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Review on Coating defect and how to prevention , furthermore include ASTM


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Chapter · January 2018

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Coating defect

and how to prevention

A. Dehghani
M.S Khanahmadi
Department of Polymer Engineering and Color
Technology,
Amirkabir University of Technology

jun 2018
Abstract

Coatings are used all over the world around us.


automotive coatings , decorative coatings , protective coatings ,
industrial coatings and etc, are deferent type of coating and such
as all manmade products; coating ’s have problems and defect.
In this review , coating defects has been studied.
Knowing the wide range of defects, the ability of distinguishing
them and methods of preventing their creation, are very
important and necessary tools for engineers and researchers
working in coating filed.

1
Contents
Abrasion 1
Adhesion Failure 2
Alligatoring (Crocodiling) 3
Bleeding 4
Blistering 5
Bloom (Blush) 6
Bridging 7
Bubbling 8
Cathodic Disbonding 9
Chalking 10
Checking 11
Cissing 12
Cobwebbing 13
Cracking 14
Cratering 15
Crazing 16
Crows footing 17
Delamination 18
Fading 19
Flaking 20
Grinning 21
Heat Damage 22
Impact Damage 23
Intercoat Contamination 24
Mud Cracking 25
Orange Peeling 26
Peeling 27
Pinholes 28
Rippled Coating 29
Runs 30
Rust Rashing 31
Rust Spotting 32
Rust Staining 33
Saging 34
Settlement 35
Skinning 36
Solvent Lifting 37
Solvent Popping 38
Staining 39
Stress Cracking 40
Undercutting 41
Wrinkling 42


2
Abrasion
standard :
ASTM D4060
Definition :
the process of scraping or wearing something away.

Probable cause :
Removal of a portion of the surface of the coating or, in severe cases,
removal to expose the substrate by contact with another object, such as the use
of metal chains for lifting, cargo, fenders, or the grounding of a ship.

Prevention:
Use of abrasion-resistant coatings formulated with particular regard to
resins and extender pigments. With severe cases of abrasion, the effects will
be reduced or limited only by an abrasion resistant coating.

1
Adhesion Failure

standard :
ASTM C1521

Definition :
A cohesive failure is a failure in the bulk layer of the adhesive or
sometimes in the bulk of one of the adherends (material being bonded) and is
usually the desired mode of failure.

Probable cause :
Surface contamination or condensation, incompatibility between coating
systems, or exceeding the overcoating time.

Prevention:
Ensure that the surface is clean, dry, and free from any contamination and
that the surface has been suitably prepared. Use the correct coating
specification and follow the advised overcoating times.

2
Alligatoring (Crocodiling)
standard :
ASTM D 661
Definition :
The formation of wide criss-cross cracks in a paint lm.

Probable cause :
Internal stresses in the coating where the surface shrinks faster than the
body of the paint film. Excessive film thickness and limited paint flexibility.
Application of a hard topcoat over a more flexible softer undercoat. Application of
topcoat before the undercoat has dried.

Prevention:
Use correct coating specification and compatible materials. Avoid
excessive film thickness. Avoid application at high ambient temperatures.

3
Bleeding
standard :
ASTM D 2244
Definition :
Discoloration caused by migration of components from the underlying lm.

Probable cause :
Causes: Bleed through is generally a full or partial redissolving of the
previous coat or an ingredient of a previous coat and can occur when strong
solvents are used in the topcoats.

Prevention:
Use correct coating specification and materials. Use compatible materials.
Use appropriate sealer coat if possible.

4
Blistering
standard :
ASTM D 1654

Definition :
The formation of dome-shaped projections or blisters in the dry lm of a
coating material by local loss of adhesion and lifting of the lm from the underlying
surface.

Probable cause :
Many mechanisms can be involved, including osmotic gradients
associated with soluble salts, soluble pigments, corrosion products, retained
solvents, and solvents from cargoes.
Nonosmotic blistering is associated with cathodic disbonding, thermal gradients
related to cold-wall effects, and compressive stress.

Prevention:
Ensure correct surface preparation and application. Apply a suitable
coating system after testing for soluble salts. Consider the possibility of the
different blister mechanisms in the particular environment.

5
Bloom (Blush)
standard :
ASTM E 381

Definition :
A deposit resembling the bloom on a grape that sometimes forms on the
gloss lm of a coating, causing loss of gloss and dulling of colour.

Probable cause :
Paint film exposed to condensation or moisture during curing, especially at
low temperature (common phenomenon with aminecured epoxies). Incorrect
solvent blend can also contribute to blooming.

Prevention:
Apply and cure coating systems under correct environmental conditions
and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations.

6
Bridging
standard :
ASTM C1305

Definition :
The covering over of an un led gap such as a crack or corner with the lm of
a coating material. This introduces a weakness in the coat that may lead to an
eventual cracking of the dried paint.

Probable cause :
Poor application. High-viscosity paint system. Failure to brush paint into
corners and over welds.

Prevention:
Brush-apply a stripe coat into corners and welds and fill all cracks or weld
them prior to application of the full coating system.

7
Bubbling
standard :
ASTM C 712

Definition :
The appearance of temporary or permanent bubbles of air or solvent
vapour or both in the applied lm.

Probable cause :
Trapped air/solvent within the coating that is not released before the
surface dries. Air entrainment during mixing. High ambient temperature during
application. Also seen when overcoating antifouling without removal of the
leached layer and zinc silicates. Can be found with factory-applied coatings
where application is by dipping, electrodeposition, or roller coating.

Prevention:
In spray application, adjust viscosity with thinners and follow data sheet
requirements for maximum application temperature. Use correct mixing
equipment to ensure air is not stirred in during mixing. Apply a mist coat. Add
defoaming agent to emulsion paints.

8
Cathodic disbonding
standard :
ASTM G 4211

Definition :
Cathodic disbondment is the loss of adhesion between a cathodic coating
and its metal substrate due to the products of cathodic reduction reaction
(corrosion reaction) that take place in the interface of coatings.

Probable cause :
High over voltage principally from impressed current systems but also to a
lesser extent with sacrificial anodes when the number of anodes is excessive.
Factors are incorrect installation, poor monitoring, and incompatible coating
systems.

Prevention:
Use a well-designed cathodic protection system, regularly monitored with
well-placed reference electrodes, and application of an alkali-resistant coating
system.

9
Chalking
standard :
ASTM D 4214

Definition :
The process by which the binder in a dry lm degrades, leaving a loose
removable powder on the surface. Often applied to the presence of chalk on an
exposed paint lm.
.

Probable cause :
High over voltage principally from impressed current systems but also to a
lesser extent with sacrificial anodes when the number of anodes is excessive.
Factors are incorrect installation, poor monitoring, and incompatible coating
systems.

Prevention:
Use a well-designed cathodic protection system, regularly monitored with
well-placed reference electrodes, and application of an alkali-resistant coating
system.

10
Checking
standard :
ASTM D 6944

Definition :
Breaks in the surface of a paint lm that do not render the underlying
coating or substrate visible.

Probable cause :
Typically a formulation and/or a specification problem. As with cracking,
stresses are developed that cause the surface of the paint film to become brittle
and crack. Limited paint flexibility.

Prevention:
Use a correctly formulated coating system.

11
Cissing
standard :
ASTM D 5162
Definition :
The recession of a wet paint lm from a surface leaving small areas
uncoated.

Probable cause :
Surface contamination by either moisture or foreign matter such as oil,
grease, or silicone. Also known to happen when incorrect solvent blends have
been used.

Prevention:
Ensure surface is clean and free from grease, oil, and other contaminants
prior to application of coating.

12
Cobwebbing
standard :
ASTM D 1652

Definition :
The formation of fine laments of partly dried paint during the spray
application of a fast drying paint.

Probable cause :
Too high a viscosity with some types of polymer solutions. Will occur with
chlorinated rubber at almost any viscosity.

Prevention:
Reduce the spraying viscosity. Select a more suitable solvent blend.
Change the spraying conditions.

13
Cracking
standard :
ASTM G 3694

Definition :
The presence of breaks in a coating or coating system, such that the
underlying coating or substrate is visible.

Probable cause :
Cracking is generally a stress-related failure and can be attributed to
surface movement, aging, absorption and desorption of moisture, and general
lack of flexibility of the coating. The thicker the paint film, the greater the
possibility it will crack. Prevention: Use correct coating systems, application
techniques, and dry-film thicknesses. Alternatively, use a more flexible coating
system.

Prevention:
By applying Crack Saver, a shrinkage reducing agent, to the surface of
concrete of which the form is removed, reduces the tension of the capillary
that is generated by dissipation of water, and finally reduces the drying
shrinkage.

14
Cratering
standard :
ASTM E 1634

Definition :
Residual effect of burst bubbles . something like cissing.

Probable cause :
Trapped air or solvent bubbles that have burst, leaving small craters as the
coating dries. The coating has insufficient time to flow into a uniform film.

Prevention:
Improve spray technique, apply a mist coat, and avoid air entrainment
during mixing. Add thinners as recommended by the paint supplier.

15
Crazing
standard :
ASTM F 791

Definition :
The formation of minute criss-cross cracks on the surface of a paint lm.

Probable cause :
Application temperature too low, incompatibility with previous coating,
aging, or high film thickness.

Prevention:
Apply a thinner coat of paint, add slower drying solvent, check that
application and drying conditions are correct for the paint system used, and
check compatibility

16
Crows footing
standard :
ASTM B 537

Definition :
a branching wrinkle at the outer corner of a person's eye..

Probable cause :
Usually due to the surface drying rapidly to form a skin, which then
wrinkles as solvent slowly evaporates from the soft underlying paint.

Prevention:
Apply a thinner coat of paint, add slower drying thinners, and check that
application and drying conditions are correct for the paint system used.

17
Delamination
standard :
ASTM D 5528

Definition :
Delamination is a mode of failure for composite materials and steel. In
laminated materials

Probable cause :
Provided that compatible paint materials have been used, delamination
defects are generally related to poor surface preparation and application defects,
such as contamination between coats, exceeding overcoat times, or application
to a glossy surface.

Prevention:
Ensure that no contamination occurs between paint coats. Follow the
recommended overcoating intervals. Lightly abrade and clean glossy surfaces
between coats.

18
Fading
standard :
ASTM C 5398

Definition :
gradually grow faint and disappear.

Probable cause :
Incorrect pigmentation, use of nonlight-stable organic pigments,
atmospheric contamination, porous substrate.

Prevention:
Use correct coating systems that resist ultraviolet light and fading. Use a
coating with lightstable pigments.

19
Flaking
standard :
ASTM D 772

Definition :
come or fall away from a surface in flakes..

Probable cause :
Incorrect paint system used. Either no or an incorrect pretreatment used
for certain substrates, for example, nonferrous or galvanized. Also poor
application techniques. May also be attributed to differential expansion and
contraction of paint and substrate, for example, wood. Can be the result of aging
of the paint system.

Prevention:
Use correct coating system and pretreatment.

20
Grinning
standard :
ASTM D 1003

Definition :
The showing through of the substrate due to the inadequate hiding power
of the coating material.

Probable cause :
Low film thickness of topcoat. Poor opacity and covering power of topcoat.
Strong color of primer/undercoats.

Prevention:
Apply adequate dry-film thickness between individual coats. Use opaque
coatings with good opacity.

21
Heat Damage
standard :
ASTM G1811
Definition :
whole damages caused by direct heat or flame.

Probable cause :
Effect of high temperature often applied to the reverse side of a steel plate
from burning, welding, or fire.

Prevention:
Ensure that all welding/burning is completed prior to painting.

22
Impact Damage
standard :
ASTM D 7316

Definition :
A whole damages caused by direct tension or heating some thing.

Probable cause :
Impact damage to a relatively brittle coating. Often seen on glass-fiber-
reinforced plastics. Also occurs when steel is deformed by impact.

Prevention:
Ensure that the surface is clean, dry, and free from any contamination and
that the surface has been suitably prepared. Use the correct coating
specification and follow the advised overcoating times.

23
Intercoat Contamination
standard :
ASTM D 3276

Definition :
Intercoat Contamination refers to the attachment of the layer that exists
between the top coat and the substrate by affecting of unwanted constituents.

Probable cause :
The contamination could be present due to inadequate washing down,
salts from weathering of shop primer, or deposits from nearby operations.

Prevention:
Carefully inspect and test the surface before paint application, and wash
down with fresh water if required.

24
Mud Cracking

standard :
ASTM D 4278

Definition :
A network of deep cracks that form as the lm of a coating material dries,
especially when it has been applied to an absorbent substrate. Mud cracking is
associated primarily with highly pigmented waterborne paints.

Probable cause :
Generally, overapplication of heavily pigmented primers such as inorganic
zinc silicates or water-based coatings, although can occur with other overthick
systems.

Prevention:
Apply only the recommended coating thickness. Use recommended
application techniques with suitably formulated products.

25
Orange Peeling
standard :
ASTM D 5767

Definition :
The uniform pock-marked appearance, in particular of a rolled lm,
resembling the peel of an orange due to the failure of the lm to ow out to a level
surface.

Probable cause :
Failure of the paint film to flow out. Usually caused by poor application
techniques, incorrect solvent blend, or too-high thixotropy.

Prevention:
Use correct application techniques with suitably formulated products.

26
Peeling
standard :
ASTM D 6672

Definition :
The spontaneous removal in ribbons or sheets of the lm of a coating
material from the substrate due to loss of adhesion.

Probable cause :
Peeling is the reduction in bond strength of the paint film due to
contamination or incompatibility of coats.

Prevention:
Use correct coating system and specification applied to clean and
uncontaminated surfaces.

27
Pinholes
standard :
ASTM D 4647

Definition :
a very small hole.

Probable cause :
Solvent or air entrapment within a paint film. A common problem when
coating porous substrate such as zinc-filled primers, zinc silicates, and metal-
sprayed coatings. Pinholes can also be caused by incorrect spray application or
incorrect solvent blend.

Prevention:
Use correct application techniques with suitably formulated products.
Correct solvent blends and environmental conditions. Check spray equipment
and distance of spray gun from the surface. Apply a mist coat.

28
Rippled Coating
standard :
ASTM C1048

Definition :
a small wave or series of waves on the surface of water, especially as
caused by a slight breeze or an object dropping into it.

Probable cause :
Strong wind blowing across the surface of wet paint causes it to ripple.
Where this occurs on the underside, the ripples can hang down in the form of
small stalactites. Can also be caused by poor application techniques.

Prevention:
Do not apply paint under unfavorable conditions. Use correct application
equipment and workmanship.

29
Runs
standard :
ASTM D 6735

Definition :
When the paint has dried, abrade and clean defected areas and re-shoot
the surface.

Probable cause :
Over application of paint, excessive use of thinners, incorrect (or lack of)
curing agent, or poor workmanship.

Prevention:
Use correct application techniques and apply at the recommended dry-film
thickness.

30
Rust Rashing
standard :
ASTM D 2270

Definition :
Rust rashing is a type of coating defect experienced on metal surfaces
after the application of a thin coating layer intended to prevent corrosion

Probable cause :
Low film thickness, often in combination with a high surface profile.

Prevention:
Ensure that an adequate thickness of a primer coat is applied to cover the
surface profile, and check that the surface profile is not too large.

31
Rust Spotting
standard :
ASTM D 610

Definition :
Also called iron rust. the red or orange coating that forms on the surface of
iron when exposed to air and moisture, consisting chiefly of ferric hydroxide and
ferric oxide formed by oxidation.

Probable cause :
Low film thickness (more likely creating rust rashing), voids and holidays
(more likely creating rust rashing), but also defects in the steel, such as
laminations and inclusions. Too high a surface profile may cause penetration of
peaks through a paint film and cause rust spotting. May also occur from metallic
contamination of a coated surface by grinding dust and so on.

Prevention:
Ensure that an adequate thickness of a primer coat is applied to cover the
surface profile. Use a thicker coating system or a lower blast profile. Protect
coating from contamination with grinding dust and so on.

32
Rust Staining
standard :
ASTM B 895

Definition :
Also called iron rust. the red or orange coating that forms on the surface of
iron when exposed to air and moisture, consisting chiefly of ferric hydroxide and
ferric oxide formed by oxidation.

Probable cause :
Water runoff from a rusty surface above a soundly coated surface. Rust
staining occurs when the rust is wetted-out and contaminated water runs over
and discolors other items or locations. Usually more of an eyesore than a defect.
The coating itself may not be defective, only stained.

Prevention:
Ensure adequate design and suitable maintenance.

33
Saging
standard :
ASTM D 4062

Definition :
Excessive ow of paint on vertical surfaces causing imperfections with thick
lower edges in the paint lm.

Probable cause :
Over application of paint, excessive use of thinners, incorrect (or lack of)
curing agent, or poor workmanship. Could, in extreme circumstances, be a
formulation problem.

Prevention:
Use correct application techniques with suitably formulated products.

34
Settlement
standard :
ASTM C 219

Definition :
Precipitated heavy formulation components and powders.

Probable cause :
Old stock, heavily pigmented paint, and incorrect formulation of product.
Can be a problem with zinc-rich primers.

Prevention:
Use products within shelf life. Use adequate mixing procedures. Keep
paint mixed or recirculated during spray application.

35
Skinning
standard :
ASTM D 1729

Definition :
The formation, in a container, of an oxidised lm on the surface of a paint.

Probable cause :
Absence of anti skinning agent, use of non airtight container, hot storage
conditions. Often occurs in partly-used cans.

Prevention:
Use airtight container, and store according to data sheet.

36
Solvent Lifting
standard :
ASTM D 7320

Definition :
The difference between the vapor pressure and the lack of proper jerking
of the solvent leads to the formation of spiral and worm forms on the substrate
surface

Probable cause :
Incompatible paint systems used. Topcoats with a strong solvent blend can
react with previous and weaker solvent-blended coatings. Overcoating before the
previous coat has adequately hardened.

Prevention:
Use correct coating specification, overcoating times, and materials.
Conduct compatibility trials with undercoat/topcoats.

37
Solvent Popping

standard :
ASTM D 3359

Definition :
Of a lm. The formation of eruptions in the lm of a coating material after it
has become partially set so that the craters remain in the lm.

Probable cause :
Incorrect solvent blends, porous surfaces, incorrect environmental
conditions, or high surface temperature.

Prevention:
Use correct coating specifications and materials, and ensure correct
application techniques and environmental conditions.

38
Staining
standard :
ASTM B 866

Definition :
mark or discolour with something that is not easily removed.

Probable cause :
Contact with a solid or liquid that imparts a discoloration or stain to the
coating.

Prevention:
Avoid contact with solids and liquids that are prone to cause staining, or
use dark-colored coatings where any staining would not be so apparent.

39
Stress Cracking

standard :
ASTM D 1693

Definition :
Delamination surface of paint due to direct stress or tension.

Probable cause :
Stress cracking can be attributed to surface movement, aging, absorption
and desorption of moisture, thermal cycling, and general lack of flexibility of the
coating. The thicker the paint film, the greater the possibility that cracking may
occur. Often occurs around welds and changes in section.

Prevention:
Use correct coating systems, application techniques, and dry-film
thicknesses, or use a more flexible coating system.

40
Undercutting
standard :
ASTM M 117

Definition :
Delamination surface of paint .

Probable cause :
Application of paint to corroded substrate. Rust creep from areas of
mechanical damage and missing primer coat. Can be found in areas of poor
design or access, where inadequate preparation and coating thickness was
applied. Could also be due to lack of maintenance.

Prevention:
Use adequate coating specifications and maintenance procedures. Apply a
suitably formulated primer.

41
Wrinkling
standard :
ASTM D 1295

Definition :
The development of wrinkles in the lm of a coating material during drying,
usually due to the initial formation of a surface skin.

Probable cause :
Usually due to the initial formation of a surface skin with solvent-based
paints. Can arise from overcoating before the previous coat has adequately
hardened. Over thickness, particularly with alkyd coatings.

Prevention:
Use correct coating specification and materials, and ensure adequate
mixing, application, and curing by following the paint supplier’s
recommendations.

42

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