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LONDON TORONTO MfLBOURNE

Kelnnolt:i Comfar~ wrk . CIt1clnntlb • Chlctl'jo ' Mdbrae· Dalia'S

N051:ranc1 Remho!,d Company inte.r!1al:ICll1si . Toronto' tylei bourne.

COFYl\lGHr © 1')7::1 l1y V;an No-str.anJ reinhold COrl1f.;1r;y

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i..1b>rJry (it COM?lre'Ss CataloOl Card NUI11\?er; 7g ·18045

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i5BN: 0- 44Z . 211)3.4 -7

ISDN: 0 -442 - 21035 - 5 r~k.

All rl~ht0 re0erveJ. No (,Jrt ot thl<S work ccver'eJ b)' the.

copyright hereon m2'y be rerrodiJued Ol~ w1 arty torn1 or

by any me.1lns - ~rar'hici electroniC, or mech:;;lnlc;al, Includln~ photocopying, recorJrn:;r, bring, or Infarmabon 0tor;:l~e and retnev;:1i 0vstems vVr1:novr: !:Jerml??lon of tne Vu0li0her.

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states of America

A')~I <shed l?y V.an NO'.3tranJ ReinhoLd Cornrany'

A DWIS'IOll ot L.lt!::on EJuc.:Jtlonai Ff:bi Inc.

15':5 Vv'C7t >.5oth stree.t, NUl Y-::wk, N,r, 10020; U,SA.

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Francl? o.K,) 1'043-

Arc:hd;;ecture: FtJrm,?race &. Orkr Blblloq r;;if'hy;

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NA 2760, C46 720 ).1 re 18045

0-442 - 21534·7

0-442- 2)535-5

1 WI-?~ Co acknowk.dg e. the toll<1WII1~ f~C>f'I~ f<1r their Vt;IU;ll?ie.. cOV1t:I"Il1u'b<1Y1e> bo t,111;; work; ft7rro;;t Wd""orl, whose If'lSlgr!i::S 11-\1::0 the COW1Yl1Uf1Jc~tltJn of .J~?lgVl rrlnclrles ht!lfe.d cl:mfy -I;l1e tJrg.:lYl- 1[;:)1;101'1 t1f the.. l'Yl~ierla!, ;aV\J whooSe hell" tyI;a.Je. d;s f'U~IICtit:IOI1 f"ssl~le; J~tr1es Tlcel WHO'3e krlowledg.e -aVId U/I1da-st.aI'ldIY1'j A ;;lr'CMltectural hl",tol"Y ;;lVl.d theory ~1;reVl~t::i1el1e.J the JevelopmeVit df Wi':? ~l;u.dy; f-lormal1 Cr?lw.e, whose ~dl~ence ~0.d ekill IVl t~e.. te.ad1JI1;;l dt ;a1"c,v)/t;&;1::UI"e.- eVlCLlVr.Jl"e.J me b rurslJe th IS rese.;:lrt:::nj Roger ?~awooJ, W~tI!?e rese.arc,11 Ivttd iVt& orgaVlI-z.;;)-\;ldl1:::>1 rrlnclF'le~ I7f form fostered the- dev'elorn1e.nt .of the, chZirCe..r OM orderlYl.:J fnYlClr!esj l7.aYllel Frle.Jrl1;ilVlI hI" his

e.dltlYlg of the fJl1~1 Cary aVld eVJ1;V!I!SI:d-:;n1 tar the rr"jiect,)

rl~Vle TurMr aYl.d Philip Hamf, .rill'" their ~'8~16t.ai'1Ce 111 r~?ear?V1Ii1j 111:'3l:el"l:31 hr the Illvsir .. bol1s:, ;;lYl.d L.arry H~er, 5el'IIor f-Ail::!?i .at V~11 Na51;;r-;;J.r1J ~V1V,Clld, tor hi? ratlef1Ce whd6 ;;J.W.altlV1~ tl1et1Y1~1 OU1:;Mme..,

Fly] :plly I I w 1-?f1 f;o ded Icate tl1lo7 ~CI?'k b m'y wlf,:;, l7ei?r-'l/ far' Vvltkout: i1u Ul1vV:;JvertVl~ 0Uf'rort. <lYld el1colJr.3~emei'1tl e'specl;l11y dUf"'Ylg !;ke JIHlcult bmes of tl1e.. vooks rro)vC:1:;IOI\ It wolll.d rMver h.ave l1,.,ev: fully r~~ll"td,

ThloS? I'E> :;.l '7bvJy ct -the ~r-b ,A arc:hrbec;i.ure.., It 10' a i11l7rf'hcJlt1~lu;a\ 'StuJy ~f theBS:7&l1'h~! demen-/;;:, of tcJrm :anJ 6race anJ .J:;hiJ!76 frlr1crrle<G th~t ct'rrtr'111 ihelr or~?lnlza-!;I"n In c?vr burl-b envlt"cJnn1ent;. me0>6 eleme>n1n of torm ;iilrld ""'rtlc.e- are.the crlt;;lcal means of an:;:.hd;c&1:.ure.. Whde- ublt-b;an~n conc;ernG ot fVI1C11lcJn and uere:. can be rela-btvely <s11,c:;r~Itv'eJ/ :<:lnJ "7yi11~cJllC. 111-b&rFrebilt7r1~ can va? tr'o1m ;iil~e-to a~el theee frrrnary el.:;~ment? ",t t-orm and ?f"'c:e. carnprre& the tlmele?<_? '3nJ +und.am~nb! voca~ulal"y 17+ Hle archlt:ec.1;ural de$!_:1r1er,

1hlt;:; ~bdl ..::::mrh.a~1 zes the elemetrc of t.?rm £)5 1;h6 rrml.:a? to.:?l;tf Hl& Je-;;I'jt1er It Serves 11..:' lay ovt ;;>n,) c-14i-:7"'lfy tor' al'1alY$17 anJ dl~c;(jS6I"rl ~aGIc, f"rm.;;. ;<In) Clr:1anIzatlons tJt- ?f..:>ce and their :;enenc. bran-sf""rrna-t:JC1n<? In a tyfol ag I c...a I m;;lnne:>r; It:

Iq, ultlrn;;l-/;el,' -bhe::, rr'olllr1coe of. the IndlvIJU)1 de~ljner t:o .;;;eiec;-tl te~-bl <:3nJ m.atl'ful;lt& H&;>e e.lements Into Goherenc, me,lln,n~ful, and U':7 e tv I or.j.;:lnlza-CIi7Vl? .:1+ <Gf.13 eel st.rtJc:t IJre, ar..J eno!aSure,

A l;;irge fdr'b"t1 of -bnrs wdrk I~ devo-be.d t17 Itrl.P~e'$. IhMe Itrl;;ilge7 '!'?f~n "bime and vrd0 oul-bvr'.,al bovnJarie::,>, The J'JX-C:;;lf"5rt:ICrl .:1t hl'7t-orlcal 4-t'yles miPy ?ipre,ar ~ ~e- 2lPt'llft at ·tlmes, bu"t... 16 Intended tv- tcJr'cr::- ~he re;ader to' /tJok ti?r Ilkeneo:;o:;eq, amt1nj -scc.mlngly unlike torm;:ahms, Un.der,",i.;:;n,JlYlg -I;l1e:;6 sll'rlilarrtl~So amcJt1S the Wide.ral1ge, :tP nl.;,torlv;;l! ex.al'nries shdvl; nell" cI.3rIry f,h~lr dIHer'€'nc.e.s.

The :ilrc-hrte,;;;{;ur,;l! ext>t11r1eG U7ed In -bhl'7 bddk ;;we, ",f covre«, Y1t1t. e.xhav?t.lv&, noW are.they l1ec.e.%t>l"11y the arc-netYres> till" the C<1noe.F1::s tlr rr'lncJI~ t1lsc\J%ed. rho wlJe r;3n~e of ex.amf'les I":' .detrber.ate.-. me-Ir 0elecA;IJt1 I" v~e on <:3frrOrrr;;J-bene5? ;ay1d ol.i.wd/y and 0erve 01mr1y ~o dlv,:7-tra-be tvndatr1ent.,al Ide..;as. The~e IdeJI5 tran~C-&VlJ their hwt;orwlill unte.-xt. aVld enC<1l;ra~6 0recul.~lbl.?n: H!w rl1l~l1-b 1i~ey ~e -geleded, $>n;;>lyz:.e.J1 ;;1lVlJ reapflled -to a wl';er r;m~e ".j. ilr-.:;:.hd;;eutur~1 rrV'blemq; f rhs -tyre A:;.lrrr",:?ol1 .;:.npulJ ~e:.lf .?t1e- ~eHer vn.der.;,t:?Y1~ the "io~lheubure .:711& eXf'enenee?1 iVle. -9rG~I-bec-t. ur;:::. one e-nct'vl'lt-cl? In !J-ber;;li;vre.; and the .arc;.hl'l;.ec1;ure tine 1tr1;i?gme$o

whde- Jei?l~nln:J'

AlthC?lIjn rre"'7eYlte.J 11'1 V.;3?,IM~ d-egree-s at Cdmrie)c'rt:yI i-ne.cle::men-t:;, J'lY1d frlf10'rie.;. ;;)re dl<3Jc:;vc.>'i7ed ;;:l? JI'7vrde!y as' F""q".;.,He;.., rhl6- bwk I-G met'ely a &bri;'n~ pdln-b. Readews ;;:lr& e.nc"ur:i>~ ed ~o U';'6 the. I9t11k freely d tJ rlt1,9 -bli e de$':Jn rr6'ce".>-:;> and ta bke.- t'ldt;e of :aJ,~htlt'I1;l1 ex~mrles rec;;llleJ wl·H'lIt1

the. CQl'lte)<t t1t thenr InJfvlJu~1 exrerte-Ylc.es. Aq; -/;;ne. e-Ie.rnen1:s. :and FnYlv'plef>. beodme mare hm,l,~r; new GOI'\t1ectI0r1~1 r81~!ijai1G>hlf'"1 ;;il'ld levd6 "f me,;ilt1ll'lg rrt.<ly be e.Gi.ta~116he-J,

The sub?bnob aVId rrt&<Hner o1f fre~eni .. b.?r! q;ed<s dar,!;.>,

In or..Jer to e.nOdvr::"ge f:;he un.der£.i';;>n.:::/lrlj V'.f th"; art af ;<wc.hltee-tur-e.( the. 81e ment.;; 6't },1rt'Yl 2lI'lJ -GF t;C6, ~Y1J -the. or.Jerlt1~ .of avr ~U"1; et1vlral1l11emb.

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FOKM & 5f'A6E: THE UNITY OF OFF05ITEB 110

FORM DEFININIS SF;ACc 114

?EFINING Sf'ACE WiTH HOR!ZONTAL ELEMENTS liS

THE BASE F'LANE II~

E1EVATEDF'LANE5 , I!I>

DEPRESSED F'LANES 12'4

THE OVEfC,HEAD Fl,A,NE. 13:7

[)EFI~IN6 sF,Aa: vVITH VERTICA.L ELEtvIENTS 1%

VeRTICAL LI~lEAf, ELEMe,'lT5 ' "'" .. ' 181>

SING!..E VERT1C/\L F'LAJ~E "'" l40

L.iNE TO F'LAt~E 30

:"'LANE __ 34

VOLUME. 44

, ,:,',

VlSUAL F'l'\OPORTlON5 OF FO~~/I. ; 50

c,:'HAFG ' .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. r)2

F'fZifv1ARY 5HAf'E5 " __ .

FLATONIC :sOLiDS " &t'J

L· SHArED F'LANE:;l... .' .. FARALLEL fLANE5.. . ......

" i?O

.,,"_

. .... IBw

REGULAR & i FZREGULAK FORMS .... """

LJ'SHAFeD FLANE5 lCi>2

CLOSURE .

i<UAL.iTiES OF AfZiCH !TECTLJ

. .... 1~8

TRANSFOR"MAT!ON OF FOK~A C,4

D!tv1ENSIONAL TRAN5fORtvlAT!ON __ (PC:

SUBTRACTIVE FORMe...... C,8

ADDITIVE FOKMS................ 72

CeNTRAI-IZeD............ 74

.',.

........ 175

DE&REE OF CLOSUF:E 178

liGHT '''.'' iBO

'/1 :8.4

1..-1 NEAR .

RADIAL......... 80

CLUSTERED .

........ 7r;

Of'ENiNG6 iN SF-ACE· DEFiNING

WiTHi"-) f'LANES..... .. ..... .

.. .... 18£C

AT COr.:J~ERS _ .

....... _ .. ~ 188

.............. _ it;lO

GRID _............ . B(p

FORMAL COLLlsrONS OF GEOMETRY

ART1CULATiO~J Of FORM.. . " .

EDGES & CORNER6 ... SU~FACtS .....

\ ... 88

"'i. OllGAJ~IZA~I'IONS

(j.llIlOI)OllTION &. SCA]~]~

ORGANIZATiONS OF FOf\r,l .& SFACe .

SFAT1AL ~LAT!ONSHIf'S j06

'5FACE WiTHIN A 5FACe !0c;,

fNTr;f\LOCKING ~f'ACe5 , _ __ !M

ADJACENT Sf'ACfS _._ _'- _ _ 200

0FAGES ~iN:<,eD BY A COM\10N '5 FACE .. _.202

SFAT1AL OKGANIZATiONS_ _ .. _ .. '204

CENTRALIZED OI;;:&AN !Z,AT10NS _. _ ' 20$

l-INEAf':. OKGAI--J!ZArION.s 2:4

RADIAL Of8ANIZATiONS .. _ _ .. _ _ .

CWSTER.e:O OKGANIZATIONS.... ._ 2'80

GRID OR:GANIZATIONS_._ _ _ .

f'ROfOf\TION_ .

f'ROFORTIONING SYSTEMS "

GOWEN 6E'CTIO~L..... . 300

ThE ORDEl\6 30&

KENAI5SANCE THEO~.IES _ .

THE ~IODULOR......... .._ :31&

THE cr<EN' .... ~_._ ... , .. _0< _ •• ~ .. _ ••••• __ TO '820

ANTHt0rOMORFHIC f'fL)fOF,TIONING 324-

SCAlE..................... _ 320

7. pnINeIPJJ~S

ORDER.I NG FR: NClPLES .

AX1? ,., , .

, .... "" .' .382

SYMMETRY ... _._ ... _ .... " ....... ,.

CiRCULATION ELEMENTS .

THE:- BUILDING AfTR,OACH .

BUIL.DING ENTF\ANCES

'''''' . _e47 ......... _240

. ., esc;,

HIEKr\RCHY - .- .

DATUIvt. _... .. . .. ... .

RHYililY1 &, REPETiTiON.

CONFIGURATION Of THE FATH _ _ _ 270

FATH' 0F'ACE f5 __ _.252

FOf'\lvi OF THE CIKCULATlON SPAce ., 28&

Tt\ANSFORMATlON ... _.

CONCI ... USION UnUJIOHllA.PIIY INnEX

38:;

Arcnl!;ectUr-8 10 norl11tilly conceived (Je?l(jned) and reailZed (built) 1f1 reSror1se to .an eXi':?-trn"j set of Clmdd:'fOtl?, THc>se condrblOns rnal be rur'e~ fune-boMal In nature, or they rn;ay retlec-tl ~n varying Jeqrees, 0C1el.,!, eCOMcmllC, polltlcai, even I'vMlm'?ICai or "'ymbJollc Intention'S, In any easel d:; 16 30S!)rr.ed th:;id; tHe eXI?: In~ 0Ct of C0I1Jd:-I0t15 - the f'rol1lem - I? le'Ss j;M.tln 6:<l,tJ,,,factory, an.d that ;3 neVJ %1;; of c.ondd:;it;r1:;' - ;3 0olutIOn - wOIJld I?e c:ieSlrable, The ac-t of crep'bing arc.YliCec,tureJ then, IS &1 rroblerrJ - <solVing or Je51~n Froce;:,?,

The first f'hase ot any deSign precesS IS Hle recognd;lon of ;3 rroblemailC- c.?ndltion ~nd the deCIS',Oi'1 to hr1J ;3 7olu'bol"l to d:;, l?esign IS, -;abtove JII, a willful out, .3 rurroseFu: endeavor, Tl-le deSl0Y1er 1tll!0t fJr~;>t( docnnent the eXIe>i::1ng conJd;lons of J rt"oblem, .leflne ItS conie)(t;., ;and collect

re.lcA/ant d to ;assimilated. Thl~' 17 the crltlc.>i rh';:i?~ af the de011n rroc.eso, since. :h~

n tlf:a urian IS> Ine.xor .. b~ relaf;e.d to how :;3 rrafllem IS rer.:::elved; .,letlned, :and arbculatd,

f1et HeiJ'1, tfle noted D;3nl<7n Foet 3nj?CleYrb~-t ruts It HliS '(I/:Jy: "Art. IS 0,9lvlt1~ rrl7blems thllc cannol:: ~e lated refm'''c. tl1ey k",ve ~een solved, The sh"r'r11 of the qve.::>t;IOt1 IS rart ot

the ;3Vl:'7we r, II Desl~ner'S Inevlta~"ly pnefl111re SO/lltlons to prvblems -Hie-)! ;:Ire confronted wlin, Th~ derth :;lr1d ra(J~e i!f their .;:Jesl~v1 voca~vl,at"J Will 3ffeC1:; ~t?tn their re.rcerbot1 of a pr,;7blem aVid the. shJ[7e of d;"7 ?O/UT;IOM, Thl-;:o ""ook concentrate:'? or1 arbc.vl;;d;It1~ e;.iemel1'r::;. (If the. Jesl~t1

voc a ;31'Y :and rresevd;s a WI4e Jlrray ;- f"%1 ~Ie '5'01 vtl OV1>S -/;0 :arch It ec.turpl pro!?leit1s, Th<::y

;;:Ire 1VJ1:endeJ -/:;0 evmd1 one;' desI1Vl v:;icabulary thrt1ugH exploration, 'Study, tfVl.;:! -arrl,c3tlon.

As an 'art:, ~rchlt.e:.c-tvre IS l'Yl"re tHtHI 0;3tl0fYIVlg tHe purely functional reqylr'emel'1i;~ <If :a budJltl~ ra,n1, FJrld;lcm::;v]t;lily, ike f'f1Y':Slca! m::lrllte7t;2ltI011S of arc.hltecture. ;3CCorYlrl"lotlate. hUrY121n tlc-trvlty. H~wev8r, the:; arraf1~cl1'1eY1'/:; ;3nd or1tlMlz,atlon of tf1e element'tl ?If form and srace wrll determ/tle. ~<lw' arcYlI-techre ml~¥1f; rrorYlote eJl).deavor~, e116J1;. respm?e..'S) -aVid

co rl1 m Vt'i I::;ace- t'YL:;pn ir1~. Ttl e0e el eme,nt;.& of f?1rlt1 :arid 0'f,;3Ce. are rres e ni:eJ, there ftJre; Nt a5 ettd6.1V! themselves, ~iJt :;;IS me.;ms b s£llve a problem In response t.o C?lV1dl'b?'ns of tunC-bOtl; rurro:_:;e, ;3t'1,d context - tl1ab IS, :;;rchd::e..c-Curally

i rle .;;n;a!ogy maX be rnaJ6 r~;:3t one; must kneVi and and the. wtJr'd.,;:; car: ye +onneJ jl~d :a vc1cabuial"y t-1eve11ped j one unJer0,t:::.anJ the ruie:; crt tjramn1,;;lr ;;lVlA -synt3,k

ber>we 0ey1tencee can k; con~b"UC;ed) Orie must under""t:JnJ thC'/ rnnC-lrles compo'5d;lori

!?efore e<ss;i>j'3/ novel oS; :;lri,::l -!:k~ !Ike. can lle wntten. Once these. demerlte ;are. uV:der::,/;:ooJ, one.

can wnce rOlgnant:!y c?r Vlith fcrce" call }cr ar Incite t" rlt71::; comment:: :a cJr -spe;lk

'tIlth Insight all,d meanln?l. [-(;' rllZc>

...;

i~e; lJa71c elernent'S of ardilteutvra -sp:ace, UI1

1M tMe deveiorment of a cdesl~Y; C{Jl1cer1::/ 2rld r'eaLze their -tatlon ~+ a de<?IClrl 0olu·!:i.m.

J

r(lan i r o! Zlt;eJ lOriS In 1te imr!,emer,-

On inc t-clioVl/lnj rag-:;~ 10 ;3n Over/ie.w If tVie basIc. ele'rrlef1"t:'5~ CJrl'Sotd:ute

;a rnyslc.al work of ;archltec:tUre. The"""". c-onstrtuer1i;,s c~n ail ~)<rer!eY1C;ed, S,m1e

Wl:ilj be readily arrareYlt while lJe f'{l,We olJ0Cure our €,.enses. SorM may J?'mwate

whde otv,er,;; rl~y a -secovdZlry r",ie IV a rUIUIl1g~' organizAtion, 'St?n1.3 rviJ/ irYl;;l':)es and

meanlt1j w~de ctMe~ m;:;;y serve .ae"o '1yji/rtlers or rno.d:fler? 5('; :(Vi S ;;Jv.j frk"tH1i,ltj'S,

In ;;11 CMe'Sl h,n'lever; the fo'! !JWlr1~ elem ;;lr:d <Sy0tc~Y},)5 sht'vlj

iln.d mutvtl!ly re.'Yl1tWClr10 to form an lY\te~r'.ated whole. Ar~h!-tec.turai elements ;ant! ('j'stert1S, a0 pave.;, make VISible the relat aVld the b!JIY1~ :aG a wv,ole. Mien their rel;at-,onsh!f's are racelvd

<SiVlgul;ar n:J-bre of Hie the~ a c.oVlcept!):;d order eXl6~s - 3M

end 1)I~i n ~ tf1:an ren:::epbusl VISI,}tIG'.

II

I

ACHI

Ace !vlOo'AT\ ~~G A

COl'vllATI BLE WITH iT5

eONT]~XT

12

.oV'tJ;"'r"7;"+'on~! ,~J.!- Y'. r ,.j. n ' P"" Q 'n'~'" '" '., ! ,,?! "_.::1,, ,?', PA",B, n, c;,;3c10,,6r11' ~I "" "c., a, eh!

'6r~'b;li ~djn,~:~t1 &. Ima':3e - :'IC:le~)

form, eC;;lie, s. proportion

surface, enape, e.dt1es &, Ol7enlr1J1?,

i ;.; Ii:;

i ight., '!If'Jrl, focU~)1 t; acov-stJcs

oarrroach ~ entry

"F;Jth conhgvrat:on 8< access ·sequenc.e of- 6raCe:'7

ostruc.ture. s enciO;5ure. °enVlronrl1enbl comfort

i 1'1 t' J. \1'

o rea,tn, 6a,&,y, tv Wei tare-

odur.ardr!y

• U0er requlrernel'lt;:;, 0le0al restraints, "economiC f;;lctor~ ·s,:?cikll/cultur.aJ facto!s • historical ;;>recedel1ts

,

&.. aSPI rations

,

• s/i:,e 8( en VI ron m ent

• C\lm"te: '5un, Wlrld, terllperatvre, rr'ec; pibbon °t1eo,;w,3ph,/: SOI:S, tOPMlraf:'hy, vetJebtloh, w;ater

,) ..J I / ! ... : 1 ...

V ' "L' I '

'0en?ol~y: .c"araC:Ter or '[i'1e race, Vlei'/S, 50LJn,~

... & ()I{.l)]~ltS

]lIIYSICA.L

C()NC]~llTUA]_J

°ENCL05URE

-TECH NOLOGY

• Sens,,:)ry t;?ercej?tlon and ruoqmtlOYi

I I

of the pnY?lcal el emer,ts by

I, I'

exrer'lenC!nv; tnem '5'pAtJ6n-/:;l~i:y

t ,-' --L ,

't\FiROACH t< I7t::P;t\I\TUKE

·ENTRY & EG~ES5 • MOVEfv1ENT TH f':OU

-FUNCTIONING Of; &, WlrH!~~ 'SPACES

-QUALITIES OF l!GH"C C.:)LOR/ TEXTURE, Vi s:

ACOU5TiC5

• j?rcnenslon of the orJeredJr

ordered rei :;ltl<1fI0nl

·f,ATTE!'\~t3 'SIGN5 'SYMt?OL5

-;nd ret7170ndlvlt"! 1:-0

, I v

-til?y el,;ke .

..

• a qrJ~ of column? 0Urror-t.IY1~ hon-umbi eJm$ and ?>I;;lb?,

O~ THE!

r;, (AMONG A BUILDl NGS ELE~1ENTS AND SYSTEMS

,,_"

A pure exterior hrl1'1 WrJF5 arovnd tHe orqtlVllz;atlOl1 of tJr't1'1G an~l 6race5.

A "prJen terrace. 5lJrillglrc'\;o Hie Ib,

dl7trl VI/te0 ,]aHler'e,d

.' . ~.

elf t:h~ 1lvl<1l'Y1abde" tfie curved form '* H1~,

tayer:' "

L •• ' ,

ThiS> chgrter rrcs>etl'bs the frJl11.twy

" .r:. r til

eiementi? (), 101"11'1: pOIH / Inc, fl"nCo,

and Vt'lume, 'Sbrtlnq wd;:h bhe pOint ':I!~ the.- prime 'Jene;p~?'r "f ~II FV'rm, e;ilGh element 1!1 rrcsenbeJ 111 the.drder of 1~6 1r,m{;h from the f'olnt:( fw<;;t as :> conceptl);;j I ejem en~ then

,

;;1<;0 .;;l VI<;;ual element m the voaabulary

of archd;ect-tJr,ll! de£olgn,

I'll III "

I

, .

-,

"

be.:JIWS wlt~

nle. ~olrrt: movce! ' f line; co!~nes i

e- i

It the line

In tHe from riane

io bc)y(thn;u-dlmensl'onai)."

mOVe tke r:?i1t a Ilne'j

0fa-tI.<l1 'f7lrJli,

erace~ A 0Umm;;irj

V''''' ; ''-/

f.AUL

A FOINT a'.7 the- fl",me- gene.r.:ltor '* • l)OINrr
f?'rm, Indlc;1h~s ~ rO'£?il;I.;:ot1 In
Sf3c:e-.
A f'0 I 1'11::: extenJeJ ~ecome!> .3 IJN]~
use with fn?f'e:rbcs .;:of-: T
• lel1t3 en ,
I
• .::.l1r'ec:t:I.1n ,
t
I
• rd~ltIOt1 I
,
I
I
,
,
I
,
.....
A line- e)<iend~ beotimeG a l·J.AllN]~
PLANE wlfh pr.;:of'erh~~s of: _----11
---
• It;n~th [.; width ~ .............. - I
• sh;;;re- I
• .;;urface-
• on ent .a "\:iO'n
• Fo£>'tlon ,-- ",,_",
........ -' -,-
A rl<ilne t;:x:ten.Jd l?ecotrleG ;; ,r()lll~IJ~
VOlUME wl'l:f1 rrorertle<:7 dh
• 1~l1gth, wlatH, 8. .derth
• farm /0pac.e.
• 6>urtlilce.
" >, • onen"b,d::lot1
• fO~It.'.1n
. ,.'
.;- , !5





20





A rOint :11 .• wks a pOSitlc:?11 1M srace, C<1nccrr,lJally; It n;:os no Icn~l;h, WI;:I+.I'1, tiro depth; ;Jrl.d I?, the.refore., .;,.btlv, dlrcctl<1nl,,':J'e>; and

CCl1tr .. IIz:~J,

Af? the prime clement In the voc;.0ulary ttf f.Jrm, ;;l f.?ltrl:: c;;lM eerve 1:;0 m;ark:

• the two en.J~ '* a line

the Intersev·hdn· of two Ilnt;,<.';7

• the meetlrl:;J of III1C00 ;at the Cdrner A· ;;l rl.:i3ne or vdumc

• tne Denter t?t ;? heLL

Althou;:Jh ~ penni Is> conccf"i;.u;;;Il/y wlt.nrlvt; share or fdrm; It re~ Irl<S> ttl m~ke Ii:;;, prosence. felt- When pLaced within J vlsv.a1 h:,:/J, At the Denter of Its envwanmcnt, a feint I".; 0t.;:l~le and ;at re';7t ttr-:;1;anl~ln:J surraund ln0 e1ements a00ut Itself an.d ddmll1;;rbln::1 I'/;(; hdJ

W\1en the fl7mb IS mt'ved dH- G6I1ter, nowev"r, rtes fleU vecomcs more a':J1re0SI'iiC and ~e~ln? -to vt'mrete t.;>r vlsval <;7vf'rem;>cy, A vls>val te.nSlan 1'7 cre'Jted ktween the rami :;il1d Its field,

i



A p"ln-t hliil'!? 11'" dimenSion. 10 vlq,lbYtt1ark :;l rO:7lhm,n ""race or on the 1rotinJ fl~ne", ~ F.?lnt mUG-\; ~e rrc:;ec.teJ. Into:3 verb cal

linear ei.e-mel1t such as :a oolumn, t'k?.eli&k/ dr +ow~r: It :SHoul,J boe MtcA that tJ volvrl'1t1:ar dement IS 0eel1 111 rl;.;ll'\ :)6> ;a ratrlt ::JnJ t.haetoro rd;lIt10 the. vl0v,;'a1 oharacierl7tlc~ of a r"'lnt. Obne-r' POIITt'.- generatd ·brrn7 t.h.pt sh;are the pOint:'" vl~u,ai char.aotal5>tlce:> are:

:;

01

~,~ i

ef------- _-'--- ---).

.-------------------.

Two de0ul"ib,!/ ;3 Iir/& ~hat Donne-ok them,

A lJ.;n 0 v':l ;J the pOint? :JIV¢~ thiS line tliilk len::1"J;H,

t,t1e C-;iln also bee Gt1t1Sldere.d :iJ -?e::Jmen-b of :;In

Infl nl tell iOH.06r ;axl<?,

~----------------------------.--------------------.------------------------------------------------------------~

...,..

I I

-) 1< I

I

I

I I

I .

; I '

.. _._--------_._-+------_._-----.

I .

I

I

I

,

I "

I, <>: .•

, ',"

J

I

...v

-1'I I I I I I I I I I I I

,

I I

I

I I I I

<, .. \ I

.... , \

.-------'::__----, I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

,

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

...v

Two rOlrts Jan al00 Visi/;ilily <;;v.0ge;£,-l; -;3n :3)(15 rerre-Yl,h;.vl;;:lr -b" the line the-y de%nbc ;;;n.d :av",jf; which {;.he,Y "re- 0ymme-crlc,ai, E'ec,;avs& thl5 MIS m;;J1 be Inflrlli:;c 1M

lenqth, It: Ciln be, I H 'Some... C;;l s-e; 5, more Jom II1,aHi -bn;;ln

the de0(:;rlred Iln&,

!

!

In b".,th C21'.7eS, hdwevCr; the de%nlted line :pMd the fvrrc.I1Jlcol;at" ,;;lXIS ;are vlsv;>lr More dom In ;ant th.:a11 the; Int1111;e tlLim~er of lines that m~y P)'bS throu~h e;Juh of the IndIV,Ju;! POll'ltf7.

", , .. '

Ti ' +- I I' I I ,~

1'10' ftf1nt-s, e:S?,;i11,10ne.d In 0PpCC 'ilj GO,umn:lr Cremerl"", or

ccntr'pilz-ed f"~ms, tan ~eflne ::In ;1)<17, an ot'derln"l devIce, tf1;l1:- h-a0 k:>een u~eJ -!;hrt?v9~'1I)t hl:;t?'t'l to ot'~a!IZ-'; biJrldlnj aM.! "3'f aCes,

f.',l, fl"t"jP,' 'ii'

II! ::

i)'

II U i

nl!

_'-','-", _'-.. .

In fl'-HI tWj ft'lrrbs ;;In be ufe) to

det'1o-be. a ~atew;:J/' T~e?e two ft',nt;$ elev»t:eJ ~ef Ine. J p'l;me~ of er'!tI"'Y and 1n :;Jfrro:3ul1 f~ryend,(,ul;:lt' ta It,

T

.: •••••••••••••••••• 8. & ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ~~,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ : ··'4.

: .......

• 4.

". ' ..

'. '. '. " '. ' .

........

" .

..........

'. ",

..............

...........

o~

o

o

\

\

. '.

,. ......

' .

....... ..

' .... -. ... -)

" --"---'----,

o

~-- .. - .. -- .. ,.--.----.,.--.-.----.-.--

~,.-.,." ..... ------- .. -.-.--.----

- -_ ..

, " ~.~--.-.,."'---

~.. .- -"-----

->.

i \

)

\

A F'Jr1t extenJed ~t:Qt?me'i? ~ hne-. Cmc;er/;u;IlIIYI

Jl Ilr16 h .. ~ Ict1j-bk, but no WI,Jih or deyth. Wher~;as a rOln1; 10 ~y M;;rture 0~,;ltlC.1 :;ii 1111&, 111 ae%r'lbIl13 the r~1;h d,;;;> F?'Ir1t In mO'hm, IS c~r..ill:?le of- vl~lJ,n1 exrre.s;,lt1~ dlrc::01;I.1i1; moY~m~l1tl ~11d ~r"'wi.h.

A line; 1:7 ~n Imrorbnt Olem6rlt In the 1t1rrn.3tllm a+ tiny vli:1v;a1 i/on:;1;rtJoilon. it. C;i11 <:?erve t.:7:

• JOI nl lin k, 0Urf'tJr'j;, surround; "yo Interseob oHler vlt;;val elemenbe:

','.'

A IthdUjh ~ 11M cdl1cerr.u;a11; has only one/ )lrnen"Mn,

d: lt1us>i n;3ve, some deqrec of thc;kne05 to became v1011;>1e, It IS> seen as -aline ?Imr~ b'ecavse d:;~ lenjth dornll1;3tet> IU, WIdtH, The char'actel~ of J Iinel whetn~r t;3-vt or I'mr, bolJ cr tenbd·;lve, ~r .. eeful or rag~eJI

I~ JderrnlneJ ~/ cur' per'cer·bICM ~ /ts lengtVl/wlJth r.;lbt?, 1'1:0 Donbur, "9nd rt:, Je;:Jree OJ c",m·h nility

It c.ontInuOU'7 enough, the <Slmrle. rereht:.ltm of Ilk& or 01tr1IIJr elet'Y1e.nh, caM .318';> l1e Qe.en ';3'-'> a ilM c:" Thl~' tyre of line h:J? 'S10d·ICtmt text.ur'al 1,u2i1 rtle5,

The orlenbtlon <7r' dlr'ec;:t:I,m of a line. can affect 1t.'.7 role In a V151l",1 construu·bon, While:a verboai line can eXrre'7<S ;a ",b{;;e &f e4yd'~"num With the- tOI"cef; ot

tjr;3v t/::y, or -I::he human conJI"j;ltm, or mark ;J rO~lbOl1 IrI space, a ndr'lzonbi lIMe- c;;Jn rerreseni sta17Jirty, the ~rClund rl;;;ne, the ndrlZ-tlMI 01'"' :3 be)y -;11; rest,

An ol?h liMe I", -a devl:at:.IPn fi"'?'m tHe- rel"renJlcLilar or h"rlztlnt .. L n l1e ':>ecn .,.<;. Jl vc::r'brc;,l! line fal1lnj Of' t' norl;!ont.al lint" r ,In elt-Mer case, whether I't 1-7 fall'l1.:J t.Jw:ilrJ ;J faint .on r'tll.1nJ rlaMe- til" rIsln~

-/:;0 :a r<1li1t In tne sky, Ii I? JynJll11lG v,svally ~cbve.

In It-s vn~al:at1c~j -state,

.........................

11II1II1Imlllllllillllllllnlllllll1lllllllll!!lHlllliIIllUlIIlIIlllI!1ll1l!!111II1111l11

abcfJdrj1g/l/JyklmJ1(Jpt[t"StuVW:Ed1z(&:'!?$.,12,34S6?89 0 't'¢'t'*~'*'''''''t,*,*''',,*~':t* ***************

1 I I I

I

I ,,-

1 ~

__ I ----------J----

COI.lJMN OF tvlARGUS ALJr\E.t..IV'9 f'1-pz.ta Colonl1.;l; RaMO

017~l-ISK

F'1tlce ,je I~ Concard~; ~n'5

Vertlc.;aI IlnB;li" elements, SUI/h .3-:;' ct'lurnns, C11:>~!I&k-s, :ilnA iowt're, h.ave been used ihr.;?I)~l1out h'G1/t'ry to cotr1memorate.- 'SI~nlflC:;lnt e-vent£> ;md est.:3bll<;7h F.;lrtlcul.llr f't1Jnt;0 In sf'.<lce-.

Vertic';! I Ilrle,ilr eletr1c-nts t~n also ~e t.)sc.J bo define k,;ln?r;llrent: vCllume<;:t of <;:tf'ace. In we eXRmf'L~ dil1s-{;r~teJ to the- lett, -the tout'" rrlln;aret t.?wers Acfln~ ;a 5f'abal field frcJtr1 Whl'::;~ the dome:. ot- H~@J;3 S"rh1a rl~e.t? In ".7flcn~or,

,'"

ln the'.7e dwee. M;;lmr1es, )Jne;;lr' e!e-menl::e> ",re used t-V' e,xrreq,f; movemenr acrdt?S <space, provide !jurft'rr, ftJr" tne ,)verhe;3d r.\;:nio, :;1nd tdt"m 'i3 tnree-AIWlenf;ltin;.31 Strudlwai tr.ame-

+,::>r arc;;hd:eu1;.urpi ~1:?;aGe,

i

,~- , '

A line c;3n ~e. ;iln Im;3~lned r.atner f,h~n -;,l. vl?I~Ie. cl~ment. IYl ~rc;hl·tec;t,lJrb, An ~)(tlmrle I? the- 3)(1~ ;; r~'1ulatln.g lme- 0t~~II?he.d .i?l iwa f?.1Ir1t0 In '.7ftiCe. ;ilM'; :;;I.i?t1tJt. whloh elements c. ... n be- <7/rnme.irlc;;lly ;;lrr;;n0eJ

f?uriJlnj forme> alGo c;;a!1 be 11116"'1", r.il1rbcularly when bhey cot1~I~d, of ref'~tltlVe s-pace-e; or'j~nlZ6.J Z'Lm.:'J ';.:1. olr'ouljjtl,m path, A-e; II! !J-e;-brab=.J her~, 11t1c.ar 17urldlng -tdrrr10 n~ve. -tHe. abd1t.j t" enclo?6 exterior -er?'C& ;OJ? weI! t:l0 .ahri- to VIWyll1~

0d;e ?tlMd;;lc1ne,

I i

I

I L ·-·.·····-·--····-·--····---·-···· .. ----··----10.!""'! ----'

L__._.. ~

Alt.htlvgn an;:;hltedurtll ~r61ce. eXists> In three Jlmel1olc1n0, rb C;3r1 ~e !meal'" In fdrm 1::0 .acc,?'mmod ate the f;3th af inaVet11en-t:: thrt1ujh a l?uildll1g ~nJ Ilrlk Ib? 0raoes>

to one ;another,

,~ . .

:t.

, '."

28

At :;;l .<pmaller 0c~18, Ill1e6> arbvula-tc tH& et:Iges and 6urt;ac8<;? of rbnee.

<3l1d volumes. Th~f;e lines C;;l11 ~e. JClIl1bs iM or betweerJ 17udJ:113 m:;lterl:?ll~ -rr;lme-:;. ;;lrtfund wlnd.?w or ),A:W' 01"'81111'1"'''', Cll" :iI

I J

<;;;-l~rlJdur.ai grit! Jf cClilimns; and l1e.1lms.

How tl1e?e. Ilne..l>r ele-men-bs ;;JHcoi; 3 011rbce:S texture wdl defend em -!::nelr VI-0upl weight, dlrect;lon, ;)nd ""'r'aclnj.

30

-0 0 0 0

n:::.-:.o::: :0.::0::

tJ'.-::n'.:.-:::n:::::::r:l::

,-

)0rf it rf 1I11

II. I J I ... I i [

lJ D ~ ~)

Two rarallel hnee> have the ;;Ii:?llity to v'6u,lly descrl~c,. .a planc-

A tr;lI1Srarent sF.ai121 membr.1l1e C,:!11 be: ~t:rekheJ ~e1:;we~n them to 2:lvknow'ed~e, their vl~u;.al rel;r!;-It:1I1?htp>. Ike dd~er tl1e!>e IlncB ~re to e..ach _o!:.he.r: the <e>trt:1/1~c-r- wtl! 1:7~ the: 5en,,;c A rlane ihe.y CQnvcy.

A -series of p'"w;?lld Ime:s, thrt7v1h t.hew' rere·bi-t;.ll/ene~:;1 wrll rClnf.,rceour rercertlt?n ,4 the rl;;lM they Je<e>c-nb5.

As thc5D Itne~ extend them5e.-lve~ ~ll1rl~ the FI~n~ they de%n~el ~he tmrtleJ rlane t,.ecom~£? r.:::;al, ;and tne orl,q I t'!;al v.1ldeo ~el;ween the line'S> l1ecl7me merely In-terrur/;;I.1I1G of tne rl~n.1lr ~urFJce.

The d1P'JnH116 dlu""trJltc. the {rat1""f,wrl1:;:l-bon of ;a row tit round c"lumn~ (/Inc'S), 1;1I1::.1;;1/1y €>urrortlng .3 portion a1- ::a wall (pl~ne)1 then ~eC&mIMg :S1.IJpre pler'O (fJlrt of t.he w;ll r/;;Jth:::} .anJ +tn~l!y remnZlrlt" of -lihe ?'r'~'nJll Ct:?IUmt15 occurrlnj ;;l~;;l reilef ,.1t1Mj the sur-f~cc. .1f the w:ilii.

liThe; IA?I umn I? ;a ccrbln 01;ren'lt.hene4 rarl:.. of.a w:;;lll, c;;lrrted up rerfendIDul;'II··ly tn7t'rt the tound,,:I't.ldt1 i::.1 the- tor .. , A rlW.:7t co'umn~ 10 Irl.JeeJ nlthlng bVt; ;a w.;1lt "fen an) JI~O"t1'tlt1UeJ In 5ever.a1 rlpceq,. n AWe=RfI

III III

111111111

A raw cJf cJlumns ha~ (rtten been Ut7ed to )eA\ne. j;~e front: ri;pne or tJC;?c:Je, of bliildlnq0/ J:?art1c;ul;;ilIAiy j:?u~k, bulldrn,q:; tM;:lt

I ,_, \ 1 v'

tr'ont on 1'(1;<3I"r rubilD tl.Jd f;JDJ)es ~an ~/

o •

, L' ,~ I ff J I; I I' f

rer1.e:t;rj3R::d e,;10IJ/ ror em:::i"y" 0 ?r f'orr1e. :Clegree &T 0i1e tel- (0111

iHe ele-ment~ ;:\HJ +",rm ;1 0eml-i:raY181"arerrt C3Green- " IIrUkelle:;:. f.;JDe I~ -l;h:;t urll"he,:, inJlv0 u)1 ~Udd iHg ft'nY1s ~6n In.! 1-/:;.

G1 \?
<I
[;::J D t'J );J t::I t;!
1l
C:1 IT f:P.
~rr. ;.'

nlE t?A'3II.-ICA: Vlce.nza - .j" f;WtJ-01:ct"'v /og91;;J "r arcaJe- Wp<;> dt:s1ene.J vy Andrea f'",II:<3dltJ In 11746 to wrar? ;ar"unrJ ;PVl eXls+'lng medlcv",1 ",t,"uut-ure, 'rfllS addl"hm not o~ly buttresseJ tl1e c;.Xl5tll1q ::;;-/;;ruc-ture bl}t ;;1\&0 ;Jete,;;! a-s> -;:l Screen W:3t: dl51uIseJ H1e Irresul::;wlty of -bM& £'rljln-a.i CO\"'6 and rreGeY1t.cJ a unlhrm but. eb~;PVlt ·F-ave -bJ Hie FbttJ

del Sl6norl,

fl-'d.:: 'JTOA Of A1TAL00 : NkeM'?

In a,d"l !"i::ICY) ttl We sCrv",tur",/ role- c&i umns pi .. ;

In <0lJrrorbi1:J the.- overhead r"pf ri1>ne;, they tll?o ctlntll"'t:lcui;;>t6 the- e.Jgee; at it,d:'?r'lcr sF~'ba\ une-5> WHile 'l311t1wlM~ ~hem b 11'1t.6rl?'ck eaf,dy wlf;~ a)J~(/er1t:. 0p;3oe€>.

~~

~B_-E:

Wurrrr--tl

~:~

~>~~ Q

p -, ,P

1l ti: :'. p

" '

•• 1

~ ..... ~.~

~:~:::~!i

ill Bj![

Ii... if!

L~ .. :':

P. .:

II: ::l

. fIli:

I~ ""_ ~~ ~:I

,Il~~~_~

r~MI"J,r:: Of ATHE:NA P'OJ,IAS: rr;e~e.f'yt.h IUS C, 33'1 !'I,C,

'Twt' contrMilY1g eX;Jmries; G.1liJYYln.e ;:lr·but}i;'3~'Y\~ t~e edges .1f :;3 ~iJtldlnj f"'t"i1l Wi ?face~? wcll ;a? t~e edges "f an extenar ?F;lC-::' d8flned wl-bkwl ;> ~ulidlnV1 fmn,

v

<Sf. PH 1 J..I BI::Rr ; Tounw0, fr;;ln~eg'50-1;:10 ~ view "p n;lV&

, '

' •• 1

Llne",r mem~e.i"~ "r;lr1n!r1j nmzJnt;lliy

C;>vl r"JVI"je a mcJer.a-l::e

JetlMlb",n :and aiC 0~ces while. all"'WiYlJ ·hltcreJ 0unllght "VI"'~~f'~~ ~reeze6 to ren~tr~t~.

Vert'ic;i ;lnJ I1drJtord~)i ! Inc.ar eierncnt0 tth1eH1er c.pn define. a

../

Yt1!VI'Ylc';_ of t?~.a{/e. GlJ,;:;.iA ',36 'trle-

,

t:;",i"'r'JUrl1 Ilivst;rp1;eJ to if1e. rlt1~t,

~ v ~

N)/:;e l:;hat tl1 e fIrm 11+ the:- ve?lume/ i0

de-Cel"rY1lne.J ?oidy ~J t~e t.t'Yl-h>lUrJt:l"'Yl

I Ul ""I

of. tnC'~ IJr1e~r element:?,

33

- _-> _-.f _---)

_--

OD

00

A laie extended (1I1;a direction other -J;h,m Its IntrinsIC:dlreCtl,m) ~ccc7me0 ;;; rl;;lne, Concerb;;lrl -J ri$ill1e n;;l0 lel1j-bh ;;>n.d wld~hl but. no Je;rth.

Sh2>re IS J;l f'1;.1n~1.;, f'1"11Yl.<lry l..Jent.lfylt1j on;>r ... "terlstlo, Ii IS- Jebermlned by me conbvr cf J:;l1e line- torl'YlInli t-h&

v I

edje--s tlf the rbanc-, Since dur perc;ert;ll1t1 ?'f a fl~ne? .

&h~f'e IS dl..7ttJrbed !?y rer-'7rec:;b!V0 we 7<Z- t.ne- hvt', ?Vlilre.. of ~ r/;:ane- o~r when we View It fnmtplli'

me;. surf;acC/ rre1j?ertles Ilf ;a rbi1e/ rt5 color ;and rex.ture; 'Ndl :affect It':? V10v)1 weight. and 0t;lbillty,

In -the ft1rrn;ah?11 t1; ;? vlli?iJ;al vc:7n-::;trVi/-\;lan, -J !?iane..-

I

0erVe& -\;0 dt/flt1~ -b~? liM,.!;;'';' "I" blJn);lrlesdf -;;:I

v17l!)tn&, 01t1C& arohli:/ev1;'ure; ~ ;;) vl0ual art, de;Jls sreclficaii7 WI1::n the f,m'l1a-tl,cm at ~hree- Jlmef1?ictl,;;d volume..? A rV'rm ;111) ""race, tfic. r1ane 17eO?lm es ';<l ke-y element in the v1'o-:abr)I;;wy ",f :archltutura/ .dC?I:Jt1,

f'IJnes 1M Jlr~hll::e?t:lJre define.., three-tlmlenslon;al vc?lvme,6 01- ftlr't11 ~n.d '7r~ce-. 111e- rrarerG-le7'

.1+ etlch rl.;9.ne.- ['SIte., -sh;;lre, ~t7It1t; texture) a0 wei! :9& t:~elV' 6f'J,,.b~1 relatloM0V1lr 1;0 0116 ~notner Will ul'l::im9tebt tletermm& tke YI0V.;a! rr.?[",ertlc& of 1)1& form the.y tldll'le- ;;ll'ltl -t~e 1i1.;l/It;le6> "'t t.H.=:. SI"23C& the.y eVlolo0e-;

Th~ geVlerlC- tire", t'f rl;>lt1ts tnat are m;;3mpul;ateJ WI ar~hd:;e-?tl)r;?1 J~'fJn J:jre-:

1. nf~ OV~~I1~A1? flANE

ine overheatl rl~ne C;l.Y1 J:.e elt:H6r He rtl.?f f'1~nel ;1- hJlltl lng's prlm.-rl rrt1-bec:;-i;/dn Jllj;;lll1~t ike. c.llmatlc element;.;;; or t:ne c.edlt'lj rl;at1&/ t.~e. sl1elt.e.rIl1j elemeVit 1r1 arof1,/;.eufur.;;11 &p;;>ce-.

Z. TH e IVAL-I..- fl .. -ANt::

Verble:;!! wall rl;Jne~ ~re. VI&u:;>lly -/:;~e. 1110.;;,1;; ::3c-tlV& In de/hrllng ;;at1d e:n&I'?'3ln~ .f>race..

,. rue BAse nANe

ine ~rC7VI'ltl f'lal1c rravlJes the rhYSlc31 6Vrpt1l"C :;lf1J t.I1e v/su;;al 1?;a0e t.?r ~urldlMg t.?rms. 1he .fldllr rl;;;lt16 sUf"rorbs L7ur ad.,lvlt/(;S wl'i,:.HII1 ~utlJ It\~S,

e. ll!·bm;abeJy 6Uf'r'cJ(ts ;all

/ i I

, I. I' t: " I

arid t'-V' g"'?'c~]r;;p'r'lva: (-ond ot" tf1-:::. "",;1/6;

vt'lr'o!Jtd r:!;a11 tc1f"aVj(}t:?hi C/hftlra?t:,er <shOlJld :;aHec;t -the J::7rm ?1t

~I)ild Irl,g , t.M?l-t:. rls;~ ~r:7:n Ii;, The.. LJlf15 on rr1er-~e- w,Ui H1e t1rt1:J!'1d

1:?1~i'16, <SIt C'11 It:; or be elev,ai:e) :aW1V6 It.

I

Tn,~ ?':rC'(Jl1d f"i.ane- It.seif C~Y\ be m;anlpula/;.e) ;;30 wei: r6cerve;a ~UdJil1?)

.._/ I I .._,r

tt7rrrL It ct3M l?e ele V.a+ed 1;0 h"ntt .. , a 6?lc;reJ .Jr ~Ionlh::/;;Jn-t l?i;ac6, it; Cpn

J ,

~e ~ermeJ 1;0 deflt16 ouUt:1Or' spaceS or buffer 3t?;a:n6+:: unde-Slrabie eiements.

it: C~t1 I?e c;l(ve,) or terraced tr; rr,1V!de a sud;a0le f'lalAorm ::in WhleJ1 -be?

~J)II,J. Ii: C;;111 '9t.erreJ +0 aJI""w chanees in brd~rarhy ttl fJ6 easily

+r~~rGed. . __ z~~::,;;~?cr'-----=~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

. , "'.

<, I ..

, ,~

SITTINGl A!ZE:A_,< t..AWR!:'NC-e House : 0~: ... i':';JI1t'h, CJMc?l"'nl~ ft1l-rWIM"{lr~ - ,urn i:7vli it;!iP(P ,

SIKC.t: t.nc floor pi;;lne.. ?Urp.,rc.s ovr jJc-i;IVIt.k~0 Wlthil" 21 ~i/ddln~i If::; 'Shr1oldl ",f Odvr.sC-1 ~e 0trvGtur;lr 0dun,;:! pnJ .::lura ~ie-, it it?> ;[",0 ;an IrYiptlrb;;ln1; )e-s: 411 el~m ~n1; wl-thl n

;a "'r;lC-e., Its }.,rm, 0.,1.,1"'/ r~~tern, and text.ure.. wd I ,debrm Ine.v to what. degree :t

will Jdlnc we- ~dVr1J;rle", Pi- a <0race. ~i1.J serve jl!3 j VI6v;3/ grcuYlJ ~tllr.:?t whl?~ ,;1i:;ker el-emcl'1t,~ IYl .u,~ 0rac.:e- c3ln ~e 0eer1, T~e t..exbre al1d )eYl-7!l:;y t>f tne m.at.erl~i un.Jer.rt:1pt will ~I~ ~1fevJ:: ndw we wjJlk .aero'?0 If;~; 0vrf:;;lce,

fmt?t'n.r~ '~e;-iMf'£:,RIA(.. f'A!"M~ f<;ot:ol J;lIf';l11

~lk6 ine.. grc?un.J rl;3I1<::', -e11e- 11Mr r1:;m6 C-;;liil??;-:;:: m~nlru/;:lb&d, It; c;:l11 i?e. sterreJ t?r terr;ace.d

to ~re;3k tVJe "'.?o:;;Jle err ';;l -Sf? ..;ace" J"I'/rl ~o Mum:;JV1 dll'Ylen-:>lcnt:' ;;lI'lJ create fi21ttG1rm0 tt?r' "7IHtn11 Viewing I or ferfdrm'n~, Ii: '/~VI I/e.. elevated bo clctrne ;lYl nonor'ltlG tit" "",acreJ r1jJce, It. c;;ln

l1e- rendered :as a rtevtr~! 0urt'i.1ce. t'l.1:;;1IYl.;:,t whlul-1 cJt.kc.:r elemer1i:,0IVl -j;~f?; spac.e are

37

TM~ t5xterlt'r W;JI! rl:;;1166 c?-t a ~Udd!l1~;;3 vv/t:f1 rij;lne,

!?en~tr;;tltll1 tJf e-I!W1ablv ei£l11enrs the b>UdJit1Vl0

I J

mterior ""{,,;;lees, OfeHlngs In iJr l1ei::weet1 the eXte;rldr wail ri;Jr1es

determlt1-e. the .Je~rc:~ b WV11011 t-f1b 1Y1-benor~ ""F.ac:.,es wdl re I at-e- bo

Mr 0{"acee" rho vonflgvr,atlt.1r1 tMe exterlcr w.al! pl::ane'0

their JpeMln3s [ ~egcrd>1e the [7u!/d'Y\3~ ·overall

form ,md m;A'7?lnVj,

"

A J ' , J.. 'I i I,.j.. I t, - J

';7 a tle01tll1 eiemr.::·Y'It", ;an eX\,erlOtr WJli V' ;'lt1e ;.,;in ve ,;ilrvlC-V ;:lv&;/

I J I IIf t. II I

~'8:a 'dlnjS r'dt1t:: -r.?lce ,ilr primary fa C.?ld 0, In vr~Jn

0Itu.ah::>r17,these btllLJ 111~ r.;;acades 0ervc: :as wall? .J:;n:#t:. defll1e. .q,treet-s ;and rVb/Ii:; 'S'paces sVvh :;:17 111 Jwket:rl.aces; rl:!3uas/ ~nd 01u.;3res,

j .,

m m ~
I I
lit I!l 0 An ImrC))'+:<lnt- usc:: ot bl1e. verh:;;;tl w)il rl~ne 10 as ;9 0Urf'.1rtl(1~ el~m~Y1/:" 111 th~ ~e;lV'lVl~ WJl!l 0trvotur~1 0/st;em, WheVi ;l1"'r';lY1;1ed IV! ;;;l r~l"'alJel .serle.;; i?' 0Vpf'tiri:; tI1e overnea.d rl;:3l1& I be;.rlr1~ w;;l116 ,;Je.fll'lt.:.- Imear -sL1tS ",.f <3>r;:3~6

W It.h '!71;.rdYlg d lI"eut:t&t1al "1,V.a I'"t.le?, T14e?e ~r~cef:7 can ~& rel:;a-ceJ t& /JY18 ~ntd:,ker .:11'111 l?y 'VlterrUr'Ctvt:1 t-ke l1e~rIHt' w;;JI -b" c-reate rerreVl.J,cul~r une..;, ot -e>rac6,

lri tke rrojebt l?elow, +ree0-t~l1d 1I1~ !-?rlck t;e;;;lrlr1~ wall-e> V1;;JVe- been vseJ

LI. 11,/1 I /I II f +:'

togeHer WIUI v ,)f1.o T C,OYl l~ur;L!t7Yls

-to c..re;3i;e :?t'l I VI terloukl M& series tit er:a-oee,

r j -I'
• Il II' ,

;,:1.;' -.. ;l:~;~: ~ ~

Ln' ~ ij rn

.. .:1141.. IL:::..

a J B
n 111 ·WI
11 n ~ COUf'lTR'( HOUSE. IN BRIC-t<. (FrtlJC'&f. ' :'11 Z'5)

Mi?S v:;ln ;;l",r R""he~

Intul.?!", w;;;il f'1~nes Jdlne ~nJ erl"liJse. ;;l ~Uild 111~IS <Braces "'r IlrOtltrls.11 Their VI!> v ... I rrt7f'6rhes, WeW' relat/;f'j'5h'f -br? tine :anV't.ne~ ~nd tke 01ze ;;lrvJ dl'S,trrit'ubl1n Iff 0renln'3s wlt:hll1 tf1em hldi J-et-errtW1e- cl1e. 1u;;alli::y "t He- 0y&lCe t.~e)' .defln6 and We de::Jree f;o v,;nl"n tVie srace wJiI r"lace b the 0f;3ve'3 t'lrt7tJnd /t:.

As ;;3 Je~l~n e;lemef1t, ~ WJII rl~ne. C,;3n mer~e wd;~ the tlJvr or CC::;:!Ii1,q rl~t1e, 01'" ~e ~rtlc.ul;;li:;ed ;ilb ;;:;n 1?c?I~b::d r!;3ne. it c;a11 ~e a neu-tr;;a/ l?~c:;k.dr,;1F' f,w dtl1er eletr1el1t~ In the. 6F?ilce, ",I'" 1'/; t-;>r1 I?e <3 vl~v;;3!ly ;3otlVe element

wli~ln 1'1;, I,{; C&t1 17e "'f;<lque-t or tr.at1<sraren-t, ;;J t?t1urCe cf II~ht or View

Ii- IS the surface af ;) w:;all i-h:at we see trClm Within ;a r.:Jom. It 16 Hi'?

thin l:aycor et m;;lterl;;3/ th .. t term s the V6rtlc-:a1 bJ!mJ ~ry cf the. 0face. !he. act!),,1 thlc:kne00 tJr J w.all On b>e revealed tJi'lly alt1n~ Its eJge:;, at dMr ~nd WlndClW 0re.nln~6.

· "'

While we hJVc> f;?hY:7lc;a/ c/ad:,;;lc;r- \?i;;:'nc::s, tke.-

ceillV1~q rlarle 10' u'S!);::.lly 11"1Or'e disbnt tr,J/I'1 US '"?-11,d 10' ;31111(1&1:: ;;l

rure1y VI?U;;.l! event In :a t:>P;:lC8, It carl carre'? ttl tke fcrwi

or ~e We un,der oS1Jrt.aC6 af the raa.f- cJr fioiJr fl;iil/1e ~ b,fv~1 ,lim,d

e..xrres>? I+S ",truubur'e. it can be a tie-/::ac;he,3 Ilr11t1~ vlli;\-:It'l

tl 0f';:lCe;.,

As .a Jetac:h-e.J ItHlng, the ceding Flarle C;;3V1 ~e m.anlf'ul;;<teJ f,o 0ytrd~t?II:te -I:Jre V;;;lUlted 01<; rl;3i1e:., It c,;;ln be ra\0e,J Cit" Idwered ttl alter the 0G:aI~ of -J3. &p;;;ce, or to ,dehne t-01e?

t:?f 0~ ce- wltkwi a r'Jt1m, It c.;J.n fpc farl11e.Jt:c7 vcrJi;,t"Ji ike:- 1y;II~Y A- Ilg~-{:;, or ;aC.1iJstlcs Wlt-hln J sp:3>ce. it c..a.n i?e tre,ateJ 1:;17 h;;ave I d:.l:-Ie tlr no 1m 1'%1;, &11 ;;J 0race, or ~ecome. the ma !plr

ut1lfjli1jelemen1:;. ft?r inc s>rac~. . ¥

TIt? rCliJt rLJine ~ ;? ~[}II.Jln~~ prime. ~f1el-l;e.rlng e.lc:;ment, rroie.::::tlYlg' It.S IVlte.rl~r fr.?rrl tl1e OII/l13.clC. ele.rnetd::<s. Its fIrm IS Mtel"tr1lJ1ed

~r tne "C'4rnetY'Y ;an) tn;3l~rl Jl,J f; ~ rf::,!:; St-I"Vc,1;ure, .;altlJ -/;I1e ma.t'It1er In wj,) lu~ It 0r~n0 ;?U,100 'S!7;.ice ,;>I1J We..3r& ,;?r1 IC-S surf/res, At:? ~ Vl6u;i de01~11 element, ihe' rl1t1f r!j.l1e I-G> .a budJII1~10 'lh3t~ ;;6I1J C;i11 h'.iJve ~ 01:)nlrlc-~n-t IWlf'Mt: ,m the hdJ Inq:;' f"rm and 0>dh,;?ucHe.

The r:~f ri;;ll1e. CAIn ~e vnd)en fnJm Ylew ~y ;? hilJ'~1~ w;lIo!!>, er It ~n merCle wlHt -the wj.lIs f;{) em~na.~lte:- ~he. ~ud.dln~~ vt:llume ~YlJ rt1 .. ~,

....; i ...;

Or rt c"n ~e expre?~eA )-e. .;a horlt:ol1bf or 01.?rln~ f'1~nc:;.

ike rdaf p'1~ne cpn hover t:lYer ~ ~utlJ/n~ i:?' <snleld a""enln~!7 IVI -l:.ke-

i· . J . I J

wall'? l?,~liJW tram sun cJr r~ln, or rel:pte Itself CldSe-ly 1;-, -bne grGfund

f'1~ne. it; Coon ~e eleva-bed 1ilPove f) l?uddln~ In w.arrn cllrr1:ates -to ;;J!low n;;Jt;ur6li Yer'ltilat.ICli1 ;;lOro166> ;3Y1d tl1rt1vah ;J ~ud.J Ing~ -sr;;Jces.

SHOt7HAN HOU0f., .Li.hmed2l:;...;ld, inJI~ Ig>3,0 [..e Cdr'bu'7ler

KAUFMANN. HOU6f, II fAt-~ING WAn:-~ Cot1rleI10vdle., f'~~I1"XIV;;n1Ia 1~'?.i>·37

Frank Uoyd Wrl:Jht

A ~ulLdll1g8 t1v6r':a11 .f-orm ~)Y1 n"'V6 ;;l f'1;3t1~r .qya11i:y lJy AIHerentl;J.1::Ii1j vertlc,..1 t3nd norltolrt.ai rl.)ne:; WI~~ ChaYlges In m~tcm;ll, coitlr, ~n.d texture, and Ify c,;;lrefuliy 111-!;Y'c),;! uc;ln j 0Fenlrl~:; ~ebween them jiVld ;;It t-1r'nerG b vl:?v<3lly eXl"0&e thel r edgee. .

• ' r,'

~

\

... .. + --r·

®o

A rl;;sne extended (In a. dW'<::ctlt111 .,fJler than It? IntrinSIc;. dwec.btm) ~ecome$ t1 wlume. Conce::rtuJilIl)"1 ~ vO'lvtr1e riA? thre~ dll1lel1£:oldMe: !~111tn, wI~f;h, J'll1d deff;f1.

A! I Wllftr1 e.,;; ,;:.,a!1 ~e t3t1;;lly zed ;;ilnd tJl1.:ier0tPaJ tt' con-e>I:;;1; "f:

• f"'t1t$ (verbcc$) I where sevcr~1 f'1~t1e£> Ct7me tt7get~er;

----a 11t1~";; Cedge6) ,where. tW,1 r!:al1e s meet; ,and

... planes (surfp~?), the:: itmd;e. dr' ~t7vn~.arle6 "f ~wlul't1c::.

form I£> the rr"I't1;;1ry ide.t1tlfylng cnarac!:erlstlc of 3 wlume . it I~ cler,crmlncJ b>l the- shapes t3n.d Intarel:ahmshlps <1f the f'1.an~s th:;lt.Jes?rl~e ~l1e I?aund;lrlcs ,tf the- YdllJtr1e,

hs t-he -bh ree--J Imen<?ltm~1 dement In -the vocabtul.~rr "f arvh:tectura! desl~nl .3 volum6 can ~C/ el'l;;her' sellld, 0f'3ce d'6rl"ced 17; m:;J<??, 171" VOid, sr;;ace c,t7nt.;;llt1ed 17r' eY1clo<?ed ~)I ri;anes,

eL-EVATiON

0V7dCe- jJsriace) fJY

40

CD BlJIL-vINGl FOr\M5 AS VOl-UME.0 IN Sf'.ACf.

i: ,

4) f7UIL.DINl?i FORM'S DEFINING.

VOLUMES OF SPACE.

'" "

,",

-. ,,'

"',

.. .

. . .-

..

;".:

5HAF'E

; tke rrlncifJl! Idev1bfYif13 dl;3raCGerr.;bc of fori'll ~ 0n;3/:7e re'7!!it-s. ff17fT1 tne-

; .

0paif'lc" ~ntl9 ur.,abtn of; hr>r'~ 0urtaces arJ ed3es,

5iZc

: We real dlrnen0lt?nS of form, its ieYlgtn; wldtn, ;iJn,d depth) while the5e tl:menSI<?I'lS .determine the. rr-oforilol1s of 'J f"rm, 1"1;0 sc;ale IS Jeterrr\lne) ky 10 51ze t"(';/aGNt: /:.0 other t-drms In rbs COt1t:exi;.,

COl.-OF: : ~rle hu~ Inten01-\;Y, anti tonal vallJe.- ot .a

forms <SlJrf-ace,) G-olrJr 1& t~ k3ttn bl)C.e. in.at miJ~t cleprly dl~,tll1jU!?hes J f"rm fro!')') It'S enVlronr11e.nt, /t also -atf-e.:;:;ts ~h6 VI£>U,a! wel~I'j-b .,f ;J t-orm,

TEXTUi\E : th~ surbce c;h;;.r,aci;Orl'~tlc,s ot ~ f,wm) texbure ;aHc:ots hrbh the tPt::;t::.i1e- :at,.d !Iqh:/;;-rerle-c!;.ive.. 1v.;lII~le?

t 1". I f

or J3 ttlrm0 'Sur .aces,

POSITION

: ;;l form!;;' lou-.,a·bc7r1 rel)tl ve -to It~ enVWdnmenc or VIM;l1 -Flr!lld.

Of(!~NTATION

:;a ftlrm~ P001tlOn r'el~tlVt:; b t::h6 ~r.?'Ut1d rlpn~, tHe. oomraoS£? f'olnt;s, ar 1;0 -the. rerG-tJH VleWI ng -/;he- ttlrrri.

ViSUAL. INERTIA : fhe Jet-wee or COY\Cerltr:atlt7n ;;lrld ?tJ~dd;; of ;3 torm) the VIS>U,a! inert:la uf a .form defend=> en It"" geometry as vveil as d;s dnel'1ia1:lm rei ,a.l;i ve t& HM grt1Vtld ri;;l}16 .aYld our' ! I tie. ,,+ slg~1t,

All t?t -l;.keo/e vlGual proper·be.:? tJt fmtl ,we. In rciJldy ;affeuteJ by .J;;~e Ull1dl/:;I'?Y7~ UI1.Jef' wnlC:V1 we view t:nem ~

• OLJr per0f'?utIVe- or .aY'lgl? of VieW

• t7ur )IG-I::,:;lnce trClm tl1e {,mY]

• II t1 hi: It1 P1 t&Y1d It i on !?

. the VI;IJ;d rleiJ surrOtindll1,g the ·~t1rrY1,

. ..... ~ . ..._(~

f--- .

i

bl V;fII,:;11 Vir;

line, :3

i I,. II' 'J.,I,

;;; ? 0T';:ilpe, Y'I/II tJeFe-vld ;1Vivfl<,'

the ft'rr() 3f1d d;;s b.a,;;k~raund,

v

• flJ3rk~? (tit1",r-s, w;JiI0/ ceil iYl"'!) th;>l-t; c:::ncia0t:. sp.ace __

" ,",' '\ j!

PFer1ir1~:? ( ~n.J JC1r0) v/l-t!1ln j.l c"'ra't:J:3i end "?i)r',~

He, 0d V11fJebl::-% i1t- blftidlrlt1 -tVnrJ0.

•. = : ..

. --------- ------,

o

/\

Given :any cumrOSit-'Cln vf wrm::?, de wdl tend bo reduc-c:. -t;~b rn;iter 11'1 JVr field c:f VISJ&n -t,p the.. slm'Pl~st ;::>nJ rr1d.st I

re'5vl.;;Jl ~Yl;::>res, The !?Imrier pnd fl19're rC:::Jvl;r a share- 15/

-bi1e ea-Gler It; IS fa tpen::e{ve ;3Y1j undbr-;:;t;~nd,

I

Fr'C'1'Yl gc;;Ol'l'le-{:.ry we knt1w the- r&:Jul:;;lr 0hare-s b I?e -We. clr<::/i~, and ,n-hrlibe series ,If r&jvi:w (Ie, havln~ eq(/~\ 01Je6 meeti(h-1 "",-1; eqV;:il1 al1t'lI~) 1:70lj'1>7ns t~~ caVl ~e IM?.;r! b?~J

v v ,j I v LI.

m/;hln It, of- t+Je$e, bhe mJ'::;C- "Sl~nlflC-;;iHJt ",r'e H& rnm.ary

?nare:s" -I;v.? C1r,::;:I&, t:~e- hI9t101&, ~YJJ thb 0'iV;lre-.

: ?i 0eri~ ;If f'cllnh, jlrr.an~ed e,j!~v.alli' aVId 0.aI;;nce.d -;Jh .. iJ1:- ;;. pcllnt.

I

THE TKI,AJl6.~E ;;3 plane tlj!)r~ ~,;?(JV1Jed ~y -b.hr~e- Glde6, aM h.avl~ t-nree RY11ie6,

: a r/:me f'~'Jre- h..avli'l] fCiur e1.val ~IJes and -Enr f"ight an~iet"

T'

The tir:::;ie I"? t3 ;entr'a!IZedi iY1trtilJerte.d hwr'e.

J.I. I I' I " .1 I I ~ ,."

~rt.a'(/ I~ ('iarJ'Yl:;;l V St:.a"",6 ':?y\£,I '0C;,t-:::'CYlt.e.r-!r1j ii1 r~s

envirOMmef1'/::, A:aGiM a clre-ie. IYl t0e:. c.e.I'1t:.c.r ",f tl

t- ; V I

-!'Ie.l,d \'vdl relnrol'"'ce-- [/;'0 Mrur,;;.i c.enrrald::y,

ASS';)CI;;ltlrt'1 I't. w i-!:k ?tral~ht or :;3¥1;Jular f.1l'l'VIS or

... 1 ...; V I

p/IlCln"1 an element -;3IJ~": Its clr'CLJlr1fer81",v8, c~n

I v '

Indtice 1V1 it, ;;;y\ ,;;IPI'7"lr6n-i:: r.?brv mat!.:?t1,

i , I

T'.l- r , ~" " .i- t. ,l1e v('i?Mie. SI,qn1tlcS <S~:;Jb?I:'t:.y. Vlnc::r1 re0vii'l?1 aM ilYk:-. ,il,

J • _

d::s SI,Je6/ bl1,~ tI"l 10 ,.;;IVi extrerfieiy =)t.a~le.- f':Jur~. When

tW:7e) w stAnd on one. pf It? verr,lc .. e.c, h,Jv!6v~r J't:' Cfin 61t:r1or'

I I' "'-'{ . I

! L I ! . J. i. t I I L

ve ~"'I;;>n&e,..a IVl :;;; rrx-;anoils :;,,,,;;It;.e Pi e.qUlilvnuWl or 11'6

vY!6t.able'/ and t.end t;; -F;,II over iJYl0 ;}(i8' ;.f. if:,:; Stdes.

.''."

The 8au:ar'e reb'reserr/;'s -bhe, I?ure, aYid the r.atlcJV1;);, ft; I'? ;::. ":7ta'l;!G

v I J ~

Ji.lnd neut-r.a( fi,;wre navlr'lfj nc:l rreferrecd dlrec:d;,I,m, Allo-!:i1e:.r

ret/bn~le6 c,a"f1 ~e (/V'l1s~dered V;>Wi:at:I.?J1-::'; dt He "?q v;a re-I devl;;l-tIOY1<? from -Ute n(lr'111 by fhe -a))'t:/V'VI A- helt:jht ctr Wid-bh, ~Ike. -the.. tn-;af'l~lel we;, 0t~y.ar6 I~ ?t.a~ wheVi r.:%!::in0 on one;

It0 'S/)es" ;In.J d/I1:911116 when s-f;-;.;ndlnj on ore oP ::;,orne!'.s

~~,i

.. /} .... - .. '-.,

.'

"'--f" • i

...• (~:\~~

~:t~:~l~

.. c-

rill-IJ~ ~tJlJl\_I\Jil

'""

-- _.- ------ + ,- - __ - -- -. _ .. ----.-----. -- ,--_ ...

l'J.11~llJl~ ll~ SlJJ~lJJ~

I'

" . ,Cu~es, cone'S,; -spHeres; vii IViJers>;

I

J J I _! r_

or pyramid? ;;ire tne gre.;lt; rrltr1ary i;;1rms

i;h;ilt I reveals b .aJVJli'1ta.~e) -l;kc>

r ! I I' J t, I !

Ima1~ t>I tVieGC"~ 1& JIGt! Mt ;m?l ".arl~i i;7,e

WltVliY1 us ;and \Vlt11",!/t ;;Jm~I,9Viby. it. I:'> fdr ihl0 re;;;l0dY: iha-r the-se.- are he,;;ubtiJ! ti?rms, ifle" tYltl5t be.all'b+ui ftJrrns. II

~e C.O~BUSII"i'<,

ffie rrim;arl -'7h.arc-s caM ~e r';xL~nJed tll~ r?'bt.e.J to gc:-ner.atc:. wlllt11c::.s Who!56 fmrl'S ~re "1[,,,tI Y1utl re~t}I.ar,. ;;;IYld eMriy rec;0:Jrtl.t;;lH:~. The0e t-')r'ms are. r&ferre~ b ,as the.ri atvl1lc 0ollds. eWe-ies 'jeVler'.?lte Srf1eres and 0V!1I1der's) tf'r .. Vle1es ~e;1er;;at;& cones 3\1kJ flrpl1l'ds; 01vpres '5eMcr.;oce oub&s,

-r~~ ?.?r~er6 I? .a cc:-~,tr.;;;llteJ ,ill1d hl~flly c.oncer,iral::e) fdr'it), it 1'5>1 Irk,e.. the cirole fY't?tt: Wf'lIOhiC IS VleVler;;sted;

v

'0eif- ceY1terrrl~ ;;lY1d n,wrn;;.!I)" 0t;k>lv

l(l Its CVlVIr'ontt1ewt::. it C,;;·Yi b6 if1C.IIYl6d b<1w"slrd ;a r.,t;ary 111c:71:;I?'r1 ,'\'hen pL;JCed ,JVI}) :'7Jt1r1nj (1;;;116. Frt7rr1 any vt~WFaint, If; rt!!!;:.;alrl.? Ibs:::'ln:.;u/;lr 7h:are..

TH f. CYU NDEI'(

r'rle. cyLn)er IS (/~I'l'/;.r})kt~J ;a~t?vt; He~:X\5 )efl need by ine- c,6K1;er:'> A 11;;& two Glr'vu/~r faces. It ;;.;Jrl ~e ex-t~:HldeJ ea?l[y -;;liV'rlJ! bhl0 aX16. 1116 ;yllf·1d6r :~ ;a ?trJ01c: ~rr1'1 If II:- re",i:;s tJl1 CltM ,If Its (}Irvvl::ilr f .. ca;;) rt l1eO,1tr1&!'> ut1Gta~lb when Ibs ceilt,ral aXIs IS 1nc;llrh:~J.

'.,

"

THE GONE

fne tt7ne. It:> gcm~r;lf;e.J by n:ll::;atJt1j an e4,ulI ~ter.ai ./;rl,;:;ln~l? J1btJuc It.S vertic-a I ~XI<;?, ~Ik? iii? oyllr'lJer/ -i:f1e/ oC'ne.. 1 ~ ;a ~ I.., k 11 '5J:: . .a~le f",rrr: wh?Y! re",tIYl.1) ,;?n d~.6 tlrc,.,)I;:;;r h~?&i -'lrld Ul10ta He WVI?,,) d;s vert-Ical pll::, 10 -hrre.d tlr &V8r"turned. It c.~n $1"'0 be'8b",J tin Its jlrex' In a fn~c.~novs 0t;te/ pf b:;l/;3/1 ce.

THE PYRAMiD

TMe fyr;;<tn,d hat> :;,1n1: 1:91"

-t;d i:k:70'(;: bile. o.:mo, E?c:c;,au::>:~...- ~!l

Its el)r~bc&s :lJr(":, vldwever;

the: p)'r';;;r(lld car: re""t In a ",,1;;:able· mar1l'1er' J'l'1 vt fYMI t:',Yr;lrrll"j \

Ie, rei:;;d::lVeiy har'd ;Jnd .tlMjul:ar,

I •

1HE: CUBE.

arf'arc,;nf; a 01:;;able tvnn

{IV) one;; ~+ -edVle~, or' CPt'ner'=",

J

Irs ,a)1~ul;llr rnJfde, ':'7, ;:.Hed:od by

our VIBVVfoHrt, tne. £:-u17erem;\lII1'5 .a reco0 rllZ::<ll:?le +&t'trI.

CHAf'r;:.l.-; MA0S,AC,HVS~TrS IN:s>nrUft::: OF

C;IlmbnJ:')4 Iv1M,,;;tc:hv~ej;t"' 10~~ eerc

COflICAL. GlSNOTAfH, II C'!;~PTN11e::" I"'roJC'vt by F:tienne- LoUI,;; 17Mlee-

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"<, . /"

01

1\'1~(ilJI .. uUt & Iltll]~(tIJJ~ll\' 1?()IUrIS

(;2

K'e.::Jul:ar ft'rl115 refe.r tP .ljla~e whd66 r;;lrt:5 .. re r~lab~ to one ?J11,?thcr Irl p c,msl;;,-{;,cnt and "rJer~ manner. Th~y ,;3r'e qener.aJlj .;;taHe In nahre P",J <?/trlmetl"'lc:a1 ;ahwt tJr1e tJr 111t'r'e axee. Th~ rL~j;al1lC- -G<?lld'G ~re prime. e:x.amrle0 of re'j!J/ Jir' fmn0,

furms o"n ret~tn their re~u/;3r'It.y even when trJill16f"rmeJ .dlmeI1S'~n;lI~1 ar by tne a),J ,h,m /7r 0uHra.ctlclI1 tJt elel'Y\ent&.

Irre:01J1;;W ferrrJ0"re thQ:;;.e WhO:;;6 r:ar'bs ;;;lr-6 dl%lmJi:ar 1M n.aiur'e ;and relat.eJ to c1I1e. .anpf;.ner In an In?onsisterrt manner, T~ey pre 5ener;lir a.<Gfmmetr'c;1 tlYld mdre dynamiC il1;an rejul.~w tt7rtf1$, They tJ31'l be re~ui~lr +t'rms frol11 wt1lth Irt'egul;t' element'Z> ~.ave betrl 5vl:1t:f"ai/ud or an IrreglJ!~r Ct'mrosrbJI1 ef re8u/;ar forms,

Since we tiMI wd;t1l1ttl1 0011d':3 ;nA VOIJ'.7 In arc..h!i;.cotlJre, re:fjul;;ar ferms O;:1r'1 be c<1nt.alne.d wlt.hrn Irregul:ar form-s-, S'r!1i1.ar~ Irre~ul;llr ti1rmt> C:dYl !'?e e.VJclosed bl reBol"II" ft1rm0.

,---- ---------_---,

I

',-

'" I.'

lIP JRf\:e~ULAR fORMS Wi1ffIN A RE&!ULAf(. fieLD:

COU!<:f House; f'R.::?J~i: 1"J:3tf MIU. V;i)rl der ~h&

lIP ReGULAR fOf<M0 , WliHIN ,*,

I PJ(eGl'U~Ar::

COMPoSiii oN ;

0Ut"IAt~ f-iA5SAN MOS<RUr; :

·-~ ..

':_ ....

Ail o1;~er hm'Yls ?~n [Je ur1,Jer"5t:;<1t1d b be -bl'"'afisf<1rm,;lti<1n5 .1f -the ria-tonlc 001Id'i.7, v.arljltlt7t1S il1;31:: .are g&l1erated ~y -bhe rn:an'ful;;il!;.lon tit their' ,;:hnensl&"n-;'1 ar by the ?uk?tr.acbon or ald!bltl'n i1f elements,

DiMr:;,li5/0NAL TRANSFO~.MATION5:

A t-,;wm C;;ln be tI"Jnsft:1rlt1e) ~y t:l!terlYlg one or more of Ibs Jlmen01/11-S ,l3I1J s·1::I11 ret~ln It:.:; farn'r idened;,!, A c.ubel f::w e)(~mrle, on lYe tr.;;lrisr,m·l1ed 1i'!'1:;1 o-/;~el" rt"lsma·!:Ic.. f.?t"ms ~j ai-ten nOl Its ne'i"ly!t i vvldtM, cH" lerl?lt?h. 1~;;af1 ~e c.omrre ':>sed i nt.c? a ~i;ai1;rf-crrt1/';cr~tret:(/f1ed Into ;a linear one.

I

0lJBTr;ACTiVE: TRAN'SfOf'~rv1AT!ONS;

A ttJr'lti :;..,.h ~.:;; tr'jln0+orrr',C'~J l1y 5vh:iravill1lj a fdrbot1 of it::>

. 17epeVi.d iVl~ dYi the 6Xtent ?if t~e .;!) ~t.ractlve t7ri1c.cs-?,

I' ~ J .' I" L "I I

tl1e- T.Jr'm o)n re{:;.aln Iv;' inttlJI Iden!:.d:y, or J;'e ,,1",anSid'rrneo Il1tO

a fcr'1'l t1f ;ar.,;1i;ner {pm:!y, Fer e)(;mr1e, P I:;UIJ~ ..:.;3i1 ret.:3ln iVs IJ~ntISY ;;IS .?l CLIve even thdugh ? r'tJri;.lon If It. 15 remdvedi or' ~e tl"'.;ln':7t-orrtled sli?wly Into ;3 pdlyneAl-'on ~rrrOX!rr1atlr~ ) 0rhere,



ADt7lrIVE TRANSfORtv1ATIONS;

A f1rm ;,<In be tr;3Y1s+ormed 17y the. :;;lddI h"'t'l ift eleh1en-ln to d;0 vol ume. 111e t1;?tvre at the ')Jd Ii:.lvc.. ~roce0~ will de-bern'line.

,

y,;ne-t:nel'" tl1c. identd:.y If tVle Wt:;l! +0!"[11 IS retJ I t'll!.d or ~ ltere.d.

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, ....

, ~,

I)HIT~! I7'HAB>i1 l\ilON ; rwm 111/ - Verb, france leJ,;?6 -c.1' ~e Ctlrt?u5ler

DI T~N5FC1\J,tjED :1-1,0 A V'Bf'T:CAL. ~,"Ae:<

------~-----,---,-,-------------,--"-------------"'--,----- __ ._-

A\

" . ',

/ i \ -.

,

.

.... _--------_. ----,-------------

A ~fhenc.:ill ftlrr(l 0.,11 b tr>3r1?ft1rmed

IYlta .any numbc:r ,ir t1Vdld t7r e111f'0PIJ ftlrms ~y eltlrtja~It1:J I~ .:ill#nj ;ilYi .;;lX'I!?,

A fyr.aml.1.a1 ft7rm C-.;l11 be ~r.;3I1Gf~r'me.d ~ ;i31i:erln~ the dlmel'151t?I17 9t 1'1:>;7 ~;il'5e/ m(;.:J,fYIr1~ the h6ilg~t ~F II;? flrc:x, II" ~ trlt:1V/l1g the ~F?X off pf It(7 rltnn.al verilc;;;ll ;;\110 •

A cube O~11 i?e h'J/10f,;rmeJ IVlto other rec-bngu/;;lr rrlbm:;:Jtrv fmrl? 7 6V1dr~erlln~ or ¢;'laVl~;?lbl1j Ibs hel1hc, WI)J;h/ ')r der-bh,

'"

f'L.AN OF'.Al4 ~"~lrnc""'L- CHURCH: p'e;I~e'ie~o i?EUA c.HleSA 5, CAALD A f'rt1J&i. by FnlYlce?cO e;i/llt7J71!r'l!

We e~;;;wr.;h f-,pr rejv/;ar,tl ?In,) o0I1t.1f1ur/:'y 111 .i;..f1e- f?'rrr1~ we see Wlt:hii1 {7or field trf Vl0idr1. If;i.l rl;3tdnIC' '£:,?'ilJ :5 rnrblpl!,v nlJ.Jen frm YIJr' vieW! we> teVld ttl C-Jmpiebe iW t",nYl In ,;a rc;1vl~rm.<lnMr', )nJ vl~v,)Ii;;;6 1t.;i.l7 If If; Y';ere iV'hcie. Slmtl""rly, when r~gvl;;lr f-/rl'Y10 M""ve tr,;'gmeI1t;s 1111':75il1j fl"t1m thelr'vo/vmes, th?y ;);mrei;;wl thO-IV'

__ ·_".c__ farm.;al ,)eYlCd;iee. if We'- rerc;elV~ -them ;f<b l"F they w~re wh."[e,. ;Jt1d c?'tr'flebe. We refe:r 1;(} th e<&c:. m/J~d;;;l bed fp'rmf:. A? S1JI?l;r;act:lVe-t,mr1?

f?t'OV7? th.~y are highly re?.1';;f1I:t;lftie, -hwf1'ls bh;;Jt ~re ",Imrie ;H1d ~Mmett"I&;;JII'y re~ui;;lr, :5VvVl :as HIe- f?i;;atoVlle SOllpLs{ ~.J;;lrt;. re..l'l.Jdy -bo ,,;?ub7bt-:ar.;tlv6 tre;.l-bmen-/:;. rl1e'3e t~rms rv'dl ret:.,djIf1 thew ft1rWl~1 !JeV!-1;.It-lc~? If f"rb!?'f"I';; ".f th~1r vc?i!lm6'7 ;lire remned WJ1;.M.JI}-t ?t~~1:;enyrR-bt1j tHeir :edge6_. 90rI16('b, pM overRil rrctde.

I

Ar11171jlJl~Y 1~:;>gj)rJJI1~ -;J fdrm~ orl1ln;:;J1 I.)entd~y wlil r~?!/!l::- if the.-f?,1r'tltln f"~rnt?v~J trcm d;;s Vdillme- er",deG d::5 eJees ;;>V1d drMtically .al-ber-:;, i'/::'3> prtlfde-,

... .,

Vt7lLJt11ee m::3j l1e 6ul?traC/b~J rr?'tr1 '2 f.Jrm tt7 cre;;lte- recessed el'1i::.ranc.tl6, well-;~fIM.d, prlv;te courty;;lrd 6race~ tJr Wll1dpW 0f'''nIl1~6 ~h;aJe,d LPy the'- verbcal ;;lr1J norlzont;;ll 'Surtaces of- the. recese,

" I,'

II

CLJMU~AT!Ve COM f()S ITf ON

• aMltlVe- f&rm

• tl r;atner eM! ~Yfe-

• r~lvture&"1,U8 s full of mdVem6ln-t

· ~"n ~e comrL~-!::ely Jj%lf'i,ne.d by ci:aSS-ltIC,aCI"'M .and h:er,;wC'fi{, II

very ea,;;y

(COI1 VeI1IDI11:. Cor11iv'lrlll1t'1)" J

• 6u~t:r;;lutive ft'Y'n1

· very ~er\er,;?l)?

• 011 if1e- e-xt-erIJr ",Vi lob c"mfl t"md

· on the. 1t'Ir,erlor ;oIl tund:lona! needs ;;ire" "'tltl~tled (li1ht rerJctr:at,oMi C<7rl,bnuli;YI Glrovlabt?n)"

,. __ ._,_ .. _--_._----



'71 I J

00

72

I'-JGr fZfL.AT:ON0H 1 P

WhIle. ;a ".?1)~tYtlr./blVe- f~rrt1 re7ult=- -FrarY! the:- rern:mal ?If a fortlon of ,bs or'iqlnal volut1'18, an aJ;d/lv~ ·h1rtrl I";' prtfJuc;:e.d ~Y t11& tlJJd;;lc7t1 of .anAna t-orm to d;!S> volume,

• ~ ?f';ltl;;;lt t-en-;'Idn:; chi!? i:trc:. ,.;f r~I.aJ::.lonshlr rqUlres t~;3t inetWt? f;lrms b-e relAiVelj c.iof?e 1;0 ea"h atner; ar '5y!jlre. a c?'rYlrYIon VI%.pi r,rjllt- sud1 .as ?hiilrc:., mjlt-en~l, or otllor-

• by d<je-t:o-edge oaY1t.;3ct) In HIs tyre >if reliirb!tli1?nlf"1 -rwo ti1rms shprc: ;;.; ool1'1!'l'1t'rJ e.;J,:1e-, ~nJ 0"", F,vt?t ~btlvf; 4;11 ... 1:: d'5e,

• by f~c.c·to·bce cor,-!;..,.:;t::j thl.5tlfe drrelatlt1Y1shIF re"'j}Jlre6 the.- twa brms to' have- -Ila/::.; rLan;ar '3vrface6 tVlJ3t ;ilre r";lr·;.l Ii ed w e;:;c,h other,

• ~y Int.erIMkln~ vdlume..:>;; In i~l? tyre t?f re.1atltl",,",nl["'1 two ·h1rm;; ,nterren&t.r.:;lC6 e;3c;/J ot;,her~ 0f;i3 ce, Th~-7e brms neeJ rlt't: '5h.are .aMy vlsu.a1 tr.JJd::.s,

, I ' '.j:: , ' r , I. r

,'-\,;I;.Jrt,IVe. ,.;Irm-s, re-SI)[i/ln.9l -rr1YYl 'f-ne. a.xreb&'Yi of'

elert'1ent-s to ane.. ~Y1jbv;er:,v C;ilYl be ch",r~;:;1:;6rtteJ ~6yler",lIy ~l bhelr ~~d rby b gV'JW ~rtJ merge wd;11 JtI1er t.:?rms, Fdr U8 -bt> ~6rcelVb :a.dJd::tV8 gr"lJr1ng& )6 uVJlfleJ Cdmrd~j"b&t16> Jf f&rmj ;3'8 tlgures IV) our vlGu~1 Freid, we ctJl11f'lmel'1-t. ftJrW'l6 mV6t ~e related ttl ol'1e. .aVlt1tHer IV! ~ c.?~erer1t ;;JVlJ oll16e-knd; rYl;;<nr1 et".

Th~ Jr;?~r,;ilm::s ~r~ IVltend ed bo o a tegorrte aJJlbv& t?'rm0 .;;icoor.Jln~ ta the n.ature "f t~b rel;;)'boV10~'r8 +,h a.t ex! ~t ::;lfM116 the Dom fOfleM-r forW10 :a."", well d'S thew1ver;jJ OOY1tl"l v r3l::i on 'S, Tv\!", )1';;'CU55rOrl df t::?n'n;3i C'rg.af'1I:t.1bl;}'1? 0110uld ve comfared WI{;~ a '3: rr:iI.;;lr AISi/V~S}on cJf srabaJ ::?rgaVllz-;;Jtlon'S 1(1 Cn;;17ter 1.

" . ~

• • ••

• • •

c e~~TRAlIZE:t/ FORM'S

COn?l?!: df ;;;l n!)m~'er (if '5ec:;Jl'ld)Jry

clu<&tereJ alvaut ceVlt-rJ(

~;;arent.~ tdrrr1o,

;

,----------,------

l--I N e,A, R FORMS

Ctlrls>10t- of rdrms ;<lr-r;;<vl.geJ g,~quei1tl;?llr H1 a row,

IZAt7iAL. fORMS

;a('e uOI11Fosli:' IdYlS 0+ IIVl ~;;;r t:1r'm s i;¥1::lt ex-teVlJ oue.w;rJ fr;:'m cel'1~r;a1 forms In a r.a,hpj m ... nner,

ClUSreRE.O fORMS

CoYl0ibt. (If h'rms -th;lt 81"e c.')r->'ureJ t(l1e~h6r by rrOXllY1lo/ cJr l;~tV 0~§irll1j ->'f ;;; CdmnnOI1 VISIJ.a! rr:;!1:;.

Gr<:ID - FOR~t15

:are mdvl.at t-oY'fn:s vvho-e,c. rei;:d:IOt1SVlIp? ,;;re re.gut:ate.d ly i;hre~~d,rt1en?IOvl.;:J! 0r1d-s.

73

',. , .. '

~

"f.,ri44, 0Uu~ :;:.S -bl1~ '8~erc:,

\ I

5r.;;;re. -!;~e.- ""eit- cefrterl

~'Y?"f?erJ;1 e6

j i

lr1 thelr'

, ' J ~ I!' , _,

cevlte-r ot P c.AerIVle~ fIeld. In~!

n It I c.;;;iY1t, fer61i1S 1(' eved:6,

j;11:;i.0es, or' cor(lrrlexr1or:;;;te-

I

--+ -+---- -----p----- -------" .-----J-

.................................

7IP

A I r ., r " IA

! lY!G:,ar -r,;Jv'i( ;.3:1 rC0'JI\:: rrV'rY] :;:3 rrCf.Jrt-icJf1;li un;>nge- IYl

:a tJrrns, J:JY1ensI,J(I?/e?r in£.- ;>rr;3Vi,?,~ty1eYl't. af ;; serlt-S>

J

A f-"'r~s alV'I1.;') tl line, In the IJlt~er C;8"':l6/ .:tne. 0erles A-

+.:11"'110 r)",)<3_':. be '-' ref'eb'bv&, ?'r HI67 may 1;6 vllS'SlrYldar In n~ture 2>vid Jrg~,:q11.ted ~ ~ 06"far.a0 aVid dlstlnut eiemC:::rlt '0VuYl ;;s a w;ii V'I" t:'Jbn,

I

A iil16,iiW fcJrm can l?'e- 96gmented or c.urvlllrl~ar -ta reSf"nd -kct'nJIi::loYls af 10 ?:te ?VU~ as tClro~r;rhjl view; <1r

I I

vegeO..Jt:!t?rl,

A liI'1~pr fim'!') :::;;;Vt b6 U0,:;:;~ -0 fr,Hlt or det-Ine jlVl e.JV1e tlr

.,;

.aYl c:xter!?'r '~T~ce.-, &II" Je1ln</ a rl;at1& df eVltrl to t-11e-

&r;c.~s rel'liYld d/,

A ilne;;w ft'rrrJ &,;>n be ar'ient.ed verl:lc;;;l/~ ;a..? J toW?/'" element f'" hx a P.::1ir1t. In -?~Me,

• I

[!_~.s -:_~..::~~::_=:::::t+

l-INr::,AK fOi'ZM fXf'Rf'C,SlrJG fRoCeSS\O~i ilK IVUVBM6Nf



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~li'ieAF\ FOKfvlS FRoi'mNG ON & DBFINING r;XTeRiOR 'Sf'ACe

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If()llllIS

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!~ r~JI;;li f.?l"tyl Otli1'SJ?t;tJ J.f iWieJ.1It'" fc?rtrls that ext.end t7vt;w~r.J fr""m ;;l centr.ally it?c;lt~ o?,re- e1eme:Ht

In a radl.at.IH_1 rn .. nrler, It- C0'm~Jnes the- I)~re~to elf 6eYlt.I",ald;y ",ytd Illleanj;,y 1i'l1x? a. <S!f1,1le O&tY1pos!·bt?vl.

THe 0ol'r6 i0 elf,h6t'" &he ""'Yl1'lba/;c or -rVr1c.1;ll!rl;;l/ c~t1tc:r "f the. t?r.g;;lYli:z..ai;:!<7n, It"", centr.al rO?It-lcm C;;Iy1 b~ ;;artlcui.ated With ~ vl<sv;;l11_y ,.t1Y1"Ir1;;lnt f-tJrm; t?r It c.an merge. w!"i;·h -aYl3 ivec-cme- ""u 0~,et'"viefA_. t.l tl1e.

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nature, Ihq c:-an re.ac~ out.. .and. rel.ate ar' ,a;tt..ac-M -/;heW1"Selves 14 ?fecl·h:;; kabres tit their slt,e, Tb~y on e.xr0-se f;h,~w I?'Ylj 6ur0acec;:, -(-;11 de6tr;8b!& c,,?r1,::!I·borls If sun, Wind; Vie v'!, .:1r ""r;;:»c.e,

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R~JI;JI fcmns c;n ~;-"'YV iY1-c.o :a ne-/:'wcJrk wnere--

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sever..-al c:entcr0 are- linked ~y line..:>!" ftJrm5,

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f'1>Jce Je: Ponte nay, f',m-;." i~W'-?2>, Maree: Breuer

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C0l10ldcrlr1t1, the- -H~;XI:"dli;'1 of vlu-st.(;;;rBd Or'ij;1i1iZ.;;l-i::Ic7t1?1 their

fJrl'Yl::', m97 l7e or,q;1n In ~v,? ttli

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Tn:ov c:an be by ~m:Jxlmit-v JIt1t1£. +6' ;rilcul.::3Cc ~n,;;i

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herarcnlc;;i orqavllz:.JtlV'n not- tin I)' by ii161r'cio:',e rraxlrr1 t)i to on,~ -:9ntJ-t;ner, bvi also bv the similarlty 1t thew VI~7!};;l

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our percel"'tlon :t:~ e;<lsterlC& :~ ;lIM -;.Heuted

~:i t:He laws at rer£>pevtrv6 :and the: q,u..3/,I:y t1f II~htthat illuminates the bnn,

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