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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


The simple present tense is one of several forms of present tense in English. It is
used to describe habits, unchanging situations, general truths, and fixed
arrangements. The simple present tense is simple to form. Just use the base form of the
verb: (I take, you take, we take, they take) The 3rd person singular takes an -s at the end.
(he takes, she takes)

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE IS USED:

 To express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations,


emotions and wishes:
I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large
city (general truth)

 To give instructions or directions:


You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.

 To express fixed arrangements, present or future:


Your exam starts at 09.00

 To express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as,
until:
He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday.

EXAMPLES

 For habits
He drinks tea at breakfast.
She only eats fish.
They watch television regularly.

 For repeated actions or events


We catch the bus every morning.
It rains every afternoon in the hot season.
They drive to Monaco every summer.

 For general truths


Water freezes at zero degrees.
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
Her mother is Peruvian.

 For instructions or directions


Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water.
You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.
 For fixed arrangements
His mother arrives tomorrow.
Our holiday starts on the 26th March

 With future constructions


She'll see you before she leaves.
We'll give it to her when she arrives.

NOTES ON THE SIMPLE PRESENT, THIRD PERSON SINGULAR

 In the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:


he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.

 Negative and question forms use DOES (= the third person of the auxiliary 'DO') +
the infinitive of the verb.
He wants ice cream. Does he want strawberry? He does not want vanilla.

 Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:


fly --> flies, cry --> cries
Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y:
play --> plays, pray --> prays

 Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:


he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes

FORMING THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE: TO THINK

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I think Do I think? I do not think

She thinks Does she think? She does not think

We think Do we think? We do not think.


2. Present continuous
El present continuous describe una acción que se está produciendo en este momento
(mientras se habla o en general en el momento presente) o que está a punto de producirse.
Su equivalente en español es “el presente formado por estar + el verbo principal en gerundio
o el tiempo futuro en caso de referirse a algo que está a punto de producirse”.

El present continuous se forma con el presente del verbo be y el verbo principal con el
sufijo -ing.

EJEMPLOS:

Harry is eating. Harry está comiendo.

We are rehearsing a new play in the drama club. Estamos ensayando una nueva obra en el
club de teatro.

The plane is landing soon. El avión aterrizará pronto.


3. SIMPLE PAST
FUNCIONES DEL "SIMPLE PAST"
El "simple past" se utiliza para hablar de una acción que concluyó en un
tiempo anterior al actual. La duración no es relevante. El tiempo en que se sitúa la
acción puede ser el pasado reciente o un pasado lejano.
EJEMPLOS
 John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
 My father died last year.
 He lived in Fiji in 1976.
 We crossed the Channel yesterday.
Siempre se utiliza el "simple past" para referirse a cuándo ocurrió algo, de modo
que va asociado a ciertas expresiones temporales que indican:
 frecuencia: often, sometimes, always
I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
I often brought my lunch to school.
 un tiempo determinado: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks
ago
We saw a good film last week.
Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
She finished her work atseven o'clock
I went to the theatre last night
 un tiempo indeterminado: the other day, ages ago, a long time
ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
 She played the piano when she was a child.
Nota: el término ago es útil para expresar distancia temporal en el pasado. Se
coloca después del periodo de tiempo de que se trate: a week ago, three years ago,
a minute ago.
Cuidado: el "simple past" del inglés puede parecerse a un tiempo verbal de tu propio
idioma y, sin embargo, su significado puede ser distinto.
FORMACIÓN DEL "SIMPLE PAST"
FORMACIÓN DEL "SIMPLE PAST" CON VERBOS REGULARES
Afirmativa

Sujeto + raíz + ed

I skipped.

Negativa

Sujeto + did not + infinitivo sin to

They didn't go.

Interrogativa

Did + sujeto + infinitivo sin to

Did she arrive?

Interrogativa negativa

Did not + sujeto + infinitivo sin to

Didn't you play?

TO WALK

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa

I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?

He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?

We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?


"SIMPLE PAST" DE LOS VERBOS TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO

Be Have Do

I was had did

He/She/It was had did

We were had did

NOTAS SOBRE LAS CONSTRUCCIONES AFIRMATIVA, NEGATIVA E


INTERROGATIVA
AFIRMATIVA
La forma afirmativa del "simple past" es sencilla.
 I was in Japan last year
 She had a headache yesterday.
 We did our homework last night.
NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA
Para las formas negativa e interrogativa del "simple past" del verbo "do" como
verbo ordinario, se emplea como auxiliar "do", e.g. We didn't do our homework last
night. La forma negativa del verbo "have" en "simple past" suele construirse
utilizando el auxiliar "do", aunque en ocasiones solo se añade not o la
contracción "n't". La forma interrogativa del verbo "have" en "simple past" suele
emplear el auxiliar "do".

EJEMPLOS
 They weren't in Rio last summer.
 We didn't have any money.
 We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
 We didn't do our exercises this morning.
 Were they in Iceland last January?
4. PAST CONTINUOUS

FUNCIONES DEL "PAST CONTINUOUS"


El "past continuous" describe acciones o eventos situados en un
tiempo anterior al presente, cuyo comienzo se sitúa en el pasado y que todavía
no ha concluido en el momento de hablar. Dicho de otro modo, expresa
una acción incompleta o inconclusa del pasado.
Se utiliza:
 Con frecuencia, para describir el contexto en una historia escrita en pasado,
e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephant
came out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in the shade of the
trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She was looking for her baby,
and she didn't notice the hunter who was watching her through his
binoculars. When the shot rang out, she was running towards the river..."

 para describir una acción incompleta que se vio interrumpida por otra
acción o evento, e.g. "I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock
rang."

 para expresar un cambio de opinión: e.g. "I was going to spend the day at
the beach but I've decided to get my homework done instead."
 con 'wonder', para formular una petición muy educada: e.g. "I was
wondering if you could baby-sit for me tonight."
EJEMPLOS
 They were waiting for the bus when the accident happened.
 Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.
 When we arrived he was having a bath.
 When the fire started I was watching television.
Nota: con los verbos que no suelen conjugarse en "past continuous" se emplea
normalmente el "simple past".
FORMACIÓN DEL "PAST CONTINUOUS"
El "past continuous" de cualquier verbo está compuesto de dos partes: el pasado
del verbo "to be" (was/were) y la raíz del verbo principal +ing.
Sujeto was/were raíz + ing

They were watching

Afirmativa

She was reading

Negativa

She wasn't reading

Interrogativa

Was she reading?

Interrogativa negativa

Wasn't she reading?

TO PLAY, "PAST CONTINUOUS"

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa

I was playing I was not playing Was I playing?

He was playing He wasn't playing Was he playing?

We were playing We weren't playing Were we playing?

They were playing They weren't playing Were they playing?


5. PRESENT PERFECT
FORMACIÓN DEL "PRESENT PERFECT"
El "present perfect" de cualquier verbo está compuesto por dos elementos: la
forma apropiada del verbo auxiliar to have (en presente) y el "past participle" del
verbo principal. La forma del "past participle" de un verbo regular es raíz+ed,
e.g. played, arrived, looked. En cuanto a los verbos irregulares, consulta la Tabla
de verbos irregulares de la sección 'Verbos'.

Afirmativa

Sujeto to have past participle

She has visited.

Negativa

Sujeto to have + not past participle

She has not (hasn't) visited.

Interrogativa

to have sujeto past participle

Has she visited?

Interrogativa negativa

to have + not sujeto past participle

Hasn't she visited?


FUNCIONES DEL "PRESENT PERFECT"
El "present perfect" se emplea para señalar un vínculo entre el presente y el pasado.
El tiempo en que transcurre la acción es anterior al presente pero inespecífico y,
a menudo, recae un mayor interés sobre el resultado que sobre la propia acción.

¡CUIDADO! Puede que, en tu idioma, exista un tiempo verbal con una estructura
similar pero es probable que su significado NO sea el mismo.
EL "PRESENT PERFECT" SE UTILIZA PARA DESCRIBIR

 Una acción o situación iniciada en el pasado y que continúa en el


presente. I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= todavía vivo allí.)

 Una acción realizada durante un periodo de tiempo aún no


concluido. Shehas beento the cinema twice this week (= la semana todavía
no ha terminado.)

 Una acción repetida en un periodo temporal inespecífico situado entre el


pasado y el presente. We have visited Portugal several times.

 Una acción que ha concluido en un pasado muy reciente, lo que se indica


mediante 'just'. I have just finished my work.

 Una acción para la cual no es importante el momento preciso en que


aconteció. He has read 'War and Peace'. (= lo relevante es el resultado de
la acción)

Nota: Cuando queremos dar o pedir información sobre cuándo, dónde o quién,
empleamos el "simple past". Consulta cómo elegir entre el "simple past" y el
"present perfect".
ACCIONES INICIADAS EN EL PASADO Y QUE CONTINÚAN EN EL PRESENTE
 They haven't lived here for years.
 She has worked in the bank for five years.
 We have had the same car for ten years.
 Have you played the piano since you were a child?
CUANDO SE HACE REFERENCIA A UN PERIODO TEMPORAL INACABADO
 I have worked hard this week.

 It has rained a lot this year.


 We haven't seen her today.
ACCIONES REITERADAS EN UN PERIODO INESPECÍFICO, ENTRE EL
PASADO Y EL PRESENTE.
 They have seen that film six times
 It has happened several times already.
 She has visited them frequently.
 We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
ACCIONES CONCLUIDAS EN UN PASADO MUY RECIENTE (+JUST)
 Have you just finished work?
 I have just eaten.
 We have just seen her.
 Has he just left?
CUANDO LA DIMENSIÓN TEMPORAL NO ES RELEVANTE O CONOCIDA
 Someone has eaten my soup!
 Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
 She's studied Japanese, Russian, and English.
Consulta cómo utilizar el "present perfect" con los términos "ever", "never",
"already", y "yet" y cómo utilizar el "present perfect" con los términos "for" y
"since".
6. PAST PERFECT

El "past perfect" hace referencia a un tiempo anterior al pasado


reciente. Se emplea para señalar que un evento ocurrió antes que otro en el
pasado. No importa cuál de los eventos se mencione primero, porque el
tiempo verbal deja claro el orden temporal en que acontecieron.

En estos ejemplos, el Evento A es el que primero ocurrió y el Evento B tuvo


lugar a continuación, es el más reciente:

Evento A Evento B

John had gone out when I arrived in the office.

Evento A Evento B

I had saved my document before the computer crashed.

Evento B Evento A

When they arrived we had already started cooking.

Evento B Evento A

He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

FORMACIÓN DEL "PAST PERFECT"


En inglés, el "past perfect" está compuesto por dos partes: el pasado del verbo to
have (had) + el "past participle" del verbo principal.
Sujeto had past participle

Afirmativa

She had given

Negativa

She hadn't asked.

Interrogativa

Had they arrived?

Interrogativa negativa

Hadn't you finished?

TO DECIDE, "PAST PERFECT"

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa

I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?

You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?

PAST PERFECT" + JUST


'Just' se utiliza con el "past perfect" para referirse a un evento acontecido muy
poco antes de otro evento situado en el pasado, e.g.
The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
She had just left the room when the police arrived.
I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.
7. SIMPLE FUTURE
FUNCIONES DEL "SIMPLE FUTURE"

El "simple future" se refiere a un tiempo posterior al actual y expresa hechos o


certezas. En este caso, no hay lugar para la actitud.
El "simple future" se emplea:

 Para predecir un evento futuro:


It will rain tomorrow.

 Con "I" o "we", para expresar una decisión espontánea:


I'll pay for the tickets by credit card.
 Para expresar voluntad o disposición de hacer algo: I'll do the washing-up.
He'll carry your bag for you.

 En forma negativa, para expresar rechazo o falta de disposición para hacer


algo:
The baby won't eat his soup.
I won't leave until I've seen the manager!

 En forma interrogativa con "shall" y "I", para formular un ofrecimiento:


Shall I open the window?

 En forma interrogativa con "shall" y "we", para formular una sugerencia:


Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
 En forma interrogativa con "shall" y "I", para solicitar consejo o instrucciones:
What shall I tell the boss about this money?

 Con "you", para dar órdenes:


You will do exactly as I say.

 En forma interrogativa con "you", para formular una invitación:


Will you come to the dance with me?
Will you marry me?

Nota:en el inglés actual, will tiene un uso preferente frente a shall. "Shall" se utiliza
fundamentalmente con las primeras personas, I y we, para ofrecer o sugerir algo, o
para pedir consejo (ver los ejemplos anteriores). Con el resto de las personas (you,
he, she, they) "shall" se emplea únicamente en construcciones poéticas o literarias,
e.g. "With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music wherever
she goes."
FORMACIÓN DEL "SIMPLE FUTURE"
El "simple future" está compuesto por dos partes: will / shall + infinitivo sin to

Sujeto will infinitivo sin to

Afirmativa

I will go

I shall go

Negativa

They will not see

They won't see

Interrogativa

Will she ask?

Interrogativa negativa

Won't they try?

CONTRACCIONES
I will = I'll
We will = we'll
You will = you'll
He will = he'll
She will = she'll
They will = they'll
Will not = won't
La forma "it will" no suele contraerse.
TO SEE: "SIMPLE FUTURE"

Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa Interrogativa Negativa

I will see I won't see Will I see? Won't I see?

*I shall see *Shall I see?

You will see You won't see Will you see? Won't you see?

He will see He won't see Will he see? Won't he see?

We will see We won't see Will we see? Won't we see?

*We shall see *Shall we see?

They will see They won't see Will they see? Won't they see?

*"Shall" está en desuso pero se emplea normalmente en lugar de "will" con


construcciones afirmativas e interrogativas en primera persona (I y we) en
determinados casos (ver más arriba).
8. Can, could y be able to
El verbo can significa poder en español. Se utiliza para decir que alguien o algo
puede o es capaz de hacer algo.
Can es un verbo modal. No cuenta con todos los tiempos verbales de cualquier otro
verbo. Su pasado simple es could, pero no tiene participio. Si se debe utilizar el
participio, se utiliza la expresión be able to.

EJEMPLOS:

Can you lift that box? ¿Puedes levantar esa caja?


I had no idea they could do things like that. No sabía que pudieran hacer esas
cosas.
Since when have you been able to sing? ¿Desde cuándo sabes cantar?
Las formas negativas de can y could son cannot y could not. En la lengua hablada
e informal, a menudo se contraen a can’t y couldn’t.

EJEMPLOS:

I can’t go out tonight. No puedo salir esta noche.


They couldn’t hear anything. No pudieron oír nada.
Hay que tener en cuenta que cannot es una palabra y could not son dos palabras.

9. Must y have to
El verbo must significa que hay algo que se debe hacer o que debe ocurrir. Sus
equivalentes en español son deber, haber que y tener que.
Must también es un verbo modal y solo existe en presente. Para utilizar otros
tiempos, puede emplearse la expresión have to.
EJEMPLOS:
You must change into dry clothes. Debes ponerte ropa seca.
Mikko had to do that too. Mikko también tuvo que hacerlo.
Have to también se utiliza en presente.
EJEMPLO:
I have to go now. Me tengo que ir ahora.
10. Idiomatic future: Going To
USE TO BE GOING TO

This periphrasis refers to the use of tense: idiomatic FUTURE.Corresponding to


the idiomatic way of expressing actions that will occur in the near future.This tense
is used:

1.-When referring to the future, probable and inevitable.

2.-To highlight an action in the future and when you have already taken the decision
to do something in particular.

The future idiomatic formed with the auxiliary verb "to be" combining (am, is, are)
more

how "going to" in Spanish maps to "will" a verb more simply, but he may
complement sentence. Structural model:

I am going to study -voy a estudiar


You are going to study -vas a estudiar

He
She is going to study -va a estudiar
It

We are going to study -vamos a estudiar


You are going to study -van a estudiar
They are going to study -van a estudiar

How "going to" expresses the subject's intention to run some future action.

Intend to use this kind of sentences is always deliberate and usually also gives the
idea that some preparation for action has already been made.

This time is divided into three grammatical modes according as shown:


ESTRUCTURA GRAMATICAL DEL FUTURO IDIOMÁTICO
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
PRONOMBRE / NOMBRE / SUSTANTIVO + PRESENTE TO BE + GOING TO +
VERBO PRESENTE + COMPLEMENTO
EJEMPLO :
I am going to teach english language in bachelor´s college
Voy a enseñar el idioma inglés en el colegio de bachilleres
FORMA NEGATIVA
PRONOMBRE / NOMBRE / SUSTANTIVO + PRESENTE TO BE + NOT + GOING
TO + VERBO PRESENTE + COMPLEMENTO
EJEMPLO:
I´m not going to teach english in bachelor´s college
No voy a enseñar ingles en el colegio de bachilleres
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
PRESENTE ( TO BE ) + PRONOMBRE / NOMBRE / SUSTANTIVO + GOING TO
+ VERBO PRESENTE + COMPLEMENTO + ?

EJEMPLO: Am i going teach english in bachelor´s college ?