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7

Principles
“. . . Nothing but confusion can result when order is considered a quality
that can equally well be accepted or abandoned, something that can be
forgone and replaced by something else. Order must be understood as
indispensable to the functioning of any organized system, whether its
function be physical or mental. Just as neither an engine nor an orchestra
nor a sports team can perform without the integrated cooperation of all
its parts, so a work of art or architecture cannot fulfill its function and
transmit its message unless it presents an ordered pattern. Order is
possible at any level of complexity: in statues as simple as those on Easter
Island or as intricate as those by Bernini, in a farmhouse and in a Borromini
church. But if there is not order, there is no way of telling what the work is
trying to say.”

Rudolf Arnheim
The Dynamics of Architectural Form
1977

337
O R D E R ING PRINCIPLES

While Chapter 4 employed a geometric basis for organizing the forms and
spaces of a building, this chapter discusses additional principles that can
be utilized to create order in an architectural composition. Order refers not
simply to geometric regularity, but rather to a condition in which each part of a
whole is properly disposed with reference to other parts and to its purpose so
as to produce a harmonious arrangement.

There exists a natural diversity and complexity in the program requirements


for buildings. The forms and spaces of any building should acknowledge the
hierarchy inherent in the functions they accommodate, the users they serve,
the purposes or meaning they convey, and the scope or context they address.
It is in recognition of this natural diversity, complexity, and hierarchy in the
programming, designing, and making of buildings that ordering principles are
discussed.

Order without diversity can result in monotony or boredom; diversity without


order can produce chaos. A sense of unity with variety is the ideal. The
following ordering principles are seen as visual devices that allow the varied and
diverse forms and spaces of a building to coexist perceptually and conceptually
within an ordered, unified, and harmonious whole.

Pergamon, Plan of Upper City, 2nd century B.C.

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ORDE RI N G P RI N C I P L E S

Axis A line established by two points in space, about which forms


and spaces can be arranged in a symmetrical or balanced manner.

Symmetry The balanced distribution and arrangement of equivalent forms


and spaces on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane, or about
a center or axis.

Hierarchy The articulation of the importance or significance of a form or


space by its size, shape, or placement relative to the other forms
and spaces of the organization.

Rhythm A unifying movement characterized by a patterned repetition


or alternation of formal elements or motifs in the same or a
modified form.

Datum A line, plane, or volume that, by its continuity and regularity, serves
to gather, measure, and organize a pattern of forms and spaces.

Transformation The principle that an architectural concept, structure, or organi-


zation can be altered through a series of discrete manipulations and
permutations in response to a specific context or set of conditions
without a loss of identity or concept.

P RINCIP LES / 3 3 9
AXIS

The axis is perhaps the most elementary means of organizing


forms and spaces in architecture. It is a line established by two
points in space, about which forms and spaces can be arranged in
a regular or irregular manner. Although imaginary and not visible
except to the mind’s eye, an axis can be a powerful, dominating,
regulating device. Although it implies symmetry,
it demands balance. The specific disposition of elements about
an axis will determine whether the visual force of an axial
organization is subtle or overpowering, loosely structured
or formal, picturesque or monotonous.

This Florentine street flanked by the Uffizi Palace links the River Arno to the Piazza della Signoria.
See plan on pg. 342.

Since an axis is essentially a linear condition, it has qualities of


length and direction, and induces movement and promotes views
along its path.

For its definition, an axis must be terminated at both of its ends


by a significant form or space.

The notion of an axis can be reinforced by defining edges along its


length. These edges can be simply lines on the ground plane, or
vertical planes that define a linear space coincident with the axis.

An axis can also be established simply by a symmetrical


arrangement of forms and spaces.

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AXIS

Villa Farnese, Caprarola, Italy, 1560, Giacomo Vignola

The terminating elements of an axis serve to


both send and receive its visual thrust. These
culminating elements can be any of the following:

• points in space established by vertical, linear


elements or centralized building forms

• vertical planes, such as symmetrical building


facades or fronts, preceded by a forecourt or
similar open space

• well-defined spaces, generally centralized or


regular in form

• gateways that open outward toward a view or


vista beyond

P RINCIP LES / 3 4 1
AXIS

Piazza della Signoria

Palazzo Vecchio

Uffizi Palace

The wings of the Uffizi Palace in Florence, Italy, (1560, Giorgio Vasari) frame Teotihuacan, City of the Gods. Located near Mexico city, Teotihuacan
an axial space that leads from the River Arno, through the Uffizi arch, to was the largest and most influential ritual center of Mesoamerica, founded
the Piazza della Signoria and the Palazzo Vecchio (1298–1314, Arnolfo di c. 100 B.C. and flourishing until about A.D. 750. The site was dominated by two
Cambio). massive temple-pyramids, the Pyramid of the Sun and the smaller Pyramid of
the Moon, from which the Avenue of the Dead runs south to the citadel and
market compound in the center of the city.

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AXIS

Plan of Beijing, China. Located on its north-south axis is the


Forbidden City, a walled section within the inner city, built in
the 15th century and containing the Imperial Palace and other
buildings of the imperial government of China. It was so named
because it was formerly closed to the public.

P RINCIP LES / 3 4 3
AXIS

View from the Temple toward the Torii, a symbolic gateway in the sea.

Itsukushima Temple, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, 13th century Torii is a monumental, freestanding gateway on the approach to a Shinto
shrine, consisting of two pillars connected at the top by a horizontal
crosspiece and a lintel above it, usually curving upward.

Temple of Amun at Karnak, Egypt, c. 1500–323 B.C.

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AXIS

Darwin D. Martin House and Estate, Buffalo, New York, 1904, Frank Lloyd Wright

Northern Palace at Masada, Israel, c. 30–20 B.C.


Axial conditions can persist across changes of topography and despite
subtle shifts in alignment.

P RINCIP LES / 3 4 5
AXIS

Chinese Courtyard House, Beijing, China

Hôtel de Matignon, Paris, 1721, J. Courtonne

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AXIS

Villa Madama, Rome, 1517, Raphael Sanzio

W.A. Glasner House, Glencoe, Illinois, 1905, Frank Lloyd Wright Imperial Forums of Trajan, Augustus, Caesar, and Nerva, Rome,
1st century B.C. to 2nd century A.D.

P RINCIP LES / 3 4 7
SYMME TRY

While an axial condition can exist without a symmetrical condition


being simultaneously present, a symmetrical condition cannot
exist without implying the existence of an axis or center about
which it is structured. An axis is established by two points; a
symmetrical condition requires the balanced arrangement of
equivalent patterns of form and space on opposite sides of a
dividing line or plane, or about a center or axis.

There are two fundamental types of symmetry:


1. Bilateral symmetry refers to the balanced arrangement
of similar or equivalent elements on opposite sides of a median
axis so that only one plane can divide the whole into essentially
identical halves.

2. Radial symmetry refers to the balanced arrangement of similar,


radiating elements such that the composition can be divided
into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle around a
centerpoint or along a central axis.

An architectural composition can utilize symmetry to organize


its forms and spaces in two ways. An entire building organization
can be made symmetrical. At some point, however, any totally
symmetrical arrangement must confront and resolve the
asymmetry of its site or context.

Plan of an Ideal Church, 1460, Hôtel de Beauvais, Paris, 1656, A symmetrical condition can occur in only a portion of the
Antonio Filarete Antoine Le Pautre building and organize an irregular pattern of forms and spaces
about itself. The latter case of local symmetry allows a building
to respond to exceptional conditions of its site or program. The
symmetrical condition itself can be reserved for significant or
important spaces within the organization.

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S Y M M E T RY

Radial symmetry

Great Stupa at Sanchi, India, c. 100 B.C.

Bilateral symmetry Ritual Complex at Fengchu, Shaanxi Province, China, c. 1100–1000 B.C.

P RINCIP LES / 3 4 9
SYMME TRY

Mortuary Temple of Rameses III, Medînet-Habu, 1198 B.C. Palazzo No. 52, Andrea Palladio

Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770-1808, Thomas Jefferson

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S Y M M E T RY

Baths (Thermae) of Caracalla, Rome, A.D. 211-17

Nathaniel Russell House, Charleston, South Carolina, 1809

Palace of Diocletian, Spalato, Yugoslavia, c. A.D. 300

P RINCIP LES / 3 5 1
SYMME TRY

Half-plan of Main Floor


Half-plan of Balcony

Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois, 1905–7, Frank Lloyd Wright

Multiple symmetries, both major and minor, can add


complexity and hierarchy to a composition as well as
accommodate programmatic and contextual requirements.

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S Y M M E T RY

Third Floor Plan, Centrosoyus Building, Kirova Ulitsa, Moscow, 1929–33, Le Corbusier

Husser House, Chicago, Illinois, 1899, Frank Lloyd Wright

P RINCIP LES / 3 5 3
SYMME TRY

Palace of the Soviets (Competition), Le Corbusier, 1931

Church of Christ the Worker, Atlántida, Uruguay,


Eladio Dieste, 1958–60

Robert W. Evans House, Chicago, Illinois, 1908, Frank Lloyd Wright

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S Y M M E T RY

A.E. Bingham House, Near Santa Barbara, California, 1916, Bernard Maybeck

Isaac Flagg House II, Berkeley, California, 1912, Bernard Maybeck

P RINCIP LES / 3 5 5
SYMME TRY

Ca d’Oro, Venice, 1424–36, Giovanni and Bartolomeo Buon Frank Lloyd Wright Studio,
Oak Park, Illinois, 1889

Palazzo Pietro Massimi, Rome, 1532–36, Baldassare Peruzzi. A


symmetrical facade leading into an asymmetrical interior.

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S Y M M E T RY

Entrance Facade Garden Facade


Main Entry

Symmetry of Building Maintained

Villa Garches, Vaucresson, France, 1926–27, Le Corbusier

Approach Axis

P RINCIP LES / 3 5 7
H IE R AR CH Y

The principle of hierarchy implies that in most if not all


architectural compositions, real differences exist among
their forms and spaces. These differences reflect the
degree of importance of these forms and spaces, as well as
the functional, formal, and symbolic roles they play in the
organization. The value system by which relative importance
is measured will of course depend on the specific situation,
the needs and desires of the users, and the decisions of the
designer. The values expressed may be individual or collective,
personal or cultural. In any case, the manner in which the
functional or symbolic differences among a building’s elements
are revealed is critical to the establishment of a visible,
hierarchical order among its forms and spaces.

After a sketch of an ideal church by Leonardo da Vinci

For a form or space to be articulated as being important or


significant to an organization, it must be made uniquely visible.
This visual emphasis can be achieved by endowing a form or
shape with:

• exceptional size
• a unique shape
• a strategic location

In each case, the hierarchically important form or space is


given meaning and significance by being an exception to the
norm, an anomaly within an otherwise regular pattern.

In an architectural composition, there can be more than a


single dominant element. Secondary points of emphasis that
have less attention value than the primary focal point create
visual accents. These distinctive but subordinate elements can
both accommodate variety and create visual interest, rhythm,
and tension in a composition. If carried too far, however, this
interest may be replaced by confusion. When everything is
emphasized, nothing is emphasized.

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H I E RA RC H Y

Hierarchy by Size
A form or space may dominate an architectural composition by being
significantly different in size from all the other elements in the composition.
Normally, this dominance is made visible by the sheer size of an element. In
some cases, an element can dominate by being significantly smaller than the
other elements in the organization, but placed in a well-defined setting.

Hierarchy by Shape
A form or space can be made visually dominant and thus important by clearly
differentiating its shape from that of the other elements in the composition.
A discernible contrast in shape is critical, whether the differentiation is based
on a change in geometry or regularity. Of course, it is also important that the
shape selected for the hierarchically significant element be compatible with its
functional use.

Hierarchy by Placement
A form or space may be strategically placed to call attention to itself as
being the most important element in a composition. Hierarchically important
locations for a form or space include:

• the termination of a linear sequence or axial organization


• the centerpiece of a symmetrical organization
• the focus of a centralized or radial organization
• being offset above, below, or in the foreground of a composition

P RINCIP LES / 3 5 9
H IE R AR CH Y

Plan for Savannah, Georgia, 1733, James Oglethorpe Savannah Plan, after 1856

Villa Trissino at Meledo, From The Four Books on Architecture, Andrea Palladio

Plan of Montfazier, France,


a Medieval town founded in 1284

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H I E RA RC H Y

Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet (China), 17th century

Heathcote (Hemingway House), Ilkley, Yorkshire, England, 1906, Sir Edwin Lutyens

View of Florence illustrating the dominance of the cathedral over the urban landscape

P RINCIP LES / 3 6 1
H IE R AR CH Y

Lowell Walter House, Quasqueton, Iowa,1949,


Frank Lloyd Wright

Institute of Technology, Otaniemi, Finland, 1955–64, Alvar Aalto

Hôtel Amelot, Paris, 1710–13, Germain Boffrand

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H I E RA RC H Y

Legislative Assembly Building, Chandigarh, Capitol Complex of Punjab, India, 1956–59, Le Corbusier

P RINCIP LES / 3 6 3
H IE R AR CH Y

Town Hall, Seinäjoki, 1961-65, Alvar Aalto

History Faculty Building, Cambridge University,


England, 1964–67, James Stirling

Olivetti Training School, Haslemere, England, 1969–72, James Stirling

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H I E RA RC H Y

S.S. Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople (Istanbul), A.D. 525–30

Plan of an Ideal Church, c. 1490, Leonardo da Vinci

Palace of Charles V, Granada, 1527–68, Pedro Machuca First Unitarian Church, First Design, Rochester, New York, 1959, Louis Kahn

P RINCIP LES / 3 6 5
D ATU M

Excerpt from Gavotte I, Sixth Cello Suite, by Johann Sebastian Bach


(1685–1750). Transcribed for classical guitar by Jerry Snyder.

A datum refers to a line, plane, or volume of reference to which other elements


in a composition can relate. It organizes a random pattern of elements through
its regularity, continuity, and constant presence. For example, the lines of a
musical staff serve as a datum in providing the visual basis for reading notes
and the relative pitches of their tones. The regularity of their spacing and their
continuity organizes, clarifies, and accentuates the differences between the
series of notes in a musical composition.

A preceding section illustrated the ability of an axis to organize a series


of elements along its length. In effect, the axis was serving as a datum.
A datum, however, need not be a straight line. It can also be planar or
volumetric in form.

To be an effective ordering device, a linear datum must have sufficient visual


continuity to cut through or bypass all of the elements being organized. If
planar or volumetric in form, a datum must have sufficient size, closure, and
regularity to be seen as a figure that can embrace or gather together the
elements being organized within its field.

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DAT UM

Given a random organization of dissimilar elements, a datum can organize the elements in the following ways:

Line

A line can cut through or form a common edge for the pattern, while a grid of lines can form a neutral, unifying field for the pattern.

Plane

A plane can gather the pattern of elements beneath it or serve as an encompassing background for the elements and frame them in its field.

Volume

A volume can collect the pattern of elements within its boundaries or organize them along its perimeter.

P RINCIP LES / 3 6 7
D ATU M

Mahavihara at Nalanda, India, 6th–7th century A.D.

Datum

Social Science Research Center, Berlin, Germany, 1981, James Stirling

Koshino House, Ashiya, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, 1979–84, Tadao Ando

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DAT UM

West Precinct, Horyu-Ji Temple, Nara Prefecture, Japan, A.D. 607–746

Arcades unify the facades of houses that front the town square of Telo, Czechoslovakia.

P RINCIP LES / 3 6 9
D ATU M

Durbar Square, Patan, Nepal, renovated 17th century

Plan of Safavid Isfahan, Iran

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DAT UM

Piazza San Marco, Venice

Plan of the Agora, Athens

P RINCIP LES / 3 7 1
D ATU M

Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California, 1957, Frank Lloyd Wright

DeVore House (Project), Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1954, Louis Kahn

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DAT UM

Salvation Army Hostel, Paris, 1928–33, Le Corbusier

Cultural Center (Competition Entry), Leverkusen,


Germany, 1962, Alvar Aalto

P RINCIP LES / 3 7 3
D ATU M

Town Plan of Timgad, a Roman colony in North Africa founded 100 B.C.

Plan of Miletus, 5th century B.C.

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DAT UM

Structural Grid of Main Building, Jewish Community Center, Trenton, New Jersey, 1954–59,
Louis Kahn

Museum, Ahmedabad, India, 1954–57, Le Corbusier

P RINCIP LES / 3 7 5
D ATU M

Section

German Pavilion, Montreal World Exposition,


1966–67, Rolf Gutbrod and Frei Otto

Ground Floor Plan

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DAT UM

North Elevation

Centre Le Corbusier, Zurich, 1963–67, Le Corbusier

P RINCIP LES / 3 7 7
D ATU M

Place Royale, Paris, France, 18th century

Plan of Huánoco, an Inca Town in central Peru

Plan of Peristyle Courtyard Houses on Delos, a Greek island in the Aegean

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DAT UM

Plan of Civic Center, Isfahan, Capital of Persia, 1628

Humanyun’s Tomb, Delhi, 1570, Mirak Mirza Ghiyas

P RINCIP LES / 3 7 9
D ATU M

Fire Temple at Sarvistan, Iran, 5th–8th century

Site plan of Shwezigon Pagoda, Pagan, 12th century

Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy, early 4th century

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DAT UM

Library, Philip Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire, 1967–72, Louis Kahn

Nuremberg Charterhouse, 1383

P RINCIP LES / 3 8 1
R H YTH M

Column Details, Notre Dame la Grande, Poitiers, France, 1130–45

Rhythm refers to any movement characterized by a patterned recurrence of elements or motifs at regular
or irregular intervals. The movement may be of our eyes as we follow recurring elements in a composition,
or of our bodies as we advance through a sequence of spaces. In either case, rhythm incorporates the
fundamental notion of repetition as a device to organize forms and spaces in architecture.

Almost all building types incorporate elements that are by their nature repetitive. Beams and columns
repeat themselves to form repetitive structural bays and modules of space. Windows and doors
repeatedly puncture the surfaces of a building to allow light, air, views, and people to enter the interior.
Spaces often recur to accommodate similar or repetitive functional requirements in the building program.
This section discusses the patterns of repetition that can be utilized to organize a series of recurring
elements, and the resultant visual rhythms these patterns create.

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RE P E T I T I ON

We tend to group elements in a random composition according to:


• their closeness or proximity to one another
• the visual characteristics they share in common

The principle of repetition utilizes both of these concepts of visual perception to order recurring elements
in a composition.

The simplest form of repetition is a linear pattern of redundant elements. Elements need not be perfectly identical,
however, to be grouped in a repetitive fashion. They may merely share a common trait or a common denominator,
allowing each element to be individually unique, yet belong to the same family.

• Size

• Shape

• Detail Characteristics

P RINCIP LES / 3 8 3
R E PE TITIO N

Distyle in Antis

Prostyle

Peripteral

Amphiprostyle
Dipteral

Cathedral at Reims, 1211–1290

Pseudodipteral The Smitheum

Classification of Temples according to the arrangements of the colonnades.


From Book III, Chapter II of Vitruvius’ Ten Books on Architecture.

Structural patterns often incorporate the repetition of vertical supports


at regular or harmonious intervals which define modular bays or divisions
of space. Within such repetitive patterns, the importance of a space can
be emphasized by its size and placement.

Cathedral at Salisbury, 1220–60

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RE P E T I T I ON

Jami Masjid, Gulbarga, India, 1367

Typical Floor Plan, Unité d’Habitation, Marseilles, 1946–52, Le Corbusier

P RINCIP LES / 3 8 5
R E PE TITIO N

Dakshinameru (Rajarajeshwara Temple), Thanjavur, India, late 10th century

Bakong Temple, near Siem Reap, Cambodia, c. A.D. 881

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RE P E T I T I ON

Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century

Typology of 6th-century Armenian churches

P RINCIP LES / 3 8 7
R E PE TITIO N

Jain Temples at Mt. Abu, India, 11th–16th centuries Germigny-des-Prés, France, 806–11, Oton Matsaetsi

As in music, a rhythmic pattern may be legato, continuous, and flowing, or staccato and abrupt in its pace or cadence.

Capitol Complex (Project), Islamabad, Pakistan, 1965, Louis Kahn

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RE P E T I T I ON

Siedlung Halen, near Bern, Switzerland, 1961, Atelier 5

Residential fabric of 1st-century Pompeii

P RINCIP LES / 3 8 9
R E PE TITIO N

Section through main prayer hall: Jami Masjid of Ahmedabad, India, 1423

Olympic Arena, Tokyo, Japan, 1961–64, Kenzo Tange

Rhythmic patterns provide continuity and lead us to anticipate what comes next. Any break in Külliye of Beyazid II, Bursa, Turkey, 1398–1403
the pattern announces and emphasizes the importance of the interrupting element or interval.

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RE P E T I T I ON

View of Spanish Hill Town of Mojácar

View of Villa Hermosa, Spain

P RINCIP LES / 3 9 1
R E PE TITIO N

Rhythm created by connecting points in space Contrasting rhythms

Horizontal and vertical rhythms

Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, USA, 10th–13th centuries

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RE P E T I T I ON

Himeji Castle, Himeji, Japan, begun 1577

Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico, c. A.D. 550

Abbey Church at Alpirsbach, Germany, c. 1000

P RINCIP LES / 3 9 3
R E PE TITIO N

Victorian Facades fronting a San Francisco street Multiple rhythms can be laid over one another in the facade of a building.

Studies of Internal Facade of a Basilica by Francesco Borromini

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RE P E T I T I ON

Roq Housing Project, Cap-Martin, on the French Riviera near Nice, 1949, Le Corbusier

More complex rhythmic patterns can be created by introducing points of emphasis or exceptional intervals into a
sequence. These accents or beats help differentiate between the major and minor themes in a composition.

Bedford Park, London, 1875, Maurice Adams, E.W. Goodwin, E.J. May, Norman Shaw

P RINCIP LES / 3 9 5
R E PE TITIO N

The radial segments of a nautilus shell spiral outward in a reverberating manner


from its center and maintain the shell’s organic unity through this pattern of
additive growth. Using the mathematical ratio of the Golden Section, a series of
rectangles can be generated to form a unified organization wherein each rectangle
is proportionate to the others as well as to the overall structure. In each of these
examples, the principle of reverberation creates a sense of order among a group of
elements which are similar in shape but hierarchically graded in size.

Progressive, reverberating patterns of forms and spaces can be organized in the


following ways:
• in a radial or concentric manner about a point
• sequentially according to size in a linear fashion
• randomly but related by proximity as well as similarity of form

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RE P E T I T I ON

Hasan Pasha Han, Istanbul, 14th century House of the Faun, Pompeii, c. 2nd century B.C.

Jester House (Project), Palos Verdes, California, 1938, Frank Lloyd Wright

P RINCIP LES / 3 9 7
R E PE TITIO N

Plan and section: Central circular structures of the Guachimonton complex at Teuchitlán, A.D. 300–800

Garden Elevation
Art Gallery, Shiraz, Iran, 1970, Alvar Aalto

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RE P E T I T I ON

S. Theodore (now Kilisse Mosque), Constantinople (Istanbul), c. 1100

Can Lis, Porto Petro, Majorca, 1973, Jørn Utzon

P RINCIP LES / 3 9 9
R E PE TITIO N

Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, designed 1957, completed 1973, Jørn Utzon

Section

Plan

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RE P E T I T I ON

Cultural Center, Wolfsburg, Germany, 1948–62, Alvar Aalto

Plan

Church at Vuoksenniska, Finland, 1956, Alvar Aalto

P RINCIP LES / 4 0 1
TR ANSFO RMATIO N

The study of architecture, as with other disciplines, should legitimately


involve the study of its past, of prior experiences, endeavors, and accom-
plishments from which much can be learned and emulated. The principle of
transformation accepts this notion; this book, and all of the examples it
contains, is predicated on it.

The principle of transformation allows a designer to select a prototypical


architectural model whose formal structure and ordering of elements
might be appropriate and reasonable, and to transform it through a series
of discrete manipulations in order to respond to the specific conditions
and context of the design task at hand.

Design is a generative process of analysis and synthesis, of trial and error,


of trying out possibilities and seizing opportunities. In the process of
exploring an idea and probing its potential, it is essential that a designer
understand the fundamental nature and structure of the concept. If the
ordering system of a prototypical model is perceived and understood, then
the original design concept can, through a series of finite permutations, be
clarified, strengthened, and built upon, rather than destroyed.

Plan Development of the North Indian Cella

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e
Main Reading Rooms nt Spac
ifica
Sign
Control

Scheme for 3 libraries by Alvar Aalto


Offices and Support Spaces

Library of Mount Angel, Benedictine College,


Mount Angel, Oregon, 1965–70

Library, Seinäjoki, Finland, 1963–65

Library, Rovaniemi, Finland, 1963–68

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TR ANSFO RMATIO N

Ward Willetts House, Highland Park,


Illinois, 1902

Transformation of a Cruciform Plan


Organization by Frank Lloyd Wright

Thomas Hardy House, Racine, Wisconsin, 1905

George Blossom House, Chicago, Illinois, 1882 Samuel Freeman House, Los Angeles,
California, 1924

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T RA N S F ORM AT I ON

Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1928–31

Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 1957–59

Transformation of a Free-Plan Organization, the Ramp-in-a-Square, by Le Corbusier

Millowners’ Association Building, Ahmedabad, India,


1954

Congress Hall (Project), Strasbourg, 1964

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