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A short Essay about the Evolution of

European Personal Pronouns


Joannes Richter

1: The derivation of Tiw/Wit, resp. Tuw/Wut and Diéu/Dious from *Dyaus

Introduction
We may easily identify the names Diéu and Dious in the name of the PIE-god * Dyaus or *Dyeus,
but it takes some time to understand the correlation between *Dyaus or *Dyeus and the first three
letters “WIT” or “WUT”, respectively “TIW” or “TUW” of the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet.
The first problem to be solved is to understand ᚠ as a digamma, which not only represents /w/, but
also the phonemes /ou/, /eu/ or /au/ in *Dyaus or *Dyeus. This opens the door to the interpretation
of the initial three runic symbols as divine names ᚦIW and WIᚦ.

The second problem is to accept a reversed interpretation of the written words “WIᚦ” as “ᚦIW”,
respectively “WUᚦ” as “ᚦUW”, which is needed to accept the equivalence of “TIW” and “WIT”.
This paper presents a synthesis of Germanic, Greek and Uralic philosophical concepts, which share
the European names for the sky-gods, the personal pronouns of the 1 st person and the interpretation
of some common philosophical symbols.
The derivation of Tiw/Wit and Diéu/Dious from *Dyaus
The relevant European deities Zeus, Dious, Diéu and Tiw are thought to be derived from one
singular word *Dyaus, which may be illustrated by the following sketch.
The derivation of the names Dious and Diéu from *Dyaus or *Dyeus may be understood as an 1:1
equivalence, but the mapping of the these characters to the corresponding runic symbols turned out
to be more complex. In the standard interpretation the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet does not
allow an easy access to interpret the letter “W”.
Even if we know the sky-god “Tiw” is related to *Dyaus or *Dyeus there is no easy mapping
method for the letter “W” in “Tiw”. The flexibility to map the symbol “w” in “Tiw” to “aus” in
*Dyaus or *Dyeus requires the interpretation of the “aus”- or “eus”-section as a digamma.
Essentially the digamma (ϝ/ͷ) represents not only the phoneme /w/, but also the phonemes /au/
and /eu/ or /ou/.
The letter originally stood for the sound /w/. Whereas it was originally called waw or
wau, its most common appellation in classical Greek is digamma; as a numeral, it was
called episēmon during the Byzantine era and is now known as stigma after the
Byzantine ligature combining σ-τ as ϛ.

Digamma is the consonantal doublet of the vowel letter upsilon (/u/), which was also
derived from waw but was placed near the end of the Greek alphabet. Digamma or wau
is in turn the ancestor of the Latin letter F. As an alphabetic letter, it is attested in archaic
and dialectal ancient Greek inscriptions until the classical period.

The shape of the digamma symbol went through a development from ϝ through “C”, …including
the stigma "ϛ", but the attributed phonemes represent an even larger spectrum including “V”, “W”,
“F”, “U”, “UU”, “EU”,.....
This is what is needed to transform “*Dyaus” to “ ᚦIW” (“Thiw”) or “ᚦiᚠ” (“Thiϝ”, respectively
“Thiw”).
The “Y” in “*Dyaus” may be interpreted as I or U, which allows us to read the name “TIW” as
“TUW” and the word “WIT” as “WUT”.

2: The derivation of Tiw/Wit, resp. Tuw/Wut and Diéu/Dious from *Dyaus


Correlations of European philosophical keys
The words for the gods *Dyaus, Dious, Dios, Dio and Diéu consist of a set of unique vowels, which
originally had been restricted to the old vowel triad I, A and U, but later was to be expanded by E
and O.
Each Mediterranean divine name seemed to be accompanied by a personal pronoun of the 1 st person
singular, which usually had been equipped with the same set of vowels of the divine name.
Normally the leading “D” however had been skipped in the personal pronoun of the 1 st person
singular,
All vowel sets for these pronouns correlated to the *Dyaus, Dious, Dios, Dio and Diéu, but could be
modified by shortening such as yau → ya, iou → io, iéu → ieu → je or even in English: “I”.

Correlations between divine names and personal pronouns


In the course of my studies I understood the vowels iau, iéu, iou corresponded to the declination of
verbs. The following table illustrates the sample of Diéu, which in Provencal translates as “I say”.
The simplest conjugation of “dire” (“to say”) is based on the addition of the personal pronouns iéu
to the letter “D”, which results in Diéu (“I say”)1:

3 First Person Singular Conjugations for Some Provencal Verbs


selected from Excelsheet Conjugation Provencal Verbs (approximately 90 verbs)

In the paper The Art of Designing Languages I interpreted the sets of vowels as a symbol for
eternity, which still may be a valid concept:
In Provencal language four elementary verbs (to say (dire), to be (être/estre), to laugh
(rire) and to see (voir/veire) conjugate according to the pattern *iéu in which the
wildcard * is to be replaced by a letter d, s, r, or v.

In Provencal the expression “I say” is translated as “diéu”, which is equivalent to


“Diéu“ (God). The Dutch, German and French root expressions IE, JE respectively JA
represent eternity which is correlated to the elementary Provencal core element “iéu” in
Diéu (God), in the ego-pronoun iéu (“I”), in diéu (“I say”), siéu (“I am”), riéu (“I
laugh”) and in viéu (“I see”). In the Mediterranean, Romansh, Provencal, Italian,
Spanish, Catalan and French dialects the symbolism of the ego-pronouns iau, iéu, jau,
jeu, jou, eau, iau, ia, io, iu, eu, je, jo, ju,… is based on the same Dutch, German and
French roots expressions IE, JE respectively JA representing “always” / “eternity”.

1 The Art of Designing Languages


These expressions seemed to have been inherited from the PIE-word for the sky-god *Dyaus 2. The
correlations also seemed to be restricted to Romance languages. This relation could not be found in
Germanic languages, which revealed another set of correlation.

Correlations between the sky-gods, knowledge and personal pronouns


In Germanic languages the dual form “wit” or “vid” (“we two”) for the personal pronouns of the
first person seemed to be cognate to the the “wit” (as “mind”, “brightness” and “intellect”).
Another set of correlations in Germanic language however seems to be more important and
expanded the relations to three categories (the wit-pronoun, the wit as knowledge and the sky-god
*Dyaus:
• “wit” (pronoun and “knowledge”) o-o *Dyaus
• “wut” (pronoun and “knowledge”) o-o *Dyaus
• “Tiw” (sky-god) o-o *Dyaus
• “Tuw” (sky-god) o-o *Dyaus
These equivalences identified the Germanic words (personal pronouns and knowledge) “wit”, “wut”
and the sky-gods “Tiw”, “Tuw” as representatives of *Dyaus.

Correlations between Germanic and Greek languages


After a short initial study of the remaining traces of dual forms in European languages the Old-
Greek dialects revealed a second correlation between the dual forms “νώ / νῶϊ (nō / nōi) (“we two”)
for the personal pronouns of the first person and the words Νόος (insight) and νοῦς (Nous,
intellect).
The interrelations between “νώ / νῶϊ (nō / nōi) (“we two”) and νόος (insight) en νοῦς (Nous,
intellect) also correlates to the Germanic interpretations of “wit” or “vid” (“we two”, respectively
“wit”; intellect) but not to *Dyaus.
These interrelations between the Greek words νώ, νόος, νοῦς, Latin nos (“we all”) and the various
Germanic expressions wit may be joined by the pronoun “us” (“we”, German: “uns”, Dutch: “ons”),
which in Dutch is using the same letters as Greek no "we two;" Latin nos "we, us;".3 The dual form
νώ, νόος, νοῦς also seem to be related to the English words for “to know4” (understand as a fact or
truth, opposed to believe).
These correlations between Greek and Germanic vocabularies indicate communication links
between early Germanic and Greek philosophers (such as Homer (800 BCE), Hesiod (700 BCE)
and Heraclitus (500 BCE).

2 The Central Symbolic Core of Provencal Language


3 Old English us (cognate with Old Saxon, Old Frisian us, Old Norse, Swedish oss, Dutch ons, German uns),
accusative and dative plural of we, from PIE *nes- (2), forming oblique cases of the first person plural personal
pronoun (source also of Sanskrit nas, Avestan na, Hittite nash "us;" Greek no "we two;" Latin nos "we, us;" Old
Church Slavonic ny "us," nasu "our;" Old Irish ni, Welsh ni "we, us"). The -n- is preserved in Germanic in Dutch
ons, German uns. Source in etymology online: us (pron). quoted in The Common Root for European Religions
4 from PIE root *gno- "to know."
Correlations between the spirit and personal pronouns
Additionally to the Germanic and Greek languages I also investigated the Inari Sami language, in
which a correlation between muoi “we (two)” and vuoi'ŋâ (Spirit) resp. vuoi'ŋâšeh (Brain) may be
relevant for further study:
In the Inari Sami language the personal pronouns have been equipped with a dual form
for the first person muoi “we (two)”, which in its concept correlates to the dual form in
Old-Greek νῶϊ (“we two”).

The filtered entries vuoi'ŋâ (Spirit) and vuoi'ŋâšeh (Brain) (in Language Inari Sami)
may be correlating to the Inari Sami dual form's “uoi”-core (“we two”) and
simultaneously to the Old-Greek words νόος (nous, → English: mind) and νῶϊ (“we
two”).5

5 Notes to the Dual Form and the Nous-Concept in the Inari Sami language
The communicative links
The communications may have been setup by traders, which for example frequented between
“Pyrene” (~ Heuneburg, near the sources of the Danube) and Athens. Another mayor trading route
may have been the Nile. A few centuries before Christ both rivers represented the main highways
for Greek traders to the north and the south.

The communicative centers


Obviously both the sources for the large rivers Ister (Danube) and the Nile were supposed to be
ruled by the cities Kyrene in Libya central Africa respectively Pyrene in central Europe. The
locations for the rivers and the cities Kyrene6 (Κυρήνη, Lybia) and Pyrene (Πυρήνη, west of the
Gibraltar pillars) are to be found on the following map:

4: The Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography by Samuel Butler, (Orbis Herodoti.jpg )
available freely at Project Gutenberg - The Full Project Gutenberg License in Legalese

6 Cyrene (/saɪˈriːniː/; Ancient Greek: Κυρήνη, romanized: Kyrēnē) was an ancient Greek and later Roman city near
present-day Shahhat, Libya. It was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region.
Herodot's Historiae
In Herodot's Historiae Pyrene is named a “city” and its name is related to Cyrene. These names are
described as locations at the large rivers which were considered to halve vast territories. In Cyrene
the river Nile cuts the territory Lybia in two sections. In Pyrene the river Danube cuts the territory
Europe in two halves:
33. Of the account given by Etearchos the Ammonian let so much suffice as is here said,
except that, as the men of Kyrene told me, he alleged that the Nasamonians returned
safe home, and that the people to whom they had come were all wizards. Now this river
which ran by the city, Etearchos conjectured to be the Nile, and moreover reason
compels us to think so; for the Nile flows from Libya and cuts Libya through in the
midst, and as I conjecture, judging of what is not known by that which is evident to the
view, it starts at a distance from its mouth equal to that of the Ister: for the river Ister
begins from the Keltoi and the city of Pyrene and so runs that it divides Europe in the
midst (now the Keltoi are outside the Pillars of Heracles and border upon the Kynesians,
who dwell furthest towards the sunset of all those who have their dwelling in Europe);
and the Ister ends, having its course through the whole of Europe, by flowing into the
Euxine Sea at the place where the Milesians have their settlement of Istria. 7 (see the
illustrative map by Samuel Butler → Orbis Herodoti.jpg (1907).

7 Herodot Historiae Englisch-griechische Online-Parallelausgabe (G. C. Macaulay) [1890] - Book 2: Euterpe 30


The documented themes of philosophical activities
We do not really know what ideas have been discussed at 500 BCE by the Celts. They may have
discussed themes such as the advantages and disadvantages of the Eris, which also have been
studied by the Greek philosophers Homer, Hesiod and Heraclitus. Some of these themes have been
documented in Wikipedia's Eris:

Strife in Homer's Iliad


The other Strife is presumably she who appears in Homer's Iliad Book IV; equated with
Enyo as sister of Ares and so presumably daughter of Zeus and Hera:

Strife whose wrath is relentless, she is the sister and companion of murderous Ares, she
who is only a little thing at the first, but thereafter grows until she strides on the earth
with her head striking heaven.

Hesiod's wholesomeness
In Hesiod's Works and Days 11–24, two different goddesses named Eris are
distinguished: As for the one, a man would praise her when he came to understand her;
but the other is blameworthy: and they are wholly different in nature. For one fosters
evil war and battle, being cruel: her no man loves; but perforce, through the will of the
deathless gods, men pay harsh Strife her honour due.

But the other is the elder daughter of dark Night (Nyx), and the son of Cronus who sits
above and dwells in the aether, set her in the roots of the earth: and she is far kinder to
men. She stirs up even the shiftless to toil; This Strife is wholesome for men.

In Hesiod's Theogony (226–232), Strife, the daughter of Night, is less kindly spoken of
as she brings forth other personifications as her children...

Heraclitus: Dike eris, "strife is justice"


In Latin the IU in "justice" correlates to IU-piter, which is balancing two antipodal vowels I and U,
which in various Romance languages also may be identified in a great number of divine names such
as Diu, Dieu, Diéu and their corresponding ego-pronouns iu, ieu respectively iéu.
In Latin "justice" might be considered as a balancing state, which also had been described by
Heraclitus.
Heraclitus calls the antipodal processes ἔρις (eris), "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently
stable state, δίκη (dikê), or "justice", is a harmony of it:[57] 8
We must know that war (πόλεμος polemos) is common to all and strife is justice, and
that all things come into being through strife necessarily.

Heraclitus uses the word δίκη (Latin: dica) for “justice” and the word δίκη is lacking the required
IU-core.

8 DK B80: "Εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ τὸν πόλεμον ἐόντα ξυνὸν καὶ δίκην ἔριν, καὶ γινόμενα πάντα κατ' ἔριν καὶ χρεών".
Analysis of the bow and lyre metaphor
In the bow metaphor Heraclitus compares the resultant to a strung bow held in shape by an
equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow:[59]9
There is a harmony in the bending back (παλίντροπος palintropos) as in the case of the
bow and the lyre.10

In the bow and lyre model the curved (U-shaped) and the straight (I-shaped) elements behave as
antipodes, but both symbols may be attributed to different flexible and inflexible elements:
• In the bow metaphor the (curved) letter “U” may symbolize the flexible part of the bow and
in the straight letter “I” may represent the (inflexible) arrow.
• In the lyre metaphor the (curved) letter “U” may symbolize the inflexible part of the lyre and
in the straight letter “I” may represent the (flexible) string.
In the bow-model the letter “U” may be the flexible female and “I” the inflexible male symbol. In
the lyre-model the letter “U” may represent the inflexible male and “I” the flexible female symbol.

Modern cultural influences


Modern philosophy may still be interested in Eris and Discordia:
Eris has been adopted as the patron deity of the modern Discordian religion, which was
begun in the late 1950s by Gregory Hill and Kerry Wendell Thornley under the pen
names of "Malaclypse the Younger" and "Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst". 11

The themes of philosophical discussions in the symposiums


In Symposiums around 500 BCE the Greek, Roman, Germanic or Celtic philosophers may have
discussed these ideas of advantages and disadvantages of the Eris as a duel between 2 combatants.
In Google's etymology “duel” is defined as follows:
late 15th century: from Latin duellum, archaic and literary form of bellum ‘war’, used in
medieval Latin with the meaning ‘combat between two persons’, partly influenced by
dualis ‘of two’. The original sense was ‘single combat used to decide a judicial dispute’;
the sense ‘contest to decide a point of honor’ dates from the early 17th century.

9 DK B51.
10 Sources in Wikipedia Heraclitus - Dike eris, "strife is justice"
11 Discordianism
The runic symbols for duality
During my studies I incidentally noticed the words in the Futhark runic alphabet.
If the first letter ᚠ of the “Futhark”, respectively “Futhorc” runic alphabet may be interpreted as a
digamma (/w/, /v/, /f/) the first part ᚠᚢᚦ (f,u,þ) of the alphabet may be read as “wit” resp. “wut”
(”we two”). These three symbols ᚠᚢᚦ (f,u,þ) are shared by virtually all runic “Futhark”, respectively
“Futhorc”alphabets.
If we may interpret the first word ᚠᚢᚦ as “wit” resp. “wut” we may also identify all four divine
names “Wit”, “Tiw”, “Thor” and “Rod” in the first 5 or 6 characters of ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark).
This selection suggests the storage and definition of 4 mayor Germanic divine names in the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ
(Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet:
1. Wodan or “Wut”/”Vut” (Mercury),
2. Tiw (“Mars”),
3. Thor (“Jupiter”) and
4. Rod (Saturn).
In the Gallic Wars Caesar describes the Germanic deities, in which Apollo and Minerva (Greek:
Athena) do not represent a planet.
In fact Woden (“Mercury”) represents the most important Germanic main sky-god, who may have
been encoded in the (forwardly encoded) runic name ᚠᚢᚦ (“Wit” or Wut”):
They worship as their divinity, Mercury in particular, and have many images of him,
and regard him as the inventor of all arts, they consider him, the guide of their journeys
and marches, and believe him to have very great influence over the acquisition of gain
and mercantile transactions.

Next to him they worship Apollo, and Mars, and Jupiter, and Minerva; respecting these
deities they have for the most part the same belief as other nations: that Apollo averts
diseases, that Minerva imparts the invention of manufactures, that Jupiter possesses the
sovereignty of the heavenly powers; that Mars presides over wars. To him when they
have determined to engage in battle, they commonly vow those things they shall take in
war.

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition
has been handed down by the Druids. 12.

In his work Germania (1876) Tacitus mentions Mercury, Mars, Hercules and Isis, in which both
Mercury and Mars have been encoded as “Wit” or Wut”, respectively “Tiw” or “Tuw” in ᚠᚢᚦ:
Mercury is the deity whom they chiefly worship, and on certain days they deem it right
to sacrifice to him even with human victims.

Hercules and Mars they appease with more lawful offerings. Some of the Suevi also
sacrifice to Isis. Of the occasion and origin of this foreign rite I have discovered
nothing, but that the image, which is fashioned like a light galley, indicates an imported
worship13.

12 The Gallic Wars by Julius Caesar - Book VI De Quincey, 1923


13 Germania (1876), translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb
The deities Dis, Tuisco and his son Mannus do not belong to the planetary pantheon.
In their ancient songs, their only way of remembering or recording the past, they
celebrate an earth-born god, Tuisco, and his son Mannus, as the origin of their race, as
their founders.

Dis, Tuisco, Hercules and Isis are no planets and deviate from the pantheon which is described by
Julius Caesar. Saturn is a planet, but is not mentioned by Julius Caesar or Tacitus.

Mirrored names in the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet


Obviously the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet does not represent a row of individual runic signs,
but also represents a religious manual, from which the hierarchy for Germanic deities may be
derived. “Tiw” is a horizontally mirrored name “Wit”.
Also “ᚦor” (Thor”) and “Roᚦ” (“Rod”) may represent a horizontally mirrored couple. In this set of
names Wit & Tiw are found at the most prominent initial location, which probably suggests these
names may be the elder couple of the 4 names. The remaining names “ᚦor” (Thor”) and “Roᚦ”
(“Rod”) may then be the younger couple of the names.
Both Caesar and Tacitus consider Mercury (“Woden”) as the most important deity and refer to Mars
(“Tiw”) as another respected deity. Jupiter is only mentioned by Caesar and Saturn seems to be
ignored in the Roman records. “Rod” seems to be related to the sky-god of the Slavs and probably
could not be registered in the range of the Roman occupation zones:
Rod is a conception of supreme God of the universe and of all its gods in Slavic Native
Faith (Rodnovery). The same concept is also known as Sud (Суд, "Judge") and Prabóg
("Pre-God", "First God") among South Slavs. As attested by Helmold ( c. 1120–1177) in
his Chronica Slavorum, the Slavs believed in a single God ...

In the earliest Slavic religion the supreme God of Heaven was called Deivos,[3] but this
name was soon abandoned[5] to be replaced by the concept of Rod.

In some old writings the name appears as Hrodo, Chrodo, Krodo, or the Latinised form
Crodone.[6] The 15th-century Saxon Chronicle attests that "Krodo" was worshipped
also by Saxon tribes, who inhabited modern-day northern and eastern Germany together
with West Slavic tribes.[7] 14

The set of 4 Germanic gods (“Wut”, “Tiw”, “Thor” and “Rod”) also had been documented in 4
names for the days of the week Wednesday, Tuesday, Thursday, respectively Saturday. The
remaining 3 days (Sunday, Monday, Friday) are devoted to the sun, the moon and the planet Venus.
The seven names for the days of the week represent to the visible planets, which could be observed
without binoculars.

14 Rod (Slavic religion)


The three permutations “WIT”, “TIW” and “TWI”
In Old-Germanic (represented by Old-English) the first letters “W”, “I”, “T” basically may be
arranged in three permutations: the personal pronoun “WIT” (“we two” and “knowledge”), the deity
“TIW” (in English “TUE”) and the number “TWI” (“two”).
In this composition we may consider Tiw {"Tiwaz", Týr (Oud Norse), Tíw (Oud English), and Ziu
(German)} as a representation of a dual deity, whose name is cognate to the PIE-sky-god *Dyeus.
One of the interesting suggestions in Grimm's Teutonic Mythology is the structure of the deity
Tuisto (Latin: Tuisco), in which the vowels U and I may be identified in *Dyeus of the PIE-
pantheon.
In Teutonic Mythology the author Jacob Grimm quotes Wackernagel's thesis of an androgynous
(bipolar) deity Tuisco15.
In fact the encoding of the duality of Tuisto and *Dyeus may be represented by the antipodes I and
U in Tuisto, respectively Y and U in *Dyeus.
Týr is the namesake of the Tiwaz rune, a letter of the runic alphabet corresponding to the Latin
letter T.
The Old Norse theonym Týr has cognates including Old English tíw and tíʒ, and Old
High German Ziu. A cognate form appears in Gothic to represent the T rune. Like Latin
Jupiter and Greek Zeus, Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz ultimately stems from the Proto-Indo-
European theonym *Dyeus.[1] Outside of its application as a theonym, the Old Norse
common noun týr means '(a) god' (plural tívar).

In European philosophy the Mediterranean philosophical NOS- and NOUS-concepts synchronizes


to the “WIT”- respectively “TIW”-concepts which are interlinked by the Dutch “ONS”-pronoun
(“us”) for the personal pronouns of the 1st person “WIT” (“we two”)16.

15 Suggested by Wackernagel in Haupts Zeitschrift 9, 261 in the appendix (IX. Zio), Teutonic Mythology by Grimm
16 Detailed in the essay The Evolution of the European Personal Pronouns)
Concept for an overview of a European philosophical system
In this concept the four relevant vocabularies (Old-English, Romance, Old-Greek and Inari Sami)
have been listed in the four mayor categories of words:
1. The dual form of the personal pronoun of the 1st person: wit, noi, νῶϊ , muoi
2. Knowledge: to wit; to know; nous , νόος, νοῦς, vuoi'ŋâšeh (brain)/ vuoi'ŋâ (spirit)
3. The sky-god *Dyaus or *Dyeus, *Tīwaz: Tiw, Ju-Piter, Zeus, Jumala / Immeel17
4. The dual number 2: two, duo, δύο, kyeh'ti
Once widespread in Germanic, the verb “to know” is now retained there only in English18.
According to the correlations between *Dyaus and all singular, dual and plural forms the personal
pronouns of the 1st person the various keywords “wit“ respectively “Tiw“, will all be considered as
philosophical keywords, which belong to the upper class in language.
Most of these words are carrying the vowel “wi“- and “iw”-cores, noi, νῶϊ- and “uoi”-cores, which
in the personal pronouns had been inherited from the yau vowel-core in *Dyaus.
Therefore I also include the dual form “muoi” (“we two”) of Inari Sami with a reference to
vuoi'ŋâšeh (brain), vuoi'ŋâ (spirit) and Jumala (God).
For clarity this overview is reduced to a set of typical samples and may be extended to a much
larger table:

Core Category Old-English Romance Old-Greek Inari Sami


(Latin-based) from
NorthEuraLex 0.9
WIT Wit (Dual form wit wut noi (italy) νώ / νῶϊ muoi (“we two”)
NOI Pronoun 1st P.) nos (latin) (nō / nōi)
MUOI (“we two”) nous (french)
WIT wit to wit; νόος, νοῦς vuoi'ŋâšeh (brain)
NOUS knowledge to know γνῶσις gnōsis, vuoi'ŋâ (spirit)
VUOI nous knowledge
IU Sky-god *Tīwaz, Tiw (d)IU-Piter Ziu/Zeus Jumala (God)
*Dyaus or *Dyeus Immeel (God)
UI The dual number 2 two duo δύο kyeh'ti
Table 1 Overview for concepts of the European philosophical system

17 Probably Immeel (God) is cognate to Jumala (“GOD”) and eellim (“life ”), eeleev (“living”) and eelliđ (“be alive”)
18 know
Contents
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................1
The derivation of Tiw/Wit and Diéu/Dious from *Dyaus....................................................................2
Correlations of European philosophical keys.......................................................................................3
Correlations between divine names and personal pronouns............................................................3
Correlations between the sky-gods, knowledge and personal pronouns.........................................4
Correlations between Germanic and Greek languages....................................................................4
Correlations between the spirit and personal pronouns...................................................................5
The communicative links.....................................................................................................................6
The communicative centers.............................................................................................................6
Herodot's Historiae .........................................................................................................................7
The documented themes of philosophical activities ............................................................................8
Strife in Homer's Iliad ................................................................................................................8
Hesiod's wholesomeness ............................................................................................................8
Heraclitus: Dike eris, "strife is justice" ......................................................................................8
Analysis of the bow and lyre metaphor..................................................................................9
Modern cultural influences.........................................................................................................9
The themes of philosophical discussions in the symposiums..........................................................9
The runic symbols for duality.............................................................................................................10
Mirrored names in the ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱᚳ (Ϝuthark/Ϝuthorc) alphabet............................................................11
The three permutations “WIT”, “TIW” and “TWI”..................................................................12
Concept for an overview of a European philosophical system..........................................................13

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