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Lime is a broadly used term connoting calcium-containing inorganic materials, in which

carbonates, oxides and hydroxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, & iron
predominate, such as limestone. By contrast, quicklime specifically applies to a single
chemical compound.

Calcium oxide, or quicklime, is usually made by the thermal decomposition of materials


such as limestone, that contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3; mineral calcite) in a lime kiln.
This is accomplished by heating the material to above 825° C, a process called
calcination or lime-burning, to liberate a molecule of carbon dioxide (CO2) leaving
quicklime. Quicklime is not stable in the air and, when cool, will spontaneously react
with CO2 and eventually convert completely back to calcium carbonate.

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2

CaO is not soluble in water because it reacts to form the hydrate.

Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, is an inorganic compound with the
chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colourless crystal or white powder and is obtained
when calcium oxide (quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water.

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2 Solubility in water:


0.189 g/100 mL (0 °C)
0.173 g/100 mL (20 °C)

When heated to 512 °C, the partial pressure of water in equilibrium with calcium
hydroxide reaches 101 kPa that decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and
water.

Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O

A suspension of fine calcium hydroxide particles in water is called milk of lime. The
solution is called lime water and is a medium strength base that reacts with acids and
attacks many metals in presence of water. Lime water turns milky in the presence of
carbon dioxide due to formation of calcium carbonate:

Ca(OH)2 CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

CaCO3 Solubility in water:


0.0015 g/100mL (25°C)

Calcium carbonate will react with water that is saturated with carbon dioxide to form the
soluble calcium bicarbonate.

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca(HCO3)2


Calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2), also called calcium hydrogen carbonate, does not
refer to a known solid compound; it exists only in aqueous solution containing the
calcium (Ca2+), bicarbonate (HCO3–), and carbonate (CO32–) ions, together with dissolved
carbon dioxide (CO2). The relative concentrations of these carbon-containing species
depend on the pH; bicarbonate predominates within the range 6.36-10.25 in fresh water.

Ca(HCO3)2 Solubility in water:


16.1 g/100 mL (0 °C)
16.6 g/100 mL (20°C)
18.4 g/100 mL (100 °C)

Potassium Hydroxide, KOH. — This well-known substance, commonly called caustic


potash, is prepared by treating potassium carbonate with calcium hydroxide in a silver or
iron vessel.

Dissolve 50 grams potassium carbonate in 500 to 600 cc. water. Heat to boiling in an iron
or silver vessel, and gradually add the slaked lime obtained from 25 to 30 grams of good
quick-lime. During the operation the mass should be stirred with an iron spatula. After
the solution is cool, draw it off by means of a siphon into a bottle. The reaction is based
on the fact that calcium carbonate is insoluble, and that potassium carbonate and calcium
hydroxide are soluble:

K2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 = CaCO3 + 2KOH.

KOH Solubility in water:


110 g/100 mL (25 °C)
178 g/100 mL (100 °C)

KOH Solubility in ethanol:


37 g/100 mL