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# Chapter 5

## SENSORS, ACTUATORS, AND OTHER CONTROL SYSTEM

COMPONENTS
5.1 A continuous voltage signal is to be converted into its digital counterpart using an analog-to-digital
converter. The maximum voltage range is ± 30 V. The ADC has a 12-bit capacity. Determine: (a) number
of quantization levels, (b) resolution, (c) the spacing of each quantization level, and the quantization error
for this ADC.
Solution: Number of quantization levels = 212 = 4096
60
RADC = = 0.01465 volts
4096 − 1
Quantization error = ± (0.01465)/2 = ± 0.00732 volts
5.2 A voltage signal with a range of zero to 115 V. is to be converted by means of an ADC. Determine the
minimum number of bits required to obtain a quantization error of (a) ± 5 V maximum, (b) ± 1 V
maximum, (c) ± 0.1 V maximum.

1 1  Range 
Solution: (a) ± 5 volts max = ± R ADC =  n 
2 2  2 −1
0.5(115 )
5.0 = , (2n-1) = 0.5(115)/5 = 11.5, 2n = 12.5
2n −1
n 1n(2) = 1n(12.5) n = 2.526/0.693 = 3.64 → Use n = 4

1 1  Range 
(b) ± 1 volt max = ± R ADC =  n 
2 2  2 −1 
0.5(115 )
1.0 = , (2n-1) = 0.5(115)/1 = 57.5 2n = 58.5
2n −1
n 1n(2) = 1n(58.5) n = 4.069/0.693 = 5.87 → Use n = 6
1 1  Range 
(c) ± 0.1 volt max = ± R ADC =  n 
2 2  2 −1 
0.5(115 )
0.1 = n , (2n-1) = 0.5(115)/0.1 = 575.0 2n = 576.0
2 −1
n 1n(2) = 1n(576) n = 6.356/0.693 = 9.17 → Use n = 10
5.3 A digital-to-analog converter uses a reference voltage of 120 V dc and has eight binary digit precision. In
one of the sampling instants, the data contained in the binary register = 01010101. If a zero-order hold is
used to generate the output signal, determine the voltage level of that signal.
Solution: Vo = 120{0.5(0) + 0.25(1) + 0.125(0) + 0.0625 (1) + 0.03125(0)
+ 0.015625(1) + 0.007812(0) +0.003906(1)}
Vo = 39.84 volts
5.4 A DAC uses a reference voltage of 80 V and has 6-bit precision. In four successive sampling periods, each
1 second long, the binary data contained in the output register were 100000, 011111, 011101, and 011010.
Determine the equation for the voltage as a function of time between sampling instants 3 and 4 using (a) a
zero-order hold, and (b) a first-order hold.
Solution: First sampling instant: 100000, Vo = 80(0.5) = 40.0 volts
Second sampling instant: 011111, Vo = 80(0.25 + 0.125 + 0.0625 + 0.03125 + 0.015625) = 38.75 volts
Third sampling instant: 011101, Vo = 80(0.25 + 0.125 + 0.0625 + 0.015625) = 36.25 volts
Fourth sampling instant: 011001, Vo = 80(0.25 + 0.125 + 0.015625) = 31.25 volts
(a) Zero order hold: V(t) = 36.25 between instants 3 and 4
(b) First order hold: V(t) = 36.25 + a t between instants 3 and 4 a = (36.25 - 38.75)/1 = -2.5
V(t) = 36.25 - 2.5t

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5.5 In Problem 5.4, suppose that a second order hold were to be used to generate the output signal. The
equation for the second-order hold is
E(t) = E0 + α t + β t2 (5.8)
where E0 = starting voltage at the beginning of the time interval. (a) For the binary data given in Problem
5.4, determine the values of α and β that would be used in the equation for the time interval between
sampling instants 3 and 4. (b) Compare the first-order and second-order holds in anticipating the voltage at
the 4th instant.
Solution: t = 0: V(t) = 36.25 = 36.25 + a(0) + b(0)
t = -1: V(t) = 38.75 = 36.25 + a(-1) + b(1)
t = -2: V(t) = 40.0 = 36.25 + a(-2) + b(4)
Simultaneous solution yields a = -3.125 and b = -.625
V(t) = 36.25 - 3.125t - .625t2
At the fourth instant, the second order hold yields
V(t) = 36.25 - 3.125(1) - .625(1) = 32.5 volts
At the fourth instant, the first order hold yields
V(t) = 36.25 - 2.5(1) = 33.75 volts
The actual voltage level at the fourth instant is 32.5 volts. Hence, the second order hold more acurately
projects the voltage.

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