You are on page 1of 8

ARCHIMEDES LAW

Nursina Sya’bania, Stela Cintya Woelandari, Maddaung Nurhardiyanti, Tiara Lestari Paembonan,
Maryana S.

Chemistry Department of Mathematic and Science Faculty Year 2013

Abstract. This report contains the results of experimental work on the principle of Archimedes Law. Have done
experiment on the law of Archimedes. The Purpose of this experiment are to investigate applicable of the law of
Archimedes and to investigate the relation between the upward force with the weight of liquid has displaced. The
method that used in this experiment are : firstly, Prepare the instruments and materials then fill the spout glass
with liquid that will be used and put the measure glass under the end of the shower and then dip the loads that
hung on the spring balance until the overall of loads submerged and liquid dripping from the end of the shower
to the measure glass. After that, the liquid stops dripping from the end of the shower into spout glass, then know
the volume of liquid that moved into the measure glass and then weigh it with a spring balance to determine the
weight of the liquid . From this experiments will be compared between the results of upward force ( Fa )
obtained with the weight of liquid that moved into the measure glass and then obtained the density of each liquid
that can be used later to compare the theoretical density with the density obtained in this experiments.

KEYWORDS : Archimedes law, Archimedes Principle, an upward force (buoyancy), heavy liquid
removed, fluid, floating, sinking, type of fluid.

PRELIMINARY

Archimedes of Syracusa ( around 287 BC - 212 BC ) He studied in the city of Alexandria,


Egypt. He discovered the law on an event called the Law of Archimedes which states that ". If the
object is inserted into the liquid, either in part or in whole, will gain upward force by weight of the
displaced fluid that thing ". For example, water has a certain volume, if an object is put into the water,
then the water level will be pushed up. In other words, as if the weight of the object to be lighter. This
is due to the upward force is often called the Archimedes force.
He then took a stone and wood a beam have the same size into the tub and soak them both.
Stone sink but feels light. He had pressed wood that sinks. That means the water must be pressed
upward by the force relative to the amount of water displaced by the object's size than the weight of
the object. What was perceived as heavy object in the water affect the density objek.Ini make
Archimedes understand how to solve the problem of the king. He returned to the king. The key is
density. If the crown is made of metal instead of gold, he can have the same weight but will have
different densities so that would shed different amounts of water.
𝑔 𝑔 𝑔
As we know 𝑎𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑑𝑒𝑠 = 0,997 ⁄𝑚𝑙 , 𝜌 𝑔𝑙𝑦𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑒 = 1,2620 ⁄𝑚𝑙 , 𝜌 𝑜𝑖𝑙 = 0,903 ⁄𝑚𝑙
The purpose this experiment are : to investigate applicable of the law of Archimedes and to
investigate the relation between the upward force with the weight of liquid has displaced used the
principle of Archimedes is :
FA   f g V ' (2)
The experiment methodologhy is, Prepare the instrument and material you need. Second,
Determine in advance smallest scale of value of the measuring instruments that you want to use. The
Smallest scale of value of Dynamometre and Measure Glass. Third, Fill the spout glass with water /
aquades until full wait until the water stops dripping from the tip of showers. Fourth, Place the
measuring glass under of the shower, Fifth, Hang the load on the Dynamometre and weight measured
in air ( Wu ). Sixth, Still in a state depends on the spring balance, slowly insert the load into a spout
glass that has been filled with water / aquades until completely submerged. Read designation as a
Dynamometre weight in water ( Wf ) and wait until the water stops dripping from the end of the
shower. Write the volume of water that moved into the measuring glass as V. Seventh, Measure
weight of water that moved in to Measure Glass. Eighth, do activities ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) by adding the load
on the previous load up to 5 times. Finally, Repeat activity 3 to 8 with different liquids and remember
every time you make additional load, and load dry measuring glass with a tissue.

THEORY

Another consequence of these laws is the law of Archimedes Hydrostatic. If an object is in a


quiescent fluid, every part of the surface of the object will get done by the fluid pressure. This pressure
is greater in the deeper part. Resultant force acting on the object has an upward direction, and is called
the buoyant force. This force depends on the density of the fluid and the volume of the object, but not
the composition or shape of objects, and a magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the
object. This result is known as Archimedes' Principle.
Principle can be expressed as,
FA   f g V ' (2)

If stated in the picture it would appear as follows,

The FA is a compressive force to the object by the fluid, f is the fluid density and V’ is the
volume of the object immersed in a fluid. If done weighing (mass or weight) at a submerged object in
a fluid, the measured weight Wf, will be smaller than actual weight (in air) Wu because upward
pressure force by the fluid.
Can be written as follows,

FA   f g V '  Wu  W f
(2)

So The Buoyant Force by the fluid equal to difference of weight of the object in the air with
in the fluid . Life of daily the principle of Archimedes used to Hydrometers, Ships, Submarine and
Shipyard, Air Balloon, Pontoon Bridge.
EKSPERIMENT METHODOLOGHY

A. The Instruments and Materials are :

1. Spring balance
2. Spout glass
3. Measure glass
4. Loads
5. Stative
6. Aquades
7. Glycerin
8. Oil

B. Variable Identification
1. Manipulation Variable : The buoyant force, Load.
2. Respond Variable : Weight fluid has displaced
3. Control Variable : Volume of fluid, Type of fluid ( Aquades, Glycerin
and Oil )
C. Definition of Identification Variable
1. Manipulation Variable :
 The buoyant force can be observated when loads float in the fluid. This force has
the magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid that has been displaced by object.
 The load we use in this experimet is Aluminium and the amount of load are 3.
Load is the weight of thing that can measure with dynamometre.
2. Respond Variable :
 Weight fluid has displaced in this experiment the weight of fluid has displaced
can calculated by spring balance.
3. Control Variable :
 Volume of fluid in this experiment always same while doing in every types of
fluid. The volume was measuring by spout glass until the fluid not flow before
floated the load in the below of fluid surface.
 Type of fluid ( Aquades, Glycerin and Oil )
Aquadest is the liquid subtance often be use on the experiment, aquadest
have a same density with water. The density of Aquadest is 1,0 g /cm3
or 1000 kg/m3.
Oil is the liquid substance that thick more than water. On this
Archimedes experiment the oil we use is edible oil that the density is 0,8
g/cm3 or 800 kg/m3.
Glycerin is the liquid that thick more than water and oil . Glycerin have a
1,3 g/cm3 or 1300 kg/m3 density
D. Work Procedure
First you must prepare tools and materials you need, second decide in advance
smallest scale of value any measure you want to use. Third fill the glass with water / distilled
water until full and wait until the water stops dripping from the tip of showers. Fourth place
the measuring cup just below the end of the shower. Fifth hang the load on the spring balance
and weight measured in air ( Wu ). Sixth Still in a state depends on the spring balance, slowly
insert the load into a glass that has been filled with water / distilled water until completely
submerged. Read designation as a spring balance weight in water ( Wf ) and wait until the
water stops dripping from the end of the shower. Record the volume of water that moved into
the measuring cup as V. Seventh Measure the weight of water that moved into the measuring
cup. Eight perform activities ( 3 ) to ( 6 ) by adding the load on the previous load up to 5
times. Ninth repeat activity 3 to 8 with different liquids and remember every time you make
additional load, and load dry measuring cup with a paper towel.
EKSPERIMENT RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS

A. OBSERVATION RESULTS
1
Smallest scale of value of spring balance = 0,1 𝑁⁄𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 Error absolute = 2
× 0,1 = 0,05
1
Smallest scale of value of measure glass = 2 𝑚𝐿⁄𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒 Error absolute = 2
×2=1

Tabel 3.1. The Observation Result on Archimedes Law experiment

Type of Load WU Wf FA V Weight of fluid has


fluid [N] [N] (WU – Wf), [N] [m3] displaced

Aquades 1 | 0,50 ± 0,05| | 0,40 ± 0,05| | 0,10 ± 0,10| | 6 ± 1|𝑚𝐿 | 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎| 𝑵

2 |1,00 ± 0,05| |0,85 ± 0,05| |0,15 ± 0,10| |16 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟐𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎| 𝑵

3 |1,50 ± 0,05| |1,30 ± 0,05| |0,20 ± 0,10| |24 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟑𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

Glycerin 1 |0,50 ± 0,05| |0,40 ± 0,05| |0,10 ± 0,10| |8 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟎𝟓 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

2 |1,00 ± 0,05| |0,80 ± 0,05| |0,20 ± 0,10| |18 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟑𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

3 |1,50 ± 0,05| |1,20 ± 0,05| |0,30 ± 0,10| |26 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟑𝟓 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

Oil 1 |0,50 ± 0,05| |0,40 ± 0,05| |0,10 ± 0,10| |8 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟏𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

2 |1,00 ± 0,05| |0,90 ± 0,05| |0,10 ± 0,10| |16 ± 1| 𝑚𝐿 |𝟎, 𝟐𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵

3 |𝟏, 𝟓𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟎𝟓| |𝟏, 𝟑𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟎𝟓| |𝟎, 𝟐𝟎 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎| |𝟐𝟔 ± 𝟏| 𝒎𝑳 |𝟎, 𝟑 ± 𝟎, 𝟏𝟎|𝑵


B. Data analysis
1. Aquadest

30

25 y = 180x - 11.667
R² = 0.9959
Volume ( m3)

20

15

10

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
FA (N )

PICTURE 1. The Graphic relation between Up Force and Volume of Aquadest

𝐹𝐴 = 180𝑉 − 11,667
𝑚
𝜌 = 𝑔 → 𝑔 = 9,806 𝑚⁄ 2
𝑠
180 𝑔
= 9,806 = 18,35 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝐷𝐾 = 𝑅 2 × 100%
= 0,9959 × 100% = 99,59%
𝐾𝑅 = 100% − 99,59% = 0,41%
∆𝜌
𝐾𝑅 = 𝜌 × 100%
∆𝜌 = 𝐾𝑅 × 𝜌
𝑔
= 0,41 × 18,35 = 7,52 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝑃𝐹 = |𝜌 ± ∆𝜌|
𝑔
= |18 ± 7,52| ⁄𝑚𝑙

2. Glycerin

30
y = 90x - 0.6667
25 R² = 0.9959

20
Volume ( m3)

15

10

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
FA (N )
PICTURE 2. The Graphic relation between Up Force And Volume of Glycerin

𝐹𝐴 = 90𝑉 − 0,6667
𝑚
𝜌 = 𝑔 → 𝑔 = 9,806 𝑚⁄ 2
𝑠
90 𝑔
= 9,806 = 9,18 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝐷𝐾 = 𝑅 2 × 100%
= 0,9959 × 100% = 99,59%
𝐾𝑅 = 100% − 99,59% = 0,41%
∆𝜌
𝐾𝑅 = 𝜌 × 100%
∆𝜌 = 𝐾𝑅 × 𝜌
𝑔
= 0,41 × 9,18 = 3,8 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝑃𝐹 = |𝜌 ± ∆𝜌|
𝑔
= |9,18 ± 3,8| ⁄𝑚𝑙

3. Oil

30
y = 140x - 2
25 R² = 0.8033
20
Volume ( m3)

15

10

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
FA (N )

PICTURE 3. The Graphic relation between Up Force And Volume of Oil

𝐹𝐴 = 140𝑉 − 2
𝑚
𝜌 = 𝑔 → 𝑔 = 9,806 𝑚⁄ 2
𝑠
140 𝑔
= 9,806 = 14,27 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝐷𝐾 = 𝑅 2 × 100%
= 0,8033 × 100% = 80,33%
𝐾𝑅 = 100% − 80,33% = 19,7%
∆𝜌
𝐾𝑅 = 𝜌 × 100%
∆𝜌 = 𝐾𝑅 × 𝜌
𝑔
= 19,7 × 14,27 = 281,11 ⁄𝑚𝑙
𝑃𝐹 = |𝜌 ± ∆𝜌|
𝑔
= |14,27 ± 281,11| ⁄𝑚𝑙
KNOT

In this experiment be valid the law of Archimedes it’s true and have relation between the
upward force with the weight of liquid has displaced, but in my experiment occur fault. Some activity
have the relation. Maybe cause by the observation its fault and the calculation its fault.

LIST OF REFERENCES

[1] id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes. Accesed at : Monday, November 11, 2013

[2] Unit Praktikum Fisika Dasar 2013. Penuntun Fisika Dasar 1. Laboratorium Fisika

[3] www.kamuslife.com/2012/08/hukum-archimedes.html. Accesed at : Monday, November 11,


2013