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INTRODUCTION
J&K is the top most state of India
LOCATION
surrounded by Himalayas, with China on
one side & Pakistan &POK on the other.

It basically comprises of three regions:


VERNACULAR AND TRADITIONAL Jammu: mainly a plain/ lower hill area.
Kashmir: mainly a valley area.
Ladakh: mainly a hilly area (hill desert).

ARCHITECTURE OF KASHMIR Kashmir, also known as the paradise on


land and is famous for its hillsides,
excellent water bodies , its rich culture,
Mughal gardens, Shikaras, House boats,
Handloom Industry, its mouth watering
cuisine.

A number of building systems in various parts of Kashmir have


CLIMATE
developed over time to accommodate local natural and cultural
factors, including the impact of earthquakes.
Kashmir/ Srinagar has cold climate These systems are not only part of the cultural heritage of Kashmir but
It is much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due also add to its beautiful landscape.
Historically, the buildings have depended completely upon stone,
to its moderately high elevation and northerly position. mud, bricks and wood for roofing as well as walling.
Winters are cool, with a January daily mean of 10.0 °C, and
temperature remains below freezing at night.

Moderate to heavy snowfall is expected in winters.

The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres.

Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest.

Highest temperature: 37 °C

Lowest:14 °C
CGI roofing on timber with walls of wood planks and logs

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TYPICAL DWELLING (in srinagar )


The buildings were generally three to four storey high
The plans were generally square so that a minimum of external walls
were exposed and heat was conserved in the cold winter.
Bay windows(dub) are present overlooking the river or main street.
The dub is generally located on the southern side so that the sun was
available in winter.

SOURCE :ARCHITECTURE OF THE JHELUM WATERFRONT-SRINAGAR: IMAGES AND IMPRESSIONS


– by NEERJA TIKU Himalayan and Central Asian Studies, Vol.1, No.1 (Jan-March 1997) ;

• Dub: A projecting or wooden balcony (jharoka) either


overhanging or supported on wooden brackets. Normally
projecting from the top floor in the middle or at two ends. It
could even be in the from of a long continuous gallery.
Square, rectangular or octagonal in shape

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THE PLAN
• The entrance to these buildings
• The Kashmir house consists of an extremely simple square plan was from a staircase lobby
• The distribution of function is symmetrical, normally resulting into a located near one of the corners
quadripartite division of the overall square. of the house.
• The staircase is usually placed at the centre • Many of the larger and more
• The outer wall of the overall square is constructed as a heavy stone aristocratic houses, also known
masonry wall, for both structural and climatic purposes. as havelis comprise a linear, two
or in certain cases three storey
buildings.

Lattice work screens and


window shutters, profusely
carved wooden brackets,
eaves board (morakh patt),
pendants (dour) are some of
the main architectural elements
associated with them.

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ARCHITECTURE STYLE TAQ CONSTRUCTION


Taq, consists of load-bearing masonry walls with horizontal
The oldest surviving examples of traditional vernacular architecture timbers embedded in them.
in the city of Srinagar dates back to early 19th Century.
Composite system of building construction with a modular layout
This architectural style is solely represented by the residences of the of load-bearing masonry piers and window bays tied together
city and broadly falls into two distinct categories; based on the with ladder-like constructions of horizontal timbers embedded in
structural system involved. These two systems are: the masonry walls at each floor level and window lintel level.
They serve to hold the masonry walls together and tie them to the
floors.
• Taq Construction
• Dhajji-Dewari or Timber Braced (patch-quilt) System These horizontal timbers tie the masonry in the walls together, thus
confining the brick mud or rubble stone of the wall by resisting the
propagation of cracks.
The masonry piers are almost always 1 to 2 feet square and the
window bay/alcove (taqshe) 3 to 4 feet in width.
The taq modular layout defines the Kashmiri house size
measurements, i.e. a house can be 3 taq (window bays) to 13 taq in
width.

TAQ CONSTRUCTION

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DHAJJI-DEWARI CONSTRUCTION
The dhajji-dewari construction is based on a
braced timber framed structural system, in
which normally 4-9 inch thick brick or stone
masonry is used to infill the gaps.
Normally this system is limited to upper
floor levels or attics ( kani ) of the building.
Walls are plastered in mud mortar.
Dhajji buildings are typically 1-4 storeys tall
and the roof may be a flat timber and mud
roof, or a pitched roof with timber/metal
sheeting.
The floors of these houses are made with
timber beams that span between walls.
Timber floor boards, which span over the
floor beams, would traditionally be overlain
by a layer of clay (or mud).

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A Dhajji wall is strong because:


• The small panels distribute the earthquake energy evenly.
• The friction between all the small elements and their in-fills breaks down the
energy.
• There may be a lot of small cracks which are not dangerous.
• But large destructive cracks become very rare.

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Shake Table test of Dhajji Dewari House

ROOF

The second floor is


surmounted by a cruciform
shaped attic space.

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Traditional flat mud roof on timber understructure with stone masonry walls

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HOUSE BOAT ( DONGA)

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HOUSE BOAT DONGA


Well planned
Fully Wooden
Delicate Kashmiri Wooden
carving
Modern Resources

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LADAKH
LADAKH

Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region of India in the state WALLS


of Jammu and Kashmir that lies between the Kunlun mountain range
in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by • Sun dried mud bricks
people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent. It is one of the most
• Rammed earth Panel
sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir.
• Not perpendicular from ground
Architecture
The architecture of Ladakh contains Tibetan and Indian influences and
monastic architecture reflects a deeply Buddhist approach.

The Buddhist wheel, along with two dragons, is a common feature on


every gompa, including the likes of Lamayuru, Likir, Thikse and
Ridzong Gompas. •Retain temperature
•Less affected by earthquake
Many houses and monasteries are built on elevated, sunny sites facing
south, and in the past were made of rocks, earth and wood but are
now more often concrete frames filled in with stones or adobes.

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WALL FINISH-
FINISH- Mud Plastered -Lime washed ROOF
Flat Wooden - Mud Finish
Creates Germ free atmosphere
Flat due to less precipitation
Retain temperature Insulation from cold
To dry vegetables and Fruits for cold season

OPENINGS FURNITUTRE
Highly Decorated
Wooden
Small in Size
Minimal
Painted in Bright Colors
Highly Decorated Kitchen
Mostly in South and South- East
Directions

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TEMPORARY: REBO

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MATERIALS
Black hair of matured
yaks
Planning
Wooden Poles

Bamboo Support
Religious
Flag

G.L.

• L x W - As per Family Size


• Height 6’0” or above
• Having Ventilation for chullah
• Having stone toilet out of Rebo called lekha.

Characteristics

Adverse climatic condition –


No wear and tear

May last for 5-10 years

Effectively withstand heavy


snowfall, rainfall and wind
without allowing any leakage
or seepage.

Does not allow temperature


change

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