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Bamboo as a Material

for Housing and


Buildings

DEEPTI SHARMA
12001006011
Traditional use of Wood and
Bamboo
Forest Cover in India
• 329 m hectares land area
• 63.34 m hectares notified as forest –
19.15%
• Dense forest - 11%
• Open forest - 8%
• Mangrove - 0.15%
Therefore, there is a need to save forest timber.
Bamboo Addresses THREE Major
National Concerns
ECOLOGICAL SECURITY: conservation of forests
through timber substitution, alternate materials to
non-biodegradable & high energy consuming
materials like metals and plastics

SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY: bamboo based agro -


forestry system, maintenance of soil fertility of
adjoining agricultural lands, and bamboo shoots

LIVELIHOOD SECURITY: generation of employment in


planting and primary processing for manufacturing
mat based composites and other market driven
bamboo products
BAMBOO MAJOR BAMBOO GROWING
RESOURCES IN REGIONS / STATES
INDIA
AREA Gross
(%) Share

North East 28.0 66


Madhya Pradesh 20.3 12
Maharashtra 9.9 5
Orissa 8.7 7
Andhra Pradesh 7.4 2
Karnataka 5.5 3
Other States 20.2 5
(Kerala, UP,
Jharkhand,
West Bengal)

LAND AREA 329 MHa India is home to almost 45 % of


FOREST AREA 63.3 MHa world's bamboo forests
BAMBOO AREA 8.96MHa
67% clump forming 4.5 M tons annually produced
33% non clump forming from 8.96 m ha.
Status of Bamboo Resources in North-
Eastern Region
State Bamboo Growing Bamboo Stock
Area (Sq.Km.) (Million tons)
Mizoram 9210 10.89
Assam 8213 13.41
Arunachal Pradesh 4590 9.84
Manipur 3692 11.47
Meghalaya 3102 4.41
Tripura 939 0.86
Nagaland 758 3.66
Total 30504 54.53
Distribution of Some Important
Bamboo Species in India
Species Availability States
% Growing
Stock
D. strictus 45 Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Orissa
M. baccifera 20 Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram,
Tipura
B. arundinacia 13 Nagaland, Karnataka, Orissa
D. hamiltonii 7 Arunchal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland
B. tulda 5 Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura
B. pallida 4 Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura
Rest 6
Major Uses of Bamboo
Use Percent Consumption
Paper Pulp 35.0
Housing 20.0
Non-Residential 5.0
Rural uses 20.0
Fuel 8.5
Packing, including baskets 5.0
Transport 1.5
Furniture 1.0
Other wood industries 1.0
Others, including ladders etc. 3.0
Characteristics affecting usefulness of
bamboo as construction material

- the strength of bamboo culms


- their straightness
- lightness combined with hardeners
- range and size of hollowers

with good physical and mechanical


properties, low shrinkage and average
density, it is well suited to replace wood
in several applications
Major Uses of Bamboo in Construction

• Scaffolding
• Reinforcement
• Roofing
• Walling
• Doors & Windows
Bamboo – Raw Material to Finished
Product As a Raw Material
Properties:
1. High tensile strength
Building Material
2. Very good weight to
Bamboo – Nature’s Gift strength ratio
1. Environment
friendly
[A material for cost effective and 3. Pressure tolerance
2. Energy
upto 3656 kg/cm2
disaster resistant housing] 4. Easy to handle with
efficient
3. Cost effective
simple tools
5. Renewable raw
material

Treatment & Preservation Weaknesses


Preservation (Traditional methods): 1. Has short durability compared to wood
Curing; Smoking; Soaking; Seasoning 2. High moisture and starch content
Chemical Treatment: 3. Prone to fungi and beetle attach
Boric acid; Borax; Boron; (Dip diffusion or 4. Service life of untreated bamboo 4-6
modified Boucherie processes) years in exposed conditions

Composite Building
Materials
Mechanical
Mat Hot •BMBs, BMPB, BMCS
Process for
weaving Processing •Bamboo Lumber
Cutting, slicing,
from and Binding •Sandwiched panel
knot removing
Slivers •Bamboo based shutters
and slivering
•Bamboo flooring Bamboo House
Indian Specifications for
Bamboo & Bamboo Products
IS 14588 : 1999 Specification for Bamboo Mat Veneer Composite
for General Purposes
IS 13958 : 1994 Specification for Bamboo Mat Board for General
Purposes
IS 1902 : 1993 Code of Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and
Cane for non-structural purposes
IS 10145 : 1982 Specification for Bamboo Supports for
Camouflaging Equipment
IS 9096 : 1979 Code of Practice for Preservation of Bamboo and
Cane for Structural purposes
IS 8242 :1976 Method of Tests for Split Bamboo
IS 8295 :1976 Specification for Bamboo Chicks ; Part 1 Fine,
Part 2 Coarse
IS 7344 : 1974 Specification for Bamboo Tent Pole
IS 6874 : 1973 Method of Tests for Round Bamboo
IS 15476 : 2004 Specification for Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheets
Bamboo has lower natural durability against
attack of fungi and insects
- requires treatment to increase durability
- difficult to be treated by normal
preservative methods in dry
conditions.
- Best carried out in green
conditions.
IS9096:2006 : Code of Practice for preservation
of bamboo for structural purpose

Covers : Type of preservations,


Treatment procedure for structural purposes
like post, scaffolding, walls, trusses etc.
Preservatives Recommended

- Coal Tar Creosote


- Copper – chrome - arsenic
compositions
- Acid- cupric – chromate composition
- Copper – chrome- born composition
- Boni Acid – boxes
- Copper zinc – napthanate
Abietates
Process of Preservation
IS 401:2001 Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber
1. Surface application ( brushing, dipping)

3. Boucheire Process 5. Inter Nodal Injection


4. Diffusion Process

2. Hot & Cold Method


Structural Provision of Bamboo

Part 6 : Structural Design


Section 3: Timber and Bamboo: 3B.
Bamboo National Building Code.

Material Specification
- Physical and mechanical
properties of 20 species of bamboo
- 16 species found suitable for
structural purpose and densified
in Group A,B,C.
Limiting Strength Values (in Green
Conditions)
Modulus of Modulus of Elasticity
Rupture (R’) (E) in Bending
103 N/mm2

Group A R’ > 70 E>9

Group B 70> R’>50 9>E>6

Group C 50> R’>30 6>E>3


Most Suited Species
Bamusa bamboos Dendrocalamus strength

Bright shiny, green Pale blue green when


when fresh, yellow with fresh dull green to
age yellow with age
Height 15-30m 8-16m

Diameter Upto 150mm 25-80 mm


Internodes 200-400mm 300-400 mm
Thickness Thick-walled Thick walled often solid

Other species: Bamboo Below; Bamboo; Dendrocalamus as per;


Dendrocalamus transitions
Typical Moisture Content Relation

Matured culms shall be seasoned to about 20%


moisture content before use.
Grading of structural bamboo
Sorting out bamboo on the basis of
characteristics importance for structural
utilization
• Diameter and length of culms
• Taper of culms
• Straightness of culms
• Inter-nodal length
• Wall thickness
• Density and strength
• Durability and seasoning.
Segregation of Bamboo
Structural Group A and Group B Species

Special Grade: 70mm < diameter < 100m


Grade I 50mm < diameter < 70m
Grade II 30mm < diameter < 50m
Grade III Diameter < 30m

Structural Group C
Special grade I 80mm < diameter < 100m
II 60mm < diameter < 80m
III Diameter < 60m
Taper : shall not be > 5.8 mm/m may be length in any grade.
Curvature : max. curvature shall not be >75mm in length of 6m of
any grades.
Wall thickness: Minimum wall thickness of 8mm for load bearing
members.
Defects: Dead and immature bamboo, bore/GHOON, holes, decay,
collapse, checks more then 3 mm in depth shall be avoided.
Trusses
Joints
Disaster
Mitigation &
Vulnerability/
Risk
Environmental Reduction Cost
Protection Reduction &
through Employment
technology Generation
intervention Energy
Efficiency in
Materials
production

Focus Areas of Work


Bamboo Mat
Corrugated Sheets

HAS IMMENSE POTENTIAL AS ROOFING


MATERIAL
ECO-FRIENDLY
HIGHLY RESILIENT
LOW WEIGHT
LOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
AESTHETIC APPEARANCE
Bamboo Mat
Corrugated
Sheets
BMTPC and IPIRTI
have jointly developed
a technology for
manufacturing
Bamboo Mat
Corrugated Sheets
(BMCSs) particularly
for North-Eastern
region.
This technology has
been transferred to M/s
Timpack Pvt. Ltd. who
have set up a
commercial plant at
Byrnihat, Meghalaya
with a production
capacity of 3000-4000
sheets per month.
Some Important Properties of BMCS
Size : 1.05m X 1.8 m X 3.5 mm
Weight : 6.5 – 7.90 kg/sheet
(app. half that of ACCS)

Load Bearing Capacity : 4.8 N/mm width


Deflection at Breaking Point : 85 mm

Thermal Conductivity : 0.1928 k cal/m OC


(app. half that of ACCS)

Fire Resistance : Conforms to flammability test

Energy Requirement : Highly Energy Efficient


LOAD BEARING STRENGTH OF BMCS

CGIS BMCS

ACCS

ALUMINIUM
Women Working in
Corrugated Sheet Factory
in Byrnihat, Meghalaya
BMCS
at
TERRACE
CAFÉ

DFID
NEW DELHI
October, 2000
Traffic Pedestal
(prototype)
Two installed at
Mathura Road
New Delhi (Nov. 2000)
Use of Bamboo in Housing
& Building Construction
‘Bamboo - A material for cost
effective and disaster resistant
housing used for construction of
demonstration buildings and
structures’
Demonstration House
(plinth area 290 sq. ft.)
at IPIRTI, Bangalore
March 2001
Two bedroom bamboo house constructed at IPIRTI, Bangalore

Design: Mrs. Neelam Manjunath, Mansaram Architects, Bangalore


Construction Agency: KARNIK, Bangalore
Total Built Up Area : 897 Sq. Ft.
Construction Cost : Rs. 2,75,000 (Rs. 307 per sq. ft.)
Construction of demonstration structures using
bamboo materials in Mizoram and Tripura

Salient Features of the Structures


• Bamboo posts
• Bamboo grid ferrocement walls
• Bamboo trusses and purlins
• Bamboo Mat Corrugated Sheet Roofing
Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram

Type I house at Sairang, Aizawl. Type II house at Sairang, Aizawl.

Library Building, Kolasib. Type I house at District Park, Kolasib.


Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Mizoram

Type II house at Lunglei. OPD Building at Zemabawk, Aizawl.

Picnic Hut at Tiangnuam, Aizawl Type II house at Luangmual, Aizawl


Construction of Demonstration Buildings using
Bamboo Based Technologies in Tripura
Construction of Demonstration Structure using Bamboo
based Technologies in Shillong
Construction of Demonstration School Building using
Bamboo based Technologies at Mizoram
Construction of Demonstration School Building using
Bamboo based Technologies in Tripura
New
Technology
Development
Pre-fab Double walled Composite House
Developed a technology for
Pre-fab Double Walled
Composite House with
IPIRTI, Bangalore.
Material used are Bamboo
Mat Board for walling, BMCS
for Roofing with steel
framed structure .
Salient features are ease in
transportation, speedy
erection at a reasonable
cost.
Most suitable for emergency
structures during post
disaster events.
Two Storey Bamboo Housing System
Developed the technology
with IPIRTI, Bangalore using
bamboo based components.
Material used are Bamboo
coloums, Bamboo grid
walls, BMCS for Roofing,
bamboo composite beams
with steel and bamboo and
bamboo composite slab.
Development of this
technology will enable
construction of two storey
houses in the bamboo
growing regions.
Bamboo Mat Ridge Cap for Roofing
Developed the technology
with IPIRTI, Bangalore for
replacement of the present
practice of using flat boards
to avoid perforations.

Salient features are:


Dimensionally stable
Ready & easy to fix
Non permeable
Suitable for wide range of
roof angles.
Compatible with BMCS.
Challenges ahead
• Increasing durability  Growing bamboo of
• Developing efficient structural grade
jointing system  Setting up of more
• Developing prefab production centers
system  Studying other bamboo
• Developing composite which are available but
system to deal with not used in construction
natural hazards  Capacity building of
artisans