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2015 International Conference on Energy Systems and Applications (ICESA 2015)

Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pune, India 30 Oct - 01 Nov, 2015

Electromagnetic Compatibility of Energy Efficient


Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) with CISPR
EMI Standards
Shreenivas Jog Nidhi Chaturvedi, Suvidha Chitnis
Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering
Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology
Pimpri, Pune, India. Pimpri, Pune, India.
srjog_etc@rediffmail.com nidhi2308@gmail.com; suvidhachitnis@gmail.com

Abstract— The aim of this research paper is to highlight the consumers. This is just an example of benefits of energy
importance of Energy Efficiency and Electromagnetic efficiency. Energy efficiency does not mean energy
Compatibility in our daily life. The goal of energy efficiency is conservation as both are different things. In energy
to reduce the amount of energy required to deliver the services efficiency, we reduce the amount of energy to achieve same
for domestic as well as for the commercial purposes whereas
service, however, in case of energy conservation; the prime
Electromagnetic Compatibility ensures the compliance with
the safety standards and it is mainly concerned with the purpose is to save energy sometimes without using the
electronic equipments and devices. services. There are various ways through which energy
For this research work, energy efficient Switched Mode efficiency can be achieved. One way is to maximize the
Power Supply (SMPS) has been taken as our test model for usage of natural resources and minimize the wastage of
serving both the purposes. The Switched Mode Power Supply energy [1].
is basically power electronic circuit extensively used in a wide
range of applications. The SMPS involves high frequency II. EMI/EMC
switching operation due to which it generates electromagnetic
emissions and has the possibility to interfere with system
The Electromagnetic Interference-EMI also known as RFI
operation and as a result it can affect the performance of the
system. This makes electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) an can be defined as unwanted noise or signals, generated
important concern. To make this system Energy Efficient and either naturally or man-made, affecting the performance of
Electromagnetic Compliant, the system has been tested for an equipment or system operating nearby or in the same
Conducted as well as for Radiated Emission at the Centre for vicinity. Electromagnetic Compatibility-EMC defines the
Electronics Test Engineering (CETE), Pune, India which is equipments’ immunity against Electromagnetic
Government of India undertaking. After analysis of the Interference. If an equipment is designed in such a way that
emission, mitigation methods have been used and it is found it will not be affected in the presence of any type of EMI
that by using Filtering technique, the Conducted Emission sources, which means having sufficient immunity. Each and
level has been reduced by 15 to 20dB whereas by using the
every device exhibits some emission. This emission should
Shielding method, Radiated Emission is reduced around 10 to
15dB which makes the SMPS Compatible with the CISPR be within allowable limits and should not cause the
standard. interference. Such equipment, which meets both the criteria
is said to be Electromagnetic Compliant. Radiated Emission
Keywords— SMPS, Conducted Emission, EMI/EMC, EMC also causes health hazards to human being.
Testing, Radiated Emission, Energy Efficiency, CISPR.
III. OPTIMIZATION OF POWER CONSUMPTION
I. INTRODUCTION
The term ‘Power Optimization’ is used to reduce the
Energy efficiency can be described as: “Reduced or less power consumption of any electronic or digital device using
amount of energy using for the same work”. In general term, electronic design tools. As complexity of design is increasing
energy efficiency is the process of managing and controlling day by day, power consumption is also increasing, hence the
the rate of energy utilization. Consider an example of main challenge is the power utilization within the circuit
incandescent bulb and compact florescent light (CFL), both itself. The estimation of power consumption can be
are used for the lighting purpose. The CFL utilizes less performed at circuit level as well as based on the inputs.
energy which is almost one fifth of the energy using by the Power optimization can be achieved by selecting the right
incandescent bulb to produce the same amount of light, components and proper designing. For electronic circuits, the
hence in this case, CFL is more energy efficient than the efficiency measurement depends on space, power, cost, input
incandescent bulb. Being energy efficient, it also reduces data, and hardware platform. This measurement is generally
the electricity bills which convert as savings to the based on the complexity, memory, development time, ease

978-1-4673-6817-9/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE 700


of maintenance and extensibility. When we improve the Here is the brief comparison between both the power
performance of one part of the equipment, we expect that it supplies and why SMPS is preferred over linear power
may improve overall performance of the system, which is supply.
not correct. It is a common mistake to predict overall
performance improvement using peak performance. There a. Linear power supplies uses bulky transformer whereas
are various ways through which performance improvement SMPS uses lightweight and much smaller transformer. The
can be achieved, some of them are: small size and light weight of SMPS makes it more compact
x Perform measurements at a rate of change of values of and well suited for various applications.
the data and type of data b. Linear power supply has a very limited input range
x Proper use of combinational logics normally 100V AC to 240V AC whereas SMPS can operate
x Modification of certain operations to reduce certain anywhere between the range of 85VAC to 264V AC.
parameters c. The SMPS has the capability to withstand with the small
x Decide which portion of the system to shut down losses in the range of 10-20ms without affecting the outputs
x Use of timers, which monitors the system and turn off whereas linear power supply cannot manage the same.
when timer expires [2]. d. The efficiency defines how much energy is being wasted
by the power supply. Due to the design aspects, linear
IV. SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLY power supply can provide 50-60% efficiency only whereas
SMPS provides 80% and more. That is the reason, SMPS
Switched Mode Power Supply commonly known as preferred over linear power supplies. Switched mode power
‘SMPS’ is a commonly used electronic device which supplies (SMPS) are widely used in various sectors such as
converts the existing AC/DC unregulated input voltage to a communications, control and military applications [4].
regulated DC output voltage. An SMPS needs to be power In case of SMPS, there are always serious concerns for
efficient while performing conversions. To make SMPS electromagnetic interference (EMI), due to their unwanted
efficient, the power loss should be minimum. For any radiations. The main reason behind this emission is the high
electronic system, it is impossible to achieve 100% rate of frequency switching operation along with the
efficiency however if well designed, 90% efficiency can be increased current and voltage slew rates. By reducing the
achieved. To make SMPS energy efficient, it is required to Conducted Emission, SMPS can meet the electromagnetic
design the system carefully, analyze the part utilizing the compatibility (EMC). The conversion from dc to dc in
maximum energy and than mitigating techniques to reduce switched mode power supply is based on the pulse width
the same. Linear power supplies were the main devices to modulation (PWM) technique. These undesirable noises are
provide DC voltage until SMPS made available for often associated with conducted electromagnetic
application in the field. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of interference emissions.
Switched Mode Power Supply [3]. The SMPS used in this research work is currently used in
Wireless Communication System as a source and Battery
This high DC voltage is further converted into a low Charger has been taken as a model. It is having
voltage, high frequency (anywhere from 15 kHz to 100 specifications as: 12V, 5A and 60W power rating.
kHz) by using smaller lightweight transformers. Finally, the Switching frequency is 15 KHz, Efficiency as 90%.
voltage is converted into the desired DC output voltage by
another set of inductors, capacitors and diodes. V. EMC STANDARDS

The objective of EMC standards is to ensure reasonable


Rect Swit Transfo Rect Filter electromagnetic compatibility between electrical, electronic,
ches rmer electromechanical and RF communication systems for
A D
C C trouble-free co-existence by limiting emission of EMI and
ensuring that these systems have adequate level of immunity
to EMI generated by other equipment. EMC standards can
Prot be broadly classified into Military and Civilian standard.
Ckt

a. Military standards, as the name suggests are defined for


the equipment that have military applications i.e. for land
based, air borne or ship borne equipment. Most of the
Driv- PWM military standards are broadly based on MIL-STD 461 &
ers Contr-
oller 462 evolved by US Department of Defense (DOD).
b. Civilian Standards are defined for equipment having non
Figure 1: Block Diagram of Switched Mode Power Supply military applications, i.e. for equipments used in
commercial, industrial, domestic and automotive

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environments. Most of the civilian standards are based on the input impedance of the EMI receiver. It also
organizations’ like CISPR, IEC, IEEE, SAE, SAMA etc. functions as a filter and ensures that Equipment
under Test (EUT) is receiving pure main supply.
In this research work CISPR standard has been referred.
CISPR stands for “International Special Committee for x EMI Receiver: The EMI receiver is a basically
Radio Interference”. Some of the commonly referred CISPR super-heterodyne radio receiver. The output of
standards are: LISN is fed to the EMI receiver where the signal
x CISPR 11: For Industrial, Scientific and Medical first passes through an input attenuator and then via
(ISM) equipments a pre-selector to the RF amplifier and finally at
x CISPR 14: Requirements for household appliances, mixer to generate an intermediate frequency IF. The
electric tools and similar apparatus. final IF is fed to the detector stage which consists of
x CISPR 15: Limits and methods of measurement of peak, quasi-peak and average detector [5].
radio disturbance characteristics of electrical
lighting equipments. B. Radiated Emission:
x CISPR 16-1 Specification for radio disturbance and This is the most common medium where coupling
immunity measuring apparatus and methods [5]. between the source and receiver occurs when they are
separated by a large distance, known as Radiated
VI. TEST SETUP FOR EMI ASSESMENT Emission. For Radiated Emission, CISPR standards
define the measurement range from MHz to 1 GHz.
The Conducted and Radiated Emission tests for Switched
Mode Power Supply (SMPS) have been performed at the
Centre for Electronics Test Engineering (CETE), Pune, EMI
India. The centre is equipped with various types of testing Receiver
equipments for EMC/EMI and Calibration.

A. Conducted Emission:
Conducted Emissions occurs when the signal from
source to the receiver travels through the conducting GTEM EUT
path like cables, wires, chords etc. For Conducted Cell
Emission, CISPR based test standards specify
measurement range from 150 kHz to 30 MHz on the
mains cable. Figure 2 is showing the block diagram for
laboratory test set up for CE measurement. The
Equipment under Test is connected to main power Figure 3: Block Diagram of RE Measurement Test Setup
supply through a line impedance stabilization network
(LISN). The basic test set up for Radiated Emission measurement
is shown in figure 3. The EUT is usually placed in GTEM
EMI cell, which is Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic Cell.
Receiver The output of GTEM cell is connected to the EMI receiver
which compares the output with the standard limits to decide
complaince [5].

Main LISN EUT VII. MITIGATION TECHNIQUES


Power
Supply
Following techniques can be used to reduce unwanted
EMI emissions and to decrease device susceptibility.

Figure 2: Block Diagram of CE Measurement Test Setup A. Capacitive Decoupling: A decoupling capacitor is
a capacitor used to decouple one part of an electrical network
from another. It is used to bypass the power supply or other
The instrumentation required for carrying out a CE high impedance component of a circuit.
measurement consists of following: B. Circuit Board Layout: Reducing EMI can be achieved by
the multilayer board design level that is the reason that
x Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN): As preventative measures taken with proper layout could reduce
the name indicates, it stabilizes the impedance of EMI problems later on. Proper board zoning will minimize
main power supply to 50 ohms in order to match unwanted coupling and can avoid the solutions needed at

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later stage such as shielding the enclosure and expensive the attenuation (A) of an L-C filter in decibels (dBs) can be
shielded cables. expressed as follows:
A (dB) = 10 log10 [Po / P'o] = 20 log10 [Vo / V'o] (3)
C. Filtering: Power supply filters are used to attenuate
Where Vo and V'o are the output noise voltage without and
conducted EMI from the power grid. The power supply
with an L-C filter, respectively. For high frequency
filter also prevents interference from the device using the
conducted noise with frequency f >> fC, where fC = 1/
power cord as an antenna. This solution is also the easiest to
ʌ¥ LC). The attenuation (A) of a second order L-C filter
implement.
can be simplified to:
D. Shielding: The most common form of shielding is to A (dB) = 20 log10 [1- (f/ fC)2] = 40 log10 [f/ fC] (4)
place a metal box around the device. When shielding Now the required attenuation of CM and DM can be
enclosures, all seams and gaps must be sealed properly. A expressed as:
metal enclosure can be placed around the radiating device. (Vreq, CM) dB = 40 log10 [f/ fR,CM] (5)
The type of material and thickness also play important roles (Vreq, DM) dB = 40 log10 [f/ fR,DM] (6)
in shielding. A metal enclosure that is properly grounded Thus, the two corner frequency fR,CM and fR,DM in equations
will terminate any electric field, but not the magnetic field. correspond to the minimum intersection of the 40dB/decade
slope along the frequency axis.

VIII. METHODOLOGY ADOPTED TO REDUCE THE 4. The final step in designing is to determine the inductor
EMISSION and capacitor component values (LCM, CCM) and (LDM, CDM)
of the conducted EMI filter from the corner frequencies
The filtering technique has been used to reduce the (fR,CM) and (fR,DM).
Conducted EMI, whereas Shielding technique has been used fR,CM = 1/[ ʌ) ¥(LC ×2Cy)] (7)
for the Radiated EMI. For CM components, because of the restriction of the safety
rule, "Y" capacitors cannot exceed in 5400pf. So it is Cy
Filtering for CE: The typical line filters components are choose to be 3300pf and the corner frequency fR,CM has been
namely the inductor, X&Y capacitors and choke. found in step 3, so we get the common mode inductor:
LC = [1/[(2ʌfR,CM)2]×(1/2Cy) (8)
a. X Capacitors are special type of capacitors connected in a Consequently fR,DM = 1/[(2ʌ)¥(LDM ×2CDM)] (9)
filter across the live and neutral and attenuate the Where LDM = 2LD + Lleakage
differential mode interference. CDM = CX1 = CX2 = [1/2ʌîf R,DM]2 ×[1/Lleakage] (10)
b.Y Capacitors are special type of capacitors connected in a
filter across the live and the earth. It attenuates the common For SMPS system, we used filter with following values:
mode interference. Y capacitors are available in limited X = 0.1uF, Y= 3300pF, L= 28mH, T= 1mH
capacitance value up to maximum of 3300 pF.
c. Choke: It consists of a toroidal core over which two Shielding for RE: Shielding effectiveness is given by [7]
windings, one for line and another for neutral, are tightly
wound in the same direction. SE (dB) = R (dB) + A (dB) (11)
EMI Filter Design Procedure: [6] Where,

1. The first step in EMI filter design is accurate A = 3.34t¥ I ır —r) dB (12)
measurement of the common mode EMI noise spectrum,
(VCM, measured) dB and differential-mode EMI noise spectrum, R = 168 ORJ ır/—r f)) dB (13)
(VDM, measured) dB without any filter.
and t = 0.254cm (14)
2. The second step is to determine the required CM-noise
attenuation (Vreq, CM) dB and DM-noise attenuation (Vreq, DM) —r is relative permeability, f is the frequency and ır is
dB using the following two equations: relative conductivity. The Aluminum shielding mesh has
(Vreq, CM) dB = (VCM, measured) dB – (Vlimit) dB (1)
(Vreq, DM) dB = (VDM, measured) dB – (Vlimit) dB (2) been designed for SMPS with 1mm thickness.

3. The third step is to determine the minimum corner IX. TESTING AND ANALYSIS
frequency. By using the circuit reciprocity theorem, the
ratio of the output power Po from a noise source without an Conducted Emission Testing: The Conducted Emission
L-C filter to the output power P'o from the same noise test for Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS) has been
source with an L-C filter is defined as the attenuation (A) of performed using SCHAFFNER make Line Impedance
this L-C filter. Since the output power is proportional to the Stabilization Network (LISN) and SCHAFFNER SCR 3501
square of the output voltage for the same load impedance,

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Spectrum analyzer. Following are the readings and their TABLE II: FINAL SCAN RESULTS FOR SWITCHED MODE POWER
SUPPLY (SMPS) WITH FILTER
corresponding graphs for SMPS while tested for CE:
TABLE I: TEST RESULTS FOR SMPS WITHOUT FILTER Frequency Avg. Avg. QP QP
Frequency Avg. Avg. QP QP MHz Level Limit Level Limit
MHz Level Limit Level Limit
0.1510 56.35 66.00 66.96 79.00
dBuV dBuV dBuV dBuV
0.1520 74.87 66.00 86.30 79.00 0.1980 55.09 66.00 63.98 79.00
0.1980 73.03 66.00 83.22 79.00 0.2010 58.10 66.00 66.81 79.00
0.2020 75.27 66.00 85.52 79.00 0.2060 51.83 66.00 60.68 79.00
0.2060 66.82 66.00 76.94 79.00 5.5420 42.94 60.00 52.46 73.00
5.5310 57.72 60.00 29.15 73.00 22.4420 23.34 60.00 34.15 73.00
22.0840 32.88 60.00 44.11 73.00 26.2040 40.25 60.00 49.86 73.00
26.9030 35.35 60.00 47.68 73.00

Figure 6: Graph of Frequency vs. CE for Switched Mode


Power Supply (SMPS) with Filter
Figure 4: Graph of Frequency vs. CE for Switched Mode Power
Supply (SMPS) without Filter Radiated Emission Tesing:

Observation: After testing, it was observed that some of the


peaks are exceeding the QP limit as well as the average limit.
The CE level which exceeded was appearing at frequency of
0.1520, 0.1980, 0.2020 and 0.2060 MHz.After re-testing the
SMPS with filter, following result is obtained.

Figure 7: RE Testing of SMPS in GTEM Cell

The figure 7 shows the test setup for Radiated Emission


testing.
Figure 5: CE Testing of SMPS with EMI Filter

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TABLE III: RADIATED EMISSION FROM SMPS BEFORE SHIELDING
Frequency in Standard Limit E-Field
MHz as per CISPR 14 Readings in
in dBuV/m dBuV/m
31.92 50 60.18
49.12 50 59.15
81.04 50 55.42
98.00 50 52.93
104.16 50 44.66
129.6 50 38.68
145.68 50 36.96
Figure 8: Radiated Emission level before and after shielding
174.16 50 37.69
178.48 50 37.44 X. CONCLUSION
196.64 50 25.37
50 The analysis of Conducted Emission and Radiated Emission
258.00 29.55
from the energy efficient Switched Mode Power Supply
279.00 50 26.11 (SMPS) has been performed as per the CISPR standards.
290.80 50 23.82 After testing at lab, it was observed that some of the readings
310.64 50 21.62 were exceeding the standard limits, due to which the system
342.40 50 20.28 was EMC non-compliant. However, after using the Filtering
technique, the Conducted Emission level has been reduced
by 15 to 20dB whereas Radiated Emission is reduced around
TABLE IV: RADIATED EMISSION FROM SMPS AFTER SHIELDING
10 to 15dB after implementing the Shielding, making the
SMPS compatible with the CISPR EMI/EMC standard.
Frequency in Standard Limit E-Field Readings
MHz as per CISPR 14 After Shielding XI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
in dBuV/m in dBuV/m
31.92 50 52.33 The authors wish to sincerely thank Dr. R.K. Jain,
49.12 50 50.77 Principal Pd. Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Engineering and
50 Technology, Pimpri, Pune and also to Shri Krishna Murari
81.04 48.73
and Shri Chetan Kathalay from Centre for Electronics Test
98.00 50 47.89 Engineering (CETE), Pune and University of Pune for
104.16 50 40.85 their valuable help for this research proposal.
129.6 50 40.39
XII. REFERENCES
145.68 50 33.38
[1] Article on energy efficiency available on:
174.16 50 32.29 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efficient_energy_use
50 [2] James K. Peckol, “Embedded Systems – A Contemporary
178.48 30.45 Design Tool”, John Wiley & Sons, Washington, 2007 Edition.
196.64 50 31.41 [3] Article on Switched Mode Power Supply available on:
www.sinrace.com
258.00 50 21.93 [4] L. Premalatha, T. A. Raghavendiran, and C. Ravichandran,
“Experimental Study on Conducted EMI Mitigation in SMPS
279.00 50 22.37 using a Novel Spread Spectrum Technique”, Journal of Power
Electronics, Vol. 13, No. 4, July 2013.
290.80 50 21.75 [5] Chetan Kathalay, “A Practical Approach to Electromagnetic
310.64 50 20.32 Compatibility” by EMC Publications, Pune, Edition 1, 2015.
[6] Nidhal Y. Nasser,” Practical Approach in Designing Conducted
342.40 50 20.11 EMI Filter to Mitigate Common Mode and Differential Mode
Noises in SMPS”, Journal of Engineering an d Development,
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[7] Henry W. Ott, “Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering”,
Observation: From readings, it is clear that emission is Wiley Publication, 2009.
[8] Shreenivas Jog, M. S. Sutaone, Vishweshwar Badawe, Sneha
beyond limit at the frequency 31.92, 49.12, 81.04 and 98.00 Gade, Isha Deshpande, and Kshitij Deshpande, “Analysis and
MHz. After re-testing the model following results is Minimizing Strategies for Conducted Emission from Power
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