You are on page 1of 37

A.

Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
ELECTRIC HEATING

Electric Heating means, When


electric current passed through
conductor or medium heat is produced.
H= I2Rt Joules
APPLICATION
 Heating is required for domestic purposes such as:
 Cooking
 Water heater
 Room heater and
 Heating of buildings.
 Industrial purposes such as:
 Extraction of metal from ores
 Melting of metals
 Hardening and tempering,
 Drying
 Making of plywood and welding etc.,

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Advantage of Electric Heating
1. Transfer of heat is accurately controlled in
heating by electrical methods.
2. Production of heat is not accompanied by any
combustion.
3. Any temperature can be reached, provided the
material can withstand that temperature.
4. It is quite cleans
5. No flue gases are produced and ambient
temperature is not affected.
6. The desired temperature is obtained fast and
temperature control is easy.
7. It is easy to maintain and is safe.
8. The efficiency of electric heating is high.
A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Methods of Heat transfer
1. Conduction.
2. Convection.
3. Radiation.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Conduction

In this type of heat transfer ,


one molecules of the substance gets
heated and transfer of heat to the
adjacent one and so on.
Thus heat is transferred through
a substance from one part to another
or between two substances in contact

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Convection
This is a process where the
transfer of heat from one point to
another is duo to the actual motion of
the molecules of a fluid. This is due to
the different in the fluid density at
different temperature. Thus, for nature
convection in air we have

Heat density H=3.875(T1-T2)1.25 Watt/m2

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
RADIATION

In this mode of heat transfer, the heat


reaches the substances to be heated
from the source of heat without heating
the medium in between
Rate of heat radiation is given by
stepan’law, according to which

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Requirements of heating material

 High specific resistance. It should have high


specific resistance so that a short length of wire will be required
for a particular resistance or the same length and current the
heat produced will be same .

 High melting point. So that higher temperature


can be obtained.

 Free from oxidation. It should not oxides at


higher temperature, otherwise its life will be shortened.

 Low temperature coefficient of


resistance. So that its resistance does not change during
its temp. range of operation. Also with this the current drawn by
the element at cold will not be much different from that when it
is hot.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Design of Heating element
Normally, the wires of circular cross section or rectangular cross
section ribbons are used as heating element.
Under steady state condition
A heating element dissipates as much heat from its surface as it
receives the power from the electric supply. Power input P=Heat
dissipated
Heat dissipated according to Stefan's law
H=5.72X104Ke((T1/1000)4-(T2/1000)4)Watt/m2 1
Electrical input=V2/R
R=ρl/a= ρl/(πd2/4)=4ρl/ πd2 for a circular wire

Electrical input P=V2/(4ρl/ πd2 )= πd2V2 / 4ρl


l/d2= πV2 / 4ρP ---------------------------- 2
Surface area S=πdl

Heat dissipated=π d l H
A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Since at steady temperature
Power input P=Heat dissipated
P =πdlH
π d2 V2 / 4 ρ l =πdlH

d / l2 = 4 ρ H / V2 ----------------------- 3
Solving expression 2 and 3 length and diameter of wire can be
determined.
For ribbon type of conductor let ω be the width and t be the
thickness.
Electrical input P=V2/R=V2/(ρl/ a )= V2 /( ρl/ ωt)
= V2ωt / ρl
l / ωt = V2 / ρP
Since at steady temperature
Power input P=Heat dissipated (2ω l H )
V2 /( ρl/ ωt)= 2ω l H
t / l2 = 2 ρ H / V2 ------------------------------------- 4
So by solving the two equations 3 and 4 ,length l and width ω
for a ribbon of thickness t will be evaluated.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTRIC HEATING

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Classification of
Electric heating

Power frequency High frequency


heating heating

Resistance Induction Dielectric


Arc heating
heating heating heating

Direct Indirect
Direct arc Indirect arc Direct induction Indirect induction
resistance resistance

Infra red
or
radiant

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Resistance heating
1. Direct resistance heating

D.C or A.C Supply


Electrodes

High Resistive
Powder

Charge

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
1. Direct resistance heating
The material or charge to be heated is taken as
resistance and current is passed through it.
The charge may be in the form of powder, pieces or a
liquid.
Two electrodes are immersed in the charge and
connected to supply in case of D.C or single phase ac
supply.
When some pieces of metals are to be heated some
highly resistive powder is sprinkled over the surface of
pieces to avoid direct short circuit. The current flows
through the charge and heat is produced.
This method has high efficiency since heat is produced in
the charge itself.
It is used in salt bath furnaces and in the electrode boiler
for heating water.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Indirect heating

D.C or A.C Supply

Resistive
Element

Charge

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Indirect heating …
The current is passed through a wire or other higher
resistance material forming a heating element.

The heat proportional to I2R loss produced in the heating


element is delivered to the charge by one or more of the
modes of transfer of heat.

If the heat transfer is by conduction the resistor must be in


contact with the charge.
An enclosure known as heating chamber, is required for heat
transfer by radiation and convection for the charge.

This arrangement provides a uniform temperature.


Automatic temperature can be provided .

Applications: Room heaters, immersed water heaters,


domestic and commercial cooking, and salt bath furnaces.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Infra red or Radiant heating

Heat energy from an incandescent lamp is focused


upon the body to be heated up in the form of
electromagnetic radiations.
In this method heat is transferred from heating
elements to the charge purely radiation.
Heating element consists of tungsten filament
lamps together with reflectors to direct the whole of
the heat emitted on to the charge.
The lamps are operated at 2300ºC instead of
3000ºC giving greater proportion of infra red radiation
and a longer life.

Applications: Dry the wet paints on an object, softening


of thermo plastic sheets, drying of paper, textiles etc..

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
ARC HEATING

The arc drawn between two


electrodes develops high
temperature (3000ºC-3500ºC)
depending upon the electrode
material.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Direct arc furnace
In this furnace , charge acts as one of the
electrodes and the charge is heated by producing arc
between the electrodes and the charge.

Since, the arc is in direct contact with the charge


and heat is also produced by flow of current through the
charge itself, the charge can be, therefore, heated to
highest temperature.

current flowing thro the charge develops


electromagnetic field and necessary stirring action is
automatically obtained by it.

Thus uniform heating.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Direct arc furnace

Electrodes

ARC

Charge

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Direct arc furnace

Application: Production of steel (Cupola method)


100% steel scrap which is cheaper than
pig iron where as the cupola requires a proportion of
pig iron in cupola charge.

Size of this furnace is 5 and 10 tonnes.


Power factor is 0.8

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Indirect Arc Furnace
The arc is formed between two electrodes above the
charge. Heat is transmitted to the charge solely by
radiation.
Temperature of the charge is therefore lower than
direct arc furnace.

Arc Electrodes

Charge Heating
chamber

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Indirect Arc Furnace
Since, In this furnace current does not flow
through the charge, so there is no stirring action and
the furnace is required to be rocked mechanically.
i.e The furnace is made of cylindrical
shape, with the electrodes projecting through the
chamber from each end and along the horizontal
axis.
Application: Melting of non-ferrous metals like Cu,
bronze,etc.
Size varies from 0.25 to 3 tonnes.
Power factor is 0.85

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Induction heating
This heating process makes use of current
induced by the electromagnetic action in the charge
to be heated.

Induction heating is based on the principle of


transformer action.

The primary winding which is supplied from an a.c


source is magnetically coupled to the charge which
act as the short circuit secondary of single turn.

When an a.c voltage is applied to the primary, it


induces voltage in the secondary (i.e) charge.

Heat produced =V2/R

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
Types of induction heating

 Core type furnaces


1. Direct core type induction furnace
2. Vertical core type induction furnace
3. Indirect core type induction furnace

 Core less type furnaces

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
1.Direct core-type induction furnace

Secondary
(charge)

Supply voltage
Primary

Magnetic core
A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
The primary winding which is supplied from an a.c
source is magnetically coupled (iron core) to the charge
which act as the short circuit of single turn. The charge
is kept in the crucible.
The current in the charge is very high, of the order of
several thousand ampere.
Drawbacks 1.Magnetic coupling between py and sy circuit is poor,
therefore, leakage reactance is high and power factor is low. it
is overcome by employing supply of frequencies as low as 10hz
for operation of such furnaces. For obtaining low frequency
supply motor-generator set or frequency changer is required,
which involves extra cost.
2. If the current density exceeds about 5A/mm2 the pinch effect
(formation of bubbles and voids etc.) due to electromagnetic
forces may cause complete interruption of the secondary
circuit and so of the supply.
3. The crucible for charge is of odd shape and convenient from
the metallurgical point of view.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Vertical core type induction furnace
This is an improved form furnace of direct core type
induction furnace.
It employs a vertical channel instead of horizontal one
for the charge.
The convection currents keep the circulation of molten metal
round the V portion.( In certain case U or rectangular
shape
This V channel is narrow, so even a small quantity of
charge is sufficient to keep the secondary circuit closed.
Hence the chances of discontinuity of the circuit are less.
Due to pinch effect the adjoining molecules carrying
current in same direction will try to repel to each other, but
because of the weight of the charge they will remain in
contact and chances of interruption will be reduced.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
High frequency coreless Ajax-Wyatt furnace

Charge

Central
iron core

Refractory Outer iron


lining core

Primary winding

Secondary channel A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai


Vertical core type induction furnace….
Advantages:
1. Highly efficient heat, low operating cost and improved
production.
2. Accurate temperature control, uniform castings, reduced
metal losses and reduction of rejects.
3. Absence of crucibles.
4. Ideal working conditions in a cool atmosphere with no dirt,
noise or fuel.
5. Absence of combustion gases resulting in elimination of the
most common source of metal contamination
Application: Used for melting and refining of brass and other
heavy non-ferrous metals.
Its efficiency is 75%,Size:60 to 300kw,all
1Ф,50hz,upto 600V

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Coreless induction furnace
Crucible
Charge

Primary winding

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Coreless induction furnace….
The furnace consists of a ceramic crucible cylindrical in
shape enclosed within a coil which forms primary of
transformer & the charge in the crucible, the secondary of the
transformer.
The flux produced by the primary winding sets up eddy
currents in the charge which flow concentrically with those in
the primary winding.
These currents heat up the charge to the melting point &
provide stirring action to the charge.
Since the frequency of the supply is high, the skin effect in
the primary coil increases the effective resistance of the coil
& hence the cu losses tend to be high and artificial cooling is
necessary. The coil is ,therefore, made of hollow cu
conductors through which cooling water can be circulated.

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
Coreless induction furnace….
The stray magnetic field due to current in the primary coil
may induce eddy currents in the metal supporting structures
and cause over heating of these structures.
Advantages:
 They are fast in operation.
 It is used for all industrial applications.
 The speed of heating and the precise control of power into the
charge result in uniform quality of product unattainable be any
other method of heating.
 The working condition around the furnace are far better than
any other type of furnace.
Application:
Used for steel production.
Used for melting of non-ferrous metals like brass,
bronze, Cu, aluminium etc..
A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
DIELECTRIC HEATING
It is also called high frequency capacitive heating.
It is used for heating of insulating material (non-
metallic) such as wood, plastics, ceramics, glass etc.
The material to be heated is placed as a slab
between metallic plates or electrodes connected to high
frequency a.c supply. (from valve oscillator)

A.C Supply

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madur
ai
DIELECTRIC HEATING

for producing sufficient heating frequency between 10


and 30 MHz is used.
The current drawn by the capacitor, when an a.c
supply voltage is applied across its two plates, does not
lead the supply voltage by exactly 90º and there is
always an in phase component of the current.

Due to this in phase component of current, heat is


always produced in the dielectric material placed in
between the two plates of the capacitor.

The electric energy dissipated in the form of heat


energy in the dielectric material is known as dielectric
loss

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai
DIELECTRIC HEATING

Equivalent circuit Phasor diagram


I
Ic
I
IR Ic
A.C Supply R C

Ф
V
IR

A.Srinivasan,SL/EEE,KLNCE,Madurai