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Problem 1:

In the front end section (A) of the audio system in Figure 1, a voltage amplifier is to be designed. You
are given a ready-made small signal amplifier for this purpose, with a voltage-divider bias. The bias
resistors are R1 = 3 k and R2 = 3 k, RC = 12 k and RE = 5 k, and the transistor to be used is BC107.
Before proceeding further with the design you must

 determine the Q-point and draw the load lines;


 determine what happens if you change the values of various biasing resistors.

The input signal available is 10 mV peak-to-peak (p–p), 0 V dc.

 Draw the output for the given configuration. Also, find out what happens if you apply the input
signal to transistors biased at cutoff and below cutoff.
 Comment on the voltage gain and current gain of such configuration.

Problem 2:

The last block (D) in the audio system is required to deliver 0.6 W of power to a 20-ohm speaker. The
signal strength is 10 mV p–p. Give as many circuit designs as possible with a transistor as the active
device. Compare the designs with respect to their respective advantages, power dissipated, useful
power being delivered to the load and their efficiencies.

This is a simulation assignment. You may use any circuit simulation software (PSPICE,
MultiSIM, Proteus etc). You should analyze the simulation results.

Reference:

[1] A. Mantri, S. Dutt, J.P. Gupta, and M. Chitkara, “Design and Evaluation of a PBL based Course in
Analog Electronics,” IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 432–438, Nov 2008.
O/P2,
To other circuit

Power
I/P Front End Processing Voltage
Amplifier
(A) Circuit (B) Amplifier (C)
(D)

Control
Circuit (E)
Regulator
Power
Supply (G)
Sinusoidal
Oscillator (F)

O/P3,
To other circuit Rectifier (H)

220 VAC

Figure 1: Block diagram of audio system.


1.0 ABSTRACT

This project introduces the functions and characteristics of Multisim software, and describes
the new methods of using the software in digital circuit experiment teaching. It is helpful to
have estimate value compared to the calculation. It believes that using Multisim in experiment
teaching makes effective complementarities. Then, we were given task to design the circuit and
determine Q point with the load lines from the problem 1 in the voltage divider biasing. It uses
a few resistors to make sure that voltage is divided and distributed into the transistor at correct
levels. One resistor, the emitter resistor, RE also helps provide stability against variations in β
that may exist from transistor to transistor. Furthermore, in problem 2, we need to compare the
designs with respect to their respective which are advantages, power dissipated, useful power
being delivered to the load and also their efficiencies.
2.0 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE

 To investigate and to determine the Q point of the transistor


 To learn and draw the load line analysis
 To determine the cut off, active and saturation region of load line analysis
 Calculate and measure the important parameter such as Vi, Av and Vo of the
amplifier
 To learn how to use Multisim with correct way
 To study how voltage power amplifiers works
 To Compare the power amplifiers with respect to their respective advantages, power
dissipated, useful power being delivered to the load and their efficiencies.
3.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT

For this assignment, we were tasked to design parts of an audio system. We need to
design the front end of the audio system from a ready-made small signal amplifier. We were
given two problems to be solved. First of which, we need to design a voltage amplifier for the
front-end section of the audio system using a ready-made small signal amplifier, with a
voltage-divider bias. For the second problem, we need to design circuits with a transistor as
the active device. These circuits need to deliver 0.6 W of power to a 20-ohm speaker. These
circuits will be used in the last block of the audio system as a power amplifier.

In this assignment, we need to use circuit simulation software such as Multisim to


simulate the circuits we had designed. Thus, to complete this assignment we need to know the
functionality of the software. We need to simulate the circuits and compare the simulated
values with calculated value.
4.0 PROJECT BACKGROUD

For this experiment, we use common emitter amplifier. There are three basic single
stage bipolar junction transistor and used as a voltage amplifier. The input of this amplifier
is taken from the base terminal, the output is collected from the collector terminal and the
emitter terminal is common for both the terminals. There are different types of electronic
components in the common emitter amplifier which are R1 resistor is used for the forward
bias, the R2 resistor is used for the development of bias, the RL resistor is used at the output
is called as the load resistance. The RE resistor is used for the thermal stability. The C1
capacitor is used to separate the AC signals form the DC biasing voltage and the capacitor is
known as the coupling capacitor. There are some of the characteristics of common emitter
amplifier such as the voltage gain of common emitter amplifier is medium, the power gain is
high in the common emitter amplifier and the input and output resistors are medium.

The behavior of these three configurations with respect to gain is given below.

 Common Base (CB) Configuration: no current gain but voltage gain

 Common Collector (CC) Configuration: current gain but no voltage gain

 Common Emitter (CE) Configuration: current gain and voltage gain


Transistor load line

The load line diagram at right is for a resistive load in a common emitter circuit. The load line
shows how the collector load resistor (RL) constrains the circuit voltage and current. The
diagram also plots the transistor's collector current IC versus collector voltage VCE for different
values of base current Ibase. The intersections of the load line with the transistor characteristic
curves represent the circuit-constrained values of IC and VCE at different base currents. If the
transistor could pass all the current available, with no voltage dropped across it, the collector
current would be the supply voltage V CC over RL. This is the point where the load line crosses
the vertical axis. Even at saturation, however, there will always be some voltage from collector
to emitter.

Where the load line crosses the horizontal axis, the transistor current is minimum
(approximately zero). The transistor is said to be cut off, passing only a very small leakage
current, and so very nearly the entire supply voltage appears as VCE.

The operating point of the circuit in this configuration (labelled Q) is generally designed to be
in the active region, approximately in the middle of the load line for amplifier applications.
Adjusting the base current so that the circuit is at this operating point with no signal applied is
called biasing the transistor. Several techniques are used to stabilize the operating point against
minor changes in temperature or transistor operating characteristics. When a signal is applied,
the base current varies, and the collector-emitter voltage in turn varies, following the load line
- the result is an amplifier stage with gain.
A load line is normally drawn on Ic-Vce characteristics curves for the transistor used in an
amplifier circuit. The same technique is applied to other types of non-linear elements such
as vacuum tubes or field effect transistors.

Introduction to the Amplifier

Amplifier is the generic term used to describe a circuit which increases its input signal, but not
all amplifiers are the same as they are classified according to their circuit configurations and
methods of operation.

In “Electronics”, small signal amplifiers are commonly used devices as they have the ability to
amplify a relatively small input signal, for example from a Sensor such as a photo-device, into
a much larger output signal to drive a relay, lamp or loudspeaker for example.

There are many forms of electronic circuits classed as amplifiers, from Operational Amplifiers
and Small Signal Amplifiers up to Large Signal and Power Amplifiers. The classification of an
amplifier depends upon the size of the signal, large or small, its physical configuration and how
it processes the input signal, that is the relationship between input signal and current flowing
in the load.
The type or classification of an Amplifier is given in the following table.

Classification of Amplifiers

Type of Frequency of
Type of Signal
Configuration Operation

Common
Small Signal Class A Amplifier Direct Current (DC)
Emitter

Common Audio Frequencies


Large Signal Class B Amplifier
Base (AF)

Common Radio Frequencies


Class AB Amplifier
Collector (RF)

VHF, UHF and SHF


Class C Amplifier
Frequencies

Amplifiers can be thought of as a simple box or block containing the amplifying device, such
as a transistor, Field Effect Transistor or Op-amp, which has two input terminals and two output
terminals (ground being common) with the output signal being much greater than that of the
input signal as it has been “Amplified”.

Generally, an ideal signal amplifier has three main properties, Input


Resistance or ( Rin ), Output Resistance or ( Rout ) and of course amplification known
commonly as Gain or ( A ). No matter how complicated an amplifier circuit is, a general
amplifier model can still be used to show the relationship of these three properties.
Ideal Amplifier Model

The difference between the input and output signals is known as the Gain of the amplifier and
is basically a measure of how much an amplifier “amplifies” the input signal. For example, if
we have an input signal of 1 volt and an output of 50 volts, then the gain of the amplifier would
be “50”. In other words, the input signal has been increased by a factor of 50. This increase is
called Gain.

Amplifier gain is simply the ratio of the output divided-by the input. Gain has no units as it a
ratio, but in Electronics it is commonly given the symbol “A”, for Amplification. Then the gain
of an amplifier is simply calculated as the “output signal divided by the input signal”.

Amplifier Gain

The introduction to the amplifier gain can be said to be the relationship that exists between the
signal measured at the output with the signal measured at the input. There are three different
kinds of amplifier gain which can be measured and these are: Voltage Gain ( Av ), Current
Gain ( Ai ) and Power Gain ( Ap ) depending upon the quantity being measured with examples
of these different types of gains are given below.
Amplifier Gain of the Input Signal

Voltage Amplifier Gain

Current Amplifier Gain

Power Amplifier Gain

Note that for the Power Gain you can also divide the power obtained at the output with the
power obtained at the input. Also when calculating the gain of an amplifier, the
subscripts v, i and p are used to denote the type of signal gain being used.

The power Gain or power level of the amplifier can also be expressed in Decibels, (dB). The
Bel (B) is a logarithmic unit (base 10) of measurement that has no units. Since the Bel is too
large a unit of measure, it is prefixed with deci making it Decibels instead with one decibel
being one tenth (1/10th) of a Bel. To calculate the gain of the amplifier in Decibels or dB, we
can use the following expressions.

 Voltage Gain in dB: av = 20 log Av

 Current Gain in dB: ai = 20 log Ai

 Power Gain in dB: ap = 10 log Ap


Note that the DC power gain of an amplifier is equal to ten times the common log of the
output to input ratio, whereas voltage and current gains are 20 times the common log of the
ratio. Note however, that 20dB is not twice as much power as 10dB because of the log scale.

Also, a positive value of dB represents a Gain and a negative value of dB represents


a Loss within the amplifier. For example, an amplifier gain of +3dB indicates that the
amplifiers output signal has “doubled”, (x2) while an amplifier gain of -3dB indicates that the
signal has “halved”, (x0.5) or in other words a loss.

The -3dB point of an amplifier is called the half-power point which is -3dB down from
maximum, taking 0dB as the maximum output value.
5.0 METHODOLOGY

Problem 1:

1. The circuit of voltage amplifier was designed using voltage-divider bias.


2. Before proceeding further with the design, the Q-point had been determined and the
load lines was drawn.
3. The values of various biasing resistors were changed and the output was observed and
recorded.
4. The design was proceeded by using Multisim and 10m Vp-p was used with 0 V dc.
5. The output for the configuration was drawn. The input signal was applied to the
transistor biased at cut-off and below cut-off and the output was measured and
recorded.
6. The voltage gain and current gain of such configuration was discussed.

Problem 2:
1. Class A power amplifier was constructed using simulation on Multisim.
2. The output of the waveform was recorded.
3. The power dissipated, useful power being delivered to the load and the efficiency
were calculated.
4. Step 1 until 4 were repeated using class B power amplifier.
6.0 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

PROBLEM 1:
1. Determine the Q-point and draw the load lines.

Load Line
1.4

1.2 0, 1.24

0.8
Ic(mA)

0.6 10.5, 0.62

0.4

0.2

0 y = -0.059x + 1.24 21, 0


0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.2
Vce(V)

Load line of the transistor and the Q-point (10.5,0.62).

2. Determine what happens if you change the values of various biasing resistors.

Figure above shows collector current (Ic) of the voltage divider bias BJT.
When the biasing resistors values are increased, the Ic also increase. When the biasing
resistors are lower, the Ic value decrease.
3. i) Draw the output for the given configuration. Also, find out what happens if you
apply the input signal to transistors biased at cutoff and below cutoff.

The following figure is the output of the configuration above in an oscilloscope. The output
voltage (blue) is amplified and reversed to the input (red).
Av = Vo/ Vi

Av = 8.607/(-4.898)

Av = -1.757

3.ii) What happens if we apply the input signal to transistor biased at cutoff and
below cutoff.

If we apply the input signal to a transistor biased at cutoff, Base-Emitter junction will be
reversed biased. This means current does not flow at the transistor.

When the input signal is applied to a transistor biased at below cutoff, the Base-Emitter
junction will be forward biased while the Base-Collector junction will be reverse biased.

4. Comment on the voltage gain and current gain of such configuration.

The voltage gain of the configuration is negative because it is a common emitter BJT. The
output voltage is higher than the input voltage. This configuration amplified the signals, but it
also inversed the signal, hence the negative value for the voltage gain. The voltage gain is
dependent on the value of biasing resistors.

As for the current gain, it won’t change with the variations of resistors as it is determined
solely on the value of β and that figure is fixed
PROBLEM 2:
Class A

OUTPUT:
Idc:

Based on simulation:

Idc; 495.722 mA
V0 PEAK: 4.959 v
V0 rms: 6.051/1.41 = 3.507 v
Po: (V0 rms)^2 / R = 0.61 watt
Pin: 2 x Vcc x Idc = 19.83watt
Power efficient: Po/PIN x 100% = 3.08%
CLASS AB

OUTPUT:
Idc:

Based on simulation:
Idc; 21.131 mA
V0 PEAK: 4.375v
V0 rms: 4.375/1.41 = 3.094 v
Po: (V0 rms)^2 / R = 0.47 watt
Pin: 2 x Vcc x Idc = 0.845watt
Power efficient: Po/PIN x 100% = 55.62%
CLASS B

OUTPUT:
Idc:

Based on simulation:

Idc: 58.328 mA

V0 PEAK: 4.904 v

V0 rms: 4.904/1.41 = 3.468 v

Po: (V0 rms)^2 / R = 0.60 watt

Pin: 2 x Vcc x Idc = 2.33watt

Power efficient: Po/PIN x 100% = 25.72%


7.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Multisim enable students to enhance their understanding of the basics of circuit
design and application. Then, we learned how to successfully navigate Multisim and we also
learned how to use Multisim to simplify and simulate my formulations. We gained
comprehensive understanding of Multisim for circuit design, its simulation and analysis. There
is a little bit different between our result from calculation and result from Multisim simulation.
The findings based on quantitative analyses reveal that in the initial phase, simulation based
instructional strategy had a marginal effect on student learning compared to hands on. By the
end of this project, we will be able to design our own circuit in Multisim.