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1 Correlation Basics

Contents

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Correlation Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Starting Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Correlation Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
File Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Viewing Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Overview
The Correlation view is used for performing multiple well log correlation. Surfaces and/or intervals can be
identified, correlated, and used by other Paradigm software.
Within a Correlation view you can:
• Create a set of well picks with MD reference
• Create cross-section displays illustrating field geology using well picks and/or formations
• Display an unlimited number of wells and logs using any of Geolog’s layout track types
• Modify and save layout properties
• Use Scheme tracks for stratigraphic interpretation.
• Use existing section spec files.
A well drilled through the subsurface encounters a rock interval. This interval can be broken down into
smaller intervals, or alternatively grouped with similar intervals as part of a larger scheme. This is the
basis of hierarchy, and an understanding of hierarchy is fundamental to correlating subsurface geology.
While comprehensive support of zonal hierarchies is provided, it is also straight forward to work with
simple one-level hierarchies, that is, single columns showing lithologies, biostratigraphy zones etc.
Hierarchy requires the ability to classify the subsurface rocks into a structure of groups, and in turn to be
able to split each group into separate formations etc.
There are strict rules controlling the hierarchy, which is dependant on the way the sedimentary layers are
created.
The sedimentary process allows us to define these two simple rules:
• Sedimentary layers cannot cross other sedimentary layers.
• A unit is subdivided into subunits, and these subunits are solely linked to that.
For simplification, the terminology used to describe the hierarchy relationships between zones is detailed
below:

Terminology Description
Body A body is a defined geological interval belonging to any
level. For instance, whether it is a major group or a bed that
has been defined within a sand-shale sequence.
A body is subdivided into a series of smaller parts at a lower
level. Each one of these is referred to as a child body.
Inversely, the body is part of a higher-level body that is
referred to as the parent body.
The body at the same level that shares the same parent is
called a sibling body.
Interval Scheme An Interval Scheme is defined by a series of geological
levels, such as groups, members, formations and beds.
Note: A level is a hierarchical subdivision of an interval
scheme. It can have parent and child levels.
Surface Scheme A Surface Scheme is defined by a series of tops.
Scheme Track The Scheme track is added within a layout to display the
Interval and Surface
schemes to correlate across wells.

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Within a Correlation view you can correlate either by picks using a Surface scheme or by zones using an
Interval scheme. A project may contain one or more schemes. Thes schemes are defined in a special well,
WELL_PROJECT, also referred to as the Project well.
Fig. 1 is an example of a cross-section that can be created using a correlation.
See Also
Well—working in the Well application.
Layout —working with Geolog layouts.
Using Geolog—assistance with using and navigating the software, and general processing and
formatting functions.
“Graphically Inserting Sections” on page 3-5—for graphically creating cross-sections.

Correlation Workflow
The steps to correlate can include the following:
1. Set up the Project well (see “Setting Up the Project Well” on page 2-3).
2. Create a layout to be used in the correlation using the default primary layout,
correlation.layout (see “Correlation Properties” on page 2-3 and “Designing Layouts” on
page 2-1).

NOTE The layout used in your correlation must have a Scheme track with the relevant scheme
defined. The correlating of the wells is done according to this scheme. A scheme track is used
to associate the interval/surface log in a well to the appropriate scheme in the project well.

3. Create interval and surface schemes in your project well (see “Creating Project Schemes” on
page 2-5).
4. Design the correlation e.g., specify layout, insert wells, etc. (see “Customizing a Correlation View”
on page 2-1).
5. Create or edit interval/surface picks in the wells (see “Picks” on page 3-3). Correlation is achieved
by creating picks in each well with the same names as bodies/surfaces in the project schemes.

NOTE If the interval/surface logs already exist in the wells selected for correlation, and the interval/
surfaces exist in the project well scheme(s), then these will automatically display in the
correlation view with the associated properties from the project well schemes.

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Starting Correlation

Correlation document views are created or opened via the “New Tab” on page 1-15 or the File menu of the
Section or Well applications.

Correlation Window
Correlations are viewed and formatted within a Correlation view.
Fig. 1 is an example of a Correlation window.
See Also
“Inserting Wells” on page 2-10

Selected Well
Header
Well Scroll
Buttons
Well Track
Header

Display Area

Surfaces

Overview
scale track

Layout Interwell Space Mouse


Pointer

Fig. 1: Correlation window

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
The Correlation View window displays a selection of Wells vertically (this can also be switched to a horizontal
display using View > Rotated) or the repeat sections of a horizontal well.
Each well or repeat section has a Well Header and a layout which can consist of any number of tracks. Each
Well Header displays the well scroll buttons, the well name and the currently selected reference for the layout
used in the correlation. The reference in the supplied correlation.layout is set to TVD.
The interwell spaces are regions between wells in which an interval scheme can be displayed. Pick and surface
labels are displayed in the Display Areas, located on the left and right edges of the correlation.

Navigation Tools

The individual well and view navigation tools are detailed in Table 1-1, "Correlation Navigation Tools" on
page 1-5.

Table 1-1: Correlation Navigation Tools


Components Description/Use
Individual Well Navigation
There are two methods provided which enable you to scroll up and down a well (or left and
right if the well is horizontal).
Well Scroll Buttons To slowly scroll up or down the well
• click and hold the cursor on the scroll button for the direction
required.
To quickly scroll quickly up or down the well
• click the scroll button and drag the cursor in the direction
required.
To stop scrolling
• Release the mouse button.
Overview Scale Track When toggled on the overview feature of the scale track enables
you to quickly scroll through the well and jump to specific
locations in the well. Refer to the “Scale” on page 2-8 track for
more information
View Navigation
The View Scroll Bars are specific to each view displayed.
Vertical and Horizontal These scroll bars enable you to scroll up and down (vertical),
Scroll Bars and left and right (horizontal) in the selected view moving all
the wells at the same time.

Mouse Pointer

In a Correlation view the mouse pointer is displayed as crosshairs that can be stretched or compressed to
visually assist you with the accurate positioning of the mouse pointer. By default, the hairs are two inches long.
The keyboard arrow keys control the manipulation of the crosshairs.

To Perform This Action... Do This...


Shorten the vertical crosshair Press the  key
Stretch the vertical crosshair Press the  key
Shorten the horizontal crosshair Press the  key
Stretch the horizontal crosshair Press the  key
Restore the cursor to its original size Press R

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The mouse pointer can also be activated as a ghost image of a wireline log. See “Picks” on page 3-3 for more
information.

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File Management

Open a new Correlation document view from the “New Tab” on page 1-15 or the File menu.
The Correlation document views are managed via the File menu of the Well, Section or Geosteer application
windows.

To... See...
Create a new correlation When you create a Correlation view, the default
primary layout is displayed (see “Correlation
Properties” on page 2-3 for more information) and
the menu bar and toolbar change to display the
correlation menu items and tools.
“Creating New” on page 1-13.
Open an existing correlation “Opening” on page 1-14.
Note: .section files can also be opened in a
Correlation view.
See Also “Inserting Wells” on page 2-10
Duplicate the currently displayed “Duplicating” on page 1-14
correlation
Refresh well data “Refreshing Wells” on page 1-10
Close a correlation “Closing” on page 1-15
Save a correlation “Saving” on page 1-15
Delete a correlation “Deleting a file” on page 3-11

Adhoc commands are also available from the File menu of the application window.

To... See...
Open the workspace of your last session “Workspace” on page 1-34
Open a specific workspace “Workspace” on page 1-34
Save the current workspace “Workspace” on page 1-34
Change the default set “Changing Default Set” on page 1-18
Perform log filtering “Log Filtering” on page 1-19
Print a correlation “Printing to a Physical Device” on page 3-27
Plot a correlation to a file “Plotting” on page 3-30
Run a command “Run” on page 1-20
Repeat an action “Repeat” on page 1-20

See Also
“Limit / Specify Wells for Processing” on page 1-9

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Viewing Your Work

Select the following options for detailed information on viewing your work:
• “Application Window Components” on page 1-9 - GUI object identification
• “Workspace” on page 1-34 - saving / restoring your workspace
• “Tiling Windows” on page 3-20 - manipulating views
• “Printing / Plotting / Reporting” on page 3-27 - generating files and hardcopies
The Correlation view commands are available via the View menu and the View toolbar, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Correlation – default View Toolbar

Toolbar Button Menu Item Description


Rotated See “Rotated” on page 3-12.

Zoom type See “Zoom Functions” on page 3-12.

Overview Scale See “Scale” on page 2-8 in Layout for a description


of the overview feature of the Scale track.

Flatten/Unflatten See “Flatten/ Unflatten” on page 3-23.

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Editing

Graphical editing (using the mouse to select and then resize, copy, move, delete, etc.) is available when working
in a correlation view. Once an item is selected, use the Edit menu or the Edit toolbar to execute edit actions.

Fig. 3: Edit toolbar

NOTE When a well is duplicated in a Correlation, NO changes are made in the database. A duplicate
well is inserted to the right of the selected well and assigned the same layout.

NOTE You can delete one or more wells from a Correlation, this does not delete the well or any data
from the database.

See “Editing Techniques” on page 3-3 for further information.

To modify the propertiers of the correlation use the Properties dialog box (Edit > Properties; see
“Correlation Properties” on page 2-3 for further information).

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Index

A
access
Correlation view 4

B
body
correlation 2

C
correlation
body 2
horizontal display 4
level 2
mouse crosshairs 5
navigation tools 5
starting 4
steps overview 3
well scroll buttons 5
WELL_PROJECT 3
window 4

L
level
correlation 2

M
mouse
manipulate crosshairs in correlation 5
multiple well log correlation 2

N
navigation tools
correlation 5

O
overview
correlation set up 3

R
rotate
correlation 4

S
Section
See also sections 2

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With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
start
correlation 4

W
WELL_PROJECT
project well 3
wells
scroll buttons 5
window
correlation 4

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Geolog® 7 – Paradigm™ 2011 Correlation Basics 1-12
With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
Geolog® 7 – Paradigm™ 2011 Correlation Basics 1-13
With Epos® 4.1 Data Management
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