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In Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements in

ENGAL07LAB

15 Watts Integrated Circuit Bridged


Power Amplifier

Submitted By:

Anore, Jefferson
Bolalin, Jerome C.
Cabrestante, Ace
Dapatnapo, Rey
Fernandez, Rachel Joy D.
Josue, Ryan Greggie D.
Raymundo, Alvin
Titong, John Victor

Submitted To:

Engr. Ivanlee Mendoza, RECE, RECT

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APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electronics

Engineering, this research project, under the subject of ENGAL07LAB, entitled “15 Watts

Integrated Circuit Bridge Power Amplifier” has been prepared and submitted by the following

students:

Anore, Jefferson Fernandez, Rachel Joy D.

Bolalin, Jerome C. Josue, Ryan Greggie D.

Cabrestante, Ace Raymundo, Alvin

Dapatnapo, Rey Titong, John Victor

Approved by:

Engr. Ivanlee Mendoza, RECE, RECT

Approved and accepted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of

Science in Electronics Engineering with the grade of

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Every ominous work needs self-effort, discipline and hard work, but it is also essential to have

proper guidance for the task to be efficiently fulfilled. Due to this, first and foremost, we would

like to give our greatest gratitude to the presence and aid of the Lord who have never failed to

provide amazing things and experiences for thus group of researchers. To God be the Glory!

We would also like to extend our earnest gratitude to the following individual/s who have always

been there to provide perpetual support throughout the duration of this study:

Our parent/guardians/friends for their undying support, especially in both financial and moral

aspect and for serving as our inspiration and motivation to achieve greater heights.

Engr. Ivanlee Mendoza, our subject instructor, for giving us the opportunity to acquire new

knowledge and information sharing throughout the span of this study.

Every member of the researcher team who have given their utmost dedication to give

conclusion to this research project.

The people whose name were not mentioned, we humbly extend our thanks for all your help.

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DEDICATION

We, as the researchers, dedicate this dissertation to the following:

To our subject instructor who given us the opportunity to expand our technical know-how in the

field of Electronics and Communications Engineering.

To the future researchers who will use this study as reference for their own.

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ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION INC. 
V.V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta, Rizal 
College of Engineering 
 
 

December 18, 2017


 
ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION INC. 
V.V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta, Rizal 
College of Engineering 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL SHEET i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

DEDICATION iii

INTRODUCTION 1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 4

ELECTRONIC SPECIFICATION 7

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 9

BLOCK DIAGRAM 10

FUNCTION OF THE COMPONENTS 12

SAFETY ENGINEERING 15

GLOSSARY 21

REFERENCES 27

 
 
   

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INTRODUCTION

Technology has become an essential part of humanity’s daily lives. It pertains to the

application of scientific principles and knowledge for practical use, one of the main reason why

our civilization has advanced to the level that it has today. One of the many forms and

applications of technology is what we call electronics, or electronics technology rather, which

pertains to the science of manipulating electrical energy electrically. This branch or form of

technology/physics is concerned with the design of electrical circuitries using components that

are electrically driven (electronics components), incorporating with its study the behavior and

movement of electrons in different kinds of materials. Electronics technology has been widely

applied nowadays, from simple toys to sophisticated military weaponry systems, and it becomes

“smarter” as time passes by.

Electronic equipment, like that of human-society, are grouped into internal divisions or

parts which has a specific purpose or task to accomplish in order for the entirety to function

effectively. For such phenomenon to take place, each components need to communicate with

one another in order to perform their individual tasks efficiently. This can be done by the use of

electric signals which serve as “messages” for communication between these electronic

components. These components are mostly made with materials having both the properties of

insulation and conduction, which are called semiconductors, in some cases, because of its

conductive properties, electric signals tend to have some amount of loss in amplitude of one of

its parameters or properties after passing through one electronic component (or sometimes the

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electric signal is just too weak to be used by some components). Due to that fact, it is

sometimes essential for electric signals to be amplified. This can be attained by using devices

called amplifiers. These are devices which are used to amplify weak electric (analog) signals so

that it can attain a certain level that the other components can use, especially speakers.

In technical terms, amplifier is an electronic device that amplifies or increases the

voltage, current or power of an input electric signal. Most amplifiers are classified into two ways.

The first classification is by their function. This means that they're basically either voltage or

power amplifiers. The other one being by their frequency response. This means that an amplifier

is also classified based on a specific frequency range that it may amplify according to its design.

This study is specifically concerned with power amplifiers, audio power amplifiers to be precise.

Audio power amplifiers are commonly used in home audio systems and musical ​instrument

amplifiers​ like ​guitar amplifiers​. Its in-depth discussion will be provided on the chapters to come.

An audio power amplifier is an ​electronic amplifier​ that strengthens low-power, inaudible

electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric guitar ​pickup​ to a level

that is strong enough for driving ​loudspeakers​ or ​headphones​. Power amplifiers make the

signal—whether it is recorded music, a live speech, live ​singing​, an electric guitar or the mixed

audio of an entire band through a ​sound reinforcement system​—audible to listeners. It was

invented in 1909 by ​Lee De Forest​ when he invented the triode ​vacuum tube​ (or "valve" in

British English). The ​triode​ was a three terminal device with a control grid that can modulate the

flow of electrons from the filament to the plate. The triode ​vacuum amplifier​ was used to make

the first ​AM radio​. The early audio power amplifiers was based on vacuum tubes which

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produces notably high audio quality but was later replaces by solid state devices (transistors).

Transistor-based amplifiers became a great trend nowadays because it has lighter weight, more

reliable and requires less maintenance though some enthusiasts today still uses vacuum-tube

based amplifiers because they perceive that it has a warmer tube sound. Some of the important

applications of an audio power amplifier include ​public address​ systems, theatrical and

concert ​sound reinforcement systems​, and domestic systems such as a ​stereo​ or ​home-theatre

system​.

The next chapter will have a more in depth and related discussion about the device that

is included in this study.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This study involves the creation of a 15 Watt Integrated Circuit Bridged Power Amplifier. It

accepts three different inputs namely magnetic phono, tuner, and auxiliary inputs. The last input

(auxiliary) can be used for tape/cassette players. This device features a preamp and a tone

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control circuit in its preliminary amplification stage and a loudness and balance (for stereo)

along with the main amplifier in its power amplification stage. The main amplifier of this device is

composed of a bridged connection between two audio power amplifiers ICs. It also features a

compact board design of only 7.3 x 9.3 cm.

In this study, we have used the LM387 Dual Preamplifier for the preamp and tone control

functions and LM383 Audio Power Amplifier in a bridged type connection for the main amplifier

function. The LM387 is a low power dual pre-amplifier IC package that is used in the

amplification of low level signals in applications requiring optimum noise performance. Each of

the two amplifiers is completely independent, with an internal power supply decoupled-regulator,

providing 110 dB supply rejection and 60 dB channel separation. Other outstanding features

include high gain (104 dB), large output voltage swing (VCC = 2Vp-p), and wide power

bandwidth (75 kHz, 20 Vp-p). The LM387 operates from a single supply across the wide range

of 9V to 30V.

In terms of the actual application of the LM387 in this circuit, one part of it provides the

pre-amplification and the other part is used for tone control. The preamplifier can provide either

low or high gain depending on the input signal. If the input signal comes from either the tuner or

auxiliary input, the pre-amplifier function provides low-gain. Otherwise, if the magnetic phono is

selected, it provides a high-gain amplifier-equalizer combination function which amplifies the

very weak signals from the magnetic cartridge and corrects the frequency response of the input

signal. By using the other part of the LM387 in a Bandaxall Negative feedback tone control

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circuit, the bass or treble can be either cut or boosted depending on the users’ preference with

the help of two potentiometers.

The loudness control and balance control is also provided in the beginning of the power

amplification stage. The loudness control provides additional tonal compensation in order to

correct the low hearing sensitivity when the sound is too low. The balance control is for used in

two-channel operation to adjust the output of two amplifier system to achieve an overall balance

output. Two LM383 Audio power amplifier are used in this system as the main power amplifying

components. The LM383 is a cost effective, high power amplifier suited for automotive

applications. It has a high current capability (3.5A) enables the device to drive low impedance

loads with low distortion. The LM383 is current limited and thermally protected. High voltage

protection is available (LM383A) which enables the amplifier to withstand 40V transients on its

supply. The LM383 comes in a 5-pin TO-220 package. The main reason why a bridged type

connection was chosen for this study is because it can provide an overall greater power output.

In theory, with these components working together, this audio power amplifier can drive

a 4-ohm 15 Watt or an 8-ohm 8 Watt Load Speaker in its output.  


 
 
 
 
 

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ELECTRONIC SPECIFICATION
SEMICONDUCTORS TYPE VALUES
IC1 Low Noise dual-Preamplifier LM387
IC2,IC3 8-watt audio amplifier IC LM383
RESISTORS TYPE VALUES
R1 Carbon Composition Resistor 47Ω
R2 Carbon Composition Resistor 1K Ω
R3,R17 Carbon Composition Resistor 100K Ω
R4 Carbon Composition Resistor 470 Ω
R5, R19, R22 Carbon Composition Resistor 4.7 Ω
R6, R18 Carbon Composition Resistor 390K Ω
R7 Carbon Composition Resistor 39K Ω

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R9, R11 Carbon Composition Resistor 12K Ω
R10,R13 Potentiometer 100K Ω
R12,R14 Carbon Composition Resistor 3.9K Ω
R15,R20 Carbon Composition Resistor 10K Ω
R16 Carbon Composition Resistor 3.3K Ω
R21 Potentiometer with center tap 100K Ω
R8, R23, R25, R26 Carbon Composition Resistor 220 Ω
R24,R27 Carbon Composition Resistor 2.2 Ω
R28 Carbon Composition Resistor 1M Ω
R29 Trimmer 100K Ω
RS Potentiometer 100K Ω
CAPACITORS TYPE VALUES
C1,C8,C14,C15,C22,C23 Electrolytic Capacitor 1uF/50V
C2 Electrolytic Capacitor 22uF/25V
C3 Mylar or Ceramic Capacitor 0.0082uF/50V
C4, C12 Mylar or Ceramic Capacitor 0.002uF/50V
C5 Electrolytic Capacitor 2.2uF/50V
C6 Electrolytic Capacitor 100uF/16V
C7, C13 Mylar or Ceramic Capacitor 0,1uF/50V
C9, C10, C17 Mylar Capacitor 0.033uF/50V
C11 Mylar Capacitor 0.0047uF/50V
C16 Mylar Capacitor 0.0033uF/50V
C18 Mylar Capacitor 0.0033uF/50V
C19, C25 Electrolytic Capacitor 10uF/25V
C20, C24 Electrolytic Capacitor 470uF/16V
C21, C26 Mylar Capacitor 0.22uF/50V
 
Others (Misc.) Value/Quantity
Speaker Terminals 1 pc.
3-jack RCA Jack 1 set
4 pole 3-position Rotary Switch 1 pc.
DPDT Switch See-saw or Push button 3 pcs.
PCB ---
AWG #25 Stranded Wire
AWG #22 Stranded Wire
Soldering Wire ---
8 pin IC Socket ---
Bolt And Nuts ---

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

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BLOCK DIAGRAM

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FUNCTION OF THE COMPONENTS

Component Functions

R1, R3, R17, R24,


Limits the flow of current to the ground to minimize power loss.
R27

R4 and C2 Charging circuit, generally serves as power reservoir to IC1A

R8 Controls the current flow from the supply to the preamp

Serves as power reservoir. It ensures that there is a continuous supply on


C6 and C7
the Preamp and Main Power Amp ICs

Provides the necessary feedback for the preamp circuit. When magnetic

R5, R6, R7, C3, phono input is selected by S1, without the components R2 and R5, it

C4, (R2, C5) creates a high-gain amplifier-equalizer combination circuit with IC1A. On

the other hand, when the auxiliary or tuner input is selected, with the

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components R2 and C5 connected to the feedback circuit, a low gain

amplifier circuit is created due to the heavy feedback.

C1, C8, C15, C16, Filters incoming signals and allows only AC signals to pass through while

C19 blocking the DC signals

R15, (R9, C10, Forms the filter circuit that can either boost or cut the bass. (R9 and C10

R11, C9) for boost while R11 and C9 for cut)

R10 The main controlling element for the bass part of the tone control circuit.

Forms a filter circuit with either R14 or R12 to either boost or cut the
C11
treble. (R14 for boost while R12 for cut)

R13 The main controlling element of the treble part of the tone control circuit.

Reduces or filters or minimizes the noise from the incoming signal to


R16 and C12
IC1B.

C13 Provides reserved power for IC1B.

R17 Ensures that there is minimal power loss in the tone control circuitry.

R18, C14 Provides a negative feedback path to the tone control circuit.

Filters incoming signals and allows only low frequency bands to pass
C18 and R19
through.

Provides a common path for loudness control which will render the
C17 and R20
loudness control in an off state

R21 Main control element of the loudness control

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R22 Controls the current flow of the output from the loudness control circuit

RS Balance Control element for stereo operation

C20, R23, R24 Provides negative feedback to IC2

R28, R29, C25 Provides filtration of signal that will be used as an input signal for the IC3

C24, R26, R27 Provides negative feedback to IC3

R25 Creates a bridge connection between IC2 and IC3 outputs

C21 Power reservoir for IC2

C26 Power reservoir for IC3

C22, C23 Power reservoirs for the load speaker

IC1A The Pre-Amplifier part of the LM387

IC1B The Tone Control Circuit part of LM387

Main Audio Power Amplifier, connected in bridged type configuration to


IC2, IC3
attain greater power

S1 DPDT selector switch for input signals

S2 Selector Switch for loudness circuit

S3 Selector Switch for Channel 2 (Stereo Operation)

F1 Provides safety connection cut-off at surges that may occur

T1 Steps down 220V AC to 12V AC

Provides a full wave rectification in the secondary (output) part of the


D1, D2
transformer

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Acts as power reservoir in order to lessen ripples in the power supply
4700 uF E-Cap
output.

SAFETY ENGINEERING

There are lot of scenarios that can go wrong with electricity with potentially dire

consequences. Some of these are obvious - NEVER use your finger to test for the presence of

a mains voltage! - but others may not be such as heat-sinks that are connected to the high

voltage connector of a triac. However, take note that the things that will be discuss are only few

of many things to consider, so always consider every possible aspect and scenario while

working with circuits. If in any doubt seek out the advice of a qualified person​.

Electrocution

The most obvious risk from electricity is electrocution through contact with a live

circuit. This is where an electrical current flows through the body which can result in

the heart stopping to work (cardiac arrest).

You may have heard some people say that AC is more dangerous than DC power, or

vice-versa. Rather than get into too much debate over one vs. the other both AC and

DC at high voltages can be lethal. AC is considered to be more likely to cause cardiac

arrest by interrupting with the electrical signals controlling the heart, but DC can cause

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burns and both can still kill so debating the differences is pretty academic. Just

remember electricity can kill if it has sufficient voltage and current whether it's AC or

DC.

The following are ways to reduce the risk of an electrical shock.

1. Avoid mains electricity. The safest way is to completely avoid using mains

voltage in powering up the amplifier circuit. Most electronic circuits work on low

voltages and can be powered by batteries or an external plug-in transformer.

2. Earth the case of mains equipment. If you do use mains voltage in a project

then you should normally use a metal case and earth the case. This is done by

taking a wire from the earth terminal and connecting this to an exposed metal

part of the case. Sometimes there is a special connector in the case for

connecting the earth, but if not then it can be connected to a metal screw

holding the parts of the case together. You should then perform appropriate

testing to make sure that all the metal/parts of the case is properly earthed.

3. Check the condition of any equipment and use insulated leads. Before you

connect any equipment to the mains voltage always check that the equipment

is not visibly damaged and that leads are not damaged. This applies to any

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electrical equipment whether home-made or bought as cables can deteriorate

over time especially if they are not stored properly.

4. Always unplug the amp before going in to solder something - don't depend on the power

switches.

5. Electrolytic (and other type) filter capacitors can hold lethal charges - be sure to

discharge them before working on an amplifier. This can be done by shorting the "+"

side to the "-" side, or the "+" side to the chassis (unless the cap is in a negative voltage

supply, like the bias supply, where you must short the "-" side to the chassis), using a

wire or a screwdriver. This will make a big spark and a loud noise, which is sure to

impress any onlookers. If you'd rather do it more discreetly, make a jumper cable

consisting of alligator clips on the ends, with a resistor in series in the middle of the

jumper. Use a value of somewhere between 10K and 100K, with a power rating of 5W

or so (a high power rating is not really necessary for dissipation reasons, but mainly

because the higher power resistors are physically more robust and won't tend to break).

Be sure to adequately insulate the resistor with heat-shrink tubing so the wires aren't

exposed, or you'll get shocked while trying to discharge the capacitors. The larger the

value of the resistor, the longer it will take to discharge the caps, and the less of a spark

you will see. If you use a large value resistor, be sure to leave it in place long enough for

it to drain all the charge out of the capacitor (if in doubt, measure the voltage across the

capacitor to make sure it is close to zero). Note that many amplifiers will incorporate

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"bleeder" resistors, which will drain the capacitor charge automatically in a few minutes

after the amp is turned off. Don't depend on this resistor to do it's job!

6. Be sure to turn the power off to the amplifier before discharging the electrolytic filter

capacitors, or you will get an unpleasant surprise.

7. Be sure to remove any capacitor-discharging jumper wires before re-powering up the

amp, or you will get another unpleasant surprise.

8. Learn first aid and buddy up. If working on mains voltage you should have

someone nearby that knows what you are doing so that they can assist if

anyone does go wrong. If you ever come across anyone that is suffering from

an electrical shock and are still connected to the supply then do not touch

them directly as you can also receive a shock from them. Where possible you

should disconnect the electrical supply (un-plug or switch off the equipment). If

it is not possible to disconnect the supply then push the person away from the

supply using an insulating material such as a dry wooden or plastic broom

handles.

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Risk of fire and explosion

Electrocution is not the only way that you can be harmed through using electricity

incorrectly. Fire can be just as big a risk and can happen at much lower voltages than

electrocution. Again this is a high risk with mains electricity, but you should also take

this into consideration when working with lower voltage systems such as car or leisure

batteries or low voltage lighting all of which are capable of providing very high

currents. Fire can be caused by overheating due to overloading a plug socket, or if too

high a current going through a particular component or wire.

Burns

There is obviously a risk of burns whilst soldering, but there is also a risk if a

component is touched after it gets hot. Light fittings are well known for their heat, but

other components that are switching heavy loads can also cause burns if touched.

Dangerous tools

Always read the warning instructions that come with tools. We’re not particularly

talking about metal working tools used in creating a home for your new creation, but

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you may also use power tools on the circuit itself, such as rotary tools and heat guns

used with heat shrink insulation.

Remember that the warnings are there for a reason. You may have drilled hundreds of

holes using an electric drill, but the first metal splinter in your eye may permanently

damage your sight. Always wear goggles / safety glasses / gloves where it is specified

in the instructions.

Dangerous chemicals

If you get into making your own printed circuit boards then there are dangerous chemicals that

need to be handled with care as well as disposed of in a safe manner to prevent damage to

local wildlife. Always read the instructions provided with your chemicals and contact your

supplier if you are in any doubt about the risks and how to dispose of them appropriately.

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GLOSSARY

A​- The symbol for amps, or amperes, which is a unit of current flow. Common prefixes are "m",

for mA (10​-3​amps), and "u", for uA (10​-6​ amps).

 
AC​- Alternating Current. This is electric current that periodically changes the direction in which

it flows. The most common form of an alternating current supply is the sinusoidal current that

comes out of a wall outlet. It has no positive or negative terminals, because AC has no polarity,

other than an instantaneous polarity that changes at a rate equal to the frequency of the

current. Common household AC current is supplied at a frequency of 60Hz in the United States

and some other countries, and 50Hz in other places in the world, most notably, England. "Hz"

stands for "Hertz", which is the name of the unit for frequency, and means "cycles per second",

indicating how many cycles, or changes from positive to negative, the AC waveform goes

through each second. In some older literature, you may see the term "CPS", which stands for

"cycles per second", used in place of "Hz". Alternating current does not have to be sinusoidal in

shape; the square wave of a distorted guitar amplifier output is also AC, because it changes

polarity periodically.

AMPLIFIER - ​an electronic device for increasing the amplitude of electrical signals, used chiefly

in sound reproduction.

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BIASING​ - the term commonly used for the practice of setting the idle current in an output tube.

Preamp tubes are biased as well, but they are biased only during the initial design of the

amplifier and use what is known as "cathode biasing", and don't require rebiasing as part of

general amplifier maintenance.

CAPACITOR​ - a device consisting of two parallel plates separated by an insulator, called the

"dielectric". The capacitance is proportional to the area of the plates, and inversely proportional

to the distance between them. Capacitors are used to block DC while passing AC. They are

frequency-dependent devices, which mean that their capacitive reactance or "effective

resistance" to AC increases as the frequency gets lower. This makes capacitors useful for tone

controls, where different frequency bands must be passed, or for bypassing AC signals to

ground while passing DC through for filtering purposes.

CURRENT​ - The term given to electron flow. The unit of current is the "amp", or "ampere", and

indicates a current flow of one coulomb per second. A coulomb is a unit of electron charge.

DIODE ​- a two-element device which passes a signal in one direction only. They are used most

commonly to convert AC to DC, because they pass the positive part of the wave, and block the

negative part of the AC signal, or, if they are reversed, they pass only the negative part and not

the positive part. This allows them to be used to generate a positive or negative DC supply.

There are both solid-state and tube diodes. Since a diode will pass current in only one

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direction, they can also be used to "clip" the top or bottom part of a signal. Diodes are also

commonly called "rectifiers" because they rectify the AC voltage, however, the term "rectifier" is

usually reserved for diodes used in the power supply section of an amplifier, while "diode" is

generally used in small signal, or low power applications, such as clippers.

FILTER (Electronic) ​- circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove

unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.

GROUND​ - The common "reference" point for the circuit. This is usually also connected to the

chassis, but there can be independent circuit grounds and chassis grounds.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT - (IC), sometimes called a ​chip​ or ​microchip​, is a ​semiconductor wafer

on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and ​transistor​s are fabricated. An IC

can function as an ​amplifier​, ​oscillator​, timer, counter, computer ​memory​, or microprocessor. A

particular IC is categorized as either linear (​analog​) or ​digital​, depending on its intended

application.

JUMPING WIRE/CABLE - is an electrical ​wire​ or group of them in a c


​ able​ with a connector or

pin at each end (or sometimes without them – simply "tinned"), which is normally used to

interconnect the components of a breadboard or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with

other equipment or components, without soldering.

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NOISE​ - is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

PCB​ - printed circuit board, or PC board. A piece of phenolic or glass-epoxy board with copper

clad on one or both sides. The portions of copper that aren't needed are etched off, leaving

"printed" circuits which connect the components. Most modern amplifiers use this type of

construction. However, many manufacturers use cheap, single-sided PC boards without

plated-through holes, which tend to pull up pads when a component is desoldered. Some even

go so far as to not use a solder mask or silkscreen. This type of construction should be avoided,

and is a good indication of a cheaply made amplifier.

POWER - is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second.

RESISTOR​ - a circuit element that presents a resistance to the flow of electric current. A

current flowing through a resistance will create a voltage drop across that resistance in

accordance with Ohm's law.

RIPPLE/RIPPLE VOLTAGE - in electronics, is the residual periodic variation of the DC voltage

within a power supply which has been derived from an alternating current (AC) source.

This ripple is due to incomplete suppression of the alternating waveform after rectification.

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SPEAKER​ - a transducer designed to reproduce audio frequencies. There are many different

models of guitar speakers, each with its own particular power handling capability and tone.

SWITCH​ - a device that opens and closes an electric circuit.

TRANSFORMER​ - a device for changing levels of AC signals, or for changing impedances of

circuits. It consists of a minimum of two coils, the primary and the secondary, wound on the

same core. The core material can be ferrous (magnetic, such as iron), or non-ferrous

(non-magnetic, such as an air core). Transformers used in guitar amplifiers are invariably wound

on iron cores. An ideal transformer has no losses, it merely steps a voltage up or down in

proportion to the turns ratio between the primary and the secondary. This is useful in converting

the voltage from a wall outlet, typically 120 or 240 volts, into a higher voltage for the tube plate

supply, typically 400V or more, and a lower voltage for the tube filament, typically 6.3 or 12.6V.

The transformer will also "reflect back" to the primary the impedance which is connected to the

secondary, in proportion to the square of the turns ratio. That is, if you have a 20:1 transformer

with a 16 ohm impedance connected to the secondary, it will "look like" a 6.4K ohm impedance

on the primary side. This is useful in matching the plate of a tube, which is very high

impedance, typically on the order of several thousand ohms, to a speaker, which is very low

impedance, typically on the order of 4, 8, or 16 ohms.

December 18, 2017


 
ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION INC. 
V.V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta, Rizal 
College of Engineering 
 
 
VOLTAGE​ - the term for electric force. Voltage is the energy per unit charge created when

positive and negative charges are separated.

REFERENCES

"Classification of Amplifiers Integrated Publishing" http://www.tpub.com/neets/book8/30a.htm

"Audio Amplifiers|Wikipedia"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_power_amplifier#Applications

"LM387/LM387A Low Noise Dual Amplifier"

http://www.experimentalistsanonymous.com/diy/Datasheets/LM387.pdf

"LM383/LM383A Audio Power Amplifier"

http://www.circuitstoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/lm383.pdf

"Electronic Enthusiasts Projects and Circuits Volume 1" p. 132 – 136

“Safety Engineering” http://www.penguintutor.com/electronics/electrical-safety

December 18, 2017


 
ICCT COLLEGES FOUNDATION INC. 
V.V. Soliven Avenue II, Cainta, Rizal 
College of Engineering 
 
 
“Safety Tips for Working on Tube Amplifiers”

http://www.aikenamps.com/index.php/safety-tips-for-working-on-tube-amplifiers

December 18, 2017