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Assignment Questions

Q1) Types of Keyboards?

1> Laptop Keyboards

The laptop computer keyboard is a small version of the typical QWERTY keyboard. A typical
laptop has the same keyboard type as a normal keyboard, except for the fact that most laptop
keyboards condense the symbols into fewer buttons to accomodate less space.There are also
often extra keys such as power buttons, volume buttons, play buttons, rewind buttons, mute
buttons and others.

2> Gaming Keyboards

Gaming keyboards are similar to normal keyboards except they generally contain extra features
such as illuminated keys, multimedia keys, an additional LCD screen, palm rest and other
features.

Illuminated keyboards are useful for playing games, during the night, when its too dark to see
the keyboard normally. The multimedia keys are also useful for adjusting the volume, for
changing the music tracks and for doing other things, while continually playing your game.

3>Ergonomic Computer Keyboards

Ergonomic computer keyboards is a computer keyboard designed with ergonomic considerations


to minimize muscle strain and a host of related problems.An ergomic keyboard is designed to
make typing easier and lessen the strain that your hands may suffer, such as Carpal Tunnel
Syndrome.

4>Laser / Infrared Keyboards

The laser keyboard is a recent gadget to the computing world. This device projects the keyboard
on to a flat surface, such as a table or desk. This then allows you to type directly onto the table.
However, this invention still needs to be improved and can be frustrating to use at the moment.

5>Rollup Keyboards

Rollup computer keyboards are extremely good for travelling. Simply roll them up and then
unroll them when you need them again.
Typically the material is either silicone or polyurethane. These devices are meant to be rolled up,
rather than folded, as folding can damage the circuitry.

I think these can be cool as a gadget, or for someone that is moving around a lot, but for the
typical user is probably not a necessity.

Q2) Working Principle of wireless mouse ?

Most wireless mice use radio frequency (RF) technology to communicate information to your
computer. Being radio-based, RF devices require two main components: a transmitter and a
receiver. Here's how it works:

The transmitter is housed in the mouse. It sends an electromagnetic (radio) signal that encodes
the information about the mouse's movements and the buttons you click.

The receiver, which is connected to your computer, accepts the signal, decodes it and passes it
on to the mouse driver software and your computer's operating system.

The receiver can be a separate device that plugs into your computer, a special card that you
place in an expansion slot, or a built-in component.

Q3) types of touchscreen

1> Resistive touchscreen

Resistive touchscreens (currently the most popular technology) work a bit like "transparent
keyboards" overlaid on top of the screen. There's a flexible upper layer of conducting polyester
plastic bonded to a rigid lower layer of conducting glass and separated by an insulating
membrane. When you press on the screen, you force the polyester to touch the glass and complete
a circuit—just like pressing the key on a keyboard. A chip inside the screen figures out the
coordinates of the place you touched.

2>Capacitive touchscreen

How does touch screen technology work, i.e., what kind of sensors are used to do this, and how
do they work?

Old question, but certainly still relevant!


Touch technology looks like magic. Rather, it’s the result of a sophisticated interplay of different
kinds of hardware and different kinds of software.

The following run through of touch technology basics may answer some questions you had in the
back of your mind about how the tech behind the screen actually works, and how to apply it to
your industry.

Behind the Screen…

The most popular touch screens today – the ones you see on smartphones, tabletops and video
walls-- function by reacting to the electrical current naturally generated by the body of the person
touching the screen. This is different from the touch screens which you use to sign your name
with a stylus after a credit card transaction, which react to the pressure. Reacting to electricity,
rather than pressure, is what allows the screen to recognize more than one finger touching it at
once – a feature fundamental to the way you expand and shrink windows or text sizes on your
smartphone. There are also types of touch screens that which make use of technologies like
infrared scanning, sonic recognition and electromagnetic imaging to facilitate the screen’s
reaction to touch.

Importance of Content

Touch screens are dynamic content-delivery tools. In the case of digital signage, touch screen-
enabled content is often built-out on and delivered by cloud-based content management systems
that offer different options for how content is displayed, what type of screen setups it can appear
on, what formats of content can be pulled in, what type of touch-based features it can facilitate
and so on.

Why Does it Matter?

Artists understand their tools – that’s how they get the most out of them. So if content is your
paint, and the screen is your canvas, understanding how they operate is key to using them to
create captivating .
Understanding how touch screens work and integrate with the cloud gives you a better
understanding of what’s possible – and what’s not.

So while you’re working on coming up with your next big concept, don’t forget to take a second
to consider the touch technology that’s bringing your ideas to life.

How do touch screen sensors work?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of touch screen technology?

Is the touch bar useful?

Was touch screen technology existing before Apple used on an iPhone?

Originally Answered: How touch screen work?

There are many types of Touch technologies.

Some of them are:

Resistive

Capacitve

infrared

Surface acoustic wave

Near field imaging


In mobile phones, generally two types of Touch screens are used,

Resistive or Capacitive,

Reisitive:

Resistive touchscreens (currently the most popular technology) work a bit like "transparent
keyboards" overlaid on top of the screen. There's a flexible upper layer of conducting polyester
plastic bonded to a rigid lower layer of conducting glass and separated by an insulating
membrane. When you press on the screen, you force the polyester to touch the glass and complete
a circuit—just like pressing the key on a keyboard. A chip inside the screen figures out the
coordinates of the place you touched.

Capacitive:

These screens are made from multiple layers of glass. The inner layer conducts electricity and so
does the outer layer, so effectively the screen behaves like two electrical conductors separated by
an insulator—in other words, a capacitor. When you bring your finger up to the screen, you alter
the electrical field by a certain amount that varies according to where your hand is. Capacitive
screens can be touched in more than one place at once. Unlike most other types of touchscreen,
they don't work if you touch them with a plastic stylus (because the plastic is an insulator and
stops your hand from affecting the electric field).

3>infrared Touchscreen

In the Infrared Touchscreen Technology, an array of X- and Y- axes are fitted with pairs of IR
Leds and photo detectors. The photo detectors detect any change in the pattern of light emitted by
the Leds whenever the user touches the monitor/screen.

4>optimal imagine touchscreen

Q4> diffrent types of Scanner ?

Flatbed Scanners

Flatbed scanners are some of the most commonly used scanners as it has both home and office
functions. The way they scan documents is that a mechanism rolls under the document to obtain
the image. For a businesses that have a need for high processing abilities, the flatbed scanner
can scan any number of documents with a click of a button.

Sheet-Fed Scanners

This type of scanner works like a flatbed scanner except that the image is fed through the
scanner and moves along the beam to be read rather than the beam moving. This type is not
useful for books, but only single sheets.

The aforementioned scanner types are the most common types of scanners used in homes and
small offices.

Integrated Scanners

Integrated scanners are becoming one of the most modern types of scanners when it comes to
obtaining images. ATMs feature this type of built-in scanner for check-processing and approval.

Drum Scanners

These types of scanners are used mainly for capturing a picture and producing at a very high
resolution rate. There are only a few companies that make these scanners, considering the high
cost of producing a scanner such as this. It is considered a a tremendous upgrade to a regular
flatbed scanner.

Portable Scanners

Portable scanner are designed to capture text and other data while you are on the go. The
scanner is powered by batteries and once you scan the text, the content is stored on the
portable scanner. Once you get home, you can transfer the content to a computer. Transferring
to your computer is done by using a cable or a wireless connection.

5>Diffrence between flops and mips?

Floating point operations per second (FLOPS) is a measure of computer performance, useful in
fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases it is a
more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second (MIPS).

Floating-point arithmetic is needed for very large or very small real numbers, or computations
that require a large dynamic range. Floating-point representation is similar to scientific notation,
except everything is carried out in base two, rather than base ten. There are several formats, the
most common is IEEE 754-1985.

The other common computer performance benchmark, MIPS measures integer performance of
a computer. Examples of integer operation include data movement (A to B) or value testing (If A
= B, then C). MIPS as a performance benchmark is adequate when a computer is used in
database queries, word processing, spreadsheets, or to run multiple virtual operating systems.

The IBM Stretch computer, the fastest in the world in 1961, could do about 417,000 FLOPS and
cost nearly $8 million ($64 million today) - $153/FLOP in todays money.

China's Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer is ranked the world's fastest with 93 petaFLOPS. Thats
93 quadrillion or 93,000,000,000,000,000 FLOPS and cost $273 million, or $0.000000003/FLOP.

You can get a desktop computer with an Intel i7—8700K processor for about $1500. That CPU
has a rating of 60 gigaFLOPS, which works out to $0.000000025/FLOP (about 8 times the Sunway
TaihuLights cost/FLOP).

By comparison, a cheap hand calculator needs only about 10 FLOPS to be functional.

Trivia fact: as of November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based
operating systems.