle, the number of such

four-tuples is 9 · 10 = 90. Similarly, each five-digit palindrome

10000a + 1000b + 100c + 10b + a can be considered as an ordered

five-tuple (a, b, c, b, a) with a ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 9} and b, c ∈ {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9}.

Again, by the multiplication principle, the number of such five-tuples is

9 · 10 · 10 = 900.

217 Example How many different n-digit positive integers do not have the

digit 5?

{1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9}. The remaining n − 1 digits can be one of 9 digits

{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9}. The number of such integers is thus 8 · 9n−1 .

218 Example Prove that a set with n elements has 2n different subsets

(including the empty set and the set itself).

26 Chapter 3

Solution: We motivate the idea of the proof for the case when n = 3.

Suppose S = {a, b, c} is a set with three elements. Which each subset of

the set we associate a dyadic (0-1) ternary sequence writing 0 if the

element is not in the set, and 1 if the element belongs to the set. So with

the set ∅ we associate the sequence 000

the set {a} we associate the sequence 100

the set {b} we associate the sequence 010

the set {c} we associate the sequence 001

the set {a, b} we associate the sequence 110

the set {a, c} we associate the sequence 101

the set {b, c} we associate the sequence 011

the set {a, b, c} we associate the sequence 111

In the general case, we may supposed the elements of the set to be

ordered as (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ). To each subset T of the set, we associate a

dyadic sequence as above, writing 1 if xi ∈ T and 0 if xi 6∈ T . For each of

n positions we have two choices, and so the total elements of subsets is

· · 2} = 2n .

2| ·{z

n 2 0s

219 Example Out of nine different pairs of shoes, in how many ways could

I choose a right shoe and a left shoe, which do not form a pair?

Solution: The left shoe can be chosen in 9 ways, the right shoe can be

chosen in 8 ways, so as not to pair up with the first. The total number of

ways is thus 9 · 8 = 72.

Aliter: There are 9 · 9 = 81 ways of choosing a left shoe and a right shoe.

Of those, 9 pairs match, so the required number of ways is 81 − 9 = 72.

Sometimes we need to combine both the addition and the multiplication

principle.

220 Example There are five Golden retrievers, six Irish setters, and eight

Poodles at the pound. In how many ways can two dogs be chosen if they

are not the same kind?

Two Basic Counting Principles 27

Solution: Notice that the order in which the dogs are chosen is

unimportant. One Golden retriever and one Irish setter can be chosen in

5 · 6 = 30 ways. One Golden retriever and one Poodle can be chosen in

5 · 8 = 40 ways. One Irish setter and one Poodle can be chosen in

6 · 8 = 48 ways. The total number of ways of choosing a pair that are not

of the same breed is thus 30 + 40 + 48 = 118.

simultaneously satisfy a < b and a < c?

a = 1, 2, . . . , 100. Given a, b can be any of the 101 − a values in

{a + 1, a + 2, . . . , 101}. Similarly, c can be any of the 101 − a values in

{a + 1, a + 2, . . . , 101}. Given a then, b and c may be chosen in

(101 − a)(101 − a) = (101 − a)2 ways. The number of triplets is therefore

by formula (4.5),

100

X 100(100 + 1)(2(100) + 1)

(101−a)2 = 1002 +992 +982 +· · ·+12 = = 338350.

a=1

6

12345678910111213141516171819202122 . . .

is obtained by writing the positive integers in order. If the 10n digit of this

sequence occurs in the part in which the m-digit numbers are placed,

define f : N → N by f(n) = m. For example f(2) = 2, because the

hundredth digit enters the sequence in the placement of the two-digit

integer 55. Find, with proof, f(1987).

Solution: There are 9 · 10j−1 j-digit positive integers. The total number of

digits in numbers with at most r digits is the arithmetic-geometric sum

j

X 10r − 1

g(r) = j · 9 · 10j−1 = r10r − .

j=1

9

10r − 1

As 0 < < 10r , we get

9

(r − 1)10r < g(r) < r10r .

28 Chapter 3

Thus g(1983) < 1983 · 101983 < 104 101983 = 101987 and

g(1984) > 1983 · 101984 > 103 101984 = 101987 . Therefore f(1987) = 1984.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

224 Problem Prove that there are 9 · 10n−1 integers with n ≥ 1 digits.

225 Problem How many positive palindromes are there with n digits?

n−1 n−2

Answer: 9 · 10 2 if n is odd, and 9 · 10 2 if n is even.

3.3 Permutations

Each of the arrangements which can be made by taking some or all of a

number of things is called a permutation. Thus the permutations which

can be made by taking the numbers {1, 2, 3, 4} two at the time are twelve

in number, namely,

12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 34,

21, 31, 41, 32, 43.

Their number can be easily calculated without having to enumerate them.

For by the product rule we can choose the first number in 4 ways and the

second number in three ways (we have already selected one number,

leaving us with 3). This gives 4 · 3 = 12 ways.

227 Example How many distinct four-letter words can be made with the

letters of the set {t, i, c, k} if (i) the letters are not to be repeated?, (ii) if the

letters can be repeated?

Solution: (i) The first letter can be any one of any 4. After choosing the

first letter, we have 3 choices for the second letter, 2 for the third, and 1

for the fourth. The total number of such words is thus 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 = 24.

Permutations 29

(ii) The first letter can be chosen in 4 ways. Since we are allowed to

repeat letters, the second letter can be also any of 4, etc. The total

number of words thus formed is 44 .

228 Example How many distinct six-digit integers that are multiples of 5

can be formed from the list of digits {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (i) if we don’t allow

repetition, (ii) if we allow repetition?

Solution: The last digit must perforce be 5. There remain five digits to fill

the remaining 5 spots, and these can be filled in 5! = 120 different ways.

(ii) Again the last digit must be five. The other five spots can be filled with

any of the 6 digits, so we have 65 = 7776.

229 Example In how many ways can one decompose the set

{1, 2, 3, . . . , 100} into subsets A, B, C satisfying

Solution: The conditions of the problem stipulate that both the region

outside the circles and R3 in diagram below will be empty. We are thus left

with 6 regions to distribute 100 numbers.

C To each of the 100 numbers we

may thus assign one of 6 labels. TheR number of sets thus required is 6100 .

$1in]

4

R6 R7

R3

A R2 R1 B

R5

230 Example (A IME 1993) How many even integers between 4000 and

7000 have four different digits?

number starts with 4, in order to satisfy the conditions of the problem, we

much choose the last digit from the set {0, 2, 6, 8}, and so we have 4

choices for the last digit. Once this last digit is chosen, we have 8 choices

for the penultimate digit and 7 choices for the antepenultimate digit. There

are thus 4 · 8 · 7 = 224 even numbers which have their digits distinct and

start with a 4. Similarly, there are 224 even numbers will all digits distinct

and starting with a 6. When they start with a 5, we have 5 choices for the

30 Chapter 3

last digit, 8 for the penultimate and 7 for the antepenultimate. This gives

280 ways. The total number sought is therefore 224 + 224 + 280 = 728.

In how many different ways can they be arranged?

we would have 7! = 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 arrangements, but because these

beads are arranged in a circle, where there is no beginning and no end,

different linear permutations may produced identical circular

permutations. For example, the 7 permutations

ABCDEFG, BCDEFGA, CDEFGAB, DEFGABC, EFGABCD, FGABCDE, GABCDEF

are identical when arranged in a circle. Since we may choose any of the

beads as the first bead, the sought numbers of arrangements is

7!/7 = 6! = 720.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

numbers can be formed from the set {2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9}, (ii) how many of these

numbers are less than 400?, (iii) how many of the set of all three digit

numbers formed are even?, (iii) how many are odd?, (iv) how many are

multiples of 5?

233 Problem In how many ways can three students and two professors sit

in a row? In how many ways can they sit in a row if the students and the

professors are to sit within themselves (that is, we have a row of just

students and just professors, or viceversa)? In how many ways can they

sit if only the professors are to sit together (that is, the two professor are

always next to one another)?

majors sit around a round table. In how many ways can they do so if the

Mathematics majors insist in sitting next to each other?

Permutations 31

Answer: 12

235 Problem How many different license plates are there involving three

letters and four digits if the three letters must appear together either at the

beginning or at the end of the plate?

from ten people if k can be any of 1, 2, 3, . . . 10?

237 Problem Find the number of ways in which five different English

books, six French books, three German books, and seven Russian books

can be arranged together on a shelf so that all books of the same

language are together.

Answer: 3!4!5!6!7!

238 Problem How many ways are there to seat ten boys and ten girls

around a circular table?

Answer: 19!

239 Problem A child has blocks of six different colours. If the child selects

one block of each colour, in how many ways can these be arranged in a

line?

240 Problem How many ten-digit multiples of five are there if no digit is to

be repeated?

Answer: 8 · 8! + 9!

digits are used more than twice.

Answer: 4536

32 Chapter 3

3.4 Combinations

Each of the groups or selections which can be made by taking some or all

of a number of things is called a combination.

The combinations which can be made by taking the numbers {1, 2, 3, 4}

two at the time are six in number, namely,

there are four ways of choosing the first number and three ways of

obtaining the second number. Thus there are twelve ways of choosing a

first and then a second number. Now, we are not interested in the order

since, for example, {12} is as good as {21}. We must then divide by the

number of ways of permuting these repeats, namely, 2!. Therefore the

total number of combinations is 4 · 3/2! = 6.

Observe that in forming combinations we are not interested in the

possible orders of the selections, as we are in permutations. We denote

the number of combinations of n objects taken k at the time by nk , read

the second, etc.. But these k objects chosen can be arranged in k! ways

amongst themselves, and hence we conclude that

n n(n − 1)(n − 2) · · · (n − k + 1)

(3.3) =

k k!

(n − k)!

If we multiply the above fraction by , we can easily see that

(n − k)!

n n!

(3.4) =

k k!(n − k)!

We now give some examples of the use of combinations.

formed from twenty people?

Combinations 33

7

= 1·2·3·4·5·6·7

= 77520.

given chairman, can be formed from twenty people?

Solution: We can choose the seven people in 20 ways. Of the seven, the

7

chairman can be chosen in 7 ways. Thus there are 7 20

7

= 542640.

Aliter: Choose the chairman first. This can be done in 20 ways. Out of the

nineteen remaining people, we must now choose six. This can be done in

19

= 1·2·3·4·5·6 = 27132 ways. The total number of ways desired is

19·18·17·16·15·14

6

hence 20 19

6

= 542640.

chairman and a secretary (the chairman is different from the secretary)

can be formed from twenty people?

Solution: Choose the seven people first. This can be done in 20 ways.

7

Out of the seven, the choose the chairman first in 7 ways and then the

secretary in 6 ways. The total number of ways is therefore

7 · 6 20

7

= 3255840.

Aliter: If one chooses the chairman first, then the secretary and finally, the

remaining five members of the committee, one obtains

20 · 19 185

= 3255840 as before.

Now let a1 < a2 < · · · < an . It is easy to see that nk counts the numjber

of k-strings ai1 ai2 · · · aik which are increasing, since any such string

consists of different elements. Analogously, nk counts the number of

strings of b1 > b2 > · · · > bn which are decreasing.

must come from {0, 1, 2, . . . , 9} thus there are 10

3

= 120 three-digit

numbers with all its digits in decreasing order. If the string of three-digit

numbers is increasing, the digits have to come from {1, 2, . . . , 9}, thus

34 Chapter 3

there are 93 = 84 three-digit numbers with all the digits increasing. The

246 Example There are twenty students in a class. In how many ways

can the twenty students take five different tests if the four of the students

are to take each test?

Solution: We can choose the four students who are going to take thefirst

test in 20

4

. From the remaining ones, we can choose students in 16 4

to

take the second test. The third test can be taken in 4 ways, the fourth

12

20 16 12 8 4 20!

= 4 = 7332965640000.

4 4 4 4 4 4!

247 Example In how many ways can a woman choose three or more

lovers from seven eligible suitors?

Solution: She might choose three in 73 ways, four in 74 ways, etc.. The

7 7 7 7 7

+ + + + = 99.

3 4 5 6 7

248 Example How many times is the digit 3 listed in the numbers 1 to

1000?

Solution: We count those numbers that have exactly one 3, exactly two 3s

and exactly three 3s. There is only one numberin the range 1—1000 that

has 3 three times, namely 333. Suppose xyz, where x, y, z are digits, is to

have

the digit 3 exactly twice. We can choose these two positions in

3

2

= 3 ways. The third position can be filled with any of the remaining

nine digits. Thus there are 9 · 3 = 27 numbers in the range 1—1000 that

contain the digit 3 exactly twice. Similarly, there are 92 31 = 243 numbers

that use the digit 3 exactly once. This means that the digit 3 appears

3 · 1 + 2 · 27 + 1 · 243 = 300 times.

Combinations 35

six students and Professors Alpha, Beta and Gamma. These three

professors arrive before the six students and decide to choose their

chairs so that each professor will be between two students. In how many

ways can Professors Alpha, Beta and Gamma choose their chairs?

Solution: Align the six students first. There are five spaces between

them. A professor will be between two students if and only if he occupies

one of these five spaces. Thus we must choose three spaces out of five,

which can be done in 53 = 10 different ways. Since the order of the

professors can be permuted, the final answer is 10 × 3! = 60.

250 Example In how many ways can a deck of playing cards can be

arranged if no two hearts are adjacent?

Solution: We align the 39 cards which are not hearts first. There are

thirty-eight spaces between them, and one extra space before the first

card and another extra space after the last card, giving a total

of 40

spaces where the hearts can be placed. There are thus 13 ways of

40

choosing the places where the hearts can go. Since we are interested in

arrangements, we can arrange the hearts in 13! ways and the none

hearts in 39! ways. The total number of arrangements is thus 40

13

13!39!.

quadruples (a, b, c, d) with 0 ≤ a ≤ b ≤ c ≤ d ≤ n.

one-to-one correspondence between the vectors

(a, b, c, d), 0 ≤ a ≤ b ≤ c ≤ d and the vectors

(a 0 , b 0 , c 0 , d 0 ), 0 ≤ a 0 < b 0 < c 0 < d 0 ≤ n + 3.

To count this last set we choose four different numbers from the set

{0, 1, 2, . . . , n + 3}. This can be done in 4 ways.

n+4

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

252 Problem (A HSME 1989) Mr. and Mrs. Zeta want to name baby Zeta

so that its monogram (first, middle, and last initials) will be in alphabetical

order with no letters repeated. How many such monograms are possible?

36 Chapter 3

253 Problem In how many ways can you pack twelve books into four

parcels if one parcel has one book, another parcel has five books, and

another has two books, and another has four books?

Answer: 12 11

6 4

1 5 2 4

254 Problem In how many ways can a person invite three of his six

friends to lunch every day for twenty days if he has the option of inviting

the same or different friends from previous days?

6 20

Answer:

3

five men. In how many ways can one form a committee that has three

men and three women?

Answer: 9

5

3 3

256 Problem In how many ways can the following prizes be given away to

a class of twenty students: first and second Latin, first and second

Mathematics, first Science, and first French?

Answer: 57760000

257 Problem How many integers less than 10000 can be made with the

eight digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7?

Answer: 4095

258 Problem In how many ways can seven persons form a ring? In how

many ways can seven Englishmen and seven Americans sit down at a

round table, no two Americans being together?

259 Problem From three guavas, four peaches, and two oranges, how

many selections of fruit can be made, taking at least one of each kind?

Distributions 37

Answer:

3 3 3 4 4 4 4 2 2

+ + + + + + = 315

1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2

260 Problem (A IME 1984) A gardener plants three maple trees, four oak

trees and five birch trees in a row. He plants them in random order, each

arrangement being equally likely. Let m/n in lowest terms be the

probability that no two birch trees are next to each other. Find m + n.

Answer: 106.

3.5 Distributions

261 Theorem Let n be a positive integer. The number of positive solutions

to

x1 + x 2 + · · · + x r = n

is

n−1

.

r−1

262 Example In how many ways can 100 be written as the sum of four

(positive) summands?

solutions to

x1 + x 2 + · · · + x r = n

is

n+r−1

.

r−1

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

264 Problem There are thirty students in a class. In how many ways can

the class elect a President and a Vice-President if no student can be

elected for both offices?

38 Chapter 3

Answer: 870

265 Example Give a combinatorial interpretation of the symmetry

Identity

n n

(3.5) =

k n−k

n 2

X

2n n

(3.6) =

n k=0

k

n r n n−k

(3.7) =

r k k r−k

for 0 ≤ k ≤ r ≤ n.

n n−1 n−1

(3.8) = +

k k k−1

n

X n

(3.9) = 2n

k=0

k

270 Example (A IME 1989) Ten points are marked on a circle. How many

distinct convex polygons of three or more sides can be drawn using some

(or all) of the ten points as vertices? (Polygons are distinct unless they

have exactly the same vertices.)

Combinatorial Identities 39

since the polygons are convex and thus have no folds. The answer is thus

10

X

10 10 10 10

=2 − − − = 968.

k=3

0 1 2

may be opened by depressing —in any order— the correct five buttons.

Suppose that there locks are redesigned so that sets of as many as nine

buttons or as few as one button could serve as combinations. How many

additional combination would this allow?

exclude those in which none or all of the buttons are depressed. The total

number of additional combinations is therefore

10 10

2 −1−1− = 770.

5

Solution: (i) Since the points are not collinear and any two points

determine a straight line, there are 2 lines in total.

n

can do this in n − 1 ways.

(iii) A triangle is determined by 3 non-collinear points. We can choose

triangles then in n3 ways.

(iv) Once a point is chosen, there remain to choose two points from the

remaining n − 1 points. We can do this in 2 ways.

n−1

40 Chapter 3

particular point is 3 . From the total number of triangles, we subtract

n−1

3

= 2

as before.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

chapters. The first and third writers must each write five chapters, the

second must write four chapters, and the fourth writer must write three

chapters. How many ways can the book be written? What if the first and

third writers had to write ten chapters combined, but it did not matter

which of them wrote how many (e.g., the first could write ten and the third

none, the first could write none and the third one, etc.)?

Answer: 17 12

7 3 17

14

5 5 4 3

; 3 4

210

We recall that the symbol nk , n, k ∈ N, 0 ≤ k ≤ n, counts the number of

Pascal’s Identity

n n−1 n−1

(3.10) = + ,

k k−1 k

0

0

1 1

0 1

2 2 2

0 1 2

3 3 3 3

0 1 2 3

The Binomial Theorem 41

4 4 4 4 4

0 1 2 3 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

6 6 6 6 6 6 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

......................................

When the numerical values are substituted, the triangle then looks like

this.

1

121

1331

14641

1 5 10 10 5 1

1 6 15 20 15 6 1

.....................................

We see from Pascal’s Triangle that binomial coefficients are

symmetric.

This symmetry is easily justified by the identity k = n−k . We also

n n

notice that the binomial coefficients tend to increase until they reach the

middle, and that they decrease symmetrically. That is, the n

k

satisfy

n n n n n n n

0

< 1 < · · · < [n/2]−1 < [n/2] > [n/2]+1 > [n/2]+2 > · · · > n−1 >

n

if n is even, and that 0 < 1 < · · · < [n/2]−1 < [n/2] = [n/2]+1 >

n n n n n

n

n n n

> nn for odd n. We call this property the

[n/2]+2

> [n/2]+3 > · · · > n−1

unimodality of the binomial coefficients. Forexample, without finding the

exact numerical values we can see that 17 < 69 and that

200 200

200

= 200 < 200 .

131 69 99

We now present some examples on the use of binomial coefficients.

n i n n−j

= ,

i j j j−i

for integers 0 ≤ j ≤ i ≤ n.

42 Chapter 3

Solution: We have

n i n!i! n!(n − j)!

= =

i j i!(n − i)!j!(i − j)! (n − j)!j!(n − i)!(i − j)!

which is the same as

n n−j

.

j i−j

n n−1 n−1

= + ,

k k−1 k

for integers 1 ≤ k ≤ n.

Solution: We have

n−1 n−1 (n − 1)! (n − 1)!

+ = +

k−1 k (k − 1)!(n − k)! k!(n − k − 1)!

(n − 1)! 1 1

= +

(n − k − 1)!(k − 1)! n − k k

(n − 1)! n

=

(n − k − 1)!(k − 1)! (n − k)k

n!

=

(n −

k)!k!

n

=

k

1 2n

Cn = .

n+1 n

Prove that Cn is an integer for all natural numbers n.

1 2n 2n 2n

= − ,

n+1 n n n−1

the difference of two integers.

The Binomial Theorem 43

coefficients

n n n n

, , ,

r r+1 r+2 r+3

(n, r positive integers and r + 3 ≤ n) are in arithmetic progression.

Solution:

Assume that

n n n n

. This yields

a = r , a + d = r+1 , a + 2d = r+2 , a + 3d = r+3

n n n

2 = + ,

r+1 r r+2

or equivalently

r+1 n−r−1

2= + (∗).

n−r r+2

This is a quadratic equation in r, having r as one of its roots. The

condition that the binomial coefficients are in arithmetic progression

means that r + 1 is also a root of (∗). Replacing r by n − r − 2 we also

obtain

n−r−1 r+1

2= + ,

r+2 n−r

which is the same as (∗). This means that n − r − 3 and n − r − 2 are also

roots of (∗). Since a quadratic equation can only have two roots, we must

have r = n − r − 3. The four binomial coefficients must then be

2r + 3 2r + 3 2r + 3 2r + 3

, , , .

r r+1 r+2 r+3

But these cannot be in an arithmetic progression, since binomial

coefficients are unimodal and symmetric.

278 Example Let N(a) denote the number of solutions to the equation

a = nk for nonnegative integers n, k. For example,

Solution: Let b be the first time that 2b > a. By the unimodality of the

b

binomial coefficients, i = j is monotonically increasing in i and j.

i+j i+j

Hence

b+i+b+j b+b+j 2b

≥ ≥ >a

b+j b b

44 Chapter 3

for all i, j ≥ 0. Hence i+j = a implies i < b, or j < b. Also, for each fixed

j

value of i (or j), i = a has at most one solution. It follows that

i+j

2(b − 1)

a≥ ≥ 2b−1 ,

b−1

it follows that b ≤ log2 a + 1, and the statement is proven.

We now use Pascal’s Triangle in order to expand the binomial

(a + b)n .

X n

n n k

(1 + x) = x .

k=0

k

(1 + x)(1 + x) · · · (1 + x)

| {z }

n times

a x from the first set of parentheses times either a 1 or an x from the

second set of parentheses etc. To get xk , x must be chosen from exactly

k of the sets of parentheses. Thus the number of x terms is k . It

k n

follows that

n

n n X n k

n n n n 2

(1 + x) = + x+ x + ··· + x = x .

0 1 2 n k=0

k

n

X n

= 2n .

k=0

k

Xn

n n k

(1 + x) = x .

k=0

k

The Binomial Theorem 45

n

X

n j n n−i

= 2 , i ≤ n.

j=i

j i i

n j n n−i

= .

j i i j−i

Thus

n

X Xn

n j n n−i

= .

j=0

j i i j=0 j − i

n

X n−i

X

n−i n−i

= = 2n−i ,

j=0

j−i j=0

j

X m + k

n+m+1

= .

k≤n

k n

46 Chapter 3

Xn

k+m 0+m 0+m 1+m 2+m 3+m

= + + + +

k=0

k −1 0 1 2 3

n−1+m n+m

+··· + +

n − 1 n

1+m 1+m 2+m 3+m

= + + +

0 1 2 3

n−1+m n+m

+··· + +

n − 1 n

2+m 2+m 3+m

= + +

1 2 3

n−1+m n+m

+··· + +

n − 1 n

3+m 3+m

= +

2 3

n−1+m n+m

+··· + +

n−1 n

..

.

n+m n+m

= +

n−1 n

n+m+1

= ,

n

which is what we wanted.

X mn−1

n ≥ m ≥ 0.

0≤k≤m

k k

X mn−1 n −1 X n − k

= .

0≤k≤m

k k m 0≤k≤m

m − k

Re-indexing,

X n − k X n − m + k n + 1

= = ,

0≤k≤m

m − k k≤m

k m

The Binomial Theorem 47

X mn−1 n + 1 n n+1

= / = .

0≤k≤m

k k m m n + 1 − m

X 100

.

0≤k≤50

2k

100 100 100 100 100 100

(1 + 1) = + + + ... + +

0 1 2 99 100

100 100 100 100 100

(1 − 1)100 = − + − ... − + ,

0 1 2 99 100

100 100 100 100

2 =2 +2 + ... + 2 .

0 2 100

X50

100

.

k=1

2k − 1

100

X

100

= 2100

k=0

k

and

50

X

100

= 299 .

k=0

2k

The desired sum is the difference of these two values 2100 − 299 = 299 .

48 Chapter 3

10

X

k11

2 .

k=1

k

P

Solution: By the Binomial Theorem, the complete sum 11 2 = 311 .

11 k

k=0 k

The required sum lacks the zeroth term, 11 20 = 1, and the eleventh

0

term, 11 211 from this complete sum. The required sum is thus

11

311 − 211 − 1.

10

1 2

+ x

3 3

10 10

1 2 10 X 10 k 10−k

X

( + x) = (1/3) (2x/3) = ak x k .

3 3 k=0

k k=0

ak−1

,k = 1, 2, . . . n. This ratio is seen to be

ak 2(10 − k + 1)

= .

ak−1 k

This will be < 1 if k < 22/3 < 8. Thus a0 < a1 < a2 < . . . < a7 . If

k > 22/3, the ratio above will be < 1. Thus a7 > a8 > a9 > a10 . The

largest term is that of k = 7, i.e. the eighth term.

expansion of (2x + 9)10 greater than the adjacent terms?

10 4 6 10

(2x) (9) ≥ (2x)3 (9)7 ,

4 3

The Binomial Theorem 49

and

10 4 6 10

(2x) (9) ≥ (2x)5 (9)5 .

4 5

After simplifying the factorials, the two inequalities sought are

x ≥ 18/7

and

15/4 ≥ x.

The only integral x that satisfies this is x = 3.

X n

n

k = n2n−1 .

k=1

k

Pn

Solution: Let f(x) = (1 + x)n = n

xk . Then

k=0 k

Xn

0 n−1 n k−1

f (x) = n(1 + x) = k x .

k=0

k

Letting x = 1 we obtain

Xn

n−1 n

n2 = k ,

k=0

k

Aliter: Using the absorption identity

Xn X n

n−1 n

n = k ,

k=0

k−1 k=0

k

= 0. But since

−1

n

X n−1

X

n−1 n−1

= = 2n−1 ,

k=0

k−1 k=0

k

50 Chapter 3

n

X

n

2

k = n(n + 1)2n−2 .

k=1

k

Pn

Solution: Let f(x) = (1 + x)n = n

xk . Then

k=0 k

Xn

0 n−1 n k−1

f (x) = n(1 + x) = k x

k=0

k

and

Xn

0 n−1 n k

xf (x) = nx(1 + x) = k x .

k=0

k

Differentiating this last expression,

which equals

n

X

2n k−1

k x .

k=0

k

Letting x = 1 in the above expression,

n

X

n−1 n−1 n

2

n2 + n(n − 1)2 = k ,

k=0

k

n

X

1 n

.

k=0

k+1 k

Solution: We have

Z1 Z1 X

n

n n

(1 + x) dx = xk dx.

0 0 k=0

k

The Binomial Theorem 51

n

X

2n+1 1 n 1

− = .

n + 1 n + 1 k=0 k k

Xn n

1 X n+1

1 n 1

= = (2n+1 − 1).

k=0

k + 1 k n + 1 k=0

k + 1 n + 1

Xn

(−1)k+1 n

= 1 + 1/2 + 1/3 + · · · + 1/n.

k=1

k k

Z1

1 − (1 − x)n

dx

0 x

in two different ways. First, making the substitution u = 1 − x, we obtain

Z1 Z1 Z1

1 − (1 − x)n 1 − un

dx = du = 1 + u + u2 + · · · + un−1 du,

0 x 0 1−u 0

from where we obtain the dextral side of the identity we want to prove. On

the other hand, evaluating the integral directly by expanding using the

Binomial Theorem,

Z1 Z1 Xn

1 − (1 − x)n n

dx = (−1)k−1 xk−1 dx,

0 x 0 k=1 k

wanted to establish.

X n

n+1 k

= .

m+1 k=m

m

52 Chapter 3

Xn

k m m m+1 n

= + + + ··· +

k=m

m m+1 m m m

m+1 m+1 m+2 n

= + + + ··· +

m + 1 m m m

m+2 m+2 m+3 n

= + + + ··· +

m+1 m m m

..

.

n n

= +

m + 1 m

n+1

= .

m+1

X

k(k + 1).

k≤n

Solution: Let X

S= k(k + 1).

k≤n

Then

X k(k + 1) X k + 1

S/2! = = .

k≤n

2! k≤n

2

By the preceding problem

X k + 1

n+2

= .

k≤n

2 3

3

= n(n + 1)(n + 2)/3.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

X n

= 2n−1 .

2k + 1

0≤k≤n/2

The Binomial Theorem 53

1 √ 1 √

(1 + x)100 + (1 − x)100 .

2 2

m jn j1

X X X

n+m

··· 1= .

jn =1 jn−1 =1 k=1

n+1

297 Problem The expansion of (x + 2y)20 contains two terms with the

same coefficient, Kxa yb and Kxa+1 yb−1 . Find a.

X n

k−1 n

(−1) k =0

k=1

k

holds true.

1 1 1 1 2n−1

+ + + ··· + = .

1!(n − 1)! 3!(n − 3)! 5!(n − 5)! (n − 1)!1! n!

X n − k

(−1)k .

0≤k≤n

k

X

k 100

k3 ?

k≤100

k

n

X

k2 − k.

k=1

54 Chapter 3

X m − k − 1

k m > n ≥ 0.

0≤k≤n

n − k − 1

Xn

m−k−1

(m − k) .)

k=0

n − k − 1

X 5k 100

?

k≤100

k+1 k

4

+ 3

= 4

.

Answer: 11.

306 Problem If

1991 1991 1991 1991

+ + + ··· + = 2a ,

1 3 5 1991

find a.

Answer: a = 1990.

20 20

= .

5 15

Answer: True.

48 49

49 = 10 .

9 10

The Binomial Theorem 55

Answer: True.

Answer: 20

8

(28 )(312 ).

(x3/2 + y)15 ?

Answer: 15

8

.

√

(x 2 − y)10 ?

Answer: 840.

312 Problem Shew that the binomial coefficients satisfy the following

hexagonal property:

n−1 n n+1 n−1 n+1 n

= .

k−1 k+1 k k k+1 k−1

1000

X

1000 1000

(1 + 0.2) = (0.2)k ,

k=0

k

Answer: 166-th

314 Problem (P UTNAM 1971) Shew that for 0 < < 1 the expression

56 Chapter 3

For = .002 find the smallest admissible value of n.

Xn

3 n

k = n2 (n + 3)2n−3 .

k=1

k

(A) 49

+ 50 + · · · + 99

49 49 49

(B) 100

50

50 2

2 2

(C) + 50 + · · · + 50

0 1 50

(D) 200

100

Answer: D.

p p

( 1 − x2 + 1)7 − ( 1 − x2 − 1)7 .

17

< 20

(B) 199 199 200

25

+ 26

= 174

(C) 200

17

> 200

184 199

(D) 200 200

16

= 17 17

Answer: D.

5 6 7 999

+ + + ··· +

5 5 5 5

Answer: 1000

6

15 15 15 15 15 15

− + − ··· + −

1 2 3 4 13 14

Multinomial Theorem 57

Answer: 0, as 15 15

, 15 15

, etc.

1

= 14 2

= 13

1994

X

k−1 1994

(−1) ?

k=0

k

Answer: 0.

4 5 199 16 17 199

+ + ··· + > + + ··· + .

4 4 4 16 16 16

, dextral side = 200

5 17

323 Problem (A IME 1992) In which row of Pascal’s triangle (we start with

zeroth row, first row ,etc.) do three consecutive entries occur that are in

the ratio 3 : 4 : 5?

Answer: 62-nd

If n, n1 , n2 , . . . , nk are nonnegative integers and n = n1 + n2 + · · · nk we

put

n n!

= .

n1 , n 2 · · · n k n1 !n2 ! · · · nk !

It is easy to see combinatorially why this quantity is an integer, as we

know from (???). Proceeding in the same way we proved the Binomial

Theorem, we may establish the Multinomial Theorem:

X

(x1 + x2 + · · · + xk )n = xn1 1 xn2 2 · · · xnk k .

n1 +n2 +···+nk =n

n1 ,n2 ,...,nk ≥0

58 Chapter 3

(x + 2y + z)8

X

8

8

(x + 2y + z) = xn1 (2y)n2 zn3 .

n1 ;n2 ;n3 ≥0

n1 , n 2 , n 3

n1 +n2 +n3 =8

8

3

2 2,3,3 .

X

23

x5n2 +9n3 .

n ;n ;n ≥0

n 1 , n 2 , n 3

1 2 3

n1 +n2 +n3 =23

n1 = 20, n2 = 1, n3 = 2. The coefficient sought is thus 20,1,2

23

.

326 Example How many different terms are there in the expansion of

(x + y + z + w + s + t)20 ?

n1 + n2 + · · · + n6 = 20.

5

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

Answer: 12

2

.

Multinomial Theorem 59

(1 + 3x + 2x3 )10 ?

Answer: 6 10 10

1,1,8

+ 34 0,4,6

.

(x + y + z)10 ?

Answer: 10

2,3,5

.

60 Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Arithmetic

330 Definition If a 6= 0, b are integers, we say that a divides b if there is

an integer c such that ac = b. We write this as a|b.

If a does not divide b we write a 6 |b. It should be clear that if a|b and

b 6= 0 then 1 ≤ |a| ≤ |b|.

combination of a and b. Tha is, if a, b, c, m, n are integers with

c|a, c|b, then c|(am + nb).

x|y, y|z then x|z.

am + nb = c(sm + tn),

Hence xuv = z, giving x|z.

A very useful property of the integers is the following:

61

62 Chapter 4

integers q and r satisfying

(4.1) b = aq + r, 0 ≤ r < a

integers according to the remainder they leave upon division by a. For

example, if a = 2, then according to the Division Algorithm, the integers

may be decomposed into the two families

A0 = {. . . − 4, −2, 0, 2, 4, . . .},

A1 = {. . . , −5, −3, −1, 1, 3, 5, . . .}.

Therefore, all integers have one of the forms 2k or 2k + 1. We mention in

passing that every integer of the form 2k + 1 is also of the form 2t − 1, for

2k + 1 = 2(k + 1) − 1, so it suffices to take t = k + 1.

If a = 4 we may decompose the integers into the four families

B0 = {. . . , −8, −4, 0, 4, 8, . . .},

B1 = {. . . , −7, −3, 1, 5, 9, . . .},

B2 = {. . . , −6, −2, 2, 6, 10, . . .},

B3 = {. . . , −5, −1, 3, 7, 11, . . .}.

Therefore any integer will take one of the forms 4k, 4k + 1, 4k + 2 or

4k + 3. Again, any integer of the form 4k + 1 is also of the form 4t − 3 and

any integer of the form 4k + 3 is also of the form 4t − 1.

333 Example Show that the square of any integer is of the form 4k or of

the form 4k + 1. That is, the square of any integer is either divisible by 4

or leaves remainder 1 upon division by 4.

the form 4k. If n is odd, say n = 2t + 1, then n2 = (2t + 1)2 = 4(t2 + t) + 1,

which is of the form 4k + 1.

11, 111, 1111, 11111, . . .

is a perfect square.

Division Algorithm 63

sequence has n > 2 digits. If n > 2,

11 . . . 1} = 11

| {z . . 11} 00 + 12 − 1 = 100 · 11

| .{z . . 11} +12 − 1.

| .{z

n 1 0s n−2 1 0 s n−2 1 0 s

preceding problem, no integer of the form 4k − 1 can be a square. This

finishes the proof.

of n.

Therefore the families of integers n = 24m ± 1, m = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, . . .

produce infinitely many values such that n2 + 23 is divisible by 24.

336 Example Show that the square of any prime greater than 3 leaves

remainder 1 upon division by 12.

Now,

(6k ± 1)2 = 12(3k2 ± k) + 1,

proving the assertion.

composite.

for p = 3. If p > 3, then either p = 3k + 1 or p = 3k + 2. If

p = 3k + 1, 8p − 1 = 24k − 7 and 8p + 1 = 24k − 6, which is divisible by 6

and hence not prime. If p = 3k + 2, 8p − 1 = 24k − 15 is not a prime, .

three squares.

64 Chapter 4

Therefore

(3k ± 1)2 − 1

n+1= + 1 = 3k2 ± 2k + 1 = k2 + k2 + (k ± 1)2 ,

3

as we wanted to show.

1059, 1417 and 2312 are divided by d > 1. Find d − r.

1059 = dq1 + r, 1417 = dq2 + r and 2312 = dq3 + r. Subtracting we get

1253 = d(q3 − q1 ), 895 = d(q3 − q2 ) and 358 = d(q2 − q1 ). Notice that d is

a common divisor of 1253, 895, and 358. As 1253 = 7 · 179, 895 = 5 · 179,

and 358 = 2 · 179, we see that 179 is the common divisor greater than 1 of

all three quantities, and so d = 179. Since 1059 = 179q1 + r, and

1059 = 5 · 179 + 164, we deduce that r = 164. Finally, d − r = 15.

340 Example Show that from any three integers, one can always choose

two so that a3 b − ab3 is divisible by 10.

matter which integers are substituted. If one of the three integers is of the

form 5k, then we are done. If not, we are choosing three integers that lie

in the residue classes 5k ± 1 or 5k ± 2. By the Pigeonhole Principle, two

of them must lie in one of these two groups, and so there must be two

whose sum or whose difference is divisible by 5. The assertion follows.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

n + 1|n2 + 1.

343 Problem Show that the square of any integer is of the form 3k or

3k + 1.

Division Algorithm 65

345 Problem Show that if the sides of a right triangle are all integers, then

3 divides one of the lengths of a side.

346 Problem Given that 5 divides (n + 2), which of the following are

divisible by 5

n2 − 4, n2 + 8n + 7, n4 − 1, n2 − 2n?

except for 3, 5, 7.

be divisible by n2 + 2.

Answer: 13

a square, then n + 1 is the sum of two consecutive squares.

350 Problem Show that the product of two integers of the form 4n + 1 is

again of this form. Use this fact and an argument by contradiction similar

to Euclid’s to prove that there are infinitely many primes of the form 4n − 1.

351 Problem Prove that there are infinitely many primes of the form

6n − 1.

352 Problem Prove that there are infinitely many primes p such that p − 2

is not prime.

integers such that each is the sum of two squares greater than zero.

66 Chapter 4

354 Problem Let n > 1 be a positive integer. Prove that if one of the

numbers 2n − 1, 2n + 1 is prime, then the other is composite.

355 Problem Prove that there are infinitely many integers n such that

4n2 + 1 is divisible by both 13 and 5.

356 Problem Prove that any integer n > 11 is the sum of two positive

composite numbers.

such that x(x + 1)|y(y + 1) but

x 6 |y and (x + 1) 6 |y,

and also

x 6 |(y + 1) and (x + 1) 6 |(y + 1).

Any natural number n can be written in the form

n. For example

0.123 = 0.123123123 . . . .

The Decimal Scale 67

123 41

Hence 1000N − N = 123, whence N = = .

999 333

360 Example What are all the two-digit positive integers in which the

difference between the integer and the product of its two digits is 12?

10a + b − ab = 12 for a getting

12 − b 2

a= =1+ .

10 − b 10 − b

Since a is an integer, 10 − b must be a positive integer that divides 2. This

gives b = 8, a = 2 or b = 9, a = 3. Thus 28 and 39 are the only such

integers.

361 Example Find all the integers with initial digit 6 such that if this initial

integer is suppressed, the resulting number is 1/25 of the original number.

positive integer. The given condition stipulates that

1

y= (6 · 10n + y) ,

25

that is,

10n

y= = 25 · 10n−2 .

4

This requires n ≥ 2, whence y = 25, 250, 2500, 25000, etc.. Therefore

x = 625, 6250, 62500, 625000, etc..

362 Example (I MO 1968) Find all natural numbers x such that the product

of their digits (in decimal notation) equals x2 − 10x − 22.

x = a0 + a1 10 + a2 102 + · · · + an 10n , ak ≤ 9, an 6= 0.

Let P(x) be the product of the digits of x, P(x) = x2 − 10x − 22. Now

P(x) = a0 a1 · · · an ≤ 9n an < 10n an ≤ x (strict inequality occurs when x

68 Chapter 4

has more than one digit). This means that x2 − 10x − 22 ≤ x which entails

that x < 13, whence x has one digit or x = 10, 11 or 12. Since

x2 − 10x − 22 = x has no integral solutions, x cannot have one digit. If

x = 10, P(x) = 0, but x2 − 10x − 22 6= 0. If x = 11, P(x) = 1, but

x2 − 10x − 22 6= 1. The only solution is seen to be x = 12.

when its last digit is deleted. Find all such numbers.

y

numbers. This requires 10 + = m, an integer. Hence, x must divide y.

x

If y = 0, any natural number x will do, as we obtain multiples of 10. If

y = 1 then x = 1, and we obtain 11. Continuing in this fashion, the sought

number are the multiples of 10, together with the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14,

15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 36, 39, 44, 55, 77, 88, and 99.

| .{z

. . 44} 88

| .{z

. . 88} 9

n 4 0s n−1 8 0 s

44

| .{z

. . 44} 88 . . 88} 9 = 44

| .{z . . 44} ·10n + 88

| .{z . . 88} ·10 + 9

| .{z

n 4 0s n−1 8 0 s n 4 0s n−1 8 0 s

4

= 9

· (10n − 1) · 10n + 98 · (10n−1 − 1) · 10 + 9

4

= 9

· 102n + 49 · 10n + 19

= 1

9

(2 · 10n + 1)2

2·10n +1 2

= 3

We must show that this last quantity is an integer, that is, that 3 divides

2 · 10n + 1 = 2 00 . . 00} 1. But the sum of the digits of this last quantity is 3,

| .{z

n−1 0 0 s

2 · 10n + 1

which makes it divisible by 3. In fact, = 6| .{z

. . 6} 7

3

n−1 6 s

0

The Decimal Scale 69

integers is called simple if the addition m + n requires no carrying. Find

the number of simple ordered pairs of non-negative integers that add to

1492.

are positive integers and d is a digit. These are

Since there is no carrying, we search for the numbers of solutions of this

form to x + y = 1, u + v = 4, s + t = 9, and a + b = 2. Since each separate

solution may combine with any other, the total number of simple pairs is

(1 + 1)(4 + 1)(9 + 1)(2 + 1) = 300.

366 Example (A IME 1992) For how many pairs of consecutive integers in

{1000, 1001, . . . , 2000}

is no carrying required when the two integers are added?

Solution: Other than 2000, a number on this list has the form

n = 1000 + 100a + 10b + c, where a, b, c are digits. If there is no carrying

in n + n + 1 then n has the form

1999, 1000 + 100a + 10b + 9, 1000 + 100a + 99, 1000 + 100a + 10b + c

with 0 ≤ a, b, c ≤ 4, i.e., five possible digits. There are 53 = 125 integers

of the form 1000 + 100a + 10b + c, 0 ≤ a, b, c ≤ 4, 52 = 25 integers of the

form 1000 + 100a + 10b + 9, 0 ≤ a, b ≤ 4, and 5 integers of the form

1000 + 100a + 99, 0 ≤ a ≤ 4. The total of integers sought is thus

125 + 25 + 5 + 1 = 156.

367 Example (A IME 1994) Given a positive integer n, let p(n) be the

product of the non-zero digits of n. (If n has only one digit, then p(n) is

equal to that digit.) Let

S = p(1) + p(2) + · · · + p(999).

Find S.

70 Chapter 4

digits to label all the integers, from 000 to 999 If a, b, c are digits, then

clearly p(100a + 10b + c) = m(a)m(b)m(c). Thus

p(000) + p(001) + p(002) + · · · + p(999) = m(0)m(0)m(0) + m(0)m(0)m(1) + m(0)m

· · · + m(9)m(9)m(9)

= (m(0) + m(1) + · · · + m(9))3

= (1 + 1 + 2 + · · · + 9)3

= 463

= 97336.

Hence

S = p(001) + p(002) + · · · + p(999)

= 97336 − p(000)

= 97336 − m(0)m(0)m(0)

= 97335.

368 Example (A IME 1992) Let S be the set of all rational numbers r,

0 < r < 1, that have a repeating decimal expansion of the form

0.abcabcabc . . . = 0.abc,

where the digits a, b, c are not necessarily distinct. To write the elements

of S as fractions in lowest terms, how many different numerators are

required?

abc

Solution: Observe that 0.abcabcabc . . . = , and that 999 = 33 · 37. If

999

abc is neither divisible by 3 nor by 37, the fraction is already in lowest

terms. By Inclusion-Exclusion there are

999 999 999

999 − + + = 648

3 37 3 · 37

s

such fractions. Also, fractions of the form where s is divisible by 3 but

37

not by 37 are in S. There are 12 fractions of this kind (with s = 3, 6, 9, 12,

l

. . . , 36). We do not consider fractions of the form t , t ≤ 3 with l divisible

3

by 37 but not by 3, because these fractions are > 1 and hence not in S.

The total number of distinct numerators in the set of reduced fractions is

thus 640 + 12 = 660.

The Decimal Scale 71

Problems

369 Problem Find an equivalent fraction for the repeating decimal 0.3172.

370 Problem A two-digit number is divided by the sum of its digits. What

is the largest possible remainder?

11

| .{z

. . 11}

221 1 0 s

is a composite number.

a = 111

| {z. . . 1}

m 1 0s

b = 1 000

| {z. . . 0} 5.

m−1 0 0 s

. . 3} · 6| .{z

3| .{z . . 6} ?

666 3 0 s 666 6 0 s

374 Problem Show that there exist no integers with the following property:

if the initial digit is suppressed, the resulting integer is 1/35 of the original

number.

375 Problem Show that the sum of all the integers of n digits, n ≥ 3, is

494 99 . . . 9} 55 00

| {z . . . 0} .

| {z

n−3 9 0 s n−2 0 0 s

72 Chapter 4

11 . . . 1} − 22

| {z . . . 2}

| {z

2n 1 0 s n 2 0s

is a perfect square.

377 Problem A whole number is equal to the arithmetic mean of all the

numbers obtained from the given number with the aid of all possible

permutation of its digits. Find all whole numbers with that property.

378 Problem The integer n is the smallest multiple of 15 such that every

n

digit of n is either 0 or 8. Compute .

15

0.12345678910111213141516171819202122 . . .

, which is the sequence of natural numbers written after the decimal point,

is irrational.

1

= 0.020408163265306122448979591836734693877551, find the last

49

thousand digits of

1 + 50 + 502 + · · · + 50999 .

381 Problem Let t be a positive real number. Prove that there is a positive

integer n such that the decimal expansion of nt contains a 7.

single digit in base-ten. Find n if

n

= 0.d25d25d25d25d25 . . .

810

383 Problem (A IME 1988) Find the smallest positive integer whose cube

ends in 888.

Non-decimal Scales 73

384 Problem (A IME 1986) In the parlor game, the “magician” asks one of

the participants to think of a three-digit number abc, where a, b, c

represent the digits of the number in the order indicated. The magician

asks his victim to form the numbers

to add these numbers and to reveal their sum N. If told the value of N,

the magician can identify abc. Play the magician and determine abc if

N = 319.

385 Problem (A IME 1988) For any positive integer k, let f1 (k) denote the

square of the sums of the digits of k. For n ≥ 2, let fn (k) = f1 (fn−1 (k)).

Find f1988 (11).

N

divisible by 11 and such that equals the sum of the squares of the

11

digits of N.

387 Problem (I MO 1962) Find the smallest natural number having the last

digit 6 and if this 6 is erased and put in from of the other digits, the

resulting number is four times as large as the original number.

The fact that most people have ten fingers has fixed our scale of notation

to the decimal. Given any positive integer r > 1, we can, however,

express any number x in base r.

If n is a positive integer, and r > 1 is an integer, then n has the base-r

representation

n = a0 + a1 r + a2 r2 + · · · + ak rk , 0 ≤ at ≤ r − 1, ak 6= 0, rk ≤ n < rk+1 .

referring to its base, and to a base-r number by using the subindex r .

74 Chapter 4

0 ≤ a0 , . . . , a4 ≤ 6, a4 6= 0 such that

5213 = a4 74 + a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 .

means that a4 = 2. Thus 5213 = 2 · 74 + a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 or

411 = 5213 = a3 73 + a2 72 + a1 7 + a0 . Dividing by 73 this last equality we

obtain 1+ proper fraction = a3 + proper fraction, and so a3 = 1.

Continuing in this way we deduce that 5213 = 211257 .

The method of successive divisions used in the preceding problem can

be conveniently displayed as

7 5212 5

7 744 2

7 106 1

7 15 1

7 2 2

The central column contains the successive quotients and the rightmost

column contains the corresponding remainders. Reading from the last

remainder up, we recover 5213 = 211257 .

reduces to convert 289 to base-five. Doing successive divisions,

5 289 4

5 57 2

5 11 1

5 2 2

Thus 5627 = 289 = 21245 .

13

390 Example Express the fraction in base-six.

16

Solution: Write

13 a1 a2 a3 a4

= + 2 + 3 + 4 + ···

16 6 6 6 6

Non-decimal Scales 75

a1 = 4. Hence

13 4 7 a2 a3 a4

− = = 2 + 3 + 4 + ···

16 6 48 6 6 6

Multiply by 6 we obtain 5+ proper fraction = a2 + proper fraction, and so

2

13 4 5 1 3

= + 2 + 3 + 4 = 0.45136 .

16 6 6 6 6

We may simplify this procedure of successive multiplications by recurring

to the following display:

6 13

16

4

6 7

8

5

6 1

4

1

6 1

2

3

The third column contains the integral part of the products of the first

column and the second column. Each term of the second column from

the second on is the fractional part of the product obtained in the

preceding row. Thus 6 · 13

16

− 4 = 78 , 6 · 78 − 5 = 41 , etc..

391 Example Prove that 4.41r is a perfect square in any scale of notation.

Solution: 2

4 4 1

4.41r = 4 + + 2 = 2+

r r r

1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, . . .

consists of all those positive integers which are powers of 3 or sums of

distinct powers or 3. Find the hundredth term of the sequence.

comprise the positive integers which do not contain the digit 2. Thus the

terms of the sequence in ascending order are

13 , 103 , 113 , 1003 , 1013 , 1103 , 1113 , . . .

76 Chapter 4

In the binary scale these numbers are, of course, the ascending natural

numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .. Therefore to obtain the 100th term of the sequence

we write 100 in binary and then translate this into ternary: 100 = 11001002

and 11001003 = 36 + 35 + 32 = 981.

2xn−1 if 2xn−1 < 1,

xn =

2xn−1 − 1 if 2xn−1 ≥ 1.

∞

X ak

x0 = , ak = 0 or 1.

k=1

2k

The algorithm given moves the binary point one unit to the right. For x0 to

equal x5 we need (0.a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 . . .)2 = (0.a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 . . .)2 .

This will happen if and only if x0 has a repeating expansion with

a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 as the repeating block. There are 25 = 32 such blocks. But if

a1 = a2 = · · · = a5 = 1 then x0 = 1, which lies outside ]0, 1[. The total

number of values for which x0 = x5 is therefore 32 − 1 = 31.

Problems

394 Problem Express the decimal number 12345 in every scale from

binary to base-nine.

three separate piles, each of equal weight.

396 Problem Let C denote the class of positive integers which, when

written in base-three, do not require the digit 2. Prove that no three

integers in C are in arithmetic progression.

choose so that you may determine my number in twenty “yes” or “no”

questions?

Well-Ordering Principle 77

398 Problem Let bxc denote the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

Does the equation

have a solution?

The set N = {1, 2, 3, 4, . . .} of natural numbers is endowed with two

operations, addition and multiplication, that satisfy the following properties

for natural number a, b, and c:

1. Closure: a + b and ab are also natural numbers,

2. Commutativity: a + b = b + a and ab = ba,

3. Associative Laws: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) and (ab)c = a(bc),

4. Distributive Law: a(b + c) = ab + ac

5. Multiplicative Identity: 1a = a.

One further property of the natural numbers is the following.

has a least element.

As an example of the use of the Well-Ordering Axiom let us prove that

there is no integer between 0 and 1.

399 Example Prove that there is no integer in the open interval ]0, 1[.

non-empty. As a set of positive integers, by Well-Ordering it must contain

a least element, say m. Since 0 < m < 1, we have 0 < m2 < m < 1. But

this last string of inequalities says that m2 is an integer in ]0, 1[ which is

smaller than m, the smallest integer in ]0, 1[. This contradiction shows

that m cannot exist.

Recall that an irrational number is one that cannot be represented as the

ratio of two integers.

78 Chapter 4

√

400 Example Prove that 2 is irrational.

√

Solution:√The proof is by contradiction. Suppose that 2 were rational,

i.e., that 2 = ab for some integers a, b, b 6= 0. This implies that the set

√ √

A = {n 2 : both n and n 2 positive integers}

√ a. By Well-Ordering, A has a smallest

element,

√ say √

j=k √ 2. As √2 − 1 > 0, √

j( 2 − 1) =√j 2 −√k 2 = 2(j √ − k), is a positive integer. Since 2 < 2 2

implies 2 − 2 < 2 and also j 2 = 2k, we see that

√ √ √

(j − k) 2 = k(2 − 2) < k 2 = j.

√

Thus (j − k) 2 is a positive integer in A which is smaller than j. This

contradicts the choice of j as the smallest integer in A and hence,

finishes the proof.

401 Example Let a, b, c be integers such that a6 + 2b6 = 4c6 . Show that

a = b = c = 0.

Choose a triplet of non-negative integers a, b, c satisfying this equation

and with

max(a, b, c) > 0

This leads to 32a61 + b6 = 2c6 . This implies that b is even, b = 2b1 and so

16a61 + 32b61 = c6 . This implies that c is even, c = 2c1 and so

a61 + 2b61 = 4c61 . But clearly max(a1 , b1 , c1 ) < max(a, b, c). We have

produce a triplet of integers with a maximum smaller than the smallest

possible maximum, a contradiction.

a2 + b 2

402 Example (I MO 1988) If a, b are positive integers such that is

1 + ab

a2 + b 2

an integer, then show that must be a square.

1 + ab

Well-Ordering Principle 79

a2 + b 2

Solution: Suppose that = k is a counterexample of an integer

1 + ab

which is not a perfect square, with max(a, b) as small as possible. We

may assume without loss of generality that a < b for if a = b then

2a2 2

0<k= = 2 − < 2,

a2 + 1 a2 + 1

which forces k = 1, a square.

Now, a2 + b2 − k(ab + 1) = 0 is a quadratic in b with sum of roots ka and

product of roots a2 − k. Let b1 , b be its roots, so b1 + b = ka, bb1 = a2 − k.

As a, k are positive integers, supposing b1 < 0 is incompatible with

a2 + b21 = k(ab1 + 1). As k is not a perfect square, supposing b1 = 0 is

incompatible with a2 + 02 = k(0 · a + 1). Also

a2 − k b2 − k k

b1 = < = b − < b.

b b b

a2 + b21

Thus we have shown b1 to be a positive integer with = k smaller

1 + ab1

than b. This is a contradiction to the choice of b. Such a counterexample

a2 + b 2

k cannot exist, and so must be a perfect square. In fact, it can be

1 + ab

a2 + b 2

shown that is the square of the greatest common divisor of a and

1 + ab

b.

Problems

404 Problem Prove that the equality x2 + y2 + z2 = 2xyz can hold for

whole numbers x, y, z only when x = y = z = 0.

405 Problem Show that the series of integral squares does not contain an

infinite arithmetic progression.

integer solution.

80 Chapter 4

The Principle of Mathematical Induction is based on the following fairly

intuitive observation. Suppose that we are to perform a task that involves

a certain finite number of steps. Suppose that these steps are sequential.

Finally, suppose that we know how to perform the n-th step provided we

have accomplished the n − 1-th step. Thus if we are ever able to start the

task (that is, if we have a base case), then we should be able to finish it

(because starting with the base we go to the next case, and then to the

case following that, etc.).

We formulate the Principle of Mathematical Induction (PMI) as follows:

P(n) concerning natural numbers satisfying the following two properties:

(PMI I) P(k0 ) is true for some natural number k0 ,

Then the assertion P(n) is true for every n ≥ k0 .

169 for all natural numbers n.

that 33(1)+3 − 26(1) − 27 = 676 = 4(169) so P(1) is true. Assume the truth

of P(n − 1), that is, that there is an integer M such that

This entails

33n − 26n − 1 = 169M.

Now

33n+3 − 26n − 27 = 27 · 33n − 26n − 27

= 27(33n − 26n − 1) + 676n

= 27(169M) + 169 · 4n

= 169(27M + 4n),

and so the truth of P(n − 1) implies the truth of P(n). The assertion then

follows for all n ≥ 1 by PMI.

Mathematical Induction 81

√ √ 2n

(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)

√ √ √

(1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2

√ √ 2n

(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2)

√ √ √

(1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = b 2

for some positive integer b.” We see that P(1) is true since

√ √

(1 + 2)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 6,

and √ 2 √ √

(1 + 2) − (1 − 2)2 = 4 2.

Assume now that P(n − 1), i.e., assume that

√ 2(n−1) √

(1 + 2) + (1 − 2)2(n−1) = 2N

√ √ √

(1 + 2)2(n−1) − (1 − 2)2(n−1) = a 2

√ √ 2n √ 2 √ √ 2 √

(1 + 2)2n + (1 − 2) = (1 + √2) (1 + √2)2n−2 + (1 − √

2) (1 − √2)2n−2

= (3 + 2 2)(1 + 2)2n−2 + (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2

= 12N + 4a

= 2(6n + 2a),

82 Chapter 4

√ √ √ √ √ 2 √

(1 + 2)2n − (1 − 2)2n = (1 + √2)2 (1 + √2)2n−2 − (1 − √2) (1 − √2)2n−2

2n−2

= (3 √ √ + 2)

+ 2 2)(1 − (3 − 2 2)(1 − 2)2n−2

= 3a 2 + 2 √2(2N)

= (3a + 4N) 2,

√

which is of the form b 2. This implies that P(n) is true. The statement of

the problem follows by PMI.

n

k2 − 1

divisible by 8 for any odd natural number k since k − 1 and k + 1 are

n

consecutive even integers. Assume that 2n+2 a = k2 − 1 for some integer

a. Then

n+1 n n n

k2 − 1 = (k2 − 1)(k2 + 1) = 2n+2 a(k2 + 1).

n n

Since k is odd, k2 + 1 is even and so k2 + 1 = 2b for some integer b.

This gives

n+1 n

k2 − 1 = 2n+2 a(k2 + 1) = 2n+3 ab,

and so the assertion follows by PMI.

410 Example Let s be a positive integer. Prove that every interval [s, 2s]

contains a power of 2.

power of 2 then it must lie between two consecutive powers of 2, say

2r < s < 2r+1 . This yields 2r+1 < 2s. Hence s < 2r+1 < 2s, which yields the

result.

f0 = 0, f1 = 1, fn+1 = fn + fn−1 , n ≥ 1, that is every number after the

second one is the sum of the preceding two.

Mathematical Induction 83

fn−1 fn+1 = f2n + (−1)n+1 .

fn−1 fn+1 = f2n + (−1)n+1 then using the fact that fn+2 = fn + fn+1 ,

fn fn+2 = fn (fn + fn+1 )

= f2n + fn fn+1

= fn−1 fn+1 − (−1)n+1 + fn fn+1

= fn+1 (fn−1 + fn ) + (−1)n+2

= f2n+1 + (−1)n+2 ,

which establishes the assertion by induction.

squares, not necessarily of the same size, for all n = 4, 6, 7, 8, . . ..

by three (four new squares are gained but the original square is lost). The

figure below shows that n = 4 is achievable.$.4in]

also achievable. We will show now that n = 6 and n = 8 are achievable.

But this is easily seen from the figures below, and this finishes the

proof.$.4in]

Principle of Strong Mathematical Induction (PSMI).

assertion P(n) concerning natural numbers satisfying the following two

properties:

84 Chapter 4

(PSMI II) If m < n and P(m), P(m + 1), . . . , P(n − 1) are true then

P(n) is true.

Then the assertion P(n) is true for every n ≥ k0 .

and 5 pesos. Show that any quantity of pesos greater than or equal to 8

can be paid using the available coins.

so, we can pay 8, 9, or 10 pesos with the available coinage. Assume that

we are able to pay n − 3, n − 2, and n − 1 pesos, that is, that 3x + 5y = k

has non-negative solutions for k = n − 3, n − 2 and n − 1. We will show

that we may also obtain solutions for 3x + 5y = k for k = n, n + 1 and

n + 2. Now

3x + 5y = n − 3 =⇒ 3(x + 1) + 5y = n,

3x1 + 5y1 = n − 2 =⇒ 3(x1 + 1) + 5y1 = n + 1,

3x2 + 5y2 = n − 1 =⇒ 3(x2 + 1) + 5y2 = n + 2,

and so if the amounts n − 3, n − 2, n − 1 can be paid so can

n, n + 1, n + 2. The statement of the problem now follows from PSMI.

write

n = a 1 + a2 + · · · + a k ,

where the integers a1 , a2 , . . . , ak are positive integers (not necessarily

distinct) satisfying

1 1 1

+ + ··· = 1.

a1 a2 ak

Given the information that the integers 33 through 73 are good, prove that

every integer ≥ 33 is good.

good. For assume that n = a1 + a2 + · · · + ak , and

1 1 1

+ + ··· = 1.

a1 a2 ak

Mathematical Induction 85

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + ··· + + = + + = 1.

2a1 2a2 2ak 4 4 2 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + ··· + + = + + = 1.

2a1 2a2 2ak 3 6 2 3 6

Therefore

n. Let P(n) be the proposition “all the integers n, n + 1, n + 2, . . . , 2n + 7”

are good. By the statement of the problem, we see that P(33) is true. But

(*) implies the truth of P(n + 1) whenever P(n) is true. The assertion is

thus proved by induction.

Problems

x4 + x2 + 1 = (x2 − x + 1)(x2 + x + 1). Use this to show that if n is a

positive integer then

n+1 n

22 + 22 + 1

has at least n different prime factors.

1 1 1

+ + ··· + > 1.

n+1 n+2 3n + 1

419 Problem Prove that for all positive integers n and all real numbers x,

86 Chapter 4

s r

√

q

π

2+ 2+ 2 + ··· + 2 = 2 cos n+1

| {z } 2

n radical signs

for n ∈ N.

Prove that a1000 > b999 .

1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2n − 1) 1

<√ .

2 · 4 · 6 · · · (2n) 3n + 1

4n (2n)!

< .

n+1 (n!)2

1

424 Problem Let k be a positive integer Prove that if x + is an integer

x

1

then x + k is also an integer.

k

x

1 1 1 1 1

2

+ 2 + 2 + ··· + 2 < 2 − .

1 2 3 n n

f1 + f2 + · · · + fn = fn+2 − 1.

Congruences 87

the AM-GM Inequality. It consists in showing that AM-GM is true for all

powers of 2 and then deducing its truth for the numbers between two

consecutive powers of 2. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , al be non-negative real numbers.

Let P(l) be the assertion the AM-GM Inequality

a1 + a 2 + · · · + a l √

≥ l a 1 a2 · · · a l

l

holds for the l given numbers.

y1 + y 2 + · · · + y n

a1 = y1 , a2 = y2 , . . . , an = yn , an+1 = an+1 = · · · = a2k = ,

n

prove that P(n) is true.

4.6 Congruences

429 Definition The notation a ≡ b mod n is due to Gauß, and it means

that n|(a − b).

division by n. For example, since 8 and 13 leave the same remainder

upon division by 5, we have 8 ≡ 13 mod 5. Also observe that 5|(8 − 13).

As a further example, observe that −8 ≡ −1 ≡ 6 ≡ 13 mod 7.

Consider all the integers and arrange them in five columns as follows.

−10 −9 −8 −7 −6

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1

0 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9

... ... ... ... ...

88 Chapter 4

flavours: those leaving remainder 0 upon division by 5, those leaving

remainder 1 upon division by 5, etc..

Since n|(a − b) implies that ∃k ∈ Z such that nk = a − b, we deduce that

a ≡ b mod n if and only if there is an integer k such that a = b + nk.

The following theorem is quite useful.

then

ax + bu ≡ ay + bv mod n.

ns = x − y, nt = u − v. This implies that

n|(ax + bu − ay − bv).

This last assertion is equivalent to saying

ax + bu ≡ ay + bv mod n.

then

xu ≡ yv mod n.

integer. Then xj ≡ yj mod n.

Congruences 89

with integral coefficients then f(x) ≡ f(y) mod n.

is divided by 4.

455679 = 455600 + 76 + 3 ≡ 3, 87653 = 87600 + 52 + 1 ≡ 1 mod 4. Thus

436 Example Prove that 7 divides 32n+1 + 2n+2 for all natural numbers n.

32n+1 ≡ 3 · 9n ≡ 3 · 2n mod 7

and

2n+2 ≡ 4 · 2n mod 7

. Hence

32n+1 + 2n+2 ≡ 7 · 2n ≡ 0 mod 7,

for all natural numbers n.

90 Chapter 4

mod 641 and 54 ≡ −24 mod 641. Now, 27 · 5 ≡ −1 mod 641 yields

yield

−24 · 228 ≡ mod 641,

which means that 641|(232 + 1).

22225555 +55552222 ≡ 35555 +42222 ≡ (35 )1111 +(42 )1111 ≡ 51111 −51111 ≡ 0 mod 7.

7

7

Solution: We must find 77 mod 10. Now, 72 ≡ −1 mod 10, and so

73 ≡ 72 · 7 ≡ −7 ≡ 3 mod 10 and 74 ≡ (72 )2 ≡ 1 mod 10. Also, 72 ≡ 1

mod 4 and so 77 ≡ (72 )3 · 7 ≡ 3 mod 4, which means that there is an

integer t such that 77 = 3 + 4t. Upon assembling all this,

7

77 ≡ 74t+3 ≡ (74 )t · 73 ≡ 1t · 3 ≡ 3 mod 10.

by 7.

and so 23k ≡ 1 mod 3 for all positive integers k. Hence

23k + 27 ≡ 1 + 27 ≡ 0 mod 7 for all positive integers k. This produces the

infinitely many values sought.

Congruences 91

when divided by 7.

Thus 2k − 5 can leave only remainders 3, 4, or 6 upon division by 7.

consists of those positive multiples of 3 that are one less than a perfect

square. What is the remainder when the 1994-th term of the sequence is

divided by 1000?

requires n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k − 1, k = 1, 2, 3, . . .. The sequence

3k + 1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k + 1)2 − 1 which are

the terms at even places of the sequence of 3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. The

sequence 3k − 1, k = 1, 2, . . . produces the terms n2 − 1 = (3k − 1)2 − 1

which are the terms at odd places of the sequence 3, 15, 24, 48, . . .. We

must find the 997th term of the sequence 3k + 1, k = 1, 2, . . .. Finally, the

term sought is (3(997) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ (3(−3) + 1)2 − 1 ≡ 82 − 1 ≡ 63

mod 1000. The remainder sought is 63.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

443 Problem Prove that 0, 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, and 12 are the only perfect squares

mod 13.

r2 ≡ (13 − r)2 mod n, you only have to go half way.)

that the resulting integer be divisible by 13?

92 Chapter 4

n2 + 15n + 122 is divisible by 6.

when a83 is divided by 49.

put instead of x and y in 30x0y03 in order to give a number divisible by

13?

452 Problem (A HSME 1992) What is the size of the largest subset S of

{1, 2, . . . , 50} such that no pair of distinct elements of S has a sum divisible

by 7?

453 Problem Prove that there are no integer solutions to the equation

x2 − 7y = 3.

800000007 = x2 + y2 + z2 .

456 Problem Prove that the sum of the decimal digits of a perfect square

cannot be equal to 1991.

n n

7|42 + 22 + 1

for all natural numbers n.

Congruences 93

459 Problem (U SAMO 1986) What is the smallest integer n > 1, for which

the root-mean-square of the first n positive integers is an integer?

1/2

a21 + a22 + · · · + a2n

.

n

number formed by its last n digits is divisible by 2n .

consists of all those multiples of 3 which are one less than a square. Find

the remainder when the 1994th term is divided by 1000.

Answer: 63

464 Problem (A IME 1983) Let an = 6n + 8n . Find the remainder when a83

is divided by 49.

465 Problem Show that if 9|(a3 + b3 + c3 ), then 3|abc, for the integers

a, b, c.

94 Chapter 4

Recall that bxc is the unique integer satisfying

(4.4) x − 1 < bxc ≤ x

Thus bxc is x is an integer, or the integer just to the left of x if x is not an

integer. For example b3.9c = 1, b−3.1c = −4.

Let p be a prime and n a positive integer. In the product n! = 1 · 2 · 3 · · · n

the number of factors contributing a factor of of p is b np c the number of

factors contributing a factor of p2 is b pn2 c, etc.. This proves the following

theorem.

diving n! is given by

X∞

n

(4.5) b kc

k=1

p

999! = 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · · · 998 · 999?

dividing 999!. As there are fewer multiples of 5 amongst {1, 2, . . . , 999} that

multiples of 2, the number of zeroes is the determined by the highest

power of 5 dividing 999!. But the highest power of 5 dividing 999! is given

by

999 999 999 999

b c + b 2 c + b 3 c + b 4 c = 199 + 39 + 7 + 1 = 246.

5 5 5 5

Therefore 999! ends in 246 zeroes.

(m + n)!

(4.6) is an integer.

m!n!

Polignac-Legendre Theorem, it suffices to show that

m+n m n

b k

c ≥ b k c + b k c.

p p p

Miscellaneous Problems with Integers 95

Adding the inequalities bαc ≤ α, bβc ≤ β, we obtain bαc + bβc ≤ α + β.

Since bαc + bβc is an integer less than or equal to α + β, it must be less

than or equal than the integral part of α + β, that is bαc + bβc ≤ bα + βc,

as we wanted to show.

Observe that (m + n)! = m!(m + 1)(m + 2) · · · (m + n). Thus cancelling a

factor of m!,

(m + n)! (m + 1)(m + 2) · · · (m + n)

=

m!n! n!

we see that the product of n consecutive positive integers is divisible by

n!. If all the integers are negative, we may factor out a (−1)n , or if they

include 0, their product is 0. This gives the following theorem.

470 Example Prove that n5 − 5n3 + 4n is always divisible by 120 for all

integers n.

Solution: We have

integer after a specific permutation of the digits of A. Show that if

A + A 0 = 1010 then A s divisible by 10.

A = a10 a9 a8 . . . a1

and

A 0 = b10 b9 b8 . . . b1 ,

96 Chapter 4

A + A 0 = 10000000000, we must have

a1 + b1 = a2 + b2 = · · · = ai + bi = 0 and

ai+2 + bi+2 , ai+3 + bi+3 , . . . and if i = 0 there are no sums

a1 + b 1 , . . . , a i + b i .

Adding,

a1 + a2 + · · · + a10 = b1 + b2 + · · · + b10 ,

we have

a1 +b1 +a2 +b2 +· · ·+ai +bi +ai+1 +bi+1 +· · ·+a10 +b10 = 2(a1 +a2 +· · ·+a10 ),

that is , A and A 0 are both divisible by 10.

472 Example (P UTNAM 1956) Prove that every positive integer has a

multiple whose decimal representation involves all 10 digits.

m = 1234567890 · 10k+1 . Then all of the n consecutive integers

m + 1, m + 2, . . . , m + n

473 Example (P UTNAM 1966) Let 0 < a1 < a2 < . . . < amn+1 be mn + 1

integers. Prove that you can find either m + 1 of them no one of which

divides any other, or n + 1 of them, each dividing the following.

longest chain, starting with ak and each dividing the following one, that

Miscellaneous Problems with Integers 97

the are at least m + 1 nk ’s that are the same. However, the integers ak

corresponding to these nk ’s cannot divide each other, because ak |al

implies that nk ≥ nl + 1.

f(k+1)n = fkn+n = fn−1 fkn + fn fkn+1 .

It is clear that if fn |fkn then fn |f(k+1)n . Since fn |fn·1 , the assertion follows.

a

= 1 + 1/2 + · · · + 1/(p − 1),

b

then p divides a.

1 1 1 1 1

1+ + + + ··· + + .

p−1 2 p−2 (p − 1)/2 (p + 1)/2

After summing consecutive pairs, the numerator of the resulting fractions

is p. Each term in the denominator is < p. Since p is a prime, the p on

the numerator will not be thus cancelled out.

476 Example The sum of some positive integers is 1996. What is their

maximum product?

a1 + a2 + · · · + an = 1996. To maximise a1 a2 · · · an , none of the ak ’s can

be 1. Let us show that to maximise this product, we make as many

possible ak = 3 and at most two aj = 2.

Suppose that aj > 4. Substituting aj by the two terms aj − 3 and 3 the

sum is not changed, but the product increases since aj < 3(aj − 3). Thus

the ak ’s must equal 2, 3 or 4. But 2 + 2 + 2 = 3 + 3 and 2 × 2 × 2 < 3 × 3,

thus if there are more than two 2’s we may substitute them by 3’s. As

1996 = 3(665) + 1 = 3(664) + 4, the maximum product sought is 3664 × 4.

98 Chapter 4

1

r+ ,

r

where r is a rational number.

only if r = 1, in which case r + 1/r = 2. Let

1

r+ = k,

r

k a positive integer. Then

√

k± k2 − 4

r= .

2

Since k is an integer, r will be an integer if and only k2 − 4 is a square of

the same parity as k. Now, if k ≥ 3,

√ two consecutive squares and so it cannot

be itself a square. If k = 1, k2 − 4 is not a real number. If k = 2,

k2 − 4 = 0. Therefore, r + 1/r = 2, that is, r = 1. This finishes the proof.

478 Example For how many integers n in {1, 2, 3, . . . , 100} is the tens digit

of n2 odd?

Solution: In the subset {1, 2, . . . 10} there are only two values of n (4 and

6) for which the digits of the tens of n2 is odd. Now, the tens digit of

(n + 10)2 = n2 + 20n + 100 has the same parity as the tens digit of n2 .

Thus there are only 20 n for which the prescribed condition is verified.

Problems

5 + 55 + 555 + · · · + 5| .{z

. . 5} .

n 5 0s

Miscellaneous Problems with Integers 99

√

480 Problem Show that for all numbers a 6= 0, a 6= ±i 3 the following

formula of Reyley (1825) holds.

3 3 3

a6 + 45a5 − 81a2 + 27 −a2 + 30a2 − 9 −6a3 + 18a

a= + + .

6a(a2 + 3)2 6a(a2 + 3) (a2 + 3)2

sum of the cubes of three rational numbers.

is divisible by 8640.

(Hint: Consider, separately, the cases when n is and is not a perfect

square.)

bx2 − x − 2c = bxc.

x x

b c=b c

1999 2000

√ √ √

b n + n + 1c = b 4n + 2c

√ √ √ √

(Hint: Prove that 4n + 1 < n + n + 1 < 4n + 3. Argue that neither

4n + 2 nor 4n + 3 are perfect squares.)

100 Chapter 4

even natural number, then the number 13n + 6 is divisible by 7.

489 Problem Find, with proof, the unique square which is the product of

four consecutive odd numbers.

490 Problem (P UTNAM 1989) How many primes amongst the positive

integers, written as usual in base-ten are such that their digits are

alternating 1’s and 0’s, beginning and ending in 1?

491 Problem Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. Show that

then nk can be represented as the sum of n successive odd numbers.

a 1 1 1 1 1

= 1 − + − + ··· − + ,

b 2 3 4 1318 1319

prove that 1979|a.

one of the form 1 + 2 + . . . + n, n ∈ N. Prove that none of the digits

2, 4, 7, 9 can be the last digit of a triangular number.

495 Problem Demonstrate that there are infinitely many square triangular

numbers.

two triangular numbers,

a2 + a b 2 + b

n= + ,

2 2

write 4n + 1 as the sum of two squares, 4n + 1 = x2 + y2 where x and y

are expressed in terms of a and b.

Miscellaneous Problems with Integers 101

triangular numbers.

amongst ten successive natural numbers, there are always at least one

and at most four numbers that are not divisible by any of the numbers

2, 3, 5, 7.

498 Problem Are there five consecutive positive integers such that the

sum of the first four, each raised to the fourth power, equals the fifth

raised to the fourth power?

(2m)!(3n)!

(m!)2 (n!)3

is always an integer.

If n is a positive integer, prove that (n + 1)(n + 2) · · · (2n) is divisible by 2n .

102 Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Sums, Products, and Recursions

We could sum the series

a1 + a 2 + a 3 + · · · + a n

if we were able to find {vk } satisfying ak = vk − vk−1 . For

a1 +a2 +a3 +· · ·+an = v1 −v0 +v2 −v1 +· · ·+vn−1 −vn−2 +vn −vn−1 = vn −v0 .

series.

1 1 1 1

1+ · 1+ · 1+ ··· 1 + .

2 3 4 99

3 4 5 100

· · ··· ,

2 3 4 99

103

104 Chapter 5

2 3 99

(2 + 1) · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · · · 22 + 1 = 2a + b.

sought product:

2 3 99

(2 − 1)P = (2 − 1) (2 + 1) · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · · · 22 + 1

2 3 99

22 − 1 · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · · · 22 + 1

=

2 2 3 99

2 2 2 2

= 2 − 1 · 2 + 1 · 2 + 1 ··· 2 + 1

3 3 4 99

= 22 − 1 · 22 + 1 · 22 + 1 · · · 22 + 1

.. ..

. .

299 299

= (2 − 1)(2 + 1)

100

= 22 − 1,

whence

100

P = 22 − 1.

π 2π 4π

P = cos · cos · cos .

7 7 7

Solution: Multiplying both sides by sin π7 and using sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

we obtain

π π π 2π 4π

sin P = (sin cos ) · cos · cos

7 7 7 7 7

1 2π 2π 4π

= (sin cos ) · cos

2 7 7 7

1 4π 4π

= (sin cos )

4 7 7

1 8π

= sin .

8 7

As sin 7 = − sin 7 , we deduce that

π 8π

1

P=− .

8

Telescopic cancellation 105

1 3 5 9999 1

· · ··· < .

2 4 6 10000 100

Solution: Let

1 3 5 9999

A= · · ···

2 4 6 10000

and

2 4 6 10000

B= · · ··· .

3 5 7 10001

Clearly, x2 − 1 < x2 for all real numbers x. This implies that

x−1 x

<

x x+1

whenever these four quantities are positive. Hence

3/4 < 4/5

5/6 < 6/7

.. .. ..

. . .

9999/10000 < 10000/10001

obtain

1 3 5 9999 2 4 6 10000

· · ··· < · · ··· ,

2 4 6 10000 3 5 7 10001

or A < B. This yields A2 = A · A < A · B. Now

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9999 10000 1

A·B= · · · · · · ··· · = ,

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10000 10001 10001

and consequently,

√ A2 < A · B = 1/10001. We deduce that

A < 1/ 10001 < 1/100.

For the next example we recall that n! (n factorial) means

n! = 1 · 2 · 3 · · · n.

Observe that (k + 1)! = (k + 1)k!. We make the convention 0! = 1.

106 Chapter 5

1 · 1! + 2 · 2! + 3 · 3! + · · · + 99 · 99!.

(k + 1)! − k! = k · k!. Thus

1 · 1! = 2! − 1!

2 · 2! = 3! − 2!

3 · 3! = 4! − 3!

.. .. ..

. . .

98 · 98 = 99! − 98!

99 · 99! = 100! − 99!

Adding both columns,

1 · 1! + 2 · 2! + 3 · 3! + · · · + 99 · 99! = 100! − 1! = 100! − 1.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

Dn = 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · · + (−1)n−1 n.

1 1 1 1

1 − 2 · 1 − 2 · 1 − 2 ··· 1 − 2 .

2 3 4 99

Answer: 2400.

1 1 1 1

log2 1 + + log2 1 + + log2 1 + + · · · + log2 1 + .

2 3 4 1023

Answer: 9.

n

2n +1

22 − 2.

Arithmetic Sums 107

An arithmetic progression is one of the form

a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, . . . , a + (n − 1)d, . . .

One important arithmetic sum is

n(n + 1)

1 + 2 + ··· + n = .

2

To obtain a closed form, we utilise Gauss’ trick:

If

An = 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n

then

An = n + (n − 1) + · · · + 1.

Adding these two quantities,

An = 1 + 2 + ··· + n

An = n + (n − 1) + · · · + 1

2An = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + · · · + (n + 1)

= n(n + 1),

n(n + 1)

since there are n summands. This gives An = .

2

We summarise this as

n(n + 1)

(5.1) 1 + 2 + ··· + n = .

2

For example,

100(101)

1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 100 = = 5050.

2

Applying Gauss’s trick to the general arithmetic sum

(a) + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + · · · + (a + (n − 1)d)

we obtain

(5.2)

n(2a + (n − 1)d)

(a) + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + · · · + (a + (n − 1)d) =

2

108 Chapter 5

511 Example Find the sum of all the integers from 1 to 1000 inclusive,

which are not multiples of 3 or 5.

Solution: One computes the sum of all integers from 1 to 1000 and weeds

out the sum of the multiples of 3 and the sum of the multiples of 5, but

puts back the multiples of 15, which one has counted twice. The desired

sum is

(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 1000) − (3 + 6 + 9 + · · · + 999)

−(5 + 10 + 15 + · · · + 1000)

+(15 + 30 + 45 + · · · + 990)

= (1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 1000) − 3(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 333)

−5(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 200)

+15(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + 66)

= 500500 − 3 · 55611 − 5 · 20100 +

= 266332

512 Example Each element of the set {10, 11, 12, . . . , 19, 20} is multiplied

by each element of the set {21, 22, 23, . . . , 29, 30}. If all these products are

added, what is the resulting sum?

(10 + 11 + · · · + 20)(21 + 22 + · · · + 30) after all the terms are multiplied. But

(20 + 10)(11)

10 + 11 + · · · + 20 = = 165

2

and

(30 + 21)(10)

21 + 22 + · · · + 30 = = 255.

2

The required total is (165)(255) = 42075.

integers is 1000. Find these integers.

n(2l + n + 1)

Using Gauss’ trick we obtain S = . As S = 1000,

2

Arithmetic Sums 109

2 2

2000 =

n ≤ b 2000c = 44. Moreover, n and 2l + n + 1 divisors of 2000 and are of

opposite parity. Since 2000 = 24 53 , the odd factors of 2000 are 1, 5, 25,

and 125. We then see that the problem has te following solutions:

n = 1, l = 999,

n = 5, l = 197,

n = 16, l = 54,

n = 25, l = 27.

514 Example Find the sum of all integers between 1 and 100 that leave

remainder 2 upon division by 6.

6r + 2, r = 0, 1, . . . , 16. But this is

16

X 16

X 16

X 16(17)

(6r + 2) = 6 r+ 2=6 + 2(17) = 850.

r=0 r=0 r=0

2

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

2 n2 (n2 + 1)

2

1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + (n − 1) + n = .

2

1 + 3 + 5 + · · · + 2n − 1 = n2 .

1 2

20 + 20 + 20 + · · · + 40.

5 5

Answer: 3030

110 Chapter 5

1 2 3 1995

+ + + ··· +

1996 1996 1996 1996

is an integer.

T2 T3 T4 Tn

Pn = · · ··· .

T2 − 1 T3 − 1 T4 − 1 Tn − 1

Find P1991 .

Answer: 5973

1993

1 1 1

, ,

a+b b+c c+a

are consecutive terms in an arithmetic progression, prove that

b2 , a2 , c2

1=1

2+3+4=1+8

5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 8 + 27

10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 = 27 + 64

Conjecture the law of formation and prove your answer.

(1)

Geometric Sums 111

(3, 5)

(7, 9, 11)

(13, 15, 17, 19)

(21, 23, 25, 27, 29)

...............................

Find the sum of the nth row.

524 Problem The first term of an arithmetic progression is 14 and its 100th

term is −16. Find (i) its 30th term and (ii) the sum of all the terms from the

first to the 100th.

A geometric progression is one of the form

1 + 2 + 4 + · · · + 1024.

Solution: Let

S = 1 + 2 + 4 + · · · + 1024.

Then

2S = 2 + 4 + 8 + · · · + 1024 + 2048.

Hence

112 Chapter 5

1 1 1 1

x= + 2 + 3 + · · · + 99 .

3 3 3 3

Solution: We have

1 1 1 1 1

x = 2 + 3 + · · · + 99 + 100 .

3 3 3 3 3

Then

2

3

x = x − 13 x

= ( 13 + 312 + 313 + · · · + 3199 )

−( 312 + 313 + · · · + 3199 + 1

3100

)

1

= 13 − 3100 .

From which we gather

1 1

x=

− .

2 2 · 399

The following example presents an arithmetic-geometric sum.

a = 1 + 2 · 4 + 3 · 42 + · · · + 10 · 49 .

Solution: We have

4a = 4 + 2 · 42 + 3 · 43 + · · · + 9 · 49 + 10 · 410 .

Now, 4a − a yields

3a = −1 − 4 − 42 − 43 − · · · − 49 + 10 · 410 .

10 · 410 410 − 1

a= − .

3 9

528 Example Find the sum

Geometric Sums 113

Solution: We have

1

Sn − Sn = (1+1/2+1/4+· · ·+1/2n )−(1/2+1/4+· · ·+1/2n +1/2n+1 ) = 1−1/2n .

2

Whence

Sn = 2 − 1/2n .

So as n varies, we have:

S1 = 2 − 1/20 = 1

S2 = 2 − 1/2 = 1.5

S3 = 2 − 1/22 = 1.875

S4 = 2 − 1/23 = 1.875

S5 = 2 − 1/24 = 1.9375

S6 = 2 − 1/25 = 1.96875

S10 = 2 − 1/29 = 1.998046875

Let us sum now the geometric series

S = a + ar + ar2 + · · · + arn−1 .

rS = ar + ar2 + · · · + arn .

Hence

a − arn

S= ,

1−r

that is,

a − arn

(5.3) a + ar + · · · + arn−1 =

1−r

If |r| < 1 then rn → 0 as n → ∞.

For |r| < 1, we obtain the sum of the infinite geometric series

a

(5.4) a + ar + ar2 + · · · =

1−r

114 Chapter 5

529 Example A fly starts at the origin and goes 1 unit up, 1/2 unit right,

1/4 unit down, 1/8 unit left, 1/16 unit up, etc., ad infinitum. In what

coordinates does it end up?

1

1 1 1 2 2

− + − ··· = −1

= .

2 8 32 1− 4 5

Its y coordinate is

1 1 1 4

1− + − ··· = −1

= .

4 16 1− 4 5

Therefore, the fly ends up in ( 52 , 45 ).

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

530 Problem The 6th term of a geometric progression is 20 and the 10th

is 320. Find (i) its 15th term, (ii) the sum of its first 30 terms.

In this section we compute several sums using telescoping cancellation.

We start with the sum of the first n positive integers, which we have

already computed using Gauss’ trick.

An = 1 + 2 + · · · + n.

k2 − (k − 1)2 = 2k − 1.

From this

12 − 0 2 = 2·1−1

22 − 1 2 = 2·2−1

32 − 2 2 = 2·3−1

.. .. ..

. . .

n2 − (n − 1)2 = 2 · n − 1

Fundamental Sums 115

n2 − 02 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n) − n.

n(n + 1)

1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n = ·n2 /2 + n/2 = .

2

532 Example Find the sum

12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + · · · + n 2 .

k3 − (k − 1)3 = 3k2 − 3k + 1.

Hence

13 − 0 3 = 3 · 12 − 3 · 1 + 1

23 − 1 3 = 3 · 22 − 3 · 2 + 1

33 − 2 3 = 3 · 32 − 3 · 3 + 1

.. .. ..

. . .

n3 − (n − 1)3 = 3 · n2 − 3 · n + 1

Adding both columns,

n3 − 03 = 3(12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 ) − 3(1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n) + n.

n(n+1)

From the preceding example 1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n = ·n2 /2 + n/2 = 2

so

3

n3 − 03 = 3(12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + n2 ) − · n(n + 1) + n.

2

Solving for the sum,

n3 1 n

12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + · · · + n 2 = + · n(n + 1) − .

3 2 3

After simplifying we obtain

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

(5.5) 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + · · · + n 2 =

6

116 Chapter 5

1 1 1 1

+ + + ··· + .

1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100

1 1 1

= − .

k(k + 1) k k+1

Thus

1

1·2

= 11 − 12

1

2·3

= 12 − 13

1

3·4

= 13 − 14

.. .. ..

. . .

1 1 1

99·100

= 99 − 100

Adding both columns,

1 1 1 1 1 99

+ + + ··· + =1− = .

1·2 2·3 3·4 99 · 100 100 100

1 1 1 1

+ + + ··· + .

1 · 4 4 · 7 7 · 10 31 · 34

1 1 1 1 1

= · − · .

(3n + 1) · (3n + 4) 3 3n + 1 3 3n + 4

Thus

1

1·4

= 13 − 12 1

1 1 1

4·7

= 12 − 21

1 1 1

7·10

= 21 − 30

1 1 1

10·13

= 30 − 39

.. .. ..

. . .

1 1 1

34·37

= 102 − 111

Fundamental Sums 117

1 1 1 1 1 1 12

+ + + ··· + = − = .

1 · 4 4 · 7 7 · 10 31 · 34 3 111 37

1 1 1 1

+ + + ··· + .

1 · 4 · 7 4 · 7 · 10 7 · 10 · 13 25 · 28 · 31

1 1 1 1 1

= · − · .

(3n + 1) · (3n + 4) · (3n + 7) 6 (3n + 1)(3n + 4) 6 (3n + 4)(3n + 7)

Therefore

1 1 1

1·4·7

= 6·1·4 − 6·4·7

1 1 1

4·7·10

= 6·4·7 − 6·7·10

1 1 1

7·10·13

= 6·7·10 − 6·10·13

.. .. ..

. . .

1 1 1

25·28·31

= 6·25·28 − 6·28·31

Adding each column,

1 1 1 1 1 1 9

+ + +· · ·+ = − = .

1 · 4 · 7 4 · 7 · 10 7 · 10 · 13 25 · 28 · 31 6 · 1 · 4 6 · 28 · 31 217

1 · 2 + 2 · 3 + 3 · 4 + · · · + 99 · 100.

1 1

k(k + 1) = (k)(k + 1)(k + 2) − (k − 1)(k)(k + 1).

3 3

Therefore

118 Chapter 5

1·2 = 31 ·1·2·3− 1

3

·0·1·2

2·3 = 13 ·2·3·4− 1

3

·1·2·3

3·4 = 13 ·3·4·5− 1

3

·2·3·4

.. .. ..

. . .

99 · 100 = 13 · 99 · 100 · 101 − 1

3

· 98 · 99 · 100

Adding each column,

1 1

1 · 2 + 2 · 3 + 3 · 4 + · · · + 99 · 100 = · 99 · 100 · 101 − · 0 · 1 · 2 = 333300.

3 3

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

2

n(n + 1)

(5.6) 3 3 3

1 + 2 + 3 + ··· + n = 3

2

+ · · · + an−1 (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )(1 + a3 ) · · · (1 + an−2 )

= (1 + a1 )(1 + a2 )(1 + a3 ) · · · (1 + an ) − 1.

csc 2 + csc 4 + csc 8 + · · · + csc 2n = cot 1 − cot 2n .

∞

X n

x2 x

2 n+1 = .

n=1

1−x 1−x

Hint:

y 1 1

2

= − .

1−y 1 − y 1 − y2

First Order Recursions 119

π π π π π

tan 100 + 2 tan 99 + 22 tan 298 + · · · + 298 tan 2 = cot 100 .

2 2 2 2 2

n

X k 1 n2 + n

= · .

k=1

k4 + k 2 + 1 2 n2 + n + 1

1/3

1 · 2 · 4 + 2 · 4 · 8 + 3 · 6 · 12 + · · ·

.

1 · 3 · 9 + 2 · 6 · 18 + 3 · 9 · 27 + · · ·

∞

X 1 π

arctan 2

= .

n=1

1+n+n 4

Hint: From

tan x − tan y

tan x − tan y =

1 + tan x tan y

deduce that

a−b

arctan a − arctan b = arctan

1 + ab

for suitable a and b.

∞

Y n3 − 1 2

= .

n=2

n3 +1 3

We have already seen the Fibonacci numbers, defined by the recursion

f0 = 0, f1 = 1 and

fn+1 = fn + fn−1 , n ≥ 1.

120 Chapter 5

The order of the recurrence is the difference between the highest and the

lowest subscripts. For example

un+2 − un+1 = 2

is of the first order, and

un+4 + 9u2n = n5

is of the fourth order.

A recurrence is linear if the subscripted letters appear only to the first

power. For example

un+2 − un+1 = 2

is a linear recurrence and

x2n + nxn−1 = 1 and xn + 2xn−1 = 3

are not linear recurrences.

A recursion is homogeneous if all its terms contain the subscripted

variable to the same power. Thus

xm+3 + 8xm+2 − 9xm = 0

is homogeneous. The equation

xm+3 + 8xm+2 − 9xm = m2 − 3

is not homogeneous.

A closed form of a recurrence is a formula that permits us to find the n-th

term of the recurrence without having to know a priori the terms

preceding it.

We outline a method for solving first order linear recurrence relations of

the form

xn = axn−1 + f(n), a 6= 1,

where f is a polynomial.

subscripts” in the form xn = axn−1 . This we call the characteristic

equation. Cancelling this gives x = a. The solution to the

homogeneous equation xn = axn−1 will be of the form xn = Aan ,

where A is a constant to be determined.

First Order Recursions 121

of the same degree as f.

xn = 2xn−1 . Cancelling, x = 2. Thus we try a solution of the form

xn = A2n , were A is a constant. But 7 = x0 = A20 and so A = 7. The

solution is thus xn = 7(2)n .

Aliter: We have

x0 = 7

x1 = 2x0

x2 = 2x1

x3 = 2x2

.. .. ..

. . .

xn = 2xn−1

Multiplying both columns,

x0 x1 · · · xn = 7 · 2n x0 x1 x2 · · · xn−1 .

xn = 7 · 2 n .

xn .

obtain xn = 2xn−1 or x = 2. A solution to the homogeneous equation will

be of the form xn = A(2)n . Now f(n) = 1 is a polynomial of degree 0 (a

constant) and so we test a particular constant solution C. The general

solution will have the form xn = A2n + B. Now, 7 = x0 = A20 + B = A + B.

Also, x1 = 2x0 + 7 = 15 and so 15 = x1 = 2A + B. Solving the

simultaneous equations

A + B = 7,

2A + B = 15,

we find A = 8, B = −1. So the solution is xn = 8(2n ) − 1 = 2n+3 − 1.

122 Chapter 5

Aliter: We have:

x0 = 7

x1 = 2x0 + 1

x2 = 2x1 + 1

x3 = 2x2 + 1

.. .. ..

. . .

xn−1 = 2xn−2 + 1

xn = 2xn−1 + 1

Multiply the kth row by 2n−k . We obtain

2 n x0 = 2n · 7

2n−1 x1 = 2n x0 + 2n−1

2n−2 x2 = 2n−1 x1 + 2n−2

2n−3 x3 = 2n−2 x2 + 2n−3

.. .. ..

. . .

22 xn−2 = 23 xn−3 + 22

2xn−1 = 22 xn−2 + 2

xn = 2xn−1 + 1

Adding both columns, cancelling, and adding the geometric sum,

xn = 7 · 2n + (1 + 2 + 22 + · · · + 2n−1 ) = 7 · 2n + 2n − 1 = 2n+3 − 1.

Aliter: Let un = xn + 1 = 2xn−1 + 2 = 2(xn−1 + 1) = 2un−1 . We solve the

recursion un = 2un−1 as we did on our first example:

un = 2n u0 = 2n (x0 + 1) = 2n · 8 = 2n+3 . Finally, xn = un − 1 = 2n+3 − 1.

548 Example Let x0 = 2, xn = 9xn−1 − 56n + 63. Find a closed form for

this recursion.

obtain the characteristic equation xn = 9xn−1 or x = 9. A solution to the

homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(9)n . Now

f(n) = −56n + 63 is a polynomial of degree 1 and so we test a particular

solution of the form Bn + C. The general solution will have the form

xn = A9n + Bn + C. Now

x0 = 2, x1 = 9(2) − 56 + 63 = 25, x2 = 9(25) − 56(2) + 63 = 176. We thus

solve the system

2 = A + C,

First Order Recursions 123

25 = 9A + B + C,

176 = 81A + 2B + C.

We find A = 2, B = 7, C = 0. The general solution is xn = 2(9n ) + 7n.

this recursion.

obtain the characteristic equation xn = 3xn−1 or x = 9. A solution to the

homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(3)n . Now

f(n) = −2n2 + 6n − 3 is a polynomial of degree 2 and so we test a

particular solution of the form Bn2 + Cn + D. The general solution will

have the form xn = A3n + Bn2 + Cn + D. Now

x0 = 1, x1 = 3(1) − 2 + 6 − 3 = 4, x2 = 3(4) − 2(2)2 + 6(2) − 3 = 13, x3 =

3(13) − 2(3)2 + 6(3) − 3 = 36. We thus solve the system

1 = A + D,

4 = 3A + B + C + D,

13 = 9A + 4B + 2C + D,

36 = 27A + 9B + 3C + D.

We find A = B = 1, C = D = 0. The general solution is xn = 3n + n2 .

x0 = 2, x1 = 2(2) + 30 = 5. We solve the system

2 = A + B,

7 = 2A + 3B.

We find A = 1, B = 1. The general solution is xn = 2n + 3n .

We now tackle the case when a = 1. In this case, we simply consider a

polynomial g of degree 1 higher than the degree of f.

for xn .

124 Chapter 5

obtain the characteristic equation xn = xn−1 or x = 1. A solution to the

homogeneous equation will be of the form xn = A(1)n = A, a constant.

Now f(n) = n is a polynomial of degree 1 and so we test a particular

solution of the form Bn2 + Cn + D, one more degree than that of f. The

general solution will have the form xn = A + Bn2 + Cn + D. Since A and

D are constants, we may combine them to obtain xn = Bn2 + Cn + E.

Now, x0 = 7, x1 = 7 + 1 = 8, x2 = 8 + 2 = 10. So we solve the system

7 = E,

8 = B + C + E,

10 = 4B + 2C + E.

1 n2 n

We find B = C = , E = 7. The general solution is xn = + + 7.

2 2 2

Aliter: We have

x0 = 7

x1 = x0 + 1

x2 = x1 + 2

x3 = x2 + 3

.. .. ..

. . .

xn = xn−1 + n

Adding both columns,

x0 + x1 + x2 + · · · + xn = 7 + x0 + x2 + · · · + xn−1 + (1 + 2 + 3 + · · · + n).

n(n + 1)

Cancelling and using the fact that 1 + 2 + · · · + n = ,

2

n(n + 1)

xn = 7 + .

2

order recursion by a suitable transformation.

form for this recursion.

First Order Recursions 125

1/2

vn = log un = log un−1 = 21 log un−1 = vn−1 2

. As vn = vn−1 /2, we have

n

vn = v0 /2 , that is, log un = (log u0 )/2 . Therefore, un = 31/2 .

n n

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

xn−1 + 4

553 Problem Find a closed form for x0 = 3, xn = .

3

1

Answer: xn = + 2.

3n

Answer: xn = 5n + 5n.

Answer: xn = 6n2 + 6n + 1.

Answer: xn = 2n + 3(5n ).

j

Answer: aj+1 = 62 − 1.

xn + xn−1 = n2 .

Given that x19 = 94, find the remainder when x94 is divided by 1000.

126 Chapter 5

560 Problem If u0 = 1/3 and un+1 = 2u2n − 1, find a closed form for un .

X∞

1

= 1.

n=1

xn

All the recursions that we have so far examined are first order recursions,

that is, we find the next term of the sequence given the preceding one.

Let us now briefly examine how to solve some second order recursions.

We now outline a method for solving second order homogeneous linear

recurrence relations of the form

xn = axn−1 + bxn−2 .

form xn = axn−1 + bxn−2 . Cancelling this gives x2 − ax − b = 0. This

equation has two roots r1 and r2 .

xn = A(r1 )n + B(r2 )n , where A, B are constants.

xn = A(r1 )n + Bn(r1 )n .

Thus we test a solution of the form xn = A(−2)n + B(−3)n . Since

1 = x0 = A + B, −1 = −2A − 3B, we quickly find A = 2, B = −1. Thus the

solution is xn = 2(−2)n − (−3)n .

f0 = 0, f1 = 1, fn = fn−1 + fn−2 .

Second Order Recursions 127

√ !n √ n

1+ 5 1− 5

will have the form fn = A +B . The initial

2 2

conditions give

0 = A + B,

√ ! √ ! √ √

1+ 5 1− 5 1 5 5

1=A +B = (A + B) + (A − B) = (A − B)

2 2 2 2 2

1 1

This gives A = √ , B = − √ . We thus have the Cauchy-Binet Formula:

5 5

√ !n √ !n

1 1+ 5 1 1− 5

(5.7) fn = √ −√

5 2 5 2

is a multiple root and so we must test a solution of the form

xn = A2n + Bn2n . The initial conditions give

1 = A,

4 = 2A + 2B.

This solves to A = 1, B = 1. The solution is thus xn = 2n + n2n .

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

x0 = 0, x1 = 1, xn = 10xn−1 − 21xn−2 + 2n .

128 Chapter 5

569 Example Find the recurrence relation for the number of n digit binary

sequences with no pair of consecutive 1’s.

condition on the last digit. If it is 0, the number of sequences sought is

an−1 . If it is 1, the penultimate digit must be 0, and the number of

sequences sought is an−2 . Thus

an = an−1 + an−2 , a1 = 2, a2 = 3.

intersects each of the other ovals at exactly two points and no three ovals

intersect at the same point, find a recurrence relation for the number of

regions into which the plane is divided.

the nth oval intersects the previous ovals at 2(n − 1) points, i.e. the nth

oval is divided into 2(n − 1) arcs. This adds 2(n − 1) regions to the an−1

previously existing. Thus

571 Example Find a recurrence relation for the number of regions into

which the plane is divided by n straight lines if every pair of lines

intersect, but no three lines intersect.

previous n − 1 lines at n − 1 points, adding n new regions to the

previously existing an−1 . Hence

an = an−1 + n, a1 = 2.

Applications of Recursions 129

envelopes with n letters. Find a recursion for the number Dn of ways in

which she never stuffs the right letter into the right envelope.

envelope. Two events might happen. Either n and r(1 ≤ r ≤ n − 1) trade

places or they do not.

In the first case, the two letters r and n are misplaced. Our task is just to

misplace the other n − 2 letters, (1, 2, · · · , r − 1, r + 1, · · · , n − 1) in the

slots (1, 2, · · · , r − 1, r + 1, · · · , n − 1). This can be done in Dn−2 ways.

Since r can be chosen in n − 1 ways, the first case can happen in

(n − 1)Dn−2 ways.

In the second case, let us say that letter r, (1 ≤ r ≤ n − 1) moves to the

n-th position but n moves not to the r-th position. Since r has been

misplaced, we can just ignore it. Since n is not going to the r-th position,

we may relabel n as r. We now have n − 1 numbers to misplace, and this

can be done in Dn−1 ways.

As r can be chosen in n − 1 ways, the total number of ways for the

second case is (n − 1)Dn−1 . Thus Dn = (n − 1)Dn−2 + (n − 1)Dn−1 .

573 Example There are two urns, one is full of water and the other is

empty. On the first stage, half of the contains of urn I is passed into urn II.

On the second stage 1/3 of the contains of urn II is passed into urn I. On

stage three, 1/4 of the contains of urn I is passed into urn II. On stage

four 1/5 of the contains of urn II is passed into urn I, and so on. What

fraction of water remains in urn I after the 1978th stage?

and II respectively at stage n. Observe that xn + yn = 1 and that

130 Chapter 5

x0 = 1; y0 = 0

x1 = x0 − 21 x0 = 21 ; y1 = y1 + 21 x0 = 1

2

x2 = x1 + 31 y1 = 32 ; y2 = y1 − 31 y1 = 1

3

x3 = x2 − 41 x2 = 21 ; y1 = y1 + 41 x2 = 1

2

x4 = x3 + 51 y3 = 53 ; y1 = y1 − 51 y3 = 2

5

x5 = x4 − 61 x4 = 21 ; y1 = y1 + 61 x4 = 1

2

x6 = x5 + 71 y5 = 74 ; y1 = y1 − 71 y5 = 3

7

x7 = x6 − 81 x6 = 21 ; y1 = y1 + 81 x6 = 1

2

x8 = x7 + 91 y7 = 95 ; y1 = y1 − 91 y7 = 4

9

stage n we have xn = yn = 21 and that at each even stage we have (if

k+1

n = 2k) x2k = 2k+1 k

, y2k = 2k+1 . Since 1978 ÷ 2 = 989 we have x1978 = 1979

990

.

Ad Pleniorem Scientiam

experiment is performed by rolling a die until two odd numbers have

appeared (and then the experiment stops). The tireless researchers

wanted to find a recurrence relation for the number of ways to do this.

Help them!

575 Problem Mrs. Rosenberg has $8 000 000 in one of her five savings

accounts. In this one, she earns 15% interest per year. Find a recurrence

relation for the amount of money after n years.

Applications of Recursions 131

576 Problem Find a recurrence relation for the number of ternary n-digit

sequences with no consecutive 2’s.

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