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Erik Erickson

1902-1994

BELIEFS/VIEWS:

 S. Freud’s 3 Components of personality

 Humans are rational creatures

 Adapt and Explore Environment rather than

 moulded by caregivers and society

 Major Developmental Conflicts at each stage

 Conflict resolution necessary

 (+) or (-) Resolution

 Major conflicts are of primary or dominant

 importance in each stage

TRUST VS MISTRUST
Infancy Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = Faith in the environment and future events

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = Suspicion, fear of future events

AUTONOMY VS SHAME & DOUBT


Toddler Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = Self-control and adequacy

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = * Feelings of shame and self-doubt, *


Dependency and constantly needing approval

INITIATIVE VS GUILT
Preschool Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = * Ability to be a “selfstarter,” to initiate one’s


own activities, * takes responsibility for one’s own actions.

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = * A sense of guilt and inadequacy to be on


one’s own, * may become passive, reluctant or refuse to participate in
activities.
INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY
School Age Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = Ability to learn how things work, to understand


and organize.

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = A sense of inferiority at understanding and


Organizing

IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION


Adolescent Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = *A sense of who one is , * Seeing oneself as a


unique and integrated person.

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = *Confusion over who and what one really is,
*Unable to acquire a sense of direction, self or place within the world

INTIMACY VS ISOLATION
Early Adult Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = * Ability to make commitments to others, * To


love.

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME =Inability to form affectionate relationship

GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION
Middle Adult Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = Concern for family and society in general

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = Concern only for self—one’s own well-being


and prosperity

INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR
Late Adult Stage

FAVORABLE OUTCOME = A sense of integrity and fulfillment; willingness


to face death

UNFAVORABLE OUTCOME = Dissatisfaction with life; despair over


prospect of death.

Application of the Theory

 1. Provide means of assessing and gaining insight into the developmental


crisis children and adults face, and allow us to USE these KNOWLEDGE to
TEACH CAREGIVERS behaviours they can see in their children
 2. It helps us REALIZE the IMPORTANCE of Societal Influences on
Health & Behaviour and that Psychosocial Development is a Life-
Long Process

 3. Caregivers are taught to encourage Positive Resolution of each


developmental crisis

 INFANTS = critical that feeding and hygiene need be met promptly; parents
are encouraged to be w/ infant esp. when ill

 TODDLERS = independence in increasing and self-control gained by


maintaining familiar daily routines. Allowing opportunities for the child to
independently dress, feed and to do self hygiene care is important. Love,
approval and praise are important for toddlers and children in all stages

 PRESCHOOLERS = like to initiate activities and remain curious and interested


in the world around them. Opportunities to explore , ask questions and
create should be provided. Nurses should accept children’s choices and
negative expression of feelings, answer their questions, and allow them to
play with medical equipment so their curiosity is satisfied and their
knowledge about experiences broadened.

 SCHOOLAGE = involvement and success in a variety of activities provide a


sense of self-worth and value. N should provide them with opportunities for
continuing school work if ill/hospitalized, maintaining hobbies or activities ,
interacting with their peers and adjusting to limitations imposed by illness

 ADOLESCENTS = searching for who they will become independent from their
parents. N should allow them to be as autonomous as possible, encourage
them to take responsibility for their own actions, support their life choices,
introduce them to other teens, and provide them w/ separate recreation or
activity area if in acute care setting.

FAMILY TEACHING:

 Teach parents to meet infant’s basic needs in a timely and appropriate


manner

 Allow opportunities for toddlers to be independent

 Provide preschoolers w/ a variety of experiences where they can explore, ask


questions and create

 Encourage school aged children to interact w/ peers

 Support adolescent’s choices , be available to listen and offer guidance