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in DETAIL

Solar Architecture

Strategies· Visions' Concepts

Christian Schittich (Ed.)

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Contents

ToYaJ(l SOlar Asc:hltecture (:tJriS1.i8.nSd'ur1ld'l

from Passive uunzaucn to Smart Solar An;:hi~tlf:::lure

Ma.nfred Hagge.' 12'

Sdar Ti9Chl"lOlOQy - From Inoovali~

~iltting Skin to Ef1Ief9)'·ElfiCiom R&nOva1.ion

i=li:>land I'o;;rippnor :215

Sorar ccoceoes ror 8uik:1ing

Michi-el Kuehn, Oirk MaMCr 38

lJblJzing Daylight

Helmul EO. MOlrer and H~e G. $chUS;Of 56

_t> 70

PaSSive·Energy i(!fraeed HOUSing ill Dombim

JQhe.nnes Kaufmann, Oomblm 72

Housing Estmc in KoIding

J):Niefsen, AmUS

I..3fs Frank 1'II,e.1S;M, Kim H9I'ronh Nielsen 7S

paSSive--Er1erg~ Terraced Hoursing in U.Im

Johannes 9fucl<er, Stuttgart a2

Point BlOcks in I~bru[:k

Bal.DtSChl8l)ef.& Etiefle. Loch8tJ 88

lawyer's Pracuce in ~[/'Jis

Aeirilard Orexel, Hohenems 94-

Soorts Half in w.an~

Fent SOlar Afd1ltectUfe. Wil 96

secoooev SCI'IOOI in Klaus

Oie1rich J UrrtertrilaUer. Sregenz 102

ccoreerce Met embilJon Building

in Osnalxuctc

Herzog + Paftfl$f. Mund'l90 '00

Of1ice Building in Solihull

ecup Assoclams. London 112

Administration Building in ReC<lJ~a~i

MeA. M;;Jr1:;I Cuclne18 Archrtects.,. ~ne 118

Administration BuilCling il'llaooQuart

Baar1h a oeeeaee, ChtJr 12.11

Mmi~trat'On EkJiJding 1ft WurZburg

Weblef + GeisGJer. S-uugart 130

SOOr factoi':.' .in Brunswick

Banz * Rlecks, Bochum , 3Ei

Acetlamv in Herne

Joorda A/ehi!QCt.&. P.uiS

H19.gg:er Hegger Schledf Arch11eo1s, K&sseI 142

Gonver$IC£! of Fieitch!fla.g Sui1ding ~ Gerrn:an Bundestag in S{Jdin

FOS1Br and Partner&. London 148

Gk;>"""" &bliogfaptw AlCMeets Au",,,," U1ustraliooa$01S

160 168 170

". "6

Toward Solar Architecture

The II.l'IW'9Y pCltefltkliJ. 'Wf'Iich 1M sun places: at our disposal on a OOlly basts . seere InE!'):lla\JsntJle. The If'ICiCQn., radialion 00 the taf'ld1TiBls,sss Of the earth alOne is 3ODOtme~ ~re&1.et U'tarI ee IIII'Drh,,,..;oe d~ 'iff! we oon1U'lUfl1O mOOL lI'Ie:!ia demands. I;IIIT'IOS'I. e;w;.e;hJSi",a\y v..'1'Ih r\Or1-rt!'nl3".vabte enef9lEi'S genera'tOO primarily from do$$il fuelS. ThB f~ltan~ environI'r'II)I'Itsl ,protJlsn'lS - air pollution, acid rain, greenhous.e effec. .aM climate change - are QI1tv too well 'I<I"ICmn. As if this. "'''IlIfen'l oad enough. annual consumption is climbing (frama(~ ICa.Ity. fOt al'tl~nce is Qfl the nse and som9 or Itte.-nos!: populOus OOl,mlries at ;h8 world. such as China end India. ate aban ~ adopt the el((r8V8g3nt lifesfYlO Of me 'r\'SSl This 'Mil lead 101 nearly immeaslKable ecologi~ and poIth-ca.1 COI'lS8- quences in ee ne&r tuRw-e SInCe the conventional eneJgy fe!KlUrces are finite and .... ;a SOCWl be exhausted, The f"9nt 101' <K::CeSS to and con:rd 0\'91' meso 9nergy resources, first end for;m:loSt (iiI. will intensify even l'J'ICfe. Seen ffOffi U'IIS. eerseeetive-_ a .solar agenda is not ooly ell Sensible envircnmentl;ll WiIC'Y ;1 is also e CQrItributton to peace. 1\ is "'19'" llme. ItH:!rQ>'!OO!I. 10 linaJfy CiIXlp\.a new philosophy and to em~rl< Qfl the road towsrcJs susta reore de ... elc:p'lli&(lt MS&d M rooewatJle. &nerg)' rEosOIJCi3s. Energy resccrces, in other word!]:, thaI are OIectIy or ~ltectJy li"'«Kl" to 1he :Sul"I suc:h as solar radi-a.1ioo, woo- end hydrQ IXJW1i!r 9ElneratJon Of ororess.

AI¢1I1e:ctufEl .and I:IIJildiflg playa 'key rcle in thia corneet. FCC" fI£I.ady hiIIlf ct sl the el1el"OY consumoo in. Corwal Eur'OPE! is eJoipended in the operatiQn of bUildil'lgs,. lh;e.t Is, for h.eal;lng, 00Clng UId" lig·hoog, TheIaS'l twO laet(:l"s, especially, ".rare MgI9'ete(j for 01 long 1;Ime. 'IM'Ien SOlar atchltecture galne(i In Dlportance in '1M e-ar11 lQ7Cts as a result of the 1\',10 oil crises. attentiOn was If'liOOlIl'' focused OOt:u'91y on avOiOttlg ooa. ess. 00 !,itJhZLng sotar energy to beet tM..Ii1dil'l19S rn winter !;inc;! to

twa.; dc::me:stlc wa1.Q(, liOr.'Yo ... er. in office buildir\QS especially. COOling is generally a far 9teatet p(ol)'lem and a tl'laror la~Q( in ot!I'B"gy COI"ISd1IfItion. Office buildings.are subject to heal gans caused not ()'lly by chmcne. but also by the Mat ,aQim· Ing frQm OCCupan;~, eQui"ment such as computers and fIV;)n~, and above all by !he use -of amficialligh1in9_ One need only conSider- that roughlY thrgQ tim9S tn9 amount of enelgry' is requife,d to cool <II room by one degfee In COfDIXLliSOfl to I'laallng Ille .5.iIIDe space by one degree, to gr.asp lhe Sigl'll~I' cance 01 COOling .... \1h renewable ene'gy resecscee and the ~CI!natur.a1 ligh1in9_McfeovE!i, the~i::..on ilh"LS(ra"l.es 11'1& degree to 'hhkho the- various racios ale eueeeJ)mdent ece- architecture canrct be redlJCed 10 isolated rreasurea such as cotlec1.CfS Of" pOOtovoltaiC. in..stallallOl'Ls on eercer, RB.1.h.Bt, a ooih:llng must be 'IJndE!(~oocI as iii cCfIIIJfex

ODrIligur~'ion - a !OQI enGf".g)' (:(I(K::.o9J11- thai makes lila best cceectc us-e of loeally e.vaitab'1e naturar re5CU"CE!'S seen as :solar enerqy. wind and gOOtMrmal.energyfa a ..,arietyOf requLte«llBfl1S, Passive and 8clive measures ~Iemern one dilCIther in tIli~ eccrcecn. It om the OI'iantaMn aM diviSion (lr Ihe bULlding to uie in~egrenion or 5)'~ «;:. the gel')li!fliltion 01 warm waler GK pewter. Flexible eevceces, rogula~oo boy fnteiligent control .systems and capable od ,eaoting to varyDg il'lfll.Ji3nc;es and weather cond11Of'LS 3f6 ma~lng iL'lCteasingly Impor1ant OOfl'l(ibu;ioos., II gOO$ withouI sayirtg thai S!..dl a complex configlJ-liltIon calls fOt COtT'IPfehensive Ln.retO~ n81Y ccocece. inte-grated planning. in othel 'iJOl"ds, v.f1ere

all partiCipating e)(~ are Invotved a. an early sese

Bot energy-conserving $rchrtecture cal'W'lOt be IimLteo to ve QPer8:Don of tne btuilOings, It beQinS with urban PlaNlil'lg and includes consideration or 1he energy COIl!enl or the emQloyed Il"I8terials as we'll as tJ'ie mat~ritd eyc:r~_ ProductiOn techniques. 'IraIlSportalioo routes, assembly anti the recyclabLh'Y ~ bu'1t1"'9 ccmDa'len~s a"09 all inefuded in me encroach, R.ena\v:able and local bwlding materials sucn as tLmttet CM' clay are prelerable 0"I/8f (/'IO:S.Q, M'iicn C:<1n Oflly be manutecl.U"ed by ~n9' l;;Irge amoums o.f energy (get1el'a~oo from fossil tugJsl, 1'00 lane.- also cause high leVEfs of polh,rtani emleecna in prr:xl'Uc:t.orl and «ost oe lrof'lSpcM'lo9C! aereee .g1'o921! erstances. Ye'L ,,/ha! .ar& the oonora~e -criteriBL, wh[d1

en -liIrt;Ilitect CBLn appfty to evaluate n"Li3wialS? There is still

a s.carCify Of a ... .aila"bIB i"nfoonation .alld the primal)' energy oereoo of bulldln-g meterlass is snll if'lsutflCiel\1.I), evaluated even in the case or soW arcl'~lf!'Ctl.1"e. atthot.lgh 9feat eetoee rc-c recently boen made in tIlis area.

The environmental declar.a~iOr'IL ()f building products in Vora:rlberg (Au~""l, where the eucceeeo 01 gO't.'OO'IfnIln; su"DSidiS'S lor residential oonstruction is based 00 ecofogJCaI entena. LS a model worth emu\pt,.ng, A poin1 Ct1U11loguQ is used to lake no! only the healwlg requirements into ccosceatee, out

also ee envitonmental comp.ab~ity of Men individual buildIng ma!eri.ct.1 es well ea the emptoyment of renewable energy :5OlW(;es_ln Gennany, by COI'I'lparisoo, subsidies fQr resceo~l.al ~sif"lg ere currently crscersec 00 the ~!IG 1M pmcipie ~ 'equ.aJ shares. !(If an' and, as i11h1;!Lt \o,reren' enough, new bl,.lLI(ling JJl(Liects. are gl/!lefl j)(eterifliflC;& over reMbilitation projects. Ecologically speaking, the ccpcete awf08ch WOUItj co reQuLred, 1=01' me primary prinCiple Of resource COIlserveuon le to u1ilrze the- most lmponem (:Lvailtl:~ 'ofLSOIJfCoeL. IN' a, ~ildin9s !hst airooi!ly eelst.

9

Suppon shotJld eec favour coosa- OOI..J&f'lg t1eve~ 0.'« tI'IB cooseueuco 04 S-ingle·'.a~ tIOo:s€s, Since netther detached single-ramify ht:Io$8s, nor h'9h-rises!or!;hat ma::t.er, are CSlJabiB (lr bein.g truty ec~i.cal, the-se IWQ l;M.Jill:hlg te$1($ 8HI i'I01. incllJljed rn the examples reewec in tht$ voI!A'rIe_ In me case of sil\91e-fsmil~ houses. land 00I'ISIlMTI1>bon and 1lle traffllC-rela1eQ energy reqLJirec:l ro pmvlCJ@ access tip ee balance towards the negab~'e_ The: nign D8fcentagl d heat-emtr:ing end material--consun'Ml"lg eJrtefioc so-aces s 91'11XhE!f un~aVCtJrabie faC1Of. Htg ... -rees. 00 the other hand, aJ09 aSSOCiatM \"';tI'I COO"lparatlVely 13fg.e access areas, but abo've all with a cOfIsidlBfable ecseese In mare-et OOI"ISUT'IP" tloo fCf the lo;:J,d-boeaoog :s1T\JC11J"e e.nd '!he f.;llGade in. ordef

!o SElti$fy the s-tructureJ ret:Juiremen!5 re:sultit'lg Crom the high CM.'fI waigl'L1.aM [he extreme 'MIld forcas. High-tiSe taceces ate moreo'>/19f' almost 09;w;clusi~'ety reati!ea w$1'I'1;3.1eri.a1s- chat· acterized b:,o a very high pr.mary 008fQY demand, such as gla$$, steel and aluminium.

~n DETAIL firSl published an esoe 00 me LO()IC of iOIat' arc:hite<:lufe pteClSely one deC.CIICle ago (in 1993). 1 was sio dMlCt.llt IQ cocoreot COfWI(ICItIg e;w;a:tJ1CI8S. It was all 100 rare mat lechnologiCl;llfy ft)ncuonmg measures ~ :Sa1islaclOfi~ Imegra1.9tj from a de':Slgtl perspe-c[ilJ.e inlQ rn.a'llnl <y-chltecl\Jrl;lt concepts. And the le-no SLJQCe:5$fuII e.:.tamp1es pI~ exceSSi'lle emJlhasls on the s.oIar itlstallatiOrls (as: was ve case in me shedi~ system on Normal'l Foster s voeat<nBJ school In FrlljlJS. in ~em France) - III keepir'llg .... ,t!l the tM" dcminam High-Tech arch,lectl,lre. (Fig. 1.21

It was a bme Yotien every buif,clflg tNt rod anything at all to do with energy ~ation was profrt;ably a~ed as e SOlar tM..tildirug. Mucll has cbanqed in lne mean1Ime. There arE! man,y more f~c'lOf'Iin'9 at"ICI USoQrulty irt1egr~ solar con' C9~ .I;I~ II1(jfl,lj(fual rneeeorea, and theY ere far8t!f tnJI'nl:Iel00 as ul1IQ.t..IEi aCl'li&vements tot:tey_ Man:,- CMJ!S1aOOlng~ desigl')60 lOw-anenJY blUildlngs: are bal'@l:( fecQg~8bl9 as StXi't from 1he ouisida. In office bUl10II'Ig:5.. l;IspeclS suen es tluilcMg OOITIJ)tWlent heating aMI C()CIhng see-n to ha~'e almexsl become rOl,ltine for many 8rctllwCls_ But we arS stl

a 'ong way from aChieving our goals. The percen1age ot reMwable energy re~lces ilitlpIOyed to operale buildIngs is stJII1ar IDQ lOw. There ere st II 100 few !ru1y~'" C<:InC:epts. and me co-ner i)8twean <IIsStMliCS and functJCll reteos. 11 is ann tar too rare, dOf' esar-ore, 1haL c~lec:torS a4 phomvoUeie I'P'IoCItlles iUG us.erull~ inlagr.:iltM il'1010 a QC.II1II)f&hOf'l51'118 conC'6pt. They art all too tr&Qtlen~l~ :sil'rlpl~ pl{lCeO

afI:t \\obd1 w<r'f on top of oC(H'Wenoona' covered KIO!Is. ~ e B;J:t only un5;.irli.:!lfyir'l{l from atI aMthEltic perspective. Owl also I't'l'Ih regar.o= to CO:S~!J and material consumptiOn - i1 th8y ~ aesigl'leO as roaf or racade palnols, 1tIEI~ COl,Ih;I be ,part C4 !he roldftQ Skin. Every !"lOW ~r)CI then one caMelt IQL'S(;Cllpe 1~ impr&SSl(ln that soma measures are ml!!iel~ em~lIed (0 sefve SO!'I'I&OI'Ie·s ccosceree Ot ~o poclo:&1.s.JCtsIlIies. Espe-Giaiy wtlen monstrous. enarg~· and le~ce-<giJ.ZZli~ sueurban villas at8 toQped b~ .p conecrcr. In 11'19 CI ... eraJi plcnse. the usa at renewable energy resources thus lar 1\lIfilS Lttle Il'IO(9 "!han II'IB rune[g'l of an ar bf. Even 111M Federal gc:rvemment ~ Germany ~Id achieve its smbttl~S goal of il"l!C'(QaSil"g dle percentage1rom 2 2 per cent 104,2 per cent et 10yea~. I:I'IlS cannot negate the fact that the total ener9:r' demancJ C~· tD.Jss 10 inCrease trlabatecJ and. that SOlar energy resccrces ate essenli;;lliy cioing little more than Covetlflg surplus. cemands. Bluntly put this means that the total VQll,IfT1e of eonvenbonal ener9Y consumptJOn renaos unChanged wi1h al the~d consequences this euena,

If we do not succeed in bringing about 3 t831J~ Change to QJ'" waS'le~IItl~tyI'e atld dras;icaHy diminish energy CDf1. stnlptiorl. the Ollly f;lQSSlble SOIU1JOO 'MIl 00 10 tarv o'JoJWl'\elm· Itlgl}t 00 renev,rable e~g:y resources in the ~l;Ir fvt\Jre. TJ"lJe ro!ar erctntecnse. t.i'l8fefOt-9. beccnes a nQ.CtlSSity. II wil M j.at MOr'a- man simpJy 1;1 new styte. Its ptinOl.PJes will become ~ ba~151Qi" all building. It will change she lace of architacb"&. In'Jsgr.e1:ln!;t the tecnoear aM tul"lCllOl'lal f9Q.l.MOOliIIf'It:s d IiQisr 8ict'liLeClJJre into an :aestheticsit'! s.ati5fyi~ cenprehenSi'I'e concept peserus t>Q.;h a CMIIIlmg-.e <lind an opponu~ for al'Ctli':e~rure. This bOCIk arms to make a contrlbU1l~ ttPNard~ SCl'lieving this goat

'.1 ~~~eota.w:atflC(I$Ml,inlchI2033;l,a.orfit.VO~ ~1c~~on5l'OOor.g1Ol..M~

1.2 VDcaIion8JIIdl!Xf.~Ft-eonctIllgoo.).NomJanFo;iIIf ~:Vttl1I\g~ 1:J;.tI.dtI'IinI:iIr~iOtIbulding.~'Dt2COOf.~,,"$I;tun;:Idiof

~ll;IoroJCBd8'fflh~~ 1..3

11

From Passive Utilization to smart Solar Architecture -ired t-feggor

~inab6llty nee cecoee e domil'\illnt Iheme If! me detJa~B on ardJ~9(:~ end tMJilCling in re!:9f"I1 yMrS. althou:gh the meal'). if19 eM the wm bas been :5ltret(:he(l to 1he 6:(uttmB. Some IfIIEIf'Ofl(ltlJb(:nS.-EH1'IbraC9 Berlin's ~:stor'l9 archi~8C~' ee read" i1y as axp&rII'l"l8fl'lEit SQI:;!r bl,Jildil'\gS. An Eu coownission is cur~31 yqk 1D CIaHfy 1l'liS coofuS.iOn_ 1-IcJw.av-ef.lllefe is ec Qi~ing INt ee QOIlSider;atk:ln of soI3.l' mchahon <LnI:l rne peseve use of solar en9I'gy in bUildinlJ!> is a central ceerecens:1iC or sustainable ercnnecnee. in other sPl'leres OIIlita, the ~ sustail13bility arways possessed a cleer. t.J'Iambi9UWS meaning.

Sbstainable meant nourishing mealS such as Grandma's pee: soup, re5PQ11!j;1.bIe 'oreslll\illlS9emertt or SOlid bU'teI'flgs wilt!

a long life:s;)an. But a recon; pdF' rEI'.'BaJed much conftJsD'I= ~ 10w cencr Ciflzens:kne'Ntne meaning oltneword - at least, SOi1le'hML But ooarly 90 per cent were in f8vot,lr Qf a o::n::em. the meamng oC v.tlich they CMnoI hAy ccmtJrel'leM_ There seems to be a need ror clarifi~liCf'l. se e ccaecee o.etm. 1M WOI'cJ sustainabi \)'. originally i9t'I'IClOyeI1 !O ~ribe bng--.erm rcrest 111IiIn.a9~nt is used 10 oescote the ccoect Ofea;man'101 the enviroM'IefJt. T1'MlI UN c~ioo, Ghaired by ;!.cmler NQn.o,'e9iBm Prime Mlf'Ilstet Bt'lJ'lCItl\!I:I'Id, lormulmM a suc6~ darlIlitioo: ·&Jstainahitrty is. developmenl, which sati~e:!j; me needs 011f\e curren! g9l'lflr!LtiOl"lS, wi!1'IOO'L in4hJAUICing hOjlporb.rlitio;$QI nnure genera1JOOs,·'l-l'h.I.s is 'elevarn, ttl btlildng on many lQ\'efs. On tf'IEI one hand. ~ tem'lS Oil ns eccfIOmic sneotance - nlCI'-6 thaI') half 01 me enure Irwestmen.t C&.,Dital in Germany ls lied to she builchng ~ -. end. 00 the ctther hand. because 11. is '1M gr'M!$st '.ac.!0I' in resource OMSUI'1'll:lIlOl'l. E v en ~h the buill en ... irooment is a brig-term a5sel In Its OM"I right. It produces rJlae tnan half o.f all "'w,3SjEl".recycling is stili an OI'I09rdevelOpQd aspect in OMStfuC1!OO,

Buildings account for roughly dO per cern of the total energy COOSUMpIioo in Germany_ tlighQ( man transportation QI' Indus..,.

Clea.tty. eOE!fgy con.servation and the inteUigMt tAitiZallOl"l of uident SClIaI rad4mon should oiev a tOle in 3 susl;ain(llble bUilding. ~ fuels. which are the fOUf'l~tiorIo ~ OUr energy suPpll6S. particulMy !Of hEl"atii'lg OUr hOm9s, are l~teO. The aru'liJCIJ drscovenes of r»ew depcets re .... e eeeosess than COf1.. !illmptJon for years, costs are rising, end the confliCts surItlIJndDg acceea IlJIthe sources atfl untJeatable, The

l!:Iele1eriOl.J.S lQJf)ac.1 (lr !lJG!;.il fvels Of! the en v ll'DflnieM is &quail), 2.1

grave. eoee they are chan-gingo OUr glObal enome. Many ilI~ema1ives nave pro .... en deceptJ."e because the), are utti~

m::~l1el)' also oos.oo an Mite resources. ere I1rffiCiJlt to mal"I.iI9l'I !t-om.a 1.8oC:h~1 WJWJXMt i3nd are IIf'I'KedI ~ harm'l.Il.SiQe effects. Pernans 1he 8I'a of in:el\'Si v a fOssil ruel use for our DuirtlirlgS w I SOCf'I be- seen as a phase. Alter all. wttj ~Q we utilize aciar energ)' .s.'Or'OO in I'OS'SilS to sl..ld'l an il!lXI.M1. if W8 can put. it 10 use dlrectty'? II d'oe5l'l't interfere 'M:h the natl,ma" globa' beeoce: 00 U'Ie conrtary, II $ !lite vety rouooa~ or that ba'lance. We are familial WM It as a source 00 ligtrt and energv.IIWQUldbesl'lor1·~ightM,~, (Ooonol"l'1O"e tI'!an revi"e Old principles_ -Back to nature~ ~ 8 popular slogan, Ixrt It isn' very logical, Wf! cannot bUild I\Ou:ses If! IN: same manner as before the start of the fos.siI age. The comroteoe and almost Unfvetsally ava lable suppty of et'Iefgv

has raised OUr &xpectabons and demands considerably. and It ~ uni.~ that 'he Will 9iVe up tniS comtoo. in tI'Ie f\nu!'e. NO doubt, architecture that makes use of the sun will be able to adopt SOfJIe ancient pnndpres (I' Clever solar use in Dulldings. conversely, in fts role as intelligent architecture, It will have to go beyond" such ptiOCiP'OS in ewer 10 be- accecrec and Ealisfy IOOa)"s demands.. 'While passive use of solar energy "WaS ve Cf'Ily ctI,ion avartab'le ptiOr to U'I9 Mgitw'ling

~ ~M klssil agEl [If necessary, CQfTIplementefj by fire pItS for tho C{IfflOUSOOI"I 0' rel"lewatll& raw liICHBrials], rOSSil healing sources and the toechnolo9ies derived frcm them .allOW 'or .ack .. a ~atur9 cootrol U)tlay. c.omple!.ely ~l1epel'bdo!!tTt.CJ4 eeoc 1iCt"lS In the- envirOilmen.1. and me 'orm and fl'l3tenats Ql our 1'Dlles. The stages of iY.$'I. paSSiw and then active energy !M)P;,PIy in. buildln'9S are boeing overtaken bY inllill8Ctill'6 Of smart buirdir\Q concap!S, ..... tJich Eidop: certain passive 'wsterns al'Kl COf(lI:Ilemecl"lt men \vitn lflteiligorn. e<M"l'lponen;s,

P.assiV9Use

Passive use -of $O&ar ladisdon rcrcicos .... ,lhout the need 'or techniCal systems. The build~g Mell makes direct. LISe of solar onergy by \lIl1ue 01 p&aCemet'lt. geometfy. bU~"fIg QQIllponents and materials. Thls is the simples! and, .a~ the same time, InC most cf'leclJVe form CIt SOlar ArChitecture_ 1M builct1ng and na ccnccoeots are in1erpceted oBIS a SQlaI systen'I. A carefully lhOughto()U1 deSlgn can adapt a. buikl ng to [!'Ie n811,)(81 energy potential in order to. utilize It eft.eiec"ltty The clever :s.e1ecMn o11hQ Me. tJl,aCati'lt9lit, shape and ooentalioo, oon berate \Iolndow affafl1)emel'lt, cOOSiderod wleetiOt'l

Cflt.i'Ch~I;jI~I\&I-rMftdl.;l-CI'JIIII(200ll:i!!CA'~J3.. MoIiJmbl,,~ I;IH(Il)IoiiloCln"ILIl1obVH9f*1.Il9~C(JfI;"jD\IICIIcf'ICII lttDyk:8r"lPI'I.

.3

2'

,.

of materials and wall structures. - rl'l9S'IB are Ula fa.c:~ that maka It pOSSible 1.0 abSOfb :and store sola; teat 1.0 mairua'n c:om1ortilob19 temperatures in a elimate-con.sQOuS en.~'eIoD aoo to utilize light K) (he best enect. III paying 8neruioo t,." a. few sil"PtJ'O rules, solar arc:hiteC:1I.Ji"C Is dllJS. the fI10St e1fec1 ',9 and prOQ4"eSSive form of gaming and CCIflS.erving enetgy buildings, Heating demand is ,educed, while the heating season and the ceroos tor supplemen.tary he:atio9 are C< IllSiOBrabty $hOrter, 8Vilding tI"Ius «eses e considerable CC'rtfi. bution to environmental protection by reducing CO2 amcssions; C02-flevtral br.Jlldl~ materials also contribui+.:- to the reducaon. 6uilclinrg and lilling with lhe sun atso mean mae cc::mrort 6ri9h~ in~9f1OfS flooded 'I.i'th il)l'lt ha'oll3 me- Jr· able POSitive 1Jh~$iOIogical and psycholOgiCal e1reetS on human beings. $Olar arcnltecture. ther~Cfe. aetJie ... ea III(Ye than onV'ifonmen1a1 protectcn and er'ler{Jy oonserVcJ.'IiOn.

0.100 increases 00t'l'lIC€t,: surtSllir-e penetfa'UflQ deep rmc. I house enbancas one's sense Qr wall...o.eing lUst as much '_ 1tle higheJ surfaC€l temperatures or wtll~nsubted eoeowalls_ This is acccmnanled by en ocreeseo use ~ clsylig , ....tIiCl'l. in usn, reduces tl1a etl9I'gy Cfemand fa arti'ftQa1 hl ..... 1~iI8 also having a JXISitive enact 00 the users of ~uch a trulldlng.

A Brief HiS;ory

InSOlation has tundlamentally i~enced 1M 1Oca1JOrl. ceetalion, stlape. constructeo and rmllerial selec1ioi"l of bu dings since the beginning of IiIrctv!.ecluraJ l'jSjoty. Together v. tI1 o1her climate characteristics, it determined me evolution 01 bouse typeS and regional 'builcllng styles. scoeres' MegaI'M HouSIP (470-399 Be) has arel'l&typlCal char.aclerislics of solar arC.tlieectUfe. The com,P8ot strocture opens to me south. The eeceactcet plan makes the mcst of this OrientatlOll .and Simultaneously minimi~e:a the northem sLlffac9 turned ~wa:,' from the $I.W'I. This is .... f'Ier"a the- COOl storage (com is located. fOOC!IO'M9 al1.h8 same lime as a tK.tt1et zone too the I~ area. Walls (3ncJ oeihn9S1'floors are massive and ;hus. rew a nigh stOrage cepacity. The roof overha~ ~ the south s;iCl8 plo v idEIS .shade II'Ihen the eun is high in 'Itle Sky in 5lI)rm'IeI', .end slbvs lIlo lower &00 to peneitr.ale lmo U'le oolhjing. In wlruer (Fig. 2".2"1. The houS9 cort.CfIPI 09;<ampl res eeeenua. [1f'ooIOOS principles (II solar :(UcrllteCWfe-:

· II\If'IlmlZil'\g 01 the surface ~advan'a'9~ AN·ratlO).

· open toYIar(J::s. to tM sun,

· solar zOIling - COI:J{ fOCM'1'lS on 1M f'IOf'tn Sloe. warm 4"OQITI'S on the soutn sid&.

· selec1i\le shading. peotecuco eqamat high SOlaf a1i~uOe in

'-.

- uunzauce of stora9~ R\lIISSCS 10r tempef8tUre c~ensa\JOl"l

In thQ 19th oen1~. f'l8'N opportunitieS for solar arcl'litecture arose Wlth the e"oIvtlOfl of COSt.C!1ICIOOI. production prOCesses for 1(U'96·aroa glazW1g. The early glass recees aeated artif.c:lal &xobc worlds. macte- possible mrough the green-. hOuse effect of glass. which W3S used to lJ.anstoffFl ul!J'8\liOle1 radlJtiOO mto IntrJred 1Mrmal radialioo and captuf& II baM1C 9~" (fig. 2.3l.

In the eMy 21)1h century. transparency. IiQht all" ar'I!j sun became lhe credo Of the Mxi"erll.. The artists and arctntects G'I tne GlaSlQffle kene propagatM CryStalhl1e smrcnees as ideal models; 6nd des Q:flBd el'rl.l'lfQl"VDents: lhat were an anern8'lnr& to 100 dark and \Jnhyg ienllC cities '!NIt I.'.IBfi!I caused by

tI'MJ~ r~. 1-IOwIver,!heM tdI!IM\WIfeontyrea.l· lzed In ... Modem, alI'Iough I'Ie giazed teceoee d that era ..... often sub)OCf to considerable structural PfQbIen'e.. At th8 beginIWIg 01 the 1930& - right in ee ~dle or tI'Ie mQI8I'y 01 rile world eoonomic CrlIiS - an arChrteett.~ evotved. 'lMGh antICipated the ioees of 8C0I0g0Ca1 building 'fOm the 1970s. The Bertin compeb'llOR for 'Oas waehs.enoe Haus· If\SQIfed house conoop{.S that were large and autonomous: in t!In'M 001 ~Qly and pasSIVe-solar in design .•

The Thlflj Re;ch brought an abfuoc tnd Ttllt'1ese firSt S\8CS. It would take for1y years befOre the same ideas 'o'w'efe 1aXen lur· lher. elbM tinder changed CQn(llliQf1S: space ea ... el (the Clf~mna~igatiOrl or the ei3l"1h by Gagam 11'1 1951. '1M 'irSt manned fhgh! 10 tho moOf1 in 1009~ offereod the first view of she 68i11l horn beyond aoo emphasized bach 1M cocceeess <uiCI the 'Allner.p~htv Or QUI' ~1~l'IH!it. The energy r:rtsi:!l (19731 del'l'lORS\ra~oo OUr oepermence CC'lIosSlI juelS eeo Jne flrwte!leSS OIlhl3'Se' resowces. Tho w<lrl'ling:; a:bouI. tl'leimrta'liOnS:

Qf gfQW1h. iSSUltd by the Club of Rome eeo publi5hed for the first time iil1972". "'ere as:S.\JlTllll"lg tI'I& S'Iar'k mantl&OC 1'U1i;Y. nese were the coMilJOnS ~CIer ....nich sc-cened ecooqlcat buifdinog tleveloped. Its topics were II'Ie return. to vaortiOoal buildi~ b"ms. th8 use I)j narural materials.. renewacte ooergy r9SOo"ces and. In pa~ICIJl8t, solar energy. Igl'O'ed at firs1 by the archrtectural esmbli'Shr'J'lerrt, the movement O\'C!lved into that or $OI-ar e.nd. finally. SlJst~lllnable bU;ItI'~_ The Intelllr;tenc use of saar radiabon remaiiled a consrarn iil lI'Iis a,p"roach. regardle$"$ 01 the changes to 0I.het" gOfl:Is.. The following eeses describe It'!Q cMtac!eriSbCS rna, ~irute solar arChitecture_ They 1)11 influence SUSlaiREl:bJlrty anti

enef9Y efficrency. t-IO'.h1MW, paying anentioo 10 mese CXII'ISiit~ uet'ft:!i to the exclusion of eWjrything else. \'~'! t3ke us any further because OVeratChing aspects 01 ru~bilify ~rOMr IJ'te areas of ~ban pfanning. 11'S1'1~1iCC'l Of other parameters are rgnored. The deciSiOt'l to not tulti! a pdI1icular Gntericln may. thare=ore. be completely reaSOllable wei can g.eneQ!rll)' oe compensatecJ wim the Mlp Of O(har meesoee (e.g .• canpe.nsaWl9 a microclil'rnltica'ly urnavoufable icceeco wrttr Deter insuPatioo. or the absance 01 wind protE!!cl:.arl wittr better~III'lQ').

tocene .. , and MI~QCltfIl(Lte

The e~g:y re-Q~men' of a buildifbQ is nat ontv deperxi'ef"tt on ItS structural cneectetsucs. bul eise. aoo to 'II'Ire same ecrem. on fts location and me local -climalr;!> ccnclrtQ'ls. Naturally. cc glOool (:lima~o- zones ha"j) II'IQ s~.aa!e:st impact:

Iypicl;ll temperatures per season a~ twne of day. hUrln'd!)'. insolatiOn. winCl velocities a.nel directiOns. In add"rtioo, eech mlcroclrmate has Its f)NI'I ty'QtCal Ch3l8c!erls!ics oetetminecl by 'Iopograptry, plants and or-OOOdocv.·er. trees. IQc.aI:il;ln near open txxIr.es oi .... +ater. etc. When Sel.&ct.ng a buM;f!g site, one shoI,lld tbereJore seek to joceie the bess ~~ mictoctimal.9. The posi1iOfl 01 thO building on the Me alone has an Influence on l1S energy balanoe,

2.2 'AttgilRrl'l Hws.e lcn.o ~OO Bel. SI:O>d.';IEI~. ~ 1~rds 1hII!;U'Io In oIItaKr~and~ .... -d'r~tHlOOl'n!lItl'lll&~.tt.SIS'II)jJ> f'~~'fJI'Ialll.:5d31l'o..rse

:2.3 ecru-,.;ilOfyInSdI'torrPark.L...r.'!rJ!l(lCltl.(l9fiI;DtrsijJ1.ardlt);oco.sbon by Mbtkb1'\l!i13o e MMoul

lopograjll'ly

The topOgrapll), has a decisive J1'IflUt;lnCoe on U'I9 lemparliltv~ condI1l0fl5: of ~ Site, EIf;Wated 100000lions gcnetalty mean Iaw9f 81vorage leropeftlit1)r9S, ():IrM:!rsely, 10w-I".1119 Iocaliooo may be $t.IbJect to cold lronts or IXIld·air cerces as we'll as to grOUl'llllog, which r~1t In tempet~nUfes ~~ are COflS1C arabLy IO-her than Il'x:1se in adjacent sues.

COIIl-alt prossvre regions ere cl'Iaracterizei:! by ION lM'Ipera- 1~.Q rreere as e resl.J'!t of the p(e v aiting tempetature IONS

at nlghl; accordirlgty, energy reQuirementS '01' hea'llng <WI higher in these kX:atlor~. Cold-air pressure I'cgICl"1S, \';tlefe no otl'la~ means ~ In!h.te:r\Cin-g the miCr'OClLlNlte is possib.te should therefore be :pVOided, They are rocogniiUlble. :among otMrs. by ad,acent r I)Q' liQI(Js, ce .... and na.lr-frOSll precipitation. and frOst da.mag9 a'I ptaeta.

Fa'llOl.Jrab'le btuildirlg pcsnoee and IJegeuoon eereene prevern co'ICI..air pressvre 1"Ie:;l1 tMJil1 struoture:s aM, ltJus, unnecessa;y heal csses. Oold-.iIIir' in1kJence:s can M eeneceo ·h ih 1M help 01 measures !;ouCh as -embedi;lin,.g tne blJild~g in 'he eanh earth waJls. hedges rx ne:ghbooring bu,lding5. Sk(Ja srtee are cbaracteriaed tJy prorilxmc-ed lIifferenc:~ in inSoIa· ten. depeOO fig on otientabon, enu. ll'Ierefore. 4;tIftt:lraneeS-.n grooM and $urface allf temperatures, The in:s.ola;iOn conellMos to( buildings Ofl sudl sites are SImilarly drffer8fl1... It pees, without sayW'lg that south-facing Slopes ~re ' ... 13r1i'leS' - SIJI.rtI'to 1t.te$1 soces. in winter. and soutn to sou~~ Slopes in _,.

Wind Protection

High averag9 wioo veoceee ~ad to correspondingty high transmi$Sl:)(1losse:s in tile building, Sites that an!! sr.enered fran the wind are- preferabie, mereiee. or, if mm isn'l possible, roe $~Id ini;iate ",,")('Id pt«ectiQn measures. 1"I'Iese may f3,'I«;I1he fc.-m or plantings suo1l ee hedges and dense f(JNS ~ ueee. plW'lted faca-des or embankments, Hedges and tree groupings block cold iIIir s"btIams and SlmuElaneously reerect them into d~ad chan,nels.. SItes tNt are nat'l..lraJly s1'leltered .rem"wiM and ecnve wirm proteotion measures 9raa:J:I .-npro v Q mo Sit-EL COI'IljlttOllS fQl' So bI.,.Iildil\g-, More-Oller. planes near lhe wilding con;ribu\.e 10 COOling me I~.ate surroondin..gs as a resu1t 01 e'l,'apot'a'llon and Ir.ansfotm carDon diOXide. imc O.lI.ygen. 'lNhen creoerrs selectee and IOcaled. mey also prOVlOO soeee in stlmmer. E~'er{ireel"L$ shade me bUlliJing In winter beQIJJ$llilU1e:.' reduce iosolaliOtl .n IMI season. DeCiduous trees, 0i"I 1M otl'lillf hand, sreo their leaves in lall and aJlO'# 11'18 W8ffnlng l'oEIIys of 1M- suo [0 pMJenate Into the bUHQlog if1terior_ S1vdes of i(lentiC3J buildings .11 dl1terent Sites demonstra;e the in'lCac. of lotaliOn on tn& energv eonsump~ot builClrngs, Based 00 a eetecred sing\e-Iamlly house In a steocero locatiOn Wlm im cer oeM energy consumption, an klentical bui1chng at eneeoucceIIQIlS may navo consiClorably tlighet Of Ii7Ner tlea1ing feQiJlr&mOnt&.1

Fom

OP11mt2ed. Gne>rgy-.coo:iCi()lls building I{IL'mS take c in\iLl1!!I OOr'IOern:s intO ccoeceereo and ,espond !O ue miC«lChm<i partH:wraritiM. Urb.an p1{!nning a~ oNr overarcl'W'tg t,ae1OCS otten mak-e rt ImpoositLle to achieve 'lJ'tIS ideal. I'40w&'0'Elr. In t interest. 01 genir-.g as erose to the iId~1 as POS:!;iI'bI'.e, it is \ "WhIle '0 re1IJU'l to ~ad "tiOnaJ lOc;aJ tJu'h::M9 fOflilS ancI models

tge:nrus Building forms: as Modef:s

racliltO(l:;ll buirding types. 'WhiCfi ha ... a been de~'er~ and ;mpl'OW(i over many cereurtee, are exce'llent indicatCf$ 01 suital3le building fom'L'S. Srrucrurall~, tbevere eoacee 10 the ~I economy 300 user feQUlfemcms. atlCI take the .e,va:lla'bllity (A bt,lIk;1ing matenats and the regit;W1al chrnpte conditions oIfltQ COOSiCletalJO(l. rfldigenous. buirding jorns have always tespcndeti to the last fQictQf. and. I"IpOI"I closer exatnnafion, usually in a vet"! c:levet manner, V\ID'kIy locetoealed 10 buiroings lCMo'efed W'l1'O the gJQUI')Ij QI' 'With foofs lOOt......are puled far ~ 'II:IWaI'(j 1M grooM. In .e.xtremaly cord re<gioos, the Matr;l>(MtJn9 S\lf1Pc:es are kept 10 a mIMJ"IUITI and the 1:1I.riId"1I1Q$

COO"eSpa'ldPngIyOOl1'lpac'l J-krnas in IIIQ(.ieralEl' cr.nate 0fIe:S are QI'len:ed tow8,d the- sun aA(j have, since aa.rIy

mes, utilized the green~ effect oIgl(lzed areas. v~ Jarge lI'lgs: ecce at'ICIl"IecI'ges ere usecI .0 diminish heat loss ~ ",-nt;land provide shade In sunmer (Figs. 2.4- 2_6)_

- Ni:lture as a MocIei

\b.nimals. and plants in their rmtnY I re fQf1T1s auept tOo the ceoP Lions in the natural etMrMr'f'letIt. in. parucular. to climate i::OOdl\ions. W'hal k9- a matter of slJl'\Ol'Jal tQ( Ulem can De- an !mport;an.1 scoee 01 inspira.ionlor af(::h[t~e. vet for e long bee we sillti;lly co 001 nnvu the S'lrlXttiral anCi tecl'lnoiogiCal ~pel1!se to awl~ :sud1 e:o:emplary solutIons to the <ltscip'line CII bui[ding_ Today. we h<rvEI gained the expertise: the lonnal repertOry Of archltec1Ufe has eeenoeo ffcmOOCl'OUSI:;- at'IO me rssultng »eeccn can be usefully empk;JyeQ_ lei's look et :an rcampre Irom 3J) extTf1m8 Ciimatll zone: benealt'l th8ir ~'hIite,

.. anslocMllur. polar bears bave blaCiC; ~. The ne f of tne

i" guides Ihe SOlar rays :0 the bleck ~, which is '1ta1med P)' them, But the f~ does i"IOlMty transpct1. sun to ina 00t:ty. .a.~ ects as en i~g layer.

-retc

n bu..ain~ too. Ihe correct design Qi 1~ surfaces can be

~~nr~~~::;~=:~~~~~~:~~:~~

~ eX{ornel !emp&ratwes for ~ Qf the y~r, tor example, cn~~ Europe. The IoglI::a.I SOlution is: 10 minlll'llZ9 so-aces CKdet to keep undesired transmission Ilea. losses as [00'11 aa ~ble.

-kuoever. minimizing 1Os.~ is nQI the only I$-sue: sooaces

that offer good 'oWId prOl:a~icn and insulatlOf'l ;(1.:9. well ElS eff-ec:tll/(l utilizatiOn of naturallrgl'll ana sdaI Mal, are eaeorute and expensive, In olNr WOfds. eooncmy aoo ecology are clQsel~ 1Ii"OO!td. One uselul 'l8IUE!" In cletermini~ an eeemiz-ed builch,,!} torm IS It!O :so-called AN-laho. '1m.ch expresses {he r&fationsilip between !he heal-fa.Cli8lLRg. Sl,,!ffac:es of a building (A) and lIS VOlulM (V). A k)N AN~atio saves COS1s ancj energy. FoI::J.o.·r1g we some exsmQles ttY ClarifiCation_ A sphere res 'O'Ic 00St AN·ratiO. Sinea e spl'lere ls not prOC'llcal <liS a building larm and P05(lS problems, ~ use (pian). lne hBilf-spl'lere comes closest to 1M KlMI as. a lxlilC:l!n9 s~, M iglOO, for example, utilizes an optlmLm AI'V-ratio and k!j. partJcul"adY sunacle fa' me c:lInilte conditiOns In cold fegiOOS. ~ !I'!a volume of the compact roms 1i"IC:r'eases, the area decreases 8nrj the- transmis:s.on neeuoss is diminished Smaller \IOIurt'IBs amays. have a less iaVDt,ll".able NV-rabio than larger volumes, ccnceer stfuctl.U'S and oen· sitY, therefOl"t}, C:onsiderab1y redcce the cooling surfaces in cornpertson to a de!acheo. (tee-sta.ndin-g building. Large: and compact bu~ings areltiere10re preferable to small buildings di v ided into CQm~ts (Fig. 2,8}, I-foo, v over, i1 rM lanoer 310 necessary, ~M disadvantages of their geometry can be rx.rnpen$(!lted \'11th the nelp of ImprQ'o'ed il'lsula.liOl'J and a.t.I!}ml91"l1.OO usa lIr sOl'a:r ratfiation_ Once aga.lf1, the a!orementlorted prlnOlp!oe &Pl)h.eS": tnetC is Mtlo sense in adhering S");crusivaIy. and at all GOs.t8, to a clilTlete-cons-cioos buildll')Q rcrrn as a cnte.">iOn. AN-oP1imiZed cubes alOne do not create lrul~ habitable so\ar architecture_

EmbeQdiAg

En'1t19ddin-g a building ii'l the ground also d.mnishes heat losses, SInce the gfOlrrti is fat less susceptJIl.-e 10 remperaHe 1Tuc:tuatton end uarnpens the irnpa"Ct 04 lne Chang n!} c:<l.efllal chmate, BuIld fi9S that MO eal1MMI~rad on the north ~itle and ederned towQird tha sun c-an offef a. corntCita· ~ indoor c:lifflal&,

2..4 Tn)d~;on.1IF",~~~AInrq(tWQrXIQOfl51NC(rOOetlBb&se ~'Xi)lboI5tlI!.<:~~~lJ(Iln .. iI.,IV1VMSfroI' 1r19.~10 ...... nttn$'IOmI~loon.8'O:KIVIllgr&oOllltl ..... ilSl~r.DOtl.~ loUl'<l&IhGInsoIiIIlQn.~I)k4'J<h.Jrr:II;IIII'rI$hC

2.5 e.,~!'JIftdt"QtBlngll1:$hp~. 'Iho*"«tciba~temJ)8I"ii!oll1fGsIrr3r~oonwll1011~~QII....:.1UtltJOM~r~~ ",wl"llOr.1he~~~'O"e\\\)I"ll"lW,IM1d~iUlM'll!Jf10'C cooIeIr,ItIIl"Of1I,",,~~.

:!'.6 t.b.Iflt;)."~lI11tg11I11TM;1rro, Swt:e~. The oo;1Qne ~-lIeOO;e.-&d ..... 1tI"l(IMst.r.olr;l~l1I"idbtllHlrT1l;IoltMl~ .... 'lf'ou1lr101W.

17

• ~aJi:::'~II'IVMn'

::U

.... ".,.

C;7

,,'"

2.'

n

. "

1:2

" 'I

(lM1'l18-llon and InSOlaUon

In lI'Ie e,prfy s'agtls of soIeIr arctJi1&cllJfC. oriGntaboo to ItJe sun wee seen as an unalterable law. In modeta~ Cl I"!\a'f: eeeea. such as Central EIJope. tJ'J15 natcra Iy meanl ~ plete (II" pantat secmem oriematJOn. In not rel}iDrIs. l"JO the other hand, pIOloctlon from tne sun Is an IIffiportant .- .:;tor. 1'iI:l'NeWr. this rulaja 'OOOl'l9-dlm.en9l:inaI8nQ lirnrLs'1e pos~ibilltles .01 ueban planning ano sceset articooliOn T~ ncer advanceS In building today perrnrt ceosoeac e SOIjr gainS for other orien1ations as \"1eJ1. H'gh i~tion~, daras

in oombin~ with constanlly high internal Io.it.QS ( cidJ

tig'hling-. eq\Ji~meIl1. rwmber of OCC\.lpsnt:s.] may 5Ug Sol 1M opposite ctoce Ilia! is, tUfT)lng a~'I from me

order to .avoid adcl:1iQnal solar 98105. The deeis.ion

be made tor !!:tach ill'dividual case. In p;ar1iOUlar !Or b . din!J rypes with hig.'h Intemalloads{e.g_.offlCes.vitl.!highoc.cupaocy rates. laboratories). Otienta1ion to the sun. d gMt pene1r.iiltiOl"l.atlCl sha(fng should etec al'ltay:S be eva uated If! ad ... enee 10r wben projects. Simple- SOlar alll[l.!OO Jgr81Tl$.ate Classic assessment lools. aJ1hOugh CAD ~ grarrwnes and sperjaJiZed CAD toots are l'I'I()(e oorrmonIy usee !O 'OO8~ to !)CI1i'tef rerebre data as ... 1811 3S se-c a:nCI rTIOVirIg ima.9E!~_

Shacln..g from neiglr'lboorirl9 buildings. ~'ege'a~iDn.aM 101)Q9- raph.y m~ all be usen lntc CCt"!:SicEifation. Onoe agillln: III moderate Of nonnem Latitudes. ~9.g. E\Jrope}. SOU1t\em 0fiet'Iteuco , e:specia»y of the principal roc:ms in apat'tlT'lerns and hI;me:s - can be actlt.antageous. II allows :s1..ll'lShlne ~{] pen&tr.a.~e into me imerlor. even in denser od'<eWllOpmen<.s.and In winter. and contributes high solar seos. McWeQ'o'sr, It IS ease' !o pr()'lhd'e sun protection for southern exposure man tor east or west oriefltatiOl"l: 100 steece a~1e of IOcide:nce vt ~ r.ediatiOfl results if! a tt gtler deqree of retlecliOn 0I'11hE1 18MnaJ SlXl"ace of the gtazl"9. Shadirlg systems and daylightlrog ere more read ty harmoniz4;!d. again doe to th8 steeoer angle of mcldeece. In the warm season, east- and 'I.'I'e,s,l-faQog openln95 lead to high SOlat gaIns because the sI'Ia!em l;lIngl~ a.'1cm sun ;0 p&Mtrate the glazrtg. In thiS cese. effeCtive st\aCM.g v rill come at lhe priC4ll or c]ll'lWli5l'iea ~Ighl mCKlence - unless ~:( ~d'ng systems are used. In \'\'Inter, on tile ethel hand, solar Qa. ns are Jo.o.er fl ~ 5Qn 10 5QI.II.h orientehon_ Navermole:s.s.. g~a!er compaetr'll!$S and ImpI"(Wed msulaucn qualilJEts. for example-. <VEl incr~ ingly CMinbutng 1.0 good rescue evee lor west CMiafltB.llCfl.

irl somo cases aCl'lIOlVlOg a passive bu Idlflg Q~J ty Northorientation IS Ideal fQl'" IJS$!j. 'Mth Ic:rw h~g reqUlrerr'l8fltS o high in1~llaIlloaoJ;l.s.. 11 is wMn rememl;Joefing. !halljgh-gr.(ldi(l glaZing. can produce an EIflefg)" SJ.WPfUS even nlhl9 case d comploto 00I'tf'i Ort9nmtJOn .

ZMirtg

The 10f"Jil'lg Of a t>ui~-og !S based on me prQmis.l!: ~MI J'OOfI'IS have d!tfefeflC QOOI t' rElQUlremanlS .... 'lth regard to lI'Ielf I,ISIJI JI'kJ indoor clirm;l~e. Thi!j. is esp9C:1t'l1y relavant 10 hOUSIng TernpefatUfe reQuirements lor lilJif\IQ r(X)fTIS aAI;l ~ sreas are fundamental y cN'fereni men eese tor eececre arld a:u:~ahary 1"OCIm!j.. For other bUilding types. '1lem\tII1 ch~etrttrl" lia1iorl aceordll'lg 10 use IS eQl.Is"'v help4l1: kif tI~p1e, botween ~ and recreauon rooms, 04fiCe and prOdOCtICJI'I.' ~nu1a.Ch.Jring spaces. or f:I);_htMI()J1.a~ 510(.pge.~ spaCes_ In cases wnere vaooua 19q1,.llremontiS ~ gi\'M. II J:!; uselu to divide 1I1s buikl>ng Into zones aCC(l(ding !O theH

_lIIo_-*'O __ IIo_ooue-

.... -... .... .,onIon.

Roome Ihet CCIr'IISIIInIr oc:cupiICI end. thereklre. warm.e

_ <XIr8. .... frequonIIy ""'"

rooms lie along the periphery. However, thiS ooncepc does not make allowlnou kJr the eHeet 01 SOlar faaiatiOn Solar zOOII1g. by contrast, be9""S by onenbng the building 10 Ih9 aouIh. Core rooms With the gr_est heat feqiJll'ements rece In tnat OirectiQn and Ubltze!he solar t8ctiabon ll"Iey ate SI.Jt'. rounded on the three rema,.ning SidM by rooms with bNer Ihetma1 requiremems, thiS ideal spatial af~t IS g'f!:flerally not feaSible, l'Iowevef. The SOIut:1Oo ues in 'in~ ZOtW'lg, wtJefe rooms: 818 generally arranged in rc::JWS: the pfWne rooms witl'l higher heat 16QuirOOlef'rts race SOU1h. me iees Impcrtant rooms. are lOcated 00 the nof1h Side. A eircutabOl"l and desf,f!' tMiM zone is jreQuOf'I1l)o plaCed oetwl3en these r~. Additioo~ for ternPDfary uses Of cuffE!' zones can comj)lBmen! UlIS structure to the- ~th and II) 1M north. Snuctured zoning makes sense l1010nry frem the poer~ 01 enerog)' efficlem:,-; it introcfl!lOe:;l or{let If'ItO thl9- variOus runc~H:!nS.,. clarities the I::M,,!lh:l,ng St.llJCtUr9. and facilital,eos. emceu blJlld.ng use ~n.d opera1iM. Zoning creates eoes - an essential -cont:f!'liOn for111e~ofard'litectura_

8uir(ji~~

The building skin Pl'CWiOes Y/&attww protecnon, creates com- 1M in ItI9 interior, allcms davlight 10 f811 In(O the bUIIICllng and al~ fOf vecer contact wrtr\ tM OU1siM. The ullti2::.a1KJn 01 SOlar energy flJ'll'l« expands the alrea(ly oomple)( f~1;JOn;a1 !ilpeC1n.m of se envelope. Th9 nterfaC9 eee ... een in.ern and 8X1erior tJ'US.1 be oodeIS100d as a d)'n.amIC system, \\tIich re~cb to the permanent variab.ility in external radr.allOl'l" dimate coI'Ioiliol'u;. and inlernal requirements.. Sim~le ruies ~ as en:sl$ing eeeaeer quality in iMul:ai1iOn are by no means nullified as a rasut1, Ihey are. hoorEver, ~ed Into e e-secenteo.

Insulation and Wlocl F'rotectioo

The good in:su1atlon qualily of a ooih:lin9 :skill is eeaeoteuce the ~S:5IVe 1J'S(l' ~ scsar en9r\gy. Thar'& is lima sense in Ga,PllIill{! solar rediation If it C'8I'Iool be e'ftecli v el)' :S~0f00 in the- inlO- 1'1c.'. EfliciB.nt il'lSJ.)latt;)n or uie building Stin is usualty created wiIIllhe help of l;M,Jildlns cemooneote WIth a high IOSUlaMg Catlaeity: i"I '!he ~ue facade areas. thBs.e are inSl,llatin-g materials or Insu!&ung c~ems, In the [J'anspar'9l'tt areas. these are high-graChllglazing. transparent inSl,lta.tin-g ~{eri3ls Of multi.la~erecllaC3c1es.. The;mol tlr'tCf9&S must be retiabJy avoided t~ough careful piannin-g.iMooQem e~!1I' SlmiJl3~ -SyStems Of' progf'3.11WllBS lor tI'I9 catculabon o,f tne Er'IEV (Gennan Energy savings Regut.anon)iI assist the arctutec:t.., itJentifying and removing any thermal bridges. High in."!;iul.;inng values can be ectse ... eo 110 coecue OUlldlng COI'Ylpon.en;s witl"! corresponding supers.1rUCtaGS. The costs lie less iIn the materials Ulan in the IOsta IatlOO effoo. In cnooslilg me insulalioo t~knes$. it is essential 10 lake the ins:talll;l~iQn reqUirements

2.1 ~r .. H~doa-gf"oIIm...aIItODlrfnlllld(H_L'tlI;ln

2.& OiDf"I1I~M1oho;JlIJ'9 ~c4~ but\d'1ig ll;lf I;l-n'ortm ~i!~4!fei!S blJl;1Qoi1b(:lIlYColW"ltl

zs 1~.Qltllllli'Utlonbl.lkal"1ll't:rmAlldon«iL'bQn • .;m.;l~ ~liIf'IGIltD'l~~torAg&n'IlI$SII$

'9

aflO !hoe arclli~eetura' appearance in~[) a.cCOOIl'_ The 1I:!:o:tr~ It!tCknes:s ~nsutatinQ Ia,'ers fQf pass.ivlll'lOOSE!$, fO"

P'e, is a partiCular challenge for ar<:Mec~s. Vaoa.rn a· teo, oogi~lIy de'llelOpell for I~ra[O(S.at'l(l su~ ~..,' '1 employed lor SJUiCB travel, ere an .·U'Io",a:JOn If'! lMfie ry! builet "9. 11'Iey cen aeneve an lIxtraorclnaoty ~n Cpu; ~ ~ insulation WIth onty a tllMl centsreues of lOSOlalll'lg Ia"y Hcu.-ever. me il1$1a'llaoon prob'IeMS. -espeelaly the ~

0'1 bun Piilts. are largety ul'V"E!SOlv8d. parbCUi8r!y fOf .ns-tatlaiiOn. Insula'tiOO is ,neffectIVe .,.-:ttloi.n proper ' ... teCtion:. To oontroI u~mac:l vemrlaoon reet csses.

1!OIl to me 'lroEll'tSnllS:SlOn heat jesses. the buil(lin.g s;o:in

designed:o be a roght SClCCl{CIIlg to code: the enec: ess

can 0I'Ity be !a$!ed empiriealfy by me.ans.o·~-d::

rests, Recent snoes ,aoo dl!lS!g:I1. howev~. ha'~e ~ seated 1;tl.i:Il om. means may be eqUiL tv eHeetwe- In c dtng raeeees witn nigh ener9y-el11C1etTt Q~Uiies. "'i'he prere.; ~~ JS thai tile- building $kill is no 'Dn!,Wr intel"pr~..ed as a. ~ tIC syst-em. tMJr: as a Qyn.ami(: envelQ:Joe 1I1dl ream..and CO"rIQI.II.eS the COOl1.tJOnS in the lIf"Ml'OOrnet1t. This so-called ~x. in~erpretaoon .earlS [0 completely oev,. sotuoons. "NIlic!" "'1ai>;; ::;UCl'l efficient use or inScII8tion eitller clire-ctty or ttvnugh 1I"I11!r. rreeate s-l:oroElge iI"I tMJlld,n9 Ql;mj)ClOM.1S. mat mls KInd 01 truly in1er~ctive system is e;apabloB of largely replaCing nelllIOf'Ial] iRsula'liOn. Th;e fest buil[ji~ are ai"ead)' II"! ~ Sind thlI ~ SIlTl..-atiolls aT'@! promisin!J.'IO To .... 1'1a: ecer; lhesa SOIUbOOS wu' SI.IQC:eecI in me e~'eryday ~ -s Sii. Ul"laJ\S'>\.oered. however.

~ing$

The opet'Iings OC a reese ere- ti"le grMtest ~ ces afiCl at !!'Ie same (lme. pose me grea!esl ttsIcs 'or pessoe sotar use. G;""en a.1JPrQp~ QlfllellsiOtIS. aITS1'I!JeIT'IMI.. CW'Ierltab:lf' and exewbQn, they can I"P\akg a C()f1SI(IeIallle contnbu'!.o1 Il)d.ay ,0 the eoergy ~ 01 a building aM;he ~ 0: ~ users, ~:sety. N:," are a source of COI"ISIQerabie~: css. COOlIng Of OV8I'hea~lng - ~!I (actors In OlminiShec i"'IdI:Q" comfort. The cacee.ces of lhe EtlEV Sl.Jg!9E'st G'lal rre ,,00;J. wi~ opennglii 1l;l wall area Should not be KIO g-ea1 when glalll'lg Qr a.vE!ra~ quality is 1..IS.8O, 1J'lIj ~Id nQI:@:':ceed.15 per Cent 01 'IN! total bullCI,ng scoece when S1.3-f"IIlo<Ir1Cl gWl19 IS employed tf thIS percentage IS so-oassec. a eece- Q\.lIit'I at g azsnq ¥lOuIci be I"I~ te Dlmirnstll'lea' jess If! wT!: • ." TO gain ~ ItIrcugh transpaIMI operun'9~. e-e reees 'lei select glabflg ..... '11"1 IBJ;C@llentJf'&.llaoog values..and good ~ and eeore transmiSSIOn veces, ~ing !a~ s-e s.A wMr& the radlij'tlQl1 ~ caeru-ed 1IIl1he lfL~enor [tVQl.lgi'I t.Tte weI~tecI greenhouse Ml'ect - UV-radiJ~o"I IS- transfanned Into IA thermal rad .... tIOn as L1 passes ~l'lraJgh 1""Ie g1az.ing and fat!:$ onto sotecee - is ~ 01 ess e"iOefI· (Je~g on the type. Feamea ~& a .... -eato; po.rn 11"1 ~ COOS1n.Jc~IOO. The- ll"'lsula:Jng Qual ues of fI'"ame$ are genwtI- 1C'M'8r lI\an those of the glazang - desOtut prof es ..... iJ"'I ~ ~atO" ClOd ctne- specia:1Zed oort5cVUCbOi1 chaI".ac'len5' tICS. Wirm.,.· j~ '«011'1 9QIXI1nsu1etlDr't vaaes eee etaf»' rate II'l design and CBIn otten aopear ~W'SCJIllE! - rtN.Jd'l '.....or1o:.rema-nsmbeOOnem tI'I's-area Oneal!~trwe is woo 0;; Mil frames al'IJIgetPlEH', as JQn.g as ITIiS olIIpoproaGh 1$ 0!)J'Tlpat b'e -"'1IJ'i ne S~l and veMJlaT.J:)ll ccececr and .... "1tI the- use ~ the t,.,II!dlng: lall1'y l3.fge W'of1dcN. tOflTl8.ts ~ WIth f.,.,.. 0!)e(Iab&e elemen:s arranQed' In an optJlfl3I tashO" for~en'Il.3."bQn An~I()OIi:IiK101JbC11"EStne~d. SU'laDle OCOrS. and for 1his reason, ~ an!! ot:en weak

_" ....... oI_IIY-.·Foonv .......... """" opening 10 ItIe CIUtIide or onIo unt'INted rooms also Wi!l1'IJ as a...sun 01 tho contrast ., lernperaturMilo which Iha two ~ are exposed -Ihey no k)nger close properly and mechenical Pftlb'8mI are the OOI'IMQuence. A WIIlOSCteen can SOlve me problem, pro'VICIecI rl is POSSlb'e and desirable- in (MnS Of lhe available 'Pace, The req __ ement~ fOf openings are not sfabl;. As the ioterfa~ between indoor and Ql.ltooor elimao:e lhey Should be able to take In or repel light. air ana energy. depending on exteoo- condl~1On!:!: aM Inteornallsquirements. The f16JCibI9 building skin. e.apabfe of iIIOBIptJog to ch3ng,ng corujibons iilnd rOQUirements,. .s.1betelore ee locus 01 arCh· lecture) cevcioemern.

Graeed Suf1'er ZOOGa - 'W'in'er g;aroon~

aeaee buf1er zones Of" W1I'ItilJof gardens make ~$.EI from the ~spec~ of energ:,o efliciency jj theY are ~l'Iea1Elo and at8 llQI W'ltenooCl ~ e ... eryooy 1J86, When LJS.9(j aa in1.enneI:Jiate ten'Iill91ratw-e ZCII'Ies Cf simple waIfI'I-,f!Iir 00Il'ector5;. the vew~ air if'Ilhis area can be clls\Mb~ad 'IIVOugl'lOu'l the ouilCk'lg with 1~ i'lelp eM .grama'ional venti~ or mecnasuCIiII mtems. Thil} al!ernatil')Q effects tJ.e'twfi;('I jf)MwiOr antf 8.lI.19rior ., ditferenl .... eamer eonditiM:S are IJery attrsctive-. fIQI: ooty in fe5ilOential construction. Roo' '!;1laZIl''9 plar.; an in'llXl"mru roll) in hoYt we e:q;terience a $pace; j(J terms or eoerg:,o efficiency, howtwer. it poses diSBd'I.an~ge!;i: sUCl'l3S ~ COOling.at ntght end ove;rhOOtlng w1'!en the: sun is r.gh ~ the Sky in SII.Irrmer, The spatial qualities of such buffer.zcnes can tern~ one to trans-form them ene- the taCt imo an additiOnal living SQaQe that has to be heated. This is in conflICt wrIil1he I'uflc.iOn Of buffer zones. h:)I. .. '6Vet, because tM: large gla£ecj sllrf:Ellces and ee low glating (jualitias {prefef:Ellble 5;ingle g1az- 11'1g1 nullTfy a.ny energy-rel31ed advantage Ctealed .at ;h& cutset. Sliding. balcooy c::iOCt'$ can achieve similar eeece as a 'oW'!teJ gardM. This ~e- 01 1emporary .....,1'11& garden is aspsci~lty poPtlI~r In Sc:andinaviru"l CCH.m1riBs.

Tf.ellSpareN fnS'Ulating Materials (TIM}

Tne e)l;pt'ession transparent irlstJlaM9 mateti~ is a misnomer because tho inS\,IlatiOn is generally lr.ensh.lOenl. ra1nel than lJensparent. 11 le a..,rajable in a vatioty Oil materiars - as tranaroeem malMl'iilJls, emtlladdad 'betw'eesn gfa!3;:S ceres, 01' as lighHr-en:spor1ing Jilnd (I ffra~II'19 synthetICS irn~rated irco eQU'alty Ual'lSlocen! Klndemg, !he so-called aero 9€!1$, whid'l ere qlJ;a$i ht;.mogeneovs In StrlJCM9 ai'ICI a....aaable in the form .ru laminaOf' beads lFig. 2.10, 2.1 1). T~n:spafent If'&.!latii'lO materials are IrtSotalfecr on an at:tsom&nt ex~ernal wall: the wsl Ma.ts up as a result of the S\Jnligl'rt that Is enc-ec to ~ ttwQiJgh the rraterlaes, With 1M appropriate stll..l(';U.a1 QeSign, these materials become. in effect. a sOI3r wall Ma.tirlg syst8Q'l, Qspocially in wimQr Mel' in the lransitiQnal Se3S()"iS (fig. 2.15'.

If the Yrall res 900d therma~ Stot3g0 capaCity. comfort can be m~tained e ... en on cold nights and o"'erc--aSl (Jays. In summer, on the other hanel, 1M TIM mU:S1 be effec!ivety

:1'.1()~I~ilrw.Mt

2.11 AurogeI"".Jlf'O./M;.AaI~(Ba!!lOgJ)l"1

:1'.12 T~COI~9. KtJ1816if1.(2'COOI.H~lIr.;1 $I;~ 0a~1o,ii/1bn!i1 1"1(;1&S'!l00'll'WIf1PCWOIkiI~Wtlf'lg\1i11b1.M1XI~ir1t1'1!1 douOFeroCOOQo_

21

2.1:3

sha:dad 10 a.vold O\'emeatll'l9. 1l'Iis me-eases 'II'W!I ~ and m3k9S lhe enure system more prone to reoaes. TIM can ~ be empIo~ed In lhe form QI ligl'rl.-scallef'lng gtass. !lartiClhrtf in sK)'ligh1S.. Th*$ eeswee 111011 light Is evenly dIStributed in II'N!o Wltcfior. lhf'Iich can be adIJatltageoos ~eci.:a'1y In WOI'kshop:s Of exhibitiOll spaces with great mom depths. It is ~ 10 oole that TIM embedded into g.lazing gener~lfy results In a tar greater instaltation dep1l1.aoo higher cess than witi1 soeetralty saeceve. ()( gas-lilled wioOows.. Frit;:ed. sand-l;Ils<ooa printect glazing ,'lith comparable light-scaneril"(! erfec' ire mOr~ common,

SlCfage Masses

S1.Cf.age masses statHHze tne tenperstura inSde me c IClII"Ig despite fluclOOtior"kS. in the QVtd'QOr enmate, Il'):S()'latiDn and Imemal hea, sceces. They maintaI'i a constant inOo::t" clmate and can thus cootriblJle !ow.ara me encern use d ener{lY·

Mas:g;ijve SlCfage Components

The :saar lflil;;zotlOn of rna.-ssiva ooit.d ng corntJ«Ien:s. ~ 0lI'TI-ponent5 'Wilh good s.'~age eecacw. ~ bO'ItI simple eeo e~1- clent. 1l'Iermai :S1~agE!l capaCit)' is fQici itateCI by a IaflJe surtace. the high !harmal capacil'{Q41he ma.:eoa:i eeo drea insolation, Exposed massl\l'.e builoing ~~ sud'! as wa is and c:ei'lings nave sese charaeteristiea, HoIkM' 1\(lOtS. and sus.pended coillOgs, on the otn9f' reoo. reduce ee stor· age ca(JaClty COflSide~bly, and SOlar energy can !hen be wlitM only to a !lmijec:f ex1Ml. lOt' v.tlen there is no stab izing enecr, Inck>or tempera1~as rise dl'Jring the .... am se:;lSOO aro active evsierre 'or OOOling ale reQUired. uqUtd swrage cenpooents can be used ;nstea!j; they M,'9 me a:dVEl.n~age. fer ~ • ....nen water is 1,15ed as the :s!ora~ mMium, ~!YO'" v idlng a much hi9her ~QI'"age capacity per uni! of VQItIne. Large liquid ~orage can b9 I.JSed as lQng-tefli'I storage ~ (.seasonal storagel and tne solar energy ~e4 in SUI'IYfI!!t' 1$ tl!t9n usoo tor he3!illQi in woter (cF. pp. 43tt}, Howe...er, thiS. reawes 'lief)' lar'ge :s~or.ege volumes, rrughty 50 rrtllQr a sino gl~amily~. Cons.aqLJ8n.1Iy liql.Jid stOl'il!}9 urllt5,are secnornic:att~ e~icient. when ttley ate useo for 1a:rgeA" ,ppt:lhcabOl'lS.. In pOOiCular.lor sctar distfictllealill'g in I'IOusif'l9 ~ mente . .se v eral pilo4 PfQfeCIs: ere ill oper-atlDl'r.1My [:III .emplOy large oodergrourld storage units, wti81fl the NV.(fJ~ is n'IUCfI oonet than in smallGr unit'S. auaeredtc e bouse. ,. LiQuid:Per· age unrts alWays reQuire addltlOf\ell eC1ive compOl"lenls.. hWi pumps, to ime-gr,pte '!hem 11110 _he hBaIif'lQ System, The ~ is uue lor &o-call9d et1Brt!Y pilM. In 11'115 appliC;<:!l1Qf\, U'Ia I'Ilg1'1 storage capacity oIlI'Ie foundatJOn CQnCrM9 IS utilized In combination with the rel8itlVely stable KHTiperal~ in the soil 10 StoI'& SOlar heat in s...-rmer Mel utilize It ill winler VIoEIi 1'!ea1 pumps. Conversely. '1'Iti8 ~'Y' tomperature in the SOil can b& usod to 0001 the b\.llidiing In summer.

Latent Thermpl Storage

Laten! '1\eIrma1 storage vtalize~ phQ:S4!l (roIls,rtion In ma~BI'.aAS - predominant,tv 'rom IiQuiCl to SOiieJ state - to!' 1'Il:;I\B(Ial-efficle(II: thermal storage With !31 correspondirlQ'Y ~h s[Ol'sg9 capac. It)l. ~Vhoo heat is s.!ored the material oogins to mell but cees not -nereaee in t-emperaMe I"W1til It is eompletety rnette(:l, Because no noticeable tempesaturu tecreasc occurs oe:srJI:-eo ltIe hooL r.rar'kSler, 1I1e heat 11Ip1 Is s,lct"-ed (Juring pNise rr;ansr tion is aISOle!or,ed 1.0 I)l(Mng ·l1iCkI'9n~ ~ 1a!09r1t. p a uIiIMln is I!I possable .storage medium: ns tharmCll C<lp.BIcity is 19f1bl'TlBS

".

"

"'9'* than concrete. A 3 .. crrHht(:k dry war wrtn para'ft' n ackhtive ectne ... es the sam& MOf<lg& capac lJ' 3!10 !;I 4O-<;mthid!. concrete wa1l 1MlorI i'I is inlegra~ad im.o glaZIng. para~n can be very anrecnve. The mteractlOn rNrti1 ~outSiI19 WOrItl IS (t):~rienced in the ,nterl(!( tlVoogh the brtgtwlesS of Ihtt wall. In~. lit appearS opaQue in ee IntAfi(.W'. In WInter.

It brightens on SUM)' days bececse the paral'lLn h3'S melted When 11"18 weather- turns ooId. It IS once ega n ~ur&l1 because the patathn freezes as It releases energ:l to the Imenor.1Z

On the bd to SmM Solar ArCn.18C1Uf8

The last 4!!J<ampae is 1M lust step on lila road t'C:1N3tdilmeri'Cfive conoeeheosive s.ystems. ACIC lJQOi111 ,jpproacl"les atIICI technOlogies are (:lJffMltly in MWilOpmern 3nd 8Ve"I If'] use ~ct PI'. 38ft, pp. 5Qtf}.

• GrooM Ducts for Pre-warming and COOling:

Eenh oue's IJ1lhze the constant temper:;m,fn;!l r~ in. !he SOIl As. heat excMngars thevarelDC:.a'ted in !tie 1fOS'1-free !;a'!1'et". As II passe, througt'l '00 Ief'lglh ~ the r:;1I..I0'. SI..IC'tiotIed ~ 1resh .air ts ~re·w:atm9(j to tM ~I ~.ature- (apptO!(. 6"C all year IQngl_ OUlTIg the ooId season. the eartl'l dUC'l. ~heat:s. 'lI'IB sUPPly a.- r&CI.uireC! fOr lI'I& building, and COOI5 Ihe ~ in ..........

- AQiab3.tic OOOWIg:

Adiababc eOCflf'tg functiOns 30C0t'dlL'~ to the lI::ul1aI1 prirlCipie that was ~ in antiquity. h .... ateJ ev<iIXI'.a.tes., It; hUmlC:!lies the surrounCJing air and COOls rt t:I'1 :;I rew deq-ees. Although 1his process has physical limi:atiOns. eee eoeceic cOOling and AS atmosohOOC Q.ualltles can greaily cootriW..eto the eomfOC1 oC USElIS. The disadvarltage of \I"Ie !rw;ie3Se in raIa!Jv9I"1u1ni1:1Tty comblned ..... 'h ceceeser t~re can be legul.at.eod in mechanical vemila.'IiOn systems. WlU:'l tne help a4 a Mal e.xcnang •.

· Free Nighl Cooling-

Ffee cociling ~ no more and 00 less II'Ian wirtdcr. ... 01' gap Yenliiatioo. Combined ..... '11n !hEtffl'll(ll stors..ge I'T'I3SSeS, ~. '\ can be vtIfY effective in baJancin9 surnrrer !-9mpera'li.J'8S; heal smred in buildiflg oompooe:nts oyer the ecorse 01' at da:.". tneteby ,;:.re'ller'lM9 temperature pea.~ can be released at night through open winCiows ex gaps, 'The ~sion and oons.truC1ioo of these openinQS is designed roo ~; tIr'eak •

• ns. to keep insects OUt.and to aVOid eeceseve a -veccres. They can be controlled rTlSf1l.Ially 01 mechanicaJty. ey me tim& motnlO9 arrfve!jO, even well--lnS1.JIa.:ecI \I01umes are effectrve~' QOOled by thiS means.

· Ught-d ... ecbng elameots·

l.Jg1\'I.diree~9 elements guide dayligl'l.1 deep I(JIO I'\XmS and -eoece the need fOf artJIi(;ialhgl'lt The1 come n the fonn of refl~g bNfos or light shetves.liQht-scanenng p.anlI!i. IigM.deflec;1ing prisms Of OOIOgraQlliC<lQtlCal etemen~. The)' shQt.lld be designed to optimize ~1iQht supply by means (Jf

2.13 ~buoIdIiOQ.AI.gaur'W7l,"""'_~.~~ ~cardbo&ld~~QfI~IL:-.IfI'i1I11L1I'1irOl~ ~lJIaSalOd'jnIITIieDI1y~ItWiJJ;.~~

2.1!5I ~~.Ebr\JI!,.K.fIP'l'IIIC~~.Otein::IISt,..,...t see- 1'IVIl!i:5«'I:«IoIYo9lI~v.·Ihpan!"v1\1'1f11!1sfOo~

2,

rninill'llzed Cros:5~stlC1Jon:s, v .ri1hOu1 greatly ,nCr~sil'1l heal loat:ls 35 a resutt 0'1 incidenl sun.

Sw\'ltchablc G!aSS:

Glass teChnolog~ is Plogressing at a recto pace. So .::t'IaQIa glass ls 01 parucular interest in Il'W!: area 01 bt.Jilding. n&y are charged With cvtren1 or injected \"IlUl gases and tJ fOtrl'ed 10tO varIOUS states. for example, from transparent 10 ansIucent Depending on the incident J.g'h( Of temcerans the:; may even change automatically and tree. ~ exatr pro. v Ide Shadlng_ This type of glass IS 'tIetyoomple)!; Ol.. Ninno doubt be IntrQchxoo In J;W.a:CtiC9 IfI tt1e oomirttg ~f

• SwitchOble FllmlFllm O,Jsl\ioBs::

NGw wcee O'l syntllet»c metenats offer lighl-'Ne' !;In., s ~II)"IS. ETFE·film resuns In very lil)'hl Oui~ n9 ccmponel'1l1s, -if~ t'I 11'18 form ~ diml3:f'lslone11y ~a.tJ4e pn.eUlnilltIIC cl,J~hion PnrrIed insetted Ia~ers and evacuating ute air from in1etS1:i1.J a:;ers are usee [0 create f~~d9S. wier. can re:;;pMd 10 PBriituree. light lncldence .and user requltemenrs.

v.a~umlnsulel[in.gParl9ls:

Unlil nov/, 'the »caJr.eo ·VIP's· .... ere pcimanly used 101 r~getatlng appliances.. The)' function n accoearce w.m '.he jlfincip.e oC .iii ttJenTICIS. They ccoser of il"lSUlalil'l9 rn.;!'mals, for example. compacted silicic acid, \Ynicl'l are "QicuLlfl packaged in a plasbc film, Two-cm-thiCk panels inSl,Jla:e as effcien;Jy as 20 cm of mineral fibre. This opens. ~ new design POSSIOII ties bolh for renova1ions and for new cons~· the thickness of w$11- and roof structures can be OfasN:;a~' reduced.

These and I'!'laI'ly other developments coreoe what are usually retesred to as passive eemems witI'! active ~. 'Io'.<hioo are generally i~pendentty -irnelhgenL' The:. aPB smart. meef\ing they are able to rQact to char')Qi"9 0[ tfIil::eo condi!iOnS and fftlc;LJatiOns in sol<Ll' eaoesco. Ttus increases mCilt matoQrial and ooer'gy etiiCioncy. ArH;:l tl'Iis WI be re path 10 sustainable-, fll')[1rg),.efficIl3N solar arc1"U1.9C1;\Jr8. -I beg'f'!S wrih peaalve 50iBIr use, is e-aw IQ impJemem ::md is ra .ablE! .and effiCient Il1.;I.nks tc metenela. wt'lid'l fespon.::!3pprOP11'atDI)' 10 SC4ar raaiatiOrl - smart matenars. It is oon~.ollabli!l 1t1r-oogh Intell g,.ent s.elf--.rll}Q\.lla1il'lg C(lC'ItrQl teC;~ esSrT'I:Jr1 oontroL FII08III,... 11 combines paS$M:I and acbve sotar SYS1QmS: dire(::t, pesslve lJ'Iil@tiQn ol SOlar 1;!f'lE!f.g), ~II cre.ate synerg es .... 11ti active LI1illZ.ation of sOlar rad.al.lOf'l· Ke~ in IIlls. field are hybrid SOlar sys.;ems, micro-Cflma,iC I;JUlIOi'19 Skins. and sel1"'egutaMg facades. The develOpmen1 of S'1'\:II1 solar nrchilecturf;!' will glve rise 10 n8't\' ~ed'lnoIOg es, ana R) a eagefty antlcipatecl new archrlectur9.

· "'lthe~d2O:lJ.1t41E~I"Ir'OonOfMt~n..~"I1

~D'1~COnP\.I(:!I;IIIPMnod~IIr-:IT~ .. lSQ.li)' Y'IdtI' d"JII tI~ OIl r~ ArI:I'lo!el;I~ Crunc~ 01 Europe lACE) ....", 1No~10I ~~ l;h(I'lMmlldi!ll.Dt:M1l!lbil ..... inW\aio"ljJ [Co' ~lJtI"'iIiSJilt.l;n Lottvr.WCff,~Il);I;,~,.AJIIiI{TiIl"4Inotl:I(CIC:N.~~IOrtl, ... .1.·Tr"ghfI~EIn~"'l.bIt~~UI\'.o""I'dcII'wV'o'oltlll .... ~.g ... 'I.~.~t,ndlneortlL,JbtnMzt r~·bFarodQOnS.lY.!OO:l n-.UH-ijp~~""rtdb'r'lOrml!lr~iII""'l8l'M6- tlIfGro~~iII;wnRJIIIl<ldlt>llj)rio'lCiNlIlh&M..N80- csJ-=lEio"~~ "'$u:i~t.-ltlde-.~IN~","I!J. tt..~QI'II'III(UI'''''lJIIfIOrlllitJtlo~~r~~ r.oseil1Ut\lnl~l()11t."br~J"IdI5in!..B'2'002

.. F.deIWGan'l'lM5I;n:ola~w-...w~4-d.

0rc.I!4IJO.:.D.~c.aHedb'0CIfIiI,-~.J(Itnlor.-;:~~ ~JlI"d"9"(KIltleilf'Chlil')j)lQI"~ot'ou~, 1t11111V.~ ......

~",,~. MIfE~. ·~ .... a~HJ.!llI:: e:" BorQ9ZU~_ SlA~~$It*"",·~.g.l_

I n.r~"\.IIT.~lOero.-'f1-~~ n1972_ltI'l'fl9~1ad

2.1:5

Of'IN"'rl...tl'W1tolIl'4C~dFltJr1-4and.bilwdOl'lN·!ICd4IIof '~d~~~\(IIr4'IIIR~~ ThI.-.aor1 ~rtQ~.JI)QnIlMlI!TI!ll"~dJonSbvt"""'~~f_ boorMOU'c..." -V~. ~11Wod ~l_iIf'~~d8I!oIJYC' 1IIOI"I.IiWIdUSII,IIte.WWN_o:IutifJII(It)lI!to!l'llI

a. ~('PjJd4IfNnIJ~1O~:Y1~~"~.'~ lr..~.cll'ltll"lihldt4_~~"'N6'10~~ on .~,~loc.IIolO1S IIDpert*"t.., ... 1nd-~t1llfDdfllrllcXa~86percenlll"l"A~~'·~~onalillJl)l'lB6,* terll."', .... !>d-~td.IiuI1t\'facw.m~'!loons!!O-l'O_c.... FlOIT'" 5a~.SCitIg~~.tl.JOO

'¥ 'IhII~y5t.lI"Q~FIe9l1i<"'illl;lnt&"EVIWII,IIII"*.'\8d~~~F ...... 1ilf'i'1.;»:)2.In~_H~MlI'IIIIItI,.~I'III~~~ tfldhl:lilt..n.;J~~l'Jorr.I;ar'Id~IIO.£ItlP1Gil~buIId~ w-dudlllliltl"_-'Sbng~.!I:lI'IIIIoI!JI'Ii!I'~U".ingllpcI.enII.lIl~ han! f.l.lIlo.tl«ful)oncteO~INIM"'feogo...t.,_,oen __ .... _blJT..b.orde

ID P1IDIeo,Gi.n'I8I -v lJNIetlIe~~If1(!I"O;u')bIr~~_· DI!o'AleIl,'1lkl.11t2OO12

11 FCI'~.tnetQllr~i;IIho~-I"i~"KI'~g._OO

It'4U!b11ndiWlct"~~IIIFr_~.

12 Thi"""OOIiI'OIfl)OI"iI1l,11""dp;ll"21rm~~~ .. n..rnbt!!ItdCUI ~;Ml'Ko,1r;IJli_l""~l:iIf1nwiLandltrMl.;rIIlXIfTl~

:2.I!- Studio,~(lt1(j.l..I,~Marmo-F.st~clllaCIde ~-~~MMtOgeI~.

selsr Technology - From Innovative Building Skin to Energy-Efficient Renovation

~l'Id KflpP'*

The tlfS,t SOlar ccrectoes ..... ere installed on r'OOf'tops. in me 1"t'l(I- 1'970s. follOwed nearly a decade Isler b~ tf')e firsl In!&gr~ted phQtovOIt,aiC: s,ys!em. Now ,hat rne iMtal pIObrerre. such as system gtrtel'les aoo ~ hurdles, nave been overcom&. aC~I ... e solar lechnolOgy has g31nea ,fl solid posotioo .... me construCtiOO mprket_ Indeed. n is a routine eon1ponent 04 I'N!InV l;liI.Iildin-g concepts, and ~ Qdy Gllhose .... lth looovativ1:l -enolWgy scateqles. In the field 01 solar arcMectur&, 1M SQ-CSlIle(! illd rfI(;; systems pl8!y

a special role. The ccfleC40r itlStaHa(IOI'tS;and photovollaic ~ integr~ted intO me buillj,ng skin are- tar tT'lOfe presenl .... iruaJl)' weabng, that! .c-'o1'(lC'l. measures such as ccenoacaneee. hi9h-pM'ormance g1azifl9. in1.91ligom III'Is.,IlatJOn 01' efficien; ()uIlcllng $ystemS. In addition to the tunct.QnaI !aSks - heating dornes:bc water. oomplementary space heating al'\od power generatiOn - lI'1.e If'ItIoduetion

of theSe eomPQ1enls aJ$O eaosetee into a ~8I'able semantIC expansion of the technolOgical tepenocy I;)f building.

A. ke:t ctoaractttriSriC 0' itlte9fated SCIlaJ 1OChOOIOog)' is. the visib'le installalJQn of the cc:t'nflOI"Il9f'Its. Qn ~!3 Of racaoes, which function as the reQualed Interfaces between SQl,ar radiation and ee ooilding sys1em. It is ee building :skin

that allqws us to experience arci'liteotl.IB .and ar'(:hftectJ.jrsl ds~n in the cubuc space - in the S!lOOt, SQuare Of urban Quarter, The Question enaes. 1"IOv,'e"'er, ,meNr ant1 to ....t.al E!XI:em, solar sys;ems engentler novel building soft,Jtions. ancl wha1 tt!ilJ;lr QOI'I1ribution migl'll be to the cutrural QualifY ofarohitecturs_

~~fot~nArc/llMClUfe

The ~ 01 qua1iry in arctutectere nas been noted klf some time. both ')rQtessionBJlt~ and potitiCQIIV_ If Gennan arehttec!ural Mute seems to :su1jer trcm ooglse'L in gener;(Ll, wl\al is lhe status of so-called solar :;tlchltecture If'I Wrticulal'7 Even aller neartythree decades of intensive focus in thfs. fiekl, solar afehi~ecture - as pars pro toto or an::MecttJre in gl(lt'lefal • cocrtinues to' refl'ec! a oertait'l ~randcmnes$ and lack {If ~., aM "solar· buiLdlogs are c-ri'licizM 101' their lac'l( ot architectural QU8IlIty, On me one hand, In8Iny arct.itccts 51111 retuse to address the lopiC and leave the is!sue In the hanCSs oIl9ngineel'"S and tM.Iilder5: on the other hand, i, seems e ... en more diMiCUlt to defll'le wtIal (:OI"IS1J:1JJ1es. qu-.:.lity gl'ol6f'l Ille CO'r'IpielcilY of the tequircmcnt:;; 8nC the. abundance 01 f>ystem cnccee.

~ we t3k.e a lOOk at Qualtty in aI-chitecrure, two phenornene eee mm.e.d1P~ly eceerene flr:S.'I" the- dlff.arenw In ~il'l-

Ion between experts and laypeople, :and seeeee. (he VlffN tMl arctutectul'll' QUoPllty is sNnpty a ltIJat1et of eeesheucs.

It ts. true thel 'the nQ¢Ur "" a solutlQfl. II1ClUct:lI"Ig the ;(I.WOPrI' eteeess of the meens and the logiC of the eXpI8SS00, is Slrcngty defined by aeseeic criteria both in terma of I1S inwgra,ion IIf'lto the urban COI'I1e.x, and the building concepl itself, I:)ut limi'lillg qua~~ in ardtit-aCM6 10 these criteria

is SifllOl')I too ftlstrictiva. This JS. because architecture 190 closely tinl<ad to U1illty and ~bihty. <l.1"!d JS. determined by tUl'lCboflel and struc.1utaJ cl'!311'3c~el'$ics of (jua!J;-y as welt. Defining 1Jl9s,9 cnaractensnce IS dirr1Cul1 e~9h (]wir\g to U1e wide. ~ga of requirOO1e1'!ts. and pDlXty defined ori!ena. The ~u~ion of aeeshenc ql..rd.lity - 01 wf'\;8,t makes a Duillding beau1iful and concJus~'IIe in terms of spatiality. scale, proportion, colOUr anl;lsurface tteatrnent - poses at! even greater chal!enge because the crnerta on \o\"hich ;p'5$e5Smera is easeoro this inatanca are e ... en 1es.'S da:iOiuve oue to dlflerenl depths: or ~edge and persoear pre'erences. The use of SOla.r technology places n;e\\.' demands on !he corers» OI:JnS.I.rUCt ad the enw:lopoe - lor lQ);amtJJe, to act

as. en inl'omiatiCf't cerner bet'alo'Q8n cllm(!lte modula'tOf and me<Jla screen. This does not mean.~, mat estebfished I1'lOOCS of ~lua1ion 1'Ia v c:r become s.tJpertlt.nJs. U~matelv. ~cMecttJral Quality can only RouriStl tI'WOUgh the interpla:f and rnterSIf;:tKin ~ ::'rCh:ilectoruc cetegoriBS in the! vnruvlan sense.

",,,,Il'9<,,r_SIoins

In the come;.;! ot t&-<l'eflfling lila buildiFlg SIM. ~t is to say. 'it:s lI'aOO'JCf'I frem ~u~3' p~tiW:t rOl.es Mo polyvalent t;:ontrol functJons, much ado is made of SYnefgetiC effetes, and' the eXpr&S$iM "intelligent building ~n' e eeQUeotly menUoMocl. If 're~ding to new $ltootlOnS 'With pro!Jtem,OOI ... in;g be~r-~ ceosrunee a crite.riOn Of intelligence, then lhe lectJ~ic-al advances: and 1'16\"1 facatle elements. can Justdaably be rMfM"red to as extlibiting -intelligent bohsvitl',ir.·

In ;a4ditioo 10 a tl'lu'lhtJ.td"e 'Of wir'ldow s:r.:;tems for the diroct utilizelioo 01 SQta.r en&rgy, inC!Judu1'9 n;al".al v en'tiI':!lllOl'!. so-caned manipula,ors fOf s.haditl{jl anel neat protection. end daylight deflection. SOlar components plsyan impor.

3,' At~ot.II1MuM.rn. ~ (2003,. by ~BusM Kljlpp&unono. 'tho~~iJo,IQIti1H;~tDll'l.J!«I.!l00I..Wt'lillto_lIUIIC:iWII pcMI'Q:rGJIldolH&me.

••

1 &1IM QentWBto'CO"I rr.:vrTlirIQ

a CoorItoc1ol)fl5(ll(lr9'll'1' ..- 3C1rK1cI¥I*TI oiI<~(lilCl.Jl!l (MIIfIIl"IMt'It)OUIrI:W(J

t.aM role in lnletligenl 0( ~fll')Q\'a'li\re bu loin-g skins. The technologv 1he)' lraroduce (enc:lll'lQ;lf II~ to an electro' c netwlJlk system), enables the facade eecue mof !(J mSpOOd flexib~y to cMng nq exlemal ccooreos. The reaalt JS a lasting ef1ect QIl essential room Qr buf!O,1'!.9 +e. actensncs. in othttf wosds. on user CQrnforP The DfO'_: Jct specttum is v ast and tt1e rate of innova1iQn truly s.1Uflf'1lng: phOtO'tJo1taiCS era gaining in importam:e.as pceer ger fa~ors ro- 11'19 necessary control techrlOlogies and as maneelaw,s suitable for man.,. applications. TechnologV is , .. i-lll lor creating arehttectlJre thal Is booth pl'rysiea1ty and aesthetically sab$1yif1Q • .artCl10( establishirtg a n'lO(Q nurrene and .n:eillgent approech to buildlng.4

SUI in:alligent build-ng is- 001 necessarily just a rnane ()1 !eochi'lical systems. The eereoccos '1.a:rif:ty ~ ,egional approoch~ to building 13>:.emplifiA:lS wttat iotelligenl, t"J! is, eeetem. !,ISS" of rnatenar and enefg~ cart be. because tne~ C:OI'Y'Ibln.e r-Eilion:(lli 1;hin1t:ing and oraltsrMnSh:ipwi~h oorm~lslve forms or e:.:pr~s;s1orl, MI:In;i KletiOOIOgy is, 'Clear:)"_ no'l me only answe. A ... Oil1irrg unnecessary recimoloQv, eseeclsrty ....t'Ien It becomgs an end in nseu. can be ~ a

inno v .alh .. e end intelligent,

The technical and economic potential 01 solar lectr ~g:.' Is. con1inually being QuestiOned, Recently, l'IOo'Je'VeI'. e systems. have i"9oved wmendous,ly. 11'19 amc:vt.z . ..:II periOcjS for the jnve~mef'l1 costs have C!imj~ct CCIS.dB(ably in some cases. even when primary energy is I »en into accccru Nevettneless. the origil\3.l fI'I'lciple Silll GppIiM; oollectQr$ and phOt()\101taic il'\$-ts.lIabOnS can only mat:a a

noticeable cootriootlOl'ltQward re-p1ac!ng fOr$illuel~ ana rEldllCir." COl emescos if the dit9C1 me3SLItiS - the baste Strategies relaMg to the building's energy 000SI.I'T1~~ ()A aoo II'IdQOr ctenete and abcwe all me b'uikf.ong skin - ~~ e~ensi""ety IJ'I- ized. Ttlis can lead lO' ~Qj)'s (or cneorgy :SlJp1u:s bu·klings.. whiCh generatE! mcr-e Qfle~y per vear U\an tMy con:stIme.

A rtJl'\d.;)menlal dlfferen\iatiClll is made: between 1Voo'D o,-fI'-er· em woes oi md feet utlli~;j1;iQn or sola: ener9~: therroa

~ 5Ola.r er.erg'f end phQ'Iavol1aies tpJ). In Ih~l use of SOlar energy. ccllectoes lrans.lc:.rn SQie!r ra.t:liatloo into rea wtwarMS Pv-cells Qet"letal& power OIJ'I ~ SOlar r.aIlN.1ior1. The energy Yl'9ld 01 these svsterna I:;; in,ltuencBd b~ c:orn:hscoe al the- site- 3Tld can vary gre.;lltty (fepend'1'l9 on gaogra!'JhicallQ(:;c1tion_~ The etlet"gy yiel.c IS esse Cel8fmined by IhQ inclioo and orien1a1ion of 1M l~a'led comPQ"W!flts. althougtl tnese lactors. iflfluencc thermal solar and phOtovoltaic systems to va~g degrees. WI'Iefi col*~s ate emplOyed, the P'&cemenl1s eisc influenced bY the use

10 'IohiCh they are put Thus, iI'Istallatl()fls dMtgned fOr heating c.klr'n8stiic wauw mould be ~ienr9d to'o\'3fd tne higl:'ler solar atltvrje in the surrwner season. wnile ins1allalions jew sepplemernery ~ce Maring should 1a!'gel the jower $OIpr ol1.l1UCle in ",'inter. South-facing coll&C1orS st'IouId therefore be eeteaeo on {II ;shaJow in.:::Me of "l!.f for OOmOS!iC water systems .aMI a S'Le(Iper incline ~ 611' stIould be usee kif s)'sttl~ designed to supplernoo1

• s~ce hga1if1g. Rigid ~-'gener8Ior~ wrth aoumem or-teO-

Lh==~~~~~=U !3!10i'I acnlO"'9lhe 'tIfBatest annual yj£Ild in GerlilBlny .... nsn Ihey a! a ir'k9-!alled m a 30~ angl.6 to 1he hC(iZO!'lISI pWlt3

In simphfled tesms. a. ~lh-Ela~'I.I'E:o..IlI'I..'W'e'S-I orianll!l[lOt'i

and rool i~lii'lO up to 45" Yl8h3S optimum results Niltl

001'1 n&glig b.Ie deviations: .c~sely, in$Ola11oo ts. drillSI.· catt:,- reduced on ventcet tacade eunacee ....

SoJ,.~f SyStorl'IS fOI l1':Ietmat t.rse

Air- end warm-waler COlh:!ClorS (flat pl31& end s'o'acuar-ed tube coIlect~s) are chiefly used 10 preheat SUl)Pty air. k> heat domestic walet and to Si.lpp4emenl otner he3bng SyS.lem:s.

~t plate cOfIec!CIfS generatty consist Oil a sohel me1B.! ebse boIII' set oe e rOCMnogJJlelr rr.p:me. The abSOfber 15

co ... ered by a glass patte on L'OO'. Is iRSUlet-ed Ofl the undersoe end is ElQI.llpped Wllh 18~era' OOfIMCtiOOs to the heal earner medium. By its v ory tunc'iOn. thai of atJSOtbing enefgy. It is the rros.l import,ant oomponent 0' a coIl&c[Q(: its abscq)~lve and emis,sl'o'e WItef dsten'lWleS the ooIlector's effICiency. Simple. black coatings 3!E! (arety IJS.9d today (Inti bave been lergely relll.acad b)' motc effICient solutiOns. New. highl:,' tie'lecli ... a absorber coa1il'l9;5-, vd'Iich dellVe( ;iIJ hlg" rate Q' absorptanca ('95 per eeeu Mel (iras.1ic:ally reduce re1rec:!.anc:o "'" the if'rfrlIJred region 01 the spectrum. lutlher oceese the annual enetgy -y,eld. Morecwer. d'langes to ;he surtace svUCb.We can be used to ceoeie coatmgs rangIng frQm blue-black to blue--g~ey instead 01 me previOUSly mortOlct1lQuS bo\eIck QDalirtgs. lI'Mlreby 6:fQ-oiUlding the de$lgn cotcna.

tn e't.acuatM rooe co'llec>1ors.. glaSS tubes ' ...... Ih tll,Jitt-in eusebee are bul'lClled in a wr-ecting pipe. The 91;;!iS50 tubes serve SImUltaneously as a eareoarern cover and a houslng_ Since hMt losses are vir1ually eliminated as a resul; or ee vacuum., the .'l!jiviCfLlal tubes. operati~ 1emQeratureosOf up 10 12O'"Ccan be aChj9'V'8Jj. HI:Moever. the increased performance ClI evacuated tube GOll~ (up;! to cna Itlird higher) e linked to e OOubling of ccere. Evaeuate4 tube coleclors are maflufa~\.II"ed in a vari&1"j ~ syatem desi{jns., .althotlgh mos.' are ·(lpen s')'stems.-. meanin.g !trey do not torm a. water·t)earlng layef and must therefore be Ii'IOul'\1.ed on rool ~ or soseeocec in .ront 0'I11'!e facade. In the meantime, fi~ ettenpts ha.'I/'8 been made tcrw.ards IOte9fated Installa1ioos. wtucn make evacl,J,neCilube collectors a mor'09 lntel"$,!lng option lor facade :applic.atiOrtS as well. althou.gh the addi!.iooal

effort r~irw fOf" insulaoon must be I3ken into consideratcn.

Collector 5yS{cms fC'l w,ateJ hBa1ing are gener.ally seed 10 del~vet fOUghtv 50 '0 80 pet cern of the av&I.age annual req!,.lireme:nr; .... mile ne:artv TOO per coot coveraqe can be achieved in :31.m111oE'1. lhiBI ~tput dips 10 approxitnCiitel:,- 50

'0 60 per cera in wnuer as e taautt ~ heat losses eoo dlrmnlshed II~SOla\lon_ For singl&-1"fullily al'ld dl:,ilple:o: hI::it..iIS&s._ tne S1ao08rd calculation is based Qn 1 .2 !O 1.5 m.: nat ptate OQIee;Of eee and a storage vowme of eo to 100 li'lrtlS par person.

St:antlard :solar' s:ystem~ designeCl ~ su:pplement Ihe hBaMg re(juirOOleflt:s. cal'led oombin&tIQfl 5oys~em:s_ are sired according tCo tl'lElI'IeBM9 ~d. A rul& ot Ihumb. rOtJgRly , ttf of 00I1~ eree per Irm. ~1tS 11'1 CQl'f'Il'f'ICM1 s')'StM'I or-eosionso' Sikl1ti IW cc:flectQr area- M area of fooghlv 10 rrr '&

3.2 ~I.aoa.gfolltlQill!orrn.1iuUt(j!8OIiVentII"g)· 3.3 ~1t)agfilll'lQl~WSlMI

301 M~·~I'Ious&InZiFId'J (2001). :!tel'lo*=LEroNI~.

TIw~b.aIJl.",:r(IdoI~~oIw.'olQIl1l)to;11~«lIIfIcwa

'COIIfIc~r'IIkl 2I-101.JMlr.&Mfef;;u.licn ;l SdlYulJl15'!~stBto1 4BurI'ef~1tO

5 tong·I«mSlOrDgCo

sufficient IMIl;!·(J 9Vaooated tullE! C0119lCtors are e1rIp oyooand an .ns.tallecf storage volume rangmg from 500 to lOCQ unes, The solar instaliallOn can thuS ccver up 10 one Quarter or 1h8 tote! heating raqusamenr.

Sotar r:::¥strlct Hool!ing anrJCtXMrtg ~

Two addloonel eemes are gaining in ~ In tile riald of solar systems for thiermaluse: SOlar d stJ C1 n~~r9 concepts" and $.OIar .. supPQrteci cooling processes. Sctar sys.emEi designed to SUf:;lplemelll di:stric.l h~.alin9 s.J~ies aim '0 address the ptObIem of itsyn(:hrOnieity between poea.1t aclar radia.tion in summer and Mating derr ods 11 winter by brkJgillg If'19 gap through $E!a~1 stofage.1'I'iG mocJet is p!'eClominSfllly used for new hQl.Jsing de~eq,. mente d~ to the lequirement fcf large :slor.ag.e 'lQf1J11\eS (up to 20.000 ~). ~QOrdina,ed im~ration lmo lhe supply grid and spedallv designed control technol¢g". sece ins.lallaOOns tend to requira latge absorber areas. the I;Q1. Ie.::;t(t(s are 'l)l:loorally reali'2ea as fully I)ref.abricatecf .sd.;t rools." The rOO'S and facades 0' neighbouring s.;;t'OO ings. khldergMef1S or :sports. 'acilitIes as wet as I'IOIS@:pr&o:

Ie.::;tioo wa IS can also be u1i ized. 'When (:(HTlttne.c .... 11"1 Jow-temperatuf9 heating Systems, 1J1e solar poo.o. tl'Ial tS .ge'l'lfu"ated can cover up to 60 per cent 01 the aemards itlr oonestlc water and scece hea.'LIfIg. Solar~SUflported heatiog concepts are an irnpclf'lant bui\dSlg blOck. CII ~he road tl)W(:lrd eHtc:aeocv in the thermal use 0: SOlar enerfi· However, theIe. IS sun a great need fcf lile further d2'. ment of dtlE!c"QIlt storage types. especially If'! serrre D'I ccosnccuon d9S:lgn fOf minimiZIng heat kiss and ccst re4tiC1iQn. For' this reescn, ttl"" eMuciency ~ such systene Is 501:111 f-airly 10\ v.

E,:w:perimen1s ha'o'8 been undertaken for years ttl nceesingly bamess solar energ.y lor aJr-c:ondi'ioo,ngo. emce '1M roplc Of COOling IS especially relevant in office bUild ngs. This .applICatIOn present:5- en opportUr'lity to 1ak~ a«:tv.arrla ~ lJ'Ia. overall synchronicity M'tY'<een ~Clden1 S(lI..ar enefm' and coo n9 demands. AlihOugh the dGVe1Qpnleflt of pCM'fI~ed chliters and air..eondlTloning systems. s sh I in is IfIfaI'\CY. some pilot in:;;!aMooos ere a~ea.'CI)' IIf'I ~t(JIl SorPti"e cooling uses ee-ea led open svsrens t« dcect «coo- air dehumidmcat.ton aoo OOO1ing.

'IMlile air 'CQl1e'CtQf$ are S\JIla ble- as. mer-mal get'*a~ edsopuon - 1tJat is, absorption CI"Iilfers Of cloSed s

for ook:I water produc-tiOn - requ:r-fl Qua itaWB float plate COIklc.l0rS ('M'lI'I C1pl9ra1fng terrcercwee or 00 ~o 1 ClQ'CI evacuated tube ccnecto-s (~OO to ,5O'"C). depend ng OIl tho COOling (OO'IperatlJl'e. Moniloring 01 the pilQ1lRSlJ~ f6\l'ealed tMt most problems arise in 'It1e area of ll"1e !;.tra,egy. meaning. lne il\teraetlon between COllector mst l.;IttOn anti chi lar.

1'1>0",,,,,,,.,,, A phOto.,.oJlaic .ns.a tanon is compo.'S8d O1ln&\lil'klClJ sola cells ..... lllcl1 see ga.ther-ed into P'V-modi"Ms. ~B IIld cella ere ~onl'le<;:ted in eenes or in parallel. Wti9f1 S~aJ mocIules are added. we speak 01 OJ SOlar geJ*(llOr. TI'IB ootpu' at F'V·lnstallations can be consideratll:,' QIIl1IIl as: a reson 0' stlad,ng (.rom nelghbotJrin-g bulldlfllP· tallOn. rOQll;ldd 1 OIlS Or oeer eJements In tee DUlJt 8flVl rrentl anti lhese shOulCl t~rerore be avoicIEH:I at al cost. HlJIW61Ier. t!'loti) are. certain COfIfIecLiOn 1'I"'IQde:s. thaI h~ oot]X.it losses. ~r pO\\'Qr can be generaled 101' 011-

a

on-grid syst8l'nS. OII-gnd systems (e.g .• mountain ceoe. weef(end conag&ll\aw no oonnectlOfl to the I'I'\3lt'1S $Upp.ty ,pna ute generated DC -Curren! is SlOfed directly af'loCl WlIf'IOu'I 1J'MS1CU1\81t.on In banenes on-tilAll or i:I utilized for appropnate aPt:JIt.i'lI~ces (so-called 1Dw-'o'Olcage appliance!J.,. FOf ayelams thaI alB ~~CHld 10 the grid, the gene.-ared DC cUffen1 mt.*$t be Irans10rmed i010 AC currenl by means 0'

a OCIAC ir'lvet1E!f betcee 11 can bQ fOCI imo the public grid

or consul'Tl&d o(J tOO househOld.

F'holcwotts'IC mochams Qffl t'I"ft..Iltl.laYefeci and e~r eo-eeedad int(! amr-ctat rooin be'IWel3l1 glaS! pane-s or 181d bBtw&en gla'SS and a ptasuc 10000i5Ite_ OepE!f'lcliing on '6QUlfEffient:s, lhe reverse side is opaQu&. tranSlucent ~ol:tsalred glaSS, de1l9Ctmg Ijlm) Of ttallSp~rent tciear glaSS.lranspaleli11ilm}. A flDiamental ClIf1erentiatioo IS ~de between rigid and 11ClIJIb&) phQtovottaic modules. Moveable. !,.Ini- or bi-axo:al ssatems designed 'or retrQfitbnQ ese an il1Cteasl~1'y pocutas altemptiv(llQl' rroeures 1M, are k<ea 1IfI1J1ac:a-. Man", msnl.t'racturl9tS ~'er fY'IOdl,lle:s in a '1.lfioM~ 0' standard stses and c"",,om solution$.. and tile I)fOCI!.Icl palette ranges from earnple~c Clnefgy roofs. and shadi~ ~em$ 10 pOOtctvoetaiC roofing ules.

The area reQl,lirement is: Ca)Cul;:l1eo aooording to genetmor output.. ....tIich is measured in kilo .... .att peak (kW), 8 unit tnal III'Icllc:;I!es tba module cenoowce in standardiZed. test ceodi1ioos, If! Germany a pholO'llOttaiC: instl)lIalJOll WIth QP-1.i~ orieotanon and a perrcrnaoce Q' 1 kW~ deli .... 9f'S beeveee 600 at'ld 10C10 k\I'I,Ih ~rrent annua.1y depending on me Site cond lions. ArM rllQui'emen!:s: (Mfar accordi'l9 10 the cell type-: .."nile 10 m2 Is $UlfiCienllor ctyS'Ialln~ cells, mUCI"I more is racruired .or amorpflous cells. Gtven an a:ver.age instalF3t.:)n SIZe {2 to 3 kWp.l. rnese SOIU~ can OO'.'er UIl toW per Co9I"It 1).'1 the annul;ll demand, .aIU'lougl'l ~ roug'h~ 20 '0 2S ~et" cern of tM aoo1'"g11S dIrectly U1iti.z.e.d dlJ8 to

Ihe lime lag oo~'OOn gen~.etillf'l 8lltl dOOland.

c..T""""""'9Y

$olar cess generalty consist Clot amorphOus c- cry:stat,i'ie s.tIicon, In aececo to differences in surface structure and -cOOUr. tjo)e indPiiduat ceawces also differ ., terre of Bffi· .c:ietlC:,'. Monocr'yStalhne cees datlv4w '!he higI'J9S-\ reno W1~h up to ,a per cant. W1'JiJe potyerysta11ioo cells acl1iE!w as much as 16 ~ cern. ~he effit;iancy qUO'lienl Of atriOi'Pl'H:M: silicon Is rQUg~ 10 per cent These- effICiency quotients are being COI"IS.tanUy oPtJrnrzed with the help 01 so--caJIed nybncI cens In onhiIch rnonocrystaJhA9 .... '<I.tetS we SUffQiJndei;l by two l$yers OOMaining Il~S ~Iicon. C~ently" in~ei\SI\'e researcn IS being undertaken inro Mw toc:tw'IoiogJe!;:, inch.td~ lng, miClOCryStaJl'l'lQ an.ci mlCromorp~us solar tells ,and eolour cells,

·Tr.e,",parenl~ pol)ocrys.al ee cene. on lhe omer tla.nd. a:tId ltIeir faSCinating ccrcet aH'ects, are a flew techOOIogy wl~h impU~l:IQns fOt' vi$ual aeeeewee. In a special process. the top and 'OOnom sides of me wafer are mill9d wiU\ patallel cots. \lVh1le t~ resullin-g micro ttoIes at the o-e-sectces 04 the cuts C!imllrlJsh the eree WtpLi'l. 1~ crea.1e ~h& iI'I'lpres~

3.5 ~lo.tlgram.QfWl!lrd~thll.1bogeone&P1!I

3.6 l6M9f"~$.UltOn, 9«1"~, 'o'OnGel:loJvi ~Ur;atld ~ 1lio)~iC~_~nbedlA!OlN~lrot.lt1ErjMQ rS$'\'1311t1o. !;lJndf19s-,~IJW11.

siOt'! of a tr~nsp.arenl cell. ~in-'jlm 19ChnoIogy has tr~ deus teC;hnlcal end aesthetic, potentiaL1oThes,e eel ~J'j)DS are economic in larms of material CMS1Jmption - n ,'WS 01 no more 1I'Iaf'I a few mlc-eQl'lJelres (1·6jJm) are :SU:'i'I':19MrO' absorptiO(l - and are also energy emcrem, becauso lIle manufaCll.Jfin:9 tempera.tures Of 200 to 700 "C are.25 per 00111. less U'lal'llhO'!:i:e reQu1re-cllor <:rys.1alline cell:;.. ,~ htgh leve( of automatiOn In tile prOductIOn is anOil'!IQr SOc -ce 0: potentief:savirrys.

Thin-film SOlar cells oner many ad v antapes in teen- 01 depend'Elnc~ on :solar Incidenc.a .000 ulmper2l!ura; e,/ are also mOl'e 10lerant 10 sh;;t;djng. Oi1~ulS8 af'Id v sa cht is. U'bllzE!(l ;0 a grea"!( degfee aM tnB outpu'l josse a,; a result of !empersl).;lre mc-eeees in me C811 Me dim -sjed. """nile the lOng strips ensure t~t s ngle cess are- 1'1 _ V'tIr fully shaded. Anll1her ad v aruaqe of thirl·:ilm !t3:Ctlnorog~ s I~ variab-Uty in sbace. seee uese rnoauJes are ret . ~ to staodsr(fi:i!:ed wafer dimQ!flSlof\$, as is me case w : - cry:st& line cells, lhey CI;In be Shaped into a. varlet',' of ~~I Shapes aM can esse be motmled' on curved and ~xit;IIe car-ter materials such as sheet rnmar 01"' elaauc f~ '._ This cel! type is especielly suued for intGgra1.Jorl lmo br d 1'19 sections wl'lere s.ufficten-t rear ver'ltila'!ioo is not 9 -anteeci Of where srao ng rn.ay OCC\Jr. In the CCH"I"liflued re arch and cecerocmeu of thin·film cells in me 1990s . erar semic(lrllju.ctors 'h"ere tested in addrtion tc ;f!IITIOfP .AJSsilicon, among Q1hers oopper-iooium-diselenide is)

and oCMmIIJIl'He'h •• ide (CdTe). tn the area of tnm -n te<:l'ItIOk>gy. CIS-teChnology currernty' deliverS eo t'-g~ e'fftcilMCY (14 per oet"It)."The overall effiCienC.)' has oeer1 improved wilh 1he d9V'elopmenl 04 so-cal at:! srac eo eea. in which two or trIrOO layers are mounted on roo ::1 Mch O1ner (tandem or Inple cem. To furtner optimIZe tU:PJl of such slat;:ked cells, each of lhe films in me m. eo cee. icf E!:q!rnple, is dll}Slgned to r-espond to a c:hfferen1 ~~aI ran!;lE! jsllort·, medlum- Of 10I'I9·~...a~'e radiat/ClllJ. -e ecpearance 01 a U'Iit't-film PI/ module is cneecre zed by homogGn.et:MJS surfaces suuctcred by h"eme!~' NrrCM' and transparent sepa~~ing CU'lS. These are ee resuu 01 1M producucn PrQOe~. 1I'Ia1 is. the- electroniC- ses::;)ra~(If'I and conoectlon 01 the IndiMdual cell layers. ver "1100S In width or 8ddi~ion:;t.1 horizontal separ.a!lng c;utS can also be ef'IIDIo.')Ied es (Ie:;;ign Glflmenls_ Whereas: potYQyS1.,3lhr<3 cess are becomir\g a ... aJlabf.e in an 9\1e1'-increaslng lange Of COlours, dark I'ILJeS COf11JnlJe to dDmiRate n lhe area I;t1 thin-11m teChnology, ranging from bt!;ICk to reOO'sn bfCMf'l or dath:gl'oon,

.Irt:~rO'l

M.B.nufacturers: are C:OOStan1JY if1'lDl"OVlng tne paraf1lE!t&r$

lor the StructLWal iruegrabOn of SOlar systems into toolS and walls_ II!ISpeC:il!llly 'Mm regard 10 las.lening met!lOO5 and

sea ng aJoog tl'lo s.des. New frame sGCli()f'l:S faClI ca:alhe a~em'bly of the indi v idL.UilI elements and installatiOn; thO~ also minimize prolile he1])1'Ils and pr<JteCtiOn ,"1ICIihs, Tl'iIl' many optiOns av.a:jrable mday allo.-.' tQr a f~jrl)' flexlole I '<3' gratlQn of SOlar systems In the< Dudding akm. l"I'Iefl) ere e {Jrowing number Qf fuJly in:egtated solutiOns 1l'la1 r~llla':e c:oml)ina.lions of thermal SOlar .arK! pht;lto'llClflf!ic systemS anlj the ~a1.ion ~ U'lese systems 1'.l!h otbet' e~!l In 'he en'l.leiope, The key IS th9 Inte-gr3bo!'1 or CQllect1;l{S iii'" ~ rroeulea with tIla built:ling syslOf1l$_ Depenchng 0'1 tne system dosign, a \'<lnOfy of Voiring I;ItT.angemSl"lts stId lllldi"

tlOf'!8!l &CIu'~ technology IS required to IhiS end - a taclO( thin lTR.I~t boe ~ken Il'Ito con!ldtlf.pbOn esp~lI:-, lor elflemel wall and recede S.1rUC111&, Photov"ct1SI(; slfS-~ams are id63'ty woe<:! fa integration, awing 100 1M slcnclef dlrnensic::lns Of me moumed components and f\eXltlle pCr(ttJr cables IMth small cliamerOr:!lL The diameter of Pipes !'or water COit&etot'S is 000+ sidersbly larger: ]JI"OVtSiOns: must ;)150 be made ror these t~tBIiSIIQl'1rS 10 ~ lha, the pipes and conne~iI::Ios.ara: se,aled al'lrCllrOS! '6SISlam

With regard to fofmaJ aestl'letlC cnrena, safar systems eee-

e wltle ~ge of design optiOns. MainufacMers try CO r8SPOI'CI 10 nWdy 01. c.- (he W1~es expressed by oo::Mec\,.. The maximum rBllge ot COlourS is freQuently citoo as a ececer acJr.r3l'l'lag8 eM phQ1ovQhaJcs.. Na1JJ'ally. IJ'I€I appe.ari!lJ1C.El 01

1M inS1alla'liOnS is in1luencoo by the c:::oku yari31.O'1 "" lhe ecsooe :surfaces and !he mulb1ude of section dM;;igns'~

as 'N8I as tne loretal OOI1nec:t.lg elemMts at roof t;Y lacad6 level. I! is im;portatrt. l'IOwo ... er. tCJI ca~ assess If'I€ «eoauctiOn 01 &d(l,!iQna,l ooIoun:; and srooee to the buiJ.din{! sbl. Yel aJCMecturallntegralion ~ solar sys\8mS- Imo the building skin is more far r~l'liog. because each etemen~ \ha'l is incluOOd in the wan or the roof esse asscrres tJ,lnCtlt;InUIl and structural taSSils as a CcmQODenl thereof, It is: ifrIIXIt1_ant to m:;labli5h an overall har'mony bereeen tna requirement!; and d'laraC1.eflS'ltcs 'Of the ph~J S'IJ'1JC1.\Jfe and V'Ie aenheuc erld flrlctiOrlai cti'rePa of the ellef!JY systenl.n

Adt:Jitive~lnrcgt'&ledlnsr.p.'Jai.IarJ?

CoII~ al'J(l PI/ modules en me ~ 01 !h$ racad'e. rwefittM in SoOI'I"Ie case, are -oMen perceit.r9d as Yisuall:y unceas- 3D'- Even if"] 1he early yearS, raised JnSW:lle,ions, thai e. additive measwes. were seen as the ~.majn el/lr, LJttle has changed in thilS perCefitiOr'It to tI'It.S tjay. Integrated roor ir'ltSlalIa'ials. -eonver:se!y • ere though. Of as inl'ler'ently lnoonspicucue and even elegant SOIlJ'Iions. :FIe:ro>speclj ... aly. rna. nrst il"lteg~atoo roof Installe~ion ~ a collect.a s:,ostem ~ t 976) was pI'lI:ls.ed as a "Su~ul afchltectur~' solU1ion .• '~ ThiS is a S8'iOus miSUnctersw.ncilng that has: ,xw.ail~ e .. -er SIf\Ce. ~ reeun. in the aforem~ed case. may "'eli have been il'W'lOv.ativ8 <ulI1 cooecllf'l ~en:ns of ~ul'\G'lion, Le. 8ftOf'9:,'·eolflCleFq. but II WQ!,Jld b& wrong to speak of an integrated design in

the a;'(iS1i~ roof su~ce_

The disct;mfor1 'Mth ~ems trot are '"QIanted' on top Of !tie existing surface has I '!tIe do '0 'With the :structural SOIUbOfl ilself, ~a.rdr$ssot wt'M!othllt the system Is m:;:l!,mled or mtegrate-d inioN I'OOt skin or the facade. Ihe. kB~ par.liYIt)WS

01 an ~hetic-.a.'1y sa~i::.fyin:g solutiOn are the ll1CIdiJosr dimen· scoe. 1he propctl'bOns of the elemef'!t as a 'M1OIe aM Its internal CfMsioos, eod, a'bove all. me al'l'aI"Igement .... 'lUvl the aveo erea. ThQf8 are mon~ burn examples. 'NhiI::h oCI9moi'Ioo .s.1rB.1a. mal concepts ....nere SOler ~Elms ate rrcumed ellh,er on the fQO'l Of on LI'Ie tacaee can be hlghl'y intagra~ed ira'n en archimc~ural ceeseecuve. tn these PKlj8C1.S. !Nt COllectors 01' the FV modules are intetpreted as an additiOllaJ fullCbOl"lal level, ""icn is separate fran the waler-Maring aa:fCr Re8-

3.7 ~rtWIYf"O.lsGIlOrlli'I{J.AUiilil&ti999).M;I!I~~ """'"

,3..8 ~~~"BlegMll2OOl).DaofIt&I~I1f~PI/~~11[If1'I6

:iQ'r.reu~nn;j~bCiIIIv1l'l9Vs,:eD1N:(I1/'IIt~

".

3.10

SOflS for tNs cnoce may {~te to construction seQY&r'IQe but alSO to u1iliz:alion COI'I:sJoCferaoons.,. SUCh es sul'icIem r~ ventilatiOn. shellBfed r-nair'l1enanC{! areas, ere. Struc'!VSlJa!'ll flIlel1;lV collSiCU:lration5 i!Bide, ~M JOOst important a~pe(:t I;f archl1i1!1~lJn:l1 integration is 10 111 11'19 EMemen.1S harrn.YlioJsq into an overarcnfng vtsuar concept; tne questiOn oiaGOrIr.l;! 'l.'IIliSI,I:S integratetllns.elll;lliOn is seCOndary.

Eltming &Jlding<

Many debates on sotar architeC1urQ have raised rte question about wnetMr it is sensible. eCOIOQtcaily Spe.akflg.

!O ~e-ilt9 lSfIefgy-efficloent single-ramily houses ~ ct)ef'I land. The argumem that resourc&-conseI'ViRQ" ~SIJf-es are Ul!ir'natcty only taassble on eot1S'1ing tMJilljing,-s ~ or.en -empil.;lSlled.13 Moreover, mere i$ lime demand .: re .... COIlStruC'liorl, a~ tceecaste Il'lI;ficale [hal '1M anm ~ rate of e)()S:1]ng buildings wrn be ro;gNy , p;@t'C:6 . n ~ )'eafS and is likely to decrease. A tremer-.clous PI: 91'ttiaI f'las been id$l"ltifJed. OIl the oll'ler hand, in ..::~n~ 8lrd~

and archi19cfiJl'tlflV uP9r<tdrng e;l(isting hOusing as

indu:strial and CQIT1I'nerCiaI deveWmems.

Given lhe tact 'ItttI1 40 pet cesn o. the tOtal ere- :onsumptlon In ~lJfwoe ~oos to be expended' 'he (:011- suucuon aao CJl)eratiDl"l ~ bu Idin{J$, and tl"lal 'he rT.;Iju deveiccrnems dating fr~ the 19&15. 60s and 1?s are p.elr1icularly Ead:;ln'9 in t-enns 0' insuUi!ion, the enE'lgy' efficient opLmiZ8!Kln Of lIXlSbog build·ngs takes :" a "'~h priQri'ty. FOJ' architects diM eng neers. me tasks j me full..Wl! ... AII De the masuenance, con ... en;.on and ~Claptatiorl of exiSting buildings as well ;}S new eonstructiOl"l 'n tilE! 101m 01 add !toos.

"The oecis!on in f~r of a solar thetmal system s aec -erosety linked 10 tile lifespan of e-xiS1ing ~tlI"IQ 5~'S'L1!ftl5,:. In Germany, es.tfl1a19S: anbClwte trial more II\!)Il k1ut mIllion old he-atill9 :s.YS.QfI'IS will be ren.e\\"eCI or .Jpgraded Wl1I1e OCH"nIng five vears. Based on 5 ~ ()1 colieclOt area per rencvencn. tl'Iislorecast would translate into tW(j'i)'

, miLlion ma 01 c.ol~ctor are-a for Sin-gle·.and 'thJP.e:;:~ alone.'"

Areoill eStimal.Els IlI}'I.r6al e treme"lXH..ts pO":9n.lial let" me appio cation 01 SOlar tecoootogy. A Study ~ salec<eI1 reSlOeN:>:i builditlgs fmrn d fferent periOdS in sa ... ana receered mal tnere is an abuodanee Q1 available- erea f()f solar ..,rs4. ospecialty 00 the fecedes. Individualized S'trJdies. 00 ee one- halld, showed 'tha, con,sid.eratoo limit.iJtlORS weri!l 'hr. mer eeecebated in sene cases by nentage ptO'Iec'liOn orders.'~ The rSl.tadQS of {t>:iSling ooildings a.ltl tI'IerEItore not as viable an otlbOn as one might think. Aoo's IXfIver:sel~, provide opportunities lor an:::MecM'ally haI'I1'IOIll· ocs and 9fI(;h'g~.efficlen! $OlubDns; tl'Jis is (J1.J8 ,0. The exposure and mcllne and aisc to «he QPtOl 01 c;ont;v,JOU$ Ine.Ullllat-lQns across 1;1 large erea.

~ T~Ar'ldHentage Prot«:fIOIl

With the grO\",,;"'9 use of rE!lgeoeratwe en~il9S tor OUllIJfIg ceeranon. heritagE! orcieenco mU$t Increl;lsiogly ta~9: me wieh lor :e,ol:;t! tf;lI;:hnOlooY on moeumenta or -ensernblBS• such as e-ntire S1n:!9I. 'roms, sccetes and oeen Q~ ~ Inro aCX:OtIm, The Qoo:;:tiOl'l 0' """a!tlei .and r.:wt herrt.ilgl' PJotectlQn and soIBr re<;;hnrHQgy are GOmPiI.iDlJl. rs a dell· cere one, elnca the pr9serva~ of monurnenlSlsQ1teO linbeJ 10 :stn!:' doSi91"19uidelines and high ,eCjI.llren1SftS fOr inleNentlons Into the existing substance.

TIIe~_ ... -.g"_I_

ioIIoI __ "*' ",

_._ .......... _"" .. _-, IfI.,.".C8MI.8Y8Ilon.....,ro:n...,.dJNrrIt;d~ _b8C;MII!B.,." .. ~froman ........ ~ Of 1rOm ..... If InIIaIation on the facade ()( ht rooIlS ~ or noc eIII;JwBd, ........... othef alearndve 1Oca· tIOnS cbI8 to h buildingS tNt are wcd'IextJlOring. for .--,-,-,-Q(~. MaJentI sl atxI construcfJon methods are aIsO._.....,~· ~ I$I&.IIilIS because any change is atw:a~ a kind oIlf1ter~ do IIlEI eX!Sting S\.Ibstance anti. hence . .p potenttal sk liar subs8Qvent damage

)d(IitiQn 10 buildtng c:ode$. the archi4ect's cOflyri9ht. ..t'Ii~h <s inhef'tted and CMI, In general. aQPly to every oIJIId· 19 ~ alSO be taken Into coosderaban and thrs ma~

tad to rurther res'lnCtlOOS. The nte<Jra,~ of $OI4}I :SV~tems ~t() tI1e rOOll 8f'4IQI' facade Clr r'r'IOtIum&ntS must alwayS I>e anatyzeclln sad'! ilnchlClupl case. :;IttI1()I.JQh a wluElQn cen usualty be founO tlYoogh con:s:truC;M (jI.3Jo.gue. Anl'IOugn mese prQb~ are only relevant 10 e .small percentage (le ex $11"9 blJdChrtg:!;i:, the outstar.d l"lg areM&CturaJ Qua Ity 01 such bt.Ir'd ngs eeoes to helgh'etl pubhc awareness and 10 lO~est tNm \Ii Ii1 symbOlic valua,

l'l"MlIlJ.$E of SOlar [8(;hnOiog)' m ... af1.ilibly transJates oto a new mage lor the build ng Skin. a ChanO'@lthat must 00 carefUlly 1lI3ntled III'l Men Instance. ~"'''il.;;!l1'nJl'El than 00 per cern ot

all e);lsMg buikhngs 00 f'IOI fall in!O 11'16 eategccy of hef1t8ge Qt'O<ectJOn. eese 'Otd1nar{ buildings also require indi v idual SOlutiOns that,are in harmony wtn me ceececoe et the srte In order ,0 a~ oonclusi\'e resu~ in terms or energy e~lCieney ,anIj ardli!BChlr'a1 .aesmetrcs.

"SoIat_"

A 2C02 S1udy'" 0(1 !tie SOlar healing market in Germany r!Wa1ed 1hI!.111 per C«It of ~ have- a pOI;atl\tE! at:lIude irM.-ard:s soear energy, FIve out of ten respone1erus e;q)fmed 8 strong to very strong il'fta'M;~ in solar thermal osanaroos." The new $OIOlI energy caflWign laL.n:hed by 1M German Energ~' Agency (denal S'tre:sMS that co-esc!(:r.j playa. "key role en rm~g ee IfIltJatNe far 1hermal U$I 01 SQ{a( ~ff' Today. master Graft5rnM run so-cenec sdar cbecks ~ ~ke the f'CI!.JI'd; in residential areas as VOl· unwy 4S01.ar SCQuiS- to t8S1. which ~ are suited lOt ee ins1aU.a:lQI1 of. COllecttYS or PI modules. Mosl homeo\'ot1ers oeode to purChasa and install a SOlar system on Uli91 basis at the cconeero-s sees pl1ct1.;knd negO'ti<\1iOI"I .IIS. ~ 1eaS'L Of an beceuee permItS .an!ll'ately reQuireci for Ihis ~& ~ 'M:IIk n'lIs ~s1:rat8S ~ the real decision rnaJol.9('s are In Slngle--family housing. since buikhl'l9 :s.9lI"VJ(:e ef'l9lneefs aM .artho:ects - ~abty in ltJiS sequence - ere only COI'IISun.eo for l3rger solar lr1StallailOnS. ,,. .HQwe\'E!f, 1t'Ier81S one aspect of me clients' aitituIiB tOwarCls SOlar energ~ bet COI'T'IeS as

a :!Uprise. ~"''hlle ee \\'1deSpleao. generally eesm-e 3$SE!~' merrt IS ~ Sl..l')Jl'ising, tne reason gr.-en fOl11 ~ The rccus. n .s.&ern$, rs. not on .chn'lra18 W'lO en ... lIronmental fJfQtIM:tJOf'lIXll 00 me OM;ire fa new. in~tlve techfdog:,-. 'WI1tch etten ellW'l -scceseees- IN COSI argutl'leflt. rl'l other WOI'&.. SOlar ins:aHatiOlis beve become- slatus symbols. It 1$ ·e~- to Install ccneeee on !hi:! root Or W!I 'acade;" the rnetnocI aoCf I'I1anner 011 1I1$1aRatlOl'l seem to 00 of secondary ~noe. Thl:!; ~tIe:s. me cuneru 5,rtualior'l bKalJ!Se one- impOrtant I)roblern Of ~r oosign In ElvEl1"yQ<lY sfch lectur& is tnat the

IOIIt tICtftoIogy II often c;:kleked in a...ery "Plain dr~.~ Considenng the II"IOI"rTIOUI potenbal of roo!' eee raeeoe ...... a.~mayl¥ell ee that an impMan1 oppcrtIM1ity - 11'1 the sense <JII a outturiflo 01 'SUStalnab:le lJullCl· '"0 -Is not betng reelCzed, particl.Jlowty __ slngl&-t~

and ~ hOuseS," TIle Integration 01 SOlar SyStems. In the building Skin req ....... COI'ISldetstJOn 01 structuf31

and aeslhebc aspects wirh the goal of oe'w'eloplng an optmiledl OII8fall lOIutllJfl. This is primaqly a tasJt IQr an ard'iileCt wim the ili!tllClpatJon 01 experts In tne 1~. that is. manufacturers end contro1C;lOrS. ifIRg..naenJ.l;lnd DOIlS&r... atlQl1lS.ls.

Conct=>

ceseese-s a.nd P>I modules e-e important etements of solar 4rcllttecture. In me future. tI'Iey W1U be stanoard 001'01»nerus ct InI'IO'4HIV(! budd ng skiM; and bt,lIlOlng blocks of energ)'·&tfiCilQ(l[ r8ll"lt:WllllQnS. T~~. the ac1lV8 i,JS8 r:J SOlar enBf'gv C:;In alraad~ ma\e atI ~nt contribution 10 a ~a'nabI6 StlPply. 'HQwever. efficiency.aoo a nigh rate

Qf soI.a.r ublizallOO rama4'lIIl'lked 10 the !Wff.c:ienl use Of lundamenlal passlV(! $tfategies.. SOlar t6ChnoIogy mI,lst

be nte9fated if'r!O a oomprehensave concept that Ia'iI.es

the SQat a.1 organizaiion, the fOrmal appeesence of a building as ~ I as tI'!& matenal ene pUnaI)' 8rK11gy !lOws intO con$olC5er:;ltion kIr new COOS'IruCtiMS. ~n.cr e:w:iSW19 tlUihMgs. As. nlJ"l'WttOus <feslgn ifLWar~s demons.trate. r:tI8 sysJ:ems ava~ble on the- lTI~nkel S.1aM' lor boU'l effICiency and e~ gance. Toda~. Cl>em,:anti alcrt.1EGtS regard eese systems S$ innovative products ancJ to some degree they have become S'yfflbol:s of ¢t$dmologiG31 Dr'oglf6$S, OeSPlte .;kll 'h6. :solar !eChnOIog~ still seems to nave an irTld.'ge problem because perlQl'ma.flce and impf'OV&Cl! 1::lfI!I(Ii;K:t design ere argurTlBf'li!i N! ara 1'101 pa.o.~1 ellOUQh in mair t'.M1'I right 10 I88Ic:lIO' :;I ore9kthl'Ollgh in the mafk.8t WI'thou1 • .;k!XI nonaJ emotional betle'its. Such as eeeoon f1e:.:ibility and peesbge";:;;: eee seems to be no wi~preM aceeetaoce among me populall00.

Solar S'~ems must meet s;peci'iC r&C(ui(&mIInts and rEQl.lire innovativtl sotutiMS. especially tor ccmpfelt b~irIg ta.'Sks a~ demsncl.-lQ indoor ~'ta eeoeeers. &i~'f'l9 WITh sy:s!ertLS is onc;& agalf'l ~I. if the- Olffetem pro::ee1i\',g, and contsoi h"if1(';1ions of the Bt'rIIe1Opa - Irem losula:lOI'1 and daylight deRee;;iOn 10. power genere1ion -1;I1e integra:ed into prefabnca~ed and recyclable build""g 00I'T'I~ts.. Whe~her facades and roofs ere -nwye in1etligen'· as a res.JtllS anotJ'ler Issue. 'llllhat is clear.I'lOw9~·er. is IDat the tr;fU'l$U;:onalion Or:! tI'te OOildin.g ~ I'I~ a -chmate modulator and ~18flt meml';:til;lne enabres n to meet to d'IafIging

.... eeme CQf1di!ian:SWlth in(;teaSin.~ f1exlblh!y.

1n1E!f8Sbng and S4f1king treanneats ~ the topt.c are notably tound In e gfl;lWing IiU'nbef of map budding prQJeCts:. h

is impOrt:Lnt hOwever. (h,a,t the popularity and expanded semanttc content ot :solar teCl"InOIogy P«Iduce more than rnere:'Iv sYn'iboliC IiIOA'Umen.1s Of spec:tacu1ar office bt.Ji,ki ng$. ThEl1.aSk ncm IS 10 de v eIop &Ctualfy CliS'Llt'ICtive SOIut/OI'IS lor

39 ~td!T1..t~.,,'tM;Ir!o'¥~~~I~. ~~~.F~.lu.AglJ5toj1o 3._10P-'.l'~~.~_t:ama':e~~ 1'OQf:'~ • .....:tt'It.l.dtlCf'landtI'>!i'TNII~mus-_

35

O.H

36

the eonar'9v-effiCien! modemizetion ~ elOsMg bUildill1ls

m oroe- to tap IfltO 1he potenual 01 solar ~t in II! 13t more Challenging fleld_ Herein lies a true tlPPOrtul"l~ 10 eahance In9 ... sl!,Je ~ lat'{la atlCI small hQuSif'fg I1eYE-'wmente and oommercial a99iomeraoons. in terms of erll@~l't effiC:iOOCY end arcnltecnee. This improv~nem, OOf.tI1.'er must go bC)'CC'lci mere raeeee d'ec<.N"aliCfl. In vie' w ot lhe' mal'iifoh::J tasks, t1'19 gool must be to .achieve 11'119 higl'lBs1 po€;slblE! IIWel of at'(:hitel:t-ura' quality in. the Duih envirooment. Thermal solar systems and photoVOitaiCS ha',-e opened up a munhude ¢ options. fOr aptJlie;;lHQrI ;l,I'Jd a!1[K high-quality prodUcts. tncneet sOlar s')'stcms have~_ eratlly bf~de-IlM ('Me technic.al ,epE!rtory of bUlICi!'lg. This mvs1 now be- ttanslelted int1:J. atChitec~urai cOf'lcepl:$. ,.,'I'to;n one eensce-e the seeen tor Quality crijerl;;l a~ C(1rpet;r.t ooclslCfl makoers. me nee-d' for areMec~s, who can oreal~ 9fDlJ1dbfeakins exampleS Nt bridge ee 911-£1 be-:ween teC:l'W'Iolog.lC9lty cenecrec systems and mediocrity 'riEMsi'" day aooncanoos and ect ~mull!p'ierS~ in the intefest d SOI.:l teCl'lOOlogy, is abundantly clear.

~~~'oo.9"'J6e~Wa3.~~~.

K,.~,A!;d51i2OOe.p·'"

e ~~T~~Q"I"'2~~\'IlUntICl,~' VilrT'ltZ~1'tlll1,w_2(!.4.I'I

J 1"ai'NiI:nJIIlMlJlQhloMoI~"..:lI'GIrIO~,a ~"IIIll'I,~I>OnIIp.eI\'tn'4Q1bo1no1.,.<IUr ~,~~,~,I,.Ibotr~Biutln IA1t't1111Q1ef1_G.fJ6udI.·~~GI'O'-"-,$." __ eo

~--590&

~.0I;t:!M..-bI!aII..,t...u1'.8fIrtn 1991,pl"1 al"ldpp.lsotf "'~""tumcl~~I.adIaIIcn~rn:m !jlI.;)k'Whttttifl~",tol1$31o.""~"~~~ AAJ.y:2(ll)3.~. &4

ill I(jQPl'*_~-Doe~~I~W~und~ (~·Wo_mcl\.~IN-) ~iI;W'Ig~ns..9IIIwJ,~ a.-.. 2OC1 , pp 51~ 6emIt.~;~~don~\lrtcr~""':\'I'Mmn· PIIId'*'~""'T8119cb;lII'Ibtlwlc~_'~~No\iIImo bIr<.'OCl'_PIJ,1&-T9

! £dcer.!,.8uIII:"EI'r.A~~~~K!JfII\'tIf" WYtIn.-Qli~~_.Y.1O:t2.pp.3C1:J...333

~ ........... FW:~EndoI'UrGt&d!lMfJtIZ&flen1"~· ,""Mart.l'>2COJ.~'bod_-~.tIuI'dari~ .. 'H).tel'Cirud't. ~Zblill'1.~Er\o-a.ge.Ttl<I2.·~".~~:2003..~. 3$-31

lhefac'lNlii12Wt ... tJ4r~lIClalk.r"e~~ ... ch'IIICI301'!1 ""~""ArM1"rr..moned"~QI~~yallrtl~Ij-v!t~ ~:>"~IOf1Jle~_IIi$INIIl"'~de'CIIIMmiIQ~'eI!I", 1tro'""tQ~",~~emerCJ. ~~:-[)as~IE~V(lmSc:nur:z",",I;h.n.m~. .:dtd'I:I!1I~'IU'I~_·Sot¥.s.e.I,IIII1,~' eGIlCf'Ic.ltwi!punal~g:.t,Oi:tQ04r2OOii!,t:I.40

! ~.FIT;Ii.II'd:-~~IiIIIarot£rqJiloCi'll;lCtnk..

SIu(I.eI1Z\1"~1!'If.egr8J:icnUflid~E~ ~~-slllftlern,,"~I1:1_-"'~Dn ~$I;aIr~-~.~III'_.p2l7

12 A.-.F&IIo.,"2S ...... 'SorwIenIr4i'~· EiflHo.o::j.-b»"'M~ ...AI4~OMOGS .... <tI~~~g.t. ,IIInI.IIlIr¥ 2OO1.p,li1!.

ta ~GunIh!Ir:""SoIIt.~OOoJti;.todtl",-Oat.M .It,,,,,,l,

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15 K11Jpr'M!Ir,ADIanCl.~f'lQT~IIItId~~~.

Sh"'_~lt"N~"''''~£q8lilQl'lQlPol&tr.'''"'ti~d~ f.~'_.n.;BuldlnQSIUn·P., ifI~Fn:mpvl~ilOe,*,1W ~~.~.2002.QI:I~

It:. ~~:-o.OU"OPI'I!eNIrI>MIor~I .. ~~..-.d JItr:iIkro.ooII"';'mlIl'~l!!~._~~~~~ . .;e

t7 ~GwNvd-"G.rItlYro.~_·~.e.~2OCO

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ro Bau.wI!.:nrr_.~1818

21 HernutGBbrvlrdal-lIIIdyl~~m.~d~aI~·

rt:r"'lNiU"~M"!'«'III~IleNlt)oIgeQs_A'lu-.""""",~d eeeeee lI'IfIiEleclNl1iI'JEI ~QI f'ltWbuf<lO'"IQII'TIEI!eo-,*~QI,.Oido 1r'Q~-""'II.I:h9!:1bt,1nd;mQlldeh::lioe'l!l""il'1i!'tIttut-CDfI"o1B/'III~OII~bblilOlJlTi:lr1l!lIltltll!b'~J~ encI~.I·]-~~tr;fI!"·IlIet-.Cf~dllcl5ll:r'l "",,,,~,Hqtnut_·ArdT;lL~unoAl~t:"~~,· Wkl;.-tXlorfllill.Jll!Ka1osetM7ZuSot.!li! . .(It'IdM~.&a-~_, \>Il,nd11984. p_84

2':2 ~.Gi..nt:a..h:-w.bt~9Ifl>ma~tOl'Ge~~~

(nI1IIO'~I.~QIB.~·2IXt2,p_es

37

Solar Concepts for Building Michael Kvehn, Oirk Mattner

IiutTla:ns have In.lll,,Ief''n;:e<! the climate evE( $lI'ICe' they flfS; inhabited ,heo Eart!'!. F"trS1... tl'Wough the Clear cutting or jOl"ests. 1011OY.red b)o 1ba m::;rea~ing grtrY\'th or eenememe and enee aod ItIe sealing 0' me eenn's surface uer wen. Wlm

It. A.etompanyifllQ the r~ue1iOn of ~tural resccrcee. populatl(Jn Qif¢'n'U'lI'laS lea 10 an enotm:)I.JS rise In ener9Y C~sump:lOI1_ Thera are many !l'Ii11Ofi9S- on the e1fects aM C(.Y"!seQuences, tw.lt tnese are not the soll~1 of this WOI'k. The tact remains. 1'IOw9vet. iNn people in iooUS'lria1 nabons.,. In pal'1lCUl3r. (lie oe:slroying Ih~ own foundations: klr life 3t'Id met of other soecee i'" a SI'IOO-o&gtrted aflCI attogam mann&r, The QOI'1'~ (II CO2 and other trace g,ases such as d'I~ofIuorocatttons (CfCs), In the ozone eve !EaM's .atmOSphere) IS gl'QWing rapidly. St-asdily inCiBa5in1J carbon dcode emiSSions al'lCi me a.nthrooogenic lI'8RSJf~ ~ 1M earth's liI~nefij' ene- oot 1Jf11~ '!he chemical. but also me phySioCaJ cnaractetistiCs 0' me clima~e sys~ems, FoSSIl luels tot POWer .and heat generation are, unfortunately. the principal seeee Of air pollUiion and tMy have a neg8:1)Ve '"pact on the env'lforvnertt, I;U heanh and our quality Of

fe. 08$pile an 3WareABSS 01 thO- problem, the global palmcal COI'TlITl,IIl,ty i$ QOIT1plete1v.at a joss in the faos ot thiS catastrophiC da ... alOpmetrt, wtliCl'l is 01"11:,0 too eaoeu an

merr COI'I'IQhanc~. or 'atllef nQrl-(lOlTlpliaoce-, 'With the Ki()'lo PrOtot(ll.'

~Elr. we can make :31 diff-arE!fice 00 a smaJi seale, Humans erect ooildings '1.0 sees shelter from 1he elements and Sliot.rfC uthze rnltural rEiSOlWCeS to do so in Ofi1er to protect N envW"onment. Adopting this eneoewe ~~ Duildiiing solar ~rchrtecl;Ure. This chapter serves as a guide-one for conceptual approaches to in:~rabng SOlar systems ... 0111'1 buildng m!ems, The solar b~lcling b~ka. whiCh

can aCI in CCf'ICert with other ~en\$ ..... lll be presented and expleine<:L The chOS€ft. Q);fjmpfes i"ustrate approaches 1h~t userully oombi~ oomfOl'l end eff;ICiooc),. as wall as a&'StheiiCQt:lUDrlS 1Clf' d&Sigr'iing Wl1h II'1es6 1.echnoiogle50. Energy OOOSer.reJiQn, in ccm~;;ni~ 'M1h Ihe Wnproved el"li.eif!nCy of technieal ~ems. can be ad v antag-e fct cueote, hireo eonsultCllnts ana ~ec!.iM9 firms, As4;~eoc~ and engiI'IMofs are In an ideal position to oIfer advice in tniS area

and to influenoe the design and ~mental'on (It these building systems. In dOlfig SQ, they can play a 11'10(9 act!'Ve rOle In IN preseevatce or rur ar'l'VirOr'lrnB!t as well es OU" health and OV1!fall well-belng_

Soler AroMeclure

Mo$'L ceecre in. da ... alC(!&tj counUiEtS nve m rautuces ~r9 hea1ir\g gemends play a. map rOle. Rooghry 30 pet cent of annuol total el'l(ff'9)' oon:sumolion Is used 1:0 meet l1"Iese oerrenoe. As rscently as 50 ~aam ago, most bUIKllf'l~ had hOle 1f'I5(,I1~lion. WincFows end f~cad&S were leaky at'Il1 Pig.h ventilalion ~11Os:s&S were me ccosecueoce. Thanks to tJemen(lous ImprQVemeJlt$ in this area, including facade construcliOns .... 1tn tI'Iermallf8.n~ance coemcems

(U- v allJ8~ of less than 1_2 WJrniK. Consumc>tion pei" area has. been -eeceeo tw f1"IQfe Ihan SO per cent.

Thts has, Ilowe\rar, led to a sM. ~.some of me pl'"db'ems. In admin~ra'IJ v e l;;IUildings. [n ~arti."OUlar, the irtlema~ Mal loads caused 10:,- elec1rLcity arXI cccueams, Ie~ '0' excessfve room temperamres in summer. Tbese in!tirl\aJ lOads must. in turn, c.e ~duC-el1 WI~1'I1I'IehelD" otM mecrenlcal ventila-liM $Ystems. in ord~r 10 maintain com101'tabie ....ot1<ing conditiOns inside lI'Ie ~ilding. Enef9Y demands are CIOCEI gain ~g steeply. Electrical energy is ~ired" not Of'1y fOf a. circulation, bUt eec tOt me genera~jon of cold water 'or cooling. Thia- is one starting porn fOr con~p-rual a,ppr'oach9s to 001;)( ocrstecnse, The gQa! is to creete optimlJrn comfort in the buildinlJ, in summer and in wimer. With as. little en8l'gy co-eurroten es pos:sltJle end. in CQI"l.Sidera!Ioo of emrifQnmen'ta'l factors, thr'OOgh 1fle 'Usa ~ natural resources.

UlilaatiooPotootial

-En v lrCl1rnenllill buikliJ1g blockS-. which tal«! clima'IiC and enQfQy·rela'ed inilueflces. imo account. can be ccoceceo In retereoce to the demands of the en ... irOnrnBn1_ Ha.\~r. in order t-o optimi2:f:: tAl) O!.lliz.IHIon 01 the avaeatse optIOnS (c;t energy redecncn. d fterent technical .sys~ems:Should act in uneco. The most int4Westing building b'Iocks at me OI.If~ ,~rn time arec

• heel recove.ry in l'IOu-siPlg construC!iCf'l

• I:U.Ji4d,ng core ~~ SOO$Onai e!IlerQ:,- s..10r'.age

• :sorptioo tech~I09Y

• geothermal healinglC;OOling

· p¢Wer·ooat COiJl)hng

, II'1teJJi9E!11t controls.and r&gutatiOl'l.

39

--~----

• - ';-~"'~::::::=7:-

- _I~·

- _. - - ...

40

Tl'I9 rOltowin~ tGClmical solutions represent pass b -es Nt. wIth !tie help ~ natural resources, can PfQl.·lde a oon;. :ble InOoor IlH'rVlrOAl'n9n1 tnat IS fit fOi human cceee-

Heat Recovery in IiOuslng ~lrucoon

The oorrtai'ld lor hea1inIJ erterg:J' in housing IS rre nil' iIlf.1"lo eonc:edb~ .te cse. tl'Ia.cJill'lateeOOt:l'liOOs..atIlT!eSI:eafllll":he bu Jdlng form. t"I gh enelgy CQflsump1l(rI is :tie fesl"ll! ttl rest transr'JllSSion -e,oo ~'antitatiOl"l Mal osses ~ iJ OJ)er.~s (L.a •. doors: .;lind windcu.'S). 'lM'tlle the U-valu&S of.' ~ M .... e been reduced ~~ 1he pas' years. - from rouglr"j

3 Wlm-l< to less than 1.2 W~l( - \'en1!laOiOl"J heat esses are depende-nt 00 1M t~equenC'y of \'en~ll:;rton W. hera, Cf'I user bena .... lCH,.Ir. The h'lNllting demB.flC" lirtked:D .eu'alion is generally high~ than 60 per cem, Even ~ ... ndo.-.'S for shOJ't peniOds can result in unconlrQl ec "IatJ.lill \lentila;ion. The 1og'C81 cOnClusiOn is 10 emplO~ _ mecham-cal 'o'en.1il.atiOn syStems deveoeed for adfW1lf1lSD11' we and OOI'M'I8I'Cial buildings to hOusing t1It.'e-' . ~':s._ This. makes il PO~;s.i!J,le to (fra~rry reO!.tce heat csses ""Tille mtIIin'Bini~ a. ccosterr lflOOor air ~ualit'j. - e-eoe the constancy of air quaJi;Y irI~. the receec ~ 01 fresh ai' -':0-60 m'm per person for hygien ~ e..~can be supplied e ... en .... fen winoo ... ~ are dose - ;:restl a' su'p~I~ tNt 'alt be1crt." 1heso8 va'uee mea.ns tn, t !l'8'1SJf'Isuffoeiern \'et'rtilaitiOn, wtu¢h ooukIo cacse ne-c '-.3.0'1 r:I mould runglJS as a result Of h~~ -. or d'mniSf'-.M a r oQUal tv.(;l$ e resur\~ a1l9l'!Je:1lS wen as ~-ner:_: piWS. dust miles.ancl cere. The heatll"lg ChSfl1{:lild c4 a -e'IE't"!1r reese "'iLh eX(:eflenl insuiatlOfl ,;100 actiW see- ccrconents can be rOUghly 50 kWI\!rtf' PM af1numn ~

1"Ii~ 1:"118- 5nE\f. This ODfT.e$ponaS to an e~l'Ia = 0:

a~fOxirnalBly 5 ~'m"' "ealL1l!) oil p@f" year, ThE! - ~ oeses

are- Clh.-idcd IntO 1,r~nsmissiOn jesses of roug" - 2C ~~ .. ." rrse- year and \'etYlilatiOn heel IQ.sse$. CIt t'OI,tgl1 "\\~'r'lper year, 11 air Ctlsnge is aohi&vEH::I exclut. ... e~ r . ~rJ m~n.caI-..·en1i~tiM, af'lod It .... UNiO.~~ ase MK :IQSJKI when ou.Si!1e temperatures are 10-,-" the fl!Ial'":;I ~ cen ee redlJOed by a rurther 5(1 per C8f!1 tQap ''D~~~ 2'5 kW'ho'rri per year 4J)a:SSive- reese standard r'lCQIitIIIltoo ~ .. tn passive- meeeures. 8 solar ilrlWllat .... - s:sut"oiIt ie meet this !:Iemana and too create ~ll: _ 'XlI'!"r:~ p8ri3W6S, ~er, this IQor.. ener.gl' ~ I~~ ~chIB v ed if IMo rTJoeoCl'I8fllCal \'eliMatal s~-:stem - eQIJIPj)eoJ \VItti a heal e;(Ct\8nger. SuP()IV alf and extlaVSt J "rQm:"le li v ing space a.re tra!'llSPO'teQ .,;a a pI.;t.le ~t e.,cN~· The two alit evearne DEI~'er cc:me intO ct feet ~-:;: tllt'JS process: inslsaO. tn'lly are ~ransconed In ~ CO<JI"I'1tf~ 'Tl'Ie heal :rom the escaping air 1$ transfefflld -o the ~

ing air sup~ in ,he M.al excl'l3nger via ext" "y t!'Yl

v.-&II$, Depending QIl me nev.ce. '1M pc(6fr.IOI EI~€II'C'p iJ tieat trans'sf rMges be1V.eeli 50 and 75 per ,:;~. A $"j~ 0131' wets: fJ :stribuies IN P'e-W3r~ ttesl'l 1 ~ 1:) C1'1a rOOl'nS.. A second coot :sys.lerT1 e~ri;lGts. a ' ~ tlB' space. aeoce 1:WC:I \'BM!Iatlng lens ars reou red 1(1' ee mecha~1 a supt;'itl; and O!l!:1f~ctlOf1_ ~~a The arcflltecturall..m 01 .JI;ItlaA"Ies Kavtmanl" 'laS r8C1- upassive hOUsing develOpment In Oornbtm. l; 1f'1l;1Wg I 'tri.aj, wt'MCh ~!ur6S !M! 1l'pe or ~'en!llatiOn re- ~ ~~ ments (d. pp 721f). The- hOus ng da .. -e1o(JtTlel'lt ~ cd'" nine ullits .... I':h 86 m' ~ u~t)'Ia area 93ch The paSSi~-e S"lrUCtiC!n 19f'tI~1Cyod In this of!I:<a~ ac.hle'\'o)~ i!HI"~ sa-

... gs or rOu!iJl'1lv 80 pet cent In oomp.a.flSOl1 wotn

COI'I ... an,ional apartlll&nt bUll(lings Heating is provKl&CI Niitl the ~Ip Qf a oon1roUea mEl(;,hc!f'li(:.a1 SU~ly air and ventna- 1100 avsten. The l'e'9idual ~iri3d near is. g6ner:;.teo b~ mean$ or .....ood pell&l co-ccsico. The fasulMg energy ~too is 001h f»iempl;)1"y eeo O)St-effectAre

e...lc,bng Core ActIVation

BuIIC1ing core activflhon is an innQlt~e sys,am Of ll'letm8l1y SC.tivalinog ooecrete floors fe.- b6aMg and QI:IOhng. ll'Ire bUllodlny ccmponems ese healed or cooJecj Ilia the rloors or ceilin.gs incOrj:tOrilMg wa11f1f-csuy.ng si3rpe1'1W1E1 plp.690. The temcersnsee of ttJa earner !"I"Iediurn are C~ '-0 me r.QOm lem-=,era1ute For heating.l,lp 10 28 c-c ls rGQuireo, Whilsl.Jl) to 18 "C ~ rSQuir&d 'or COOling. This so-called thetm:)8r;1i\,'e ceiling ones 'rom all corrventiOrlral1'le31iOog and clX>ling .systems i., tMl It pcssessee a ter lJfaa~er storage c~ity. Thi.lj. reaune in Increased it"IOl'tia ;)nQ precludes Ih& corco

rOl" tDpid load ehanges. meanillg m& S:f.Slet11 can onl~ react to new oO(K:hli~ with a ume Ia.g ~ several hOurs. ThIs IS ret necesseruy e disadvM'lag&, ~ tne natura!lemperaturc fluc1uations <lie Oim,nlshe<l. the rEisulting room terreerelures reflect the changes," tIl8 e.x.1eoOf_ In summar. conCHI(e 1100fs and ceilll'lg:!J. absorb the IQ.lOC8SS he~H fn;wn soOar roi)cliation and inlernal loo-ds The limi, for maximum room 1(lffip;:1I9:faMes In builcjings lliilh HVAC·~.ems (ill Germany, aCCOfrling 10 DI N 1947. Part 2") C;CIIn g-eneraJl)' only be fI'IE!IillmIned Wrth So Ihetm08Cli ... e Ceiling PJofteI'lo eetemel nflu9!'lC;{tS are minimiZ&Cl witl'l tOe help of 3i1 eftective eJ(lemal s.h:ading system. \,','hen these provisions are In place. me system can maintain. indoor temQeratures w-ell below the outdoor temperatures. thare-bv f3nSIJn:n9 oomfort.able comjitlOl"lS In V'lin~Qr. ltte 1'Ieallflg outpU1 of the lhennoacti-..e- ceiling is sufIICIe-.nt to CDV9f 1M Irtl~ission t")e:;l_ (lemand (lr tlyiilCMgs aee(l(d'1'I9 ro EnE\! and to meet the 'IXM"I'IfQ41. requsemems. (i.eo .• a gra5S-00'IerOO area at e m:aximl.m of 70 p9f" ceou.

The follov,;ng aspects must be taken «uo consil1erailOl"'l fOf building core acwation urilizif'log I2'IQrmoac!I~'e cetlings~

- Room teiI'Ip(W.arur&:S ~ up 10' V' "C can be .aChie ... ee. oon.sldering th:;.t ~E!fce~voo temperanees are IIJlWef as a resun 01 r,dieM coolness.

• Rapid ;ernQer~t\Jfe ad~US1meMS are 001 possible_

- An upper limi, in mom temperanse ca~ be maintained withOut addItional measures.

- The influer10e or o.xml'l\;)l tecroa on the thermal demai'!:ds m~ "00 dimfnished wrth she help or ecwozeo heat pr01eclion W1 ..w-rter and in summer,

• AdditiOoall'leS111'\!;) units ere not re~uir&CI when a oornplemental)' ventilalion S~stem IS Installed.

- Delai~d anarvsls of the heating op-era1iOrJ is '8QuireO tor rooms with 'oW"Ido\Y ~t lation,

- The sibng of the glass areas, U-valU$$ aM SKJr"ag.& mass must be harmonized.

· &tspel'lI:1eCl ceilings.., f.;t.15oEI and dooble tw.s ml.JS.l. ee a"M:ed.

"'.2 AQ.o.l'Q.Js.niianddliCet.lililding.~~I.HIII"B&FWII. _ .. " ...

• .3 ~~tuJdiog~CrwizW"q~1l.~-IU1dWlg6ts.. ~DIlI~~

"

System advan1ages'

· Low itlltl8l Invei1meni_

, Primacy energy oonsump1iOn is dr:;lS'ilCa ... ~ iI'a"l':t

oorwentionaJ systems,

· He-atJl'lg- a.nd oooIing QUtpt,Ji (peak ICQdSI are r~~. a rasult of the storage capacity of the ceecrete rressee, ,exiSting COOI .... g suppty systems can be I"r1. zeo iorOl.'!f' night stOrage QPer~tlQf1. -

• The pronovnoed ditf@lrences in system 1~T!J"es open up po$Slblh~es of hafnesslr"lg Mer~ reearces i1 ~ environment: for cOQling (e.g., gl'"OUJld w.a::8f ut, Za"..on •. COOl ou~ elr cen be LJ'I.irlZeci ovemigh: .. ~ r~ =~: for hea~n-g. SOlar oouec:ws WI&! r.ea~ P,(!'IpS c;r'I te

04.$ t (

, ~"'.mkI 2~1111.~~ J FIatJr.rrAtl ........ o ... IiHQr 4 ..... rtlhn1l'1~1IQQf !.SmeJII.IrI

Ho ..... ~l.tC8d1!r~

.2

Corrrfon lirruranons:

· Ma.ximtJm loom temperanses of 26-:27 +<:: ~cr. only be achieved wittr an eftecuve :Shading systen

, InlCllVilCluPl temeeeature contrOl P8r toom a.. Ig til!! l"ur In~ period is noI pcssoie.

100 hmllaliQl1S of the building eee ecuvat ) tnt'll! 0U1pUt, and, in partJc:ul8r, lin the sluggish resp I1Se to 5uddatl Changes in coofng or heaiing r@Cj",,' -e-s. ~ I'Ig'I healing reQl,lirement &xjS.,s. tOt" e:rr:ample, WI . ,.,;rrdi::w!; need to be OPElflOO to f I.lsh OI.li the ar in ar ' ee space For wi:~t a fresh air iUPPly. ihe il'lldoor' a -;.l~ ~ ~rn as 8 resutt 0: exh.ala'iiotl. etc ....... btch can Ie,,: '0 ~ (e.g., Sick Building S;'ndrcmel. HCM"e\'@t, "'~~-Si\"e 'J>,'f'O)I ven~ilatJOn is Qdy ~bre fOr f'Cljghty 50 pet ttIrI'I of th:! working hor..r$ ~·.i.th saiiSfa~ results. \'/tw::.~; 1'0 rOO,o.$1I'! t !ted open and outside temp~'tr.FeS are beOio "7 'C, !:ad ai~ streams Into the- I'"OQITl .and eeee the fb;)' 10 ess ItIa'l

, a "c depending on tl'l9 dr.JratlOll for 'Wf'IiCtr I;t1e ~'IfII;bIo.$ kap: open. This creat-es high and uneomflJlti!Jblea. I"$» ues of 0\.'01'" 0,25 fTLo'S along ~ lbor (draut1Jti. me ~~ e palbcularly ~c:rtablt) ne-ar .... inaows ar'I(j:stroJ"lgt,-1XITI' promiSes com1ort, iJ'ithoogh this dl-ScomfM detr~""~ gm::nef eeerce .rom 1M &'~Iamerl .... -a:J . Shor1 W'SIS [II

on: ndoow ~'eflltr1atiOn 00 no: cue- a satisfying so\IDO"1. rq.:t SlJppler'r'1«1taJ')' rresecres sucn as under uoo- COO' ecrss. wtllch~, mor~, r®resent a sys.~Etn ota~Klo:-"" buikhrrg core acuvaueo ti.e.. cORSIoeraDry higl'ler ~eed ~ peratt.lf&s], The foliQvl. ng cooeeot is an a~~i! tra'r;:a'1 be- ernc;rlo)'ed in combina1JOn wim ~i!"lg .rote.act ','t:fT.. inc<lt'l'Wrtlg fresh ai' IS warmEC"d CJriec'!Y at th& ..... 1'I(kJI.I1:i a: least 10 'C by moJ:.ng It ""1:1'1 ~m'I room arl'. Ttlis d(Yll"~ cold air inf)ux and aeoe-es araughl-lfee ll!.lShng 01 ~ at 110 N room, The basic heating reQUIf-emen! d ee ~; OO\.'etecl by acttvat ng 1M OQI'lCI:ete CCYe. lhe 3dmo~I. warm room air and cold frSStl a!( directly ~ ~},\ ('d/JI' IS ectseveo b~' meaJ't;s; 01 sman air euees In ee 1~ pas=s " Wag. 4.51_ A mi~ture fan"_ lihe false I\XlI'S,l,iCtIlJ"I'!i~J::

In10 the system -P_t floor re-er • ....neteD-y lMIJt IS ~ •. ~ tha. concrete c9-lhng, and then tral"lSf)Di'lS It ~13 u::~ profile mtegratecllnto'~doul*l'Ioor, to1Mf&&ll fItI~ As the at!' tempera1rJ(E1 nsas. air is ~~e-d e:1~

room VIB the SI'I'1aIr inle~ in thrg. racar:Je J,lOS'tS. m:t11'19 ~" dlrec'l~ ..... rt:h If'Icomlng frestr ad" .:M'Id tIU5 pI1I1 ~tlI'9'1J'i!1 rtIlrom oot-enl"lgll'lto lhoe apace 'lJ'VQUgn ee ~I~

i ''''
r ~ ,~I
Ii ~ T
T
'" eo •

p ~ \ ~ ..o~
i
;( ~
I.. •
, , " A J A 5 0 , •
,_
2~~l"tl;I
.. 3SM"""'Mync/'I'tftOr, ~,.'''., {~1~ .._

"

I Ou;$ide sit" dllbumdoloCilllOn 2Pre-coo1I'1!JC~lf8CO\oery,HRI 3 (;QoIing (adillbaflC)

4 Wanriflg r~tI!1QIItrom SI4'I1ltta.r rtll"l) e;~!li'COOIir"3cad~1

I$ ..... ~(HR',I

i'AI;I~~

._

evant thermal and hV~j'el"ljC f~ulf8ments. fQI' HVAC 5YSlems must be taken mto consideratiOn. In Germa:ny. these reqlJ(ements ase outlined in DIN 1946 and in lhe VOIguidel.ne 0022. ,n the case 00' (L r movement via. 0001)18 flOors withOY! ail' <kJcts.

The ccoceot offerS me f1:IllOYling ad v .on'''ges'

• year-round woodow van1il.a.lloo 'o'Mhout drtli,JQttL

• s.u!1u::lQnt -11iU9tllng- WIth ,Bllf 1;111 the way to me COf'e 2:0n.8S

• .comkM'laDI& flOor' surface l(lmpera1ur8

seesc-er Energy SlorillQell.ot'1g-term S10rage

In additiOn to passive energy concepts • ....tIereo a building is supplied with the help of deli~a14 meaSUres SUCh ~S v"lOcIow ventll8l.Jon. thenn!lll storage masses or h&abng and watGf TamperatufeS Mju:st&CI to.a b.·i-energy level. ecuve $Oler rneesu-es. such 85 collector installatiOns, can also be ,nt6gro!od: 11'18 81C6SS heal ~ ....ntCh. 'In '5-\n1In9r. is S'LCf.ed for healirtg in wintar (FL{I. 4.61, 1"I'Ie area of mstaneo solar lherrna~ C011ec10f$ has increased lapidl:,o Sirte:a IN earty 1990$, 'IM'Iila II'Ier& wQr'4!I roughl~ 4$O,0CI0 ~ of celiac-lor ereas. in 1990, '!he number had riSan 10 f<lUghly 3 mllflOfl m"' tOr ShM·term S10f'8g.e collectorS in 2000, whiGh pr0Wd8 warm water with tanip8ratl.Jlt!;S MIOw 1 00 ~ for diIIily use. Currently. they slill pi:;!),:;! qreeter ro(e lha.i'1 IOng·term SlOtage tct. PI' 261f), HOYM<9f'. IJ'Io <tevelopment Ql diStric.theatJng concepts fa' the supply of entire rQSi061'loMl distriC~ an" small iOOl.JS{fi;!J,! parkS is &cce'eraiirlQ_ The goal is to etcreeee lhe percerneqe 0Il1tlqui,emonlS covered by sorar pa.Io-er and to make bener use of the seasa'lal as:,ol"lchronicity bsowaBn tL\!CLilabl9 SOlru' ooer'9~ and heetJnQ ClEIIIlat'Icts. conseoceo Ell;1I1h reeevcne. rargS .G.1.Or.age lenkS eno bore I'des are suitable options (cf. ~_ 30). 311tio1J~h area requlremerue are high because ~ '1M dimoosiOrls of 1M: storagfl: ufuts.

SOrption TecI'!not:)gy

The principle ~ cooling by evaporation ol"fers an altemattve to COOling onsoo ait In summet b~ mea~ QIf corrr.rentional. power-o,per.r;ltad chluere. tt is called "Destccaru aM Evapo. rali ... e CooIiflg" Of DEC (rlgA,7). Deselceets, ....trich extract hUffi['dI'ly {rr:;:m the air, are s:tored in a I"O'tafy heal 09;or;.ehangEtf. c:.ooting anr:J detruiYlidiflca1ioo 01 fresh !ilk supplies in scrnrner le regula1e<:1 by addin-g heat to tM a:d'lausl a., 'The dryer 1M exl'la.us:1.aif, me grealer the perceuaqe of hLInMf>ity the e)(~ngec- eoaracta from the OIJ~sil1e air. IIIt!e exhaust air $ healed to aboUt 80 OC, the- eeecteo percel1lage of humiOity is especially high_ On oyer-casl smwner ceys. the heal !'eCluired ro- Ihls process lIS genera'ty ~ro-

... idM by district heal. On clear days. wittl tligh solar r.ar1ia· [Ion, higtt-.P'QrfOrmaoc:Q 00101' collectors can be- uSeQ for trris purpose tfl9, 4.6}. Once the outside ai, haa been dried wilh the help 011 It!e sorplt:>n gcnct-iltor [l1'}Ij me cooneceo ~a! recovory plant. the elr is ccceo to she desiled SUWIY lempefat\lf8' by means 0' &vaJlO!'3Iion humidi'it)('S In othef

4.4 IrmaJaWl(JICOOloh!J~In'OIlllQrc.-nonl

4.5 ConcteteCClfe 9C!'qbon~lMn(IoI,It¥l)n(lI~IIQI1"'''llIIl-o:;n;Iuc1lflog oM.Jrrm..~~\'<I~I.~

4.6 A~i1'Lablefo(llaffI!"~{IIltItQtnl~.ngr~oI!IIk:wr~~ , .. -

4.f rU:~~IJIII'iOIthangl1~.n~n.rU$Ulloli5D'JJ'tr.'IIdfIhurndtfea1ioosntlfil'lbnballllco:Ang

'.'

./ '\

• Ei

1 Fril~:H,coId

:2 SupPlyall',pt9.watme<i

3 Fko':;I&r rtM .... ,I,h 8~ hl:U "'AIrfQl1Jmll"ldo.lblellloQr S.~lrBn (i.AIr~lI!g1n~o)po:s.I:

• Energy CQMUI1'Ij)IJOn C8SI aMy be calculated ~ '!he basis ct area

System act\fanta.geS:

• Low IniMI In~estmenL,

· Primaty energv ~OO5;l,Jrnpllon '8 d~.astically ~~r than 'or convef'ltlor'tal $ystem:!i.

_ HootlrlO- and coolin9 output (peak kiad'S.) ate reduce-a as a resun oi 'IJ')e s101'<.'.Ig9 capacity or ue eeoc-etc 1'I\a9oSM..

· E;.:i:;;t ng COOling supply sys1ems can De utilizeQ I\x O'~Bor~ Il'.ghl sl~age oeerauen.

· The pr~c;eO dnterences in. system terncesansea OQeI'I up posslbi lues of harness ng energy resources If! ~ eOWQflll"tent! to( cooling (e.g .• ground wale.- Ubll~~), cool outside tLo( can be utilized ovemlght 'ila. fe,COOIJng plants: for he3t ng, scaar cOllec,ors wrttl heat pumns: cea be ..00.

ComfOl1 limi1.aOOns:

• M['Iximum room [(1mper.alufflS of 26-27 ac ill sumrrer can only 00 achle v eo wllh al~ ojtectWve sha.tJin(j ::;ys:lem.

_ Indi ... ldl,Jall~r8'utO ccmrol pat KIOI'I"I duri1'l1) the heating Pefiod is 1101 possible.

The IlfnlUttions of tl"Je building core activl;liicn lie in the output and, 10 ~rtiCUlat. JO !tie slUggiSh respoeee to sui;ltten Cl'\anges: ~ coohng or hea.tl:ng requiremen.'!s. A ~ heating ,eCluiremenl exists, fIX example, when W1n~ noocl IIJI be opened '0 .Iusn out ue aU' In S11 orrce SI_partE!o. FCf wi:1hOul.a r~esh air SUI=IPIy, the indoor air Qua rty soffM as -e 19S1J1L of e:JC~la1iOn, etc" 'W'hiCh can leen to illness (e.g., Sick 6\Jilditlg Syndrome}. However. lruensfve wino::M'o'BI'101.iPatbl is 01'111 possible for rooghly 50 per cam oQC ~e worlOng t.ot.s wl1tJ satisfactorv results. 'Wtlen ~ are tilted open and ootsitfe temperal1Jfes are belON 7 '"C, COkI air seeams Into the room and cools the nco- ro less than 18°C depending cn ttte duration tOt which the windo ..... is Kept open. This creates high and unoomfcnable ai' veocnes of over 0.:25 nvs .along lhe floor (dralJ9ht). The effect i$ partiCularty uncornfMable near wi~~ and ~grv ccrprcmlsas ccoson. although this disL:XllTl11;:t1 decreases .... ltl'lo .grea!18f osarce from the e:<tema' w-ell. ShoOr1 bursts ol

w ndljW vemaauoo 00 not offer a. $.;IItisfyin.g SO!ut-iOrl. OCt do supplementary meaSI,J"E!S such as under 1100f' con..-ectcf$. whicfl wQvitI, rncsecver. repres-ent a :s.YS1t:!«J .change '.0 me bl,Jilding core ~C1w"'tion (t.e .• con$id~rably !'ugner feed temperatures). The I'QIlCwing concept is at'! al1ernabVil that can be employad in oornbinafon wi1t1 bu"lI1ir\g 00!'8 eceesov incoming 1resh ai.r is w.am'l8d dirQctty ai tne wlndcM' to at least 10·C b~ mixir\g it wi1h warm room alii'. Tn e d~ cold air Inllux .aM acrneves dra\.lg~t·fje-e llusniflg of tbeo.a In lhe roan, Th9 baslc ht:laLitig requ-remen'l of ttJeoQtfiG'iS is. co ... eeo by act! ... .aling 1he eorcrete eera. T'he admceure of warm rQOfl'! air and cold rre.:sli air dir&e;lIy at me "'indO\\' is. acheved by means ~ -sma" aif inleEs in lhe facade posts lFig. 4.5), A. miniatur9 .at'! in lhe ra~ flOor sccscos room a nto Itle system at uoor level, whereb~' h&.a' IS tl'llnsm1ted II:) th9 concrete ceiling. and men Iranspo!1s it 'Ilia a tteatng profile integrated n110 1M doobl$ flOor. to tM facaCle ~IS. As the air temperature rises, air is released e .. 'enly Into me room \IJa the srnau IIlle!S in ~he facade posts, mixing direetly ...... 111 inoomlflQ (rtiM air and !i1us pf~n!il'tQ cdd a f from entering Into th.8 space through tl'l9 ..... ~ndO'J.~'S. Th9 re

4.10

'~~'l:I'I&aI~1If 2~'o'I'3l8l'MIl.I~er 301t-.f11Q01~

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belOw 60 per conI. CliPs tNre~ genet~ta enenJJ' aM ~mi$SlOl1 savings or foughl", 30 pet cent Se"'er:ill parameten. should be taken mtc oonsidera'liOn 'Or ee effiIClent eppllCa'lon of CHPs because t,tIe Inltiel in'iQStM8I"rt COS'lS al'l(l the operOMg coste ere htgher. Since p<mef 1ed Into the ~rnCi is still ret1'lUlWJrtl100 at a m~h tower rate tIlan IS charged to COR!lU'n9fS, the goal Ulouid be 10 aeieve

direct CQnSUIIlC)llQO of as much ot the genefaUtO DO~ a:nd I"MIIIat as QOSSiOle. The &1tiCi&Ot SIZing of the plam is theJe· fore based on a baSIC output demand. 11'le remalll1(ler la supplied by conventlOrlaJ means. Dependinog on ee I\ecIItiog demaoo, the operating 1JfT'18 oi U'\e CtiP' and tne OU1:j)Ut u deli ... era can be esbmaloo as follOws:

• For space heat 1'19 onl~:

r«:OI'M'Iended Cf4P 00ttIU11O-15 per cent oftotaJ r~uir8CI 0I.Itp¢, opere1ing tAme irem d.500 tva

• Fc:t space and wo,m water heat,nQ:

recOOVTlellood CHP OUtp\l11O-15 pet cent of totel reql.lli.glj QU~P'LIt. oIJper;flll"g time fl'"OO'l 5.500 hla

To I;IS!ie~~ the- economic ~iabilfi)' or a CHP. OM ~50t comeare ttl9 costs aga' est ee f .... u~l'lCiel ben~' gained thrOUgh enef9Y :;.IiI ... ings. Boiler sy:s.!am:s and Cti~ must ce comoareo in COOSider3tlon ctmvestmern. maintenar'llCtt al'W:l fuel costs. For smatr.&r :sySt$m$ (appI'OXlll1l8tety100 INJ et). the total costs tor CHP eeo boiler are rougi:lly twice as high as those for a OOI'MIfItional boifer system, CHF's also require I'Ipgh fepair and rn(lintenance costs. To a...oid (k)y..'fttlmes. an additiOnal mooule shOuld a~y':S be inl;iuded aa a bactoJp system \\tIen maintenance is Mtog cameo out. Gon:sidl!Wing ee po ...... S8Vln9S and the nabonal ecwirOf"to meotattex (:re~:W in Germany. lor axa.MIpIe, sud'! systems can be economica.lly viable Sl'ICI effiCIent when pc::i'NBf" rates ere higher man 6 oen!&'1o;.Wh. HCWI9V9r, cY-lf'I9 ~o the wide r'anga fit acJO 1iCf'lal cereeeteo. the eeooc;:IfRc viability 01 employing a CHP mtiSl be .ana.!yZ&Cl ror each Indlvlduoal case.

IrWlIligent Controls and Ae-gulatJQn

energ~ coneervancrt Of sclar builCli1"lg atsc neaos USI~ ef1iCiel11 svstcrns 3nd III'Itelligent c~trQl tecmoIogy. 'i'of'lieh can Implement !he relevant option (9.19 . I1'Igtrt coohn9} If'I (II pr.aClical mann8l'. Ttlls can eeretate into an energy savihgS octenttat o-f. for ex.a.mpte. as muCl'l as. 15-30 per ceot IQr 'IEIn!ila1ioo and air·oondl~loo,n9 systems (VACl. The use 0= inleiligenl bl.lill:;ling systems lha.l re-sponcf 10 f1uClu<1l1ogJ conditions also 9rlSUtO$ the smooth and enerQY-$.;l.Wlg operation ad the Inst.Pllation. BAS {building .au1omratiOn. SYSIQI'I'IS) are QMded in10 tIlrOO areas. managemenl. automation. and apPlieabon. Inte1ligen1legul.at.on is largety enablecl ~'SOcesec bus systems". whid'l make It possible to implement integrated concepts for moni~onng. controffong, re~ .. ilaiin.g and m~~ging !tie t&ChnicaJ DUlldlng s.ystems of e 91\:en property. Such Integrated ccnceota facil rate corrmurscalion between 0\111 aU101'1'1at&d componilW'll:$. w-cse o;:m can be digitally recoroeo, such as teree, p4..1m~. chl.llers. wa1.ef processors. room aU'l-omattJOrl ~iMwiCjuaJ roan con-

.1], O~]]I"iUr'lSO'PIIOl'l~~(MWCa~~Sr>O(n'~:""QI;IOIf'II]I ".~P100n~

".9 9J,IJ;ll'I9ordocr"ldfl.Ol'litlQ'Ii'&eMriJ!"IJiIMil'l'II'iI$OII ".IO~t.onIIJ6ilgJlIIt'Ilr!.lCI*'(fliI.vaIQ<l3~

4S

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• H""" .2V'I'.&lJ}r·~£i~1ngI)tUl'hI .5~ir~kt
J~11)oI'I'Ip e s ,,'
.. I~, Lnl!;: is 3 4;:OOliog Ell')I3rgy proc,ess. besed on I!Jt Oesiccation loIIOvled b)' evapoean .... COOIln{l.!n..m1Ch WIler replacet; the CF~ Of FC'C0n16Inllng ,e~rigetants It'! ~ liooe) chillerS. Since the warm and humid ootsilj& alt' 'f\IsI. be cooled even on overcast days. Of, CQI'!VBrsely.1tie COld outsh;e air Mated in 'MOler, (I. oonventlOna,1 neating ~ IS essential '01' this svatern. The .a~val'l.tag8 0' for&going 1Ile uee (II en electricallY powered cnnter lies In the :!S3\Iil't!)S; 1Mt~, me reductlOn.ol .elec:.rfC~1 el'lierg~. wnictl C&tIi De 'OI'J1a.coo wilh d siriC:1 or 00161 heal. An apr;.rG;t;il'l'l<l'e.aver. age of ~OO lull ope.rS1tt1g ho:;H.Jr$ls l'lKJ.uire<t to DC(II1ht cutslde air In eurnme. The healing reQlJltBl'nenl ::b:Iu1Gt.e largel~ me' wim solar heat at suppl:,o temperCltUtBS a eo 't the remainde( IS CO\'erad ..... 1tt1 district MetJng. In ~ in parbcular. this heat)s the product 01 raiional en8rgy W: in the 'orm 0' heal waste from pONer statIOnS The M.~ !.age of DEC-sys!ems, compared f,Q sys.tI!!ms ...... :1'1 ~ tionell coolllll':;l ene'g~ ploch,JctiOn, res in !tie kJ:n &I~ eennect ceo (bOCaUSe there is no chill~l, and 1M fe!;u-:_ il'lg low annual ccnaumaucn 01 power end wa.1E!r lbeo::aoJSiEI thet13 is no need to re-COOI a cI'Iil'er),

Geothermal Heatir\9"COOling

The increased use Matil'\QlcoolLf'lg ceili"Q:S. concrete 0tIr(I activ~1ion and me simultaneous nrorovernern of~!nt standards promote IDe use of geotnermal energy-. In con: eest to nearly ",II other reqenerauve energies, ~ enefgy IS nQt dE!per\Cl9nt on iflcjdent SOlar radiiilto'l. ~. 1(1 tM surface lavers, The topic of geothermal ener~ ree the groond ::lurf.ace is olscussed in (f')e secbon m I'leat pumps, The m.ajOrity 01 geotherma' sys.!ems (jer~ th& reqUlr~ heat .rom layers In the earth raJ"lglng l1'li dep:."'l"cn- 0-40 m, A~ a source of heat af1iCl ool-d el'let"9:.o lor eartf"t.o:» pled healing aM air-condltlCf1lng systemS, }l@iYr'IiSS(ll"l i$ easily obtain.atlle in Germany for devttls: liP to 99 m. ~~ or 9rouncll.va;~ temperatures... whlen are !TlO(8 r:x- \es!; CO'Tstern year round, offer idea' pte.-eqoisit8S fo( genera~ erlergy for heating Or cooling bu Idlr.QSWlm the M'P afa V,fIr1ety of ~~etnS_ One 0' the most advantageous fOt 01"'« end ildministratiOn builClings is [1'19 comtIinaOCln or socelled energy pireS. ehanga-owr heal pumps. as..,,'f!I as area heating and I:XIOling .systeMS sue;1'Ii as racrarn ~ cooling ceillngs and ecce-ere cere acti,...atiM (Fig. e 9 "T'I\e low operaling temperatures of such $y$tems In cro~ V'1i1h 1M relevant harmonization of the IIYSe indivldual rneeswea mentioned above and fa\'Cl'.,lrable geoioQ caJ ccoo toos, create an rooal scenario for enE!r9Y" and COSl.sa'hng bUilding op@ratlon. In G9rmany, the amalga~ of fegul.atioo:s for I'IMling sVslerns and in:sulirlKln Into a sIngle ene.rgy savin,!» regulation ~E~ MS ful'tt'lllf ImpJlO\l'ed tl'leo parameters for i~lemen.1J"9 in~egra·e<J ~ lions 0.1 thi$kind_

Heal-Power Ooucl ng

Conventional pO\'Y~ gOO91UbDn n cootf~nsaM9 po.o.t!I' Plants and heat ifI boilerS is. inefficIent because 1t'H!I ~

of energy requirad to generate power is. 11)'S11in th& foefl"; c/ wasted heaL In a combined heal and pal.wr plan! tCHPl on ttM:i O1l'ter hand. up to 34 per cent of the pn~ enetgl is trall!>10rmed into PO'Io\'E!( and up 10 r'OIJgtjy 53 per oem ' uanstcrreed 11110 heat tFIQ. 4,1 OJ. \vt"!i(;h trs.r\Sla;es f1D!) an O\'9taJl Elffl~ency r:2J!90 of 90 par cent. Con~'erSe~-, ee r.to'tl • en et1tCien,c:.' of sepa,.ala hoo!a.nd pcI't'I~ g~!IItl(ll'l !3S

."

reduc& draugh. on tall facades. are alSo adv.anUlg6OUS. EWIO Ihe ackkbon or " StI'Igle pane can lead to an i~ mont. Recenl deveJopments tn tneormopa~ glaZing taIW thIS pt'Ienomenon in'lo aCOOUM In comtlln&tO'I 'NI'Ih !he IaN thermal tran5mlSSlOf'l values of the g'ast, SUtlaee temQef{lves do not f.1 belOw 18 C even on cold WIfIt~ (lays Thet. are variOus opt<M1S tOt 3tf8ng u ·~ Ina so-ca led ~E layer (et. pp. 56tf). IndoOr all" qualify is ano.heI oomfQrt requirement VentilatIon and a.r-condftJOflil1g ~rems ShoIJld erNIe 3 physiOlog cally fa~able indool" Clil'liaie

01 ~ble hygien.c air qualify, 10 full J thIS teee. a sefiEr.i Qf measures are reqUlfed doong me PlaMirtog OeSt90. coostruttiOn eeo ocef31~ of me building, In~· many, 30--40 m11tJ of trash air is gooortl Iy deemed suffI;:~t for e"'e", WQfk$1alIOf'1. This. correspoocs '1:0 an alt Chang8 or 2 neA'l. If smokl1"1g IS allCM-ed. tf1e tresh air rQ'I.& must be lnceeaseo to SO m'1h. l-ICrwe ... er, n OI'der to "deCM11i91y e:o:h8t1S1 ctrmr 1OBIcts. fOf ~re, exhaJatiOos.aM:! odOUrS -from hLumns. ma.t&rial:s, carpeting - Up 1:0 00 rWhI of ff-e$h oEIlir 5I"H:HJtd be suWlaed per pSfSO.tT In tMJ11dll'l{IS 'M!h nafurat venliattOn ~wil'lOow ...emlla1lonl. :;LIf change cermet be derllflsd .... \th precistDn; t l1epen.as 01'1 WlIlCl presSIJI"6 and ell.'temal tempera~lJfes.. The type of wi~ ~ ing - it's design as 'il!-and-~ ...oocbol, Shd'I'l'9 "'i.nQcH, wrth s.ynchronll.ecI hQriZQl'l'al openings at top and bottom_ 01 Sliding window witn vEIf'liCal opel'!.<t'Igs - IS also mportant in practice. The dlfferil'lg deSIgnS. and coocems (SIm~ Of cross-~'en1i'atiool result in Vf!Ir; dlfferem ~lTr ~nge rates .and perc~ indoor air c~ort.

EfflGiency

The demat'ld tor tie)(ible and InnovatIVe spa'ial agaruzateos. and tor sayings lin operati~ C;OSlIS, has resulted ., DIaMlng and Oe5J911o concepts: Nt are oompl"Elflen:si\r9, Aside from 1he underStandatll& dertJafJd IOf co-rot. the issue ~ effiCIency Is: beoomil')Q more impcIc1ant. UltimaJ:J:I!y. decisions are based on 1IW!i linanCirlg 01 a new ccoeeiesco ano the iJn1JClpatet! operating costs. AJ1hough the ~ lit buik:lin9' Sy,s.1ems ha'l,'& DectmB 1l'O'& COO'lQlelC ifl recent :,'8atS and can Qflly be :solved in an intardiscip&1ary manner. only eone 5 poer ctH'nOl total tloogetS are ceocated ~ plBnnlng and de5llgl'ling these evatems. The podlJOtioo ODS!S. ate in the ragiM of 25 1)& cere and iO per CI;Inl are dedicated to operation. these n~ :should IIluslrat-e t!)e focus of clian;s anl1lOr in ... eeeos ana tNt areas in ....nich thO)' shoulO irwest In. the past, lxlildirtgs'M!re often thoughtlass'ly El<iUli~ \'tltl't teC;l"IOoIogy; -eeeeee wefa poorty insulated and left W'Ir;hot.rt shading sys.~em:s or w th systems th/;;II .... -erB inetficiM[ _ Energy COt'iSUIYIP-iIOfI was, dnd ccoeooes to be, correspond.ngty high. U;M' efficiency ooeftlClenI$ and oversized near-gen.BfaMg syst~ elqlcerbated the v ·.i<lswtul mt'l"8!=)emenl The annual enef!D' reQuircmen1 of fOI,lghiy 900 kWhlm: Irtl tM mid-l9EOs 'A'aS reduced 10 400 ~"''m'nv by the earty 1990s.1F"9, ~ 13). Today_ an admln",lrali v e building with an energy ooe1fiCien~ oIl'01.1ghly 150-170 k1MVm" in lem1IS ~ pnn'I3t)' tll*gy

~.11~I,,",TDNDf·II'I"""'hrL ... 1.wt420021\,~+ ~iler.p'_brlt.ab:!o!tl'AClldfl~~"'......ar.tr~~ II'I'9I''M'l'lIIreoolngo

~ 12 (;..;mI!;lI1 C'UIIitI

46

Irol$}, lighting ccmrots, Shadir.g svsterne ene the Pf.nary eornponents of the HVC eyetems - both with each other (oomp0n9'U to oompooont,lan(l with the correaponoog op«a;tOl'. To thiS end. an automated. coownl..lnlca11OO_eapa. ere sys.1Bm compOnents pfO'o/JOOd by one manufac'll"lrer must ee oonnecteci as ~ply and cost-cMlCieflil:,' as 5)O:SSi. ole with 11'10 slI'stem pre ... ided b.., anorheor manu1;:"Ctuf9f. Cofl'Imunlc;iIouon Protocols for bus sysIl!ItnS !;Ina BAS netWOt'l<s are. boc.ornilng in.treaSil'L{lly importal'101. Op.oo, t.:Jb'q. Iron-ifldopenderl'L wrnmoolCi}tll~""1 p.t.ct=o.cols have b«.ome the .oomir.anl pla,form lor the areas de-flood above (man,. 8gemet'lt. automation aM 1reld aPJ'lliCation). The tnm:atplaCQ also offers a w1Cle V8r1ety of SP(}(;iflc. product-dep.900ent bus sy.!i01ems. A detailed cos.-~(;t analySi$ can. in individual cases, r(lve-al that a prooUC1,.!iCl'9_ effie SYSlem bus is lilOl"C ecQf\OfJlkal. In eech instance, ee prCfequisite 10( makin91he right choice ~ prO.ieet-<5p&C:r'flC. Innova1i.ve pJ8Innil'l.'g, which also takes: .hie fu'llKe use- of irll"lCJil,l~l'lJVe :s-vst8~ that <lie still b9yOnd the sccee of the curreN le-chr'ICIIOg:y. into accourn.

Coml-Or'l Lind Efficieoc~

All supply systems emplOyed in (lmCe and aamini::;tfatNe b'l.llIdings S9fVe LO aOSLlre the comtcet and .... ~II·being or !he users in OrdQt to promote maximum p&lform:;lnce ... tile workplace. Thls can orjy be achieved by meeting p~ logical and hygienic perameters. :;ImOf'):9 W1'MCh air Quality. lemper:;l1ure and air velOCily in the room uiay a kEy roI09_ However lhe percacuon ano e;.;periE!flCEi of lJletmal comtcrt is alSO mnccncco b~ IndMcdual1ac1011's (Fi1Q. 4_12).!l::om IQmperalUfof!S met 8'€ ccrntortabte fOIl' l'ILJI'I'Un:;; ere based Cf'I a body temperature of -36.6 ~ and ere created \\~ these is if! betanced eql,Jill)riL,lm between heallOS$es. heat geOOtated by U'le users lhernsel'r,le:5 end amtll8flt tempera. ture. F'hysiCai com'ctl is also influenced by Petspira.'Xin. AAt humiCflty and ail' mcwement ;Mrefore. play importan; roles. Whereas people 8XpelieOC& modec~te to slJoog air mo v emenl as perieC1l.y comfortatlt.e outd~ ~rovldeQ 1tJe~ are wearing eccrcorrete crothing. any kind of Q~ught is experfenced :;1$ IJnoomfClftabr.e in.d'oor's. This is ~.ally true- ror SM-ent8.f'J ... VQI'k in offices wl1.er& ~iTl air vecerues or 0.15- 0.211'l1$ ere reoommel'\ded to .a....oid 'lJ'ta- effects of draugh'L~ Air movement Qf1 the curstoe IS LlSSBSS9d according to Beauron'a scale of ~~nd force (also ~n 8S Be8lJrOl't 'Ol'(9).~ Aoc::ordin9 to this scare, "'~'Ind ieee lIP to 0.2 mIs dlli'lM9S cam. V!lind force t (0.3-1.5 flVS) is described as light air, where wJnd is ooly V~Ib4e 'ttIrouglt smoke. and wlndtorce 2 (1.6-3.3 rnIs) constenes iii ~gb'I breeze. In lnterlcrs. air t~1 fiQlN$ predOOllnantiy from cee direelion aM is eccles than the room air results in dr,ijlught For high cutslce ternpereunes of approJClmB~e~ 32 aG, ClpE!fali'r.'e temparaturee ¢ 26-21 =-c are acceptable indoors. Natutall\!' 1Ii~ remnersmrea neve a dire<;it i('rllu- 0900& 00 the p&rrorma:nce -C3pacity ot noeeos. ~ IS highest fa' tempe.rall".1res bel;\ v een 20 arid 2S ~ and cecreeses as temperemres rise. At over 35 "C (50 per terri relative humidity) performance Is at 80 per cent on a .. eag9. In addllJon to room air temceeewe, me I;Imbient tem-p8fal~e is a partioolarty Important and oft-o\'e~ criterion {or comf(lr1. AmbleN11 temperature is the meQ1I oj room air aM sunece terroeraune. Wall temperatures eac be increased in \·.inter with the help 04 tsdt:8nll'teat ng units. Heall)(!' laeeu:fe:s. wh ch diminish cold .£!Iir'drCJI~ and

element Tho lacacto Clesi91'1 is P<'I"lwlarty l1Cl4iceab1e. ECl!ct'l element consists 01 a (rape.zOKi. a 'OU91'11'( 2 mt-large pane of em sun glass. which is t ted outward by 31'1 ;'Ingle appro:urR!l.tety ~ {FIg. 4. t 5. 4. 17). This eosurM thaI SQl,IOO IS not rf}ltOC'loo clMec:tt)' ll'lto ,he fO()(TIlhroogll the .aC<IJa.9. buL rtK:iil'9CtM ... ia the C&ilJong. AI'IOUltw actv&nt.age. ettJeo1 noll deliberately penneo. iii. she aiminiSh8(j angle ad" acrar I~rJence. Compared 10 the rea' aJ\Jtude, the SUI'l aJ.v.ays. seems 10 00 9' higher ~ lhe sky. Thill' InsQI,ated glass areas - a.od hence the external eoolin.g loads - are reuuced. This pre'abric;ale(1 recede is alec called an ak::ast·tacade

tatcast • alumin1um·C3SI). ~ The oiflCes In the l1igh-nse <U'~ supplied via so-called twO-ducr, hign.vebcltva,lf-CCI"IdltalIng systems. a concept th.l;lt ..... as popular and '8ChI'lIC3l!y &)(c6110n1 at tl'l8 nee. The VAC eQUipment ... I3S I"M:Jus.e(! in the besernem and on tfl8 15m and 23rd I\OoI'S. Air W>a5 transpOrte<:! vertically in the b4Jilding core '0 the in.di ... iOuaJ 11OOr.$.. Horizootal rroor diStntK.tOCM"l to the InchvJ;;lual office sreee ..... as ett-acted via air doctS $;USp.9nct1ad11'"()fn me ~IIi"g., Fire,protec:tlon regi.stefS In 1he shBIft eeperared rI'Ie r .. e compartments. Cold 3.fll:l wann a .. W8fC fDJliect in v'S~ble 1M VOlume boxes a«on;Ilng to 1be set values f(If room IempE!C"ClItures and injeet.&d" in.lO tne roems. al a CQIl:!;IUin1 volume flow. The elf was jn~d into the room Irom ee vati3b1e air 1>yStGm via ai' jolcts aACf the S\Jspended eel 1119 lrem above: spent air was sOii1a.rly sucboned Off thrwgn OIJ'tJe.lS_ TfeIl'II&nt1ovs air volumes were required to extract the Mal loads in the offices. Air ~l'Ianga was at: 1 h·' In the cner area 01 the cyrnce-. anc ee = tet r ' In the inner area, ThiS meeru that an ~.age Ol 24 IWII'I of i~lIf hao 10' be lnecren fa each square metre (fig. 4_ tIS). ~ir~nt:s. haJj cMflg.9C1 al~ar' 1iIOr"8 m<li"l 25 years of operation: computet had replaced ~'PEI'Wrjtef"8, Ihe number of ~aoons. h8d increased and so had IDe COQIl(Igloaos in Sl,nVnef. Probiems else became evident on 'he facat1e: me sealant \'I,'8S porous, Tnetma! t;(ioges began ~O' fQm1 beeeeen secaons a~ the tecede wae ro loogerairtigf1t. In 100:7. Ute company was inspi~ecJ by nese 'lhSiQle slgn.s QI wear and tear, and by desigllfCOOs'tn.icrion errors. 10' COOS"icJer reno ... .atlng the- high-rise. A conoenco was Reid and the flr'St c~ sian taeued for an analyU j)j nac.ass.aJ)' ,enovatiOf'ls 00

the ~dmlrliW81J ... e t:II.,1iIQil')g .. The rewl[$ ¢ the s,1J.Jd'y lad to

a crcccear rDl' executing a r9n8\...a1 0' U'l8 lacaoo In (;CC'I;.nC:'ion ... .riU'l ll'le imptemenlallOf'1 of ill eomP'etl;!ty new airconditioning concept - laking C:d"rent reQuireml!lrllS for WOdq:Ilaee COfKhoons ana communicelions ted1no1ogy into conslceetcn. It was suggeSted that tne .air-onty ~Qffl shOuld be replacoo b:.- mechanical and natura! fresh .air ventJls~1on In CQITlooetion ... .ri;h a wa~ar'OOOIecI SySt9m M"I

the loon I)'J a -COOling COIling, The orloglnpl fresh .eir I"S-te of 24 Nil"" per squ.are metra was renuced to a mare 6 rM-'h per s.qu.B;re matte- Wltn the cescseu (hsplS(;ement ven.1II.a- 1iOl"l.s.ystom, whrch en.:!;ll,WElS: draughHrea., flexible and afficlam ventila.tiM, me radianl COOlin~ frem the COOling -c~ creates a comf~b1e indoor cumete. With me e;w;isbng variable air v olume evstem a~ was injecled In~o the rooms In a

~.':3T(erId'i"leMl'lD'~bQnlf'l~y

4.'" ~tI~~tl,!l""Wl;hl'S12),Knr'1~.Vtorn;I,roamGv$tln M!!IlilrIIJ8o'~flQl;Q

4,'fi"BJvI'NfIiLtrriM\tl,lNCh • .a!i~tllprllf.:l'bnGnl.odtJoC.lldollitl!1'letl~

49

I e» ,

0:0 ,

.. "'"

~1iOO",W."Mrr.iI

1-3 A -cooQ""JQI'"Jng~(11aM~5.2to1dlt':5>..ICJI;I'V,3 watmllll':5I.IW1)')

.j, F-B~

~ ltQ~~og

reQuiremon1s is: c.:lassifie<J ;fI.S ;0 lOw-&nef9Y building in Ge.many. However. old build 119&, If'I particular, are still DIi: 'iI OQets!ed With ou'Idat9CJ bUilding svstems. In ether 'ftO'ds..

::r~:==!:=';;:: :f=~~=:~ob,~~

elen'\On1S olIIn.d systems cen no IOr'lget achle v c aCC;eP1abl~ elltClen[:~. despJte regular main1elial'lce. The h1espan Of ~ l;MJilding, esp8(:i<ll:; or ue suuciure. is two to 1IVlM:! CJmea 4Clnger than 1M utespen of lhe technical e-q~metlt CharlQQS In oeQn'lmUntCa11Ons [eC!hOOII)QY afil!l 'Ul'lher decreasing tM Me cycles '0' technical builOlOg eQuiPI"rlerrt. The evolulioo 01 PC$ and information teCl'lr'lObgy has. brought aboUt iflB\litabole cnanges in bUilding Us.!!J. ~ changes. alOng vn1n new technical .8%-1ems. transJa.~e into necessary aooptatlons. The ~ocetef8bon in changes to buiklng syste~ wi I increa~. alceit noc 3UillfTlaLicaIly Cf necessarily, 'Mth each innovatJot'l in the effectivel'Jes$.1I!d functions Oi crececorc data proces&ng and II'1~rnalion l$ChnOI'ogy. wh1ch v.ill. in tum. inC1eaS€ 1M e~.g:J' e-"fl' Ci(l(lCY ~ the builjjing s:,'st-el'l'lS. Dltreram poteribalS for saar ooildinQl can M I'Iame-ssed depl9l'lCiinog on tJ..Iilding type. and requlremarns, The topic has sparked mal"l:J' debaiea but it is omy In recent times 'heit new SUWfy COACepts !la'1@! b9Qn developed. The ~1;Iv.antages. of the new ce~elopl'rl!olS ere particularly evident when compared to me Qla sysI~ To illl.JS.1rats trle P01MtiaJ of tecMical solut1OOS.1lYee reno-

valiOtl ~c,s have been crcsen in , flich eomfOr1 'has.

increased an<J energy leQ.1JiremefllS ere reduced !InClud-

ing. CO~ emissions)_

TM examp:!r.es are:

• BM'IN neeoacanere in. Munl(;h

• Formifl1 Ohamt>er 01 necuuee tligh-ris-e -Langer EugenIn Borw1

• Former Aeichsila.g sn Berfin

Each 01 mese buikfngs is kno ... vn beyoMthe bl;K'dersof Germany ancllhey are const.d'ered Icons CIt 'lime4es.s arc"," tecuare. Too .al.lll'lOrs .... ere directly Invol ... jJ(j' in ~ tednaII Ul)grades oIll'1e: IWO tligh-ri$ElS in. the foon rn jlf'Oject S-~ lee earned oY1 over severe! years. 'The AelCllS.!ag rl~1·1("lia· 1ion. on1.he osse- haM. was plenned alld executed as. an 09xel'llQlary model o.f sciar buil(lLl1g. The k€:.' aspects. WhICh Jed to the il'nQf{lyed cenron cond nons and reduced ene-Igy ccosurreuco. ate discussed for each ot these examptes.

BMW HMdql"l8r1efS In MuniCh

The VienneSe ercniect t(arl ScfJwanZE!f ~Ie'led me BMVII' baaoquerters bu Iding berween 1969 and 1972. The shape aM uruque rsoecncns -of the hiogh-riS$" bec:am& a symbol MCi .;;In urban liflk to the {I;l<M • mcs ~ 'the Olymp!!::

Games. whtch were h8kl in MuniC::h in 1972'. lI'Ie sarre ~' the bu IClin.g WQiS ccmcreieo, The bu-lair\09's L.Jn4ie plcu'I mece 11 poS-$ib'e to ceeate a variable and rtaxibltloHIOe S1ruCIU~{L r=.a(t! woostauen was assigned an area at

10.25 n¥ at the lime. WlllCn r9sutced in a ratiO 01113 per cenlusabl9 area to 27 pet cent Circulcuion area. The dMsion ~ U'lQ uSn!;lble area InlO IouI' secnoos QfCIlI'Ped .;uoond the oolldlng"s core resulted irI ,\'Ofk areas ..... ,11'1 a fT1IJf8 Of I9S.S equal shere of dayligl"lt {Fig. 4.14). The ~V l'Iigh-rl5fl' was the first ~mf)~ in Europe of til faCd.l:le s1fl..!iCl).Jf& ..... ree breast wall. oveoes and .inlels were composed 01 a ~~Ie

. "

af8a!1o nee-' the core. epern a r 1~ from the- off-GeS;!flto the h8:11w8y$ ana an1I}(OOffi$. Th~ sr;terTI no lOnger ITII;!B~ current lire'S<llety $tt\ndilrd$, Th8 goal Of the s1udy w;'I'!',.

10 edaJ)1 'he building to current otrlCB building mr'ld<ll'CI~. while pt'eservlng the external fonn. The proposed up~ade fat the clwnate concept IS eeeee on newt)' (levelOped InauCtlon hJChOOIogy

The Old UI1Ils Wf!oI'e to be replaced w~h new diSOIacerriet'!l air InduC11tJn emts. thiS syStem reverses the aifftcw d-ecbon. A r IS suCtioned oIt eocve 1M wi~OU eeo kes;h iIIlf is It'Jj8Cted inlo the room horizontally and 'M1h lOw ~1Oc'lY A wat"i!lf-c(l()led system (::oohng conveCIQflc:e<llng) CO'o'8fS tJ"H:i (em3lftil'lg COOfing demand'S. aitnOu1jlh ee OU'IpuI '«.as. 50lzed i:lxch.¥!iive~ for the cnlces. The areas near the CJ:::ftI .tr& $UPpiled from e secarare cenl1al ventilation sY$tem_ The uirninisMd OU~P4Jt 0I1he taner mean!; tML tl'Ja Ckie~s C3n 00 ~lIer • ..mich edce 2'0 em !I) the c:1E!'af room ha..'9ht. Tl"!e main aCII-iln1flg&S or the propcs.(l(l OiS.,PIaCemef'lt v en1l~ S;~!Bmare:

• .guaranteed conl:lnlKX.lS IDf exd'lan,ge . theredvr;:tlon~(Jr.pugh •

- c:liminiSl'tad energy c~hon (Fig. 4 20).

~iC:l1Stag ConversiOn in Berlin

The corweeaon of the Reicnstag Building intO me German Bonoos-tag in Serhn (199E).1991llnttoouoed dlaf)Qe:5 to the spatial programme and, at the same time. symboliZed ee ~ parliamen1ary use 01 the bUlk;l.ng. Remarkably. the dients also wanted to create an ecolOgical symOOI and oecoec thaI Utis \voukI be the pcinClJXlI enteron fix" awarding firSt prize. The winning d&Sign IkIIs mel eese fecjl"llfemems In all ~C~llQn$1 fashion. 11 has not ~ made the building accesslbla to ;he publllC all day lOng - a SOI!J1JQ1 that I~ I"IIIlIQue in the WQ4'k:I fOf 1hi$ type of buiklll1g - buT: also implem9l"ltM an Q;((femQl:.- eeenceo ecological -conc@' that was: eqwlly unlqce at the tlme. The existing ooildirilg MCI baet'l f~damern"J1y restructufed in the In,erior after the secooo Wcdd War .end was eQ\Jip»EId wi1h buildi.ng sysIBIrIS oCfatirlg Irom the 196(ls. N() ... earerees. the Fcelcnsts'9 - I)Ia:nne<d and realiz-ed over a c:en1JJy a-go by the archltecl Paul WaJlOt in collaboration \"Iith engil'lll!6r Oa ... .o Gf()'1.r8

t 18S4-94} - W515: nothin.g 5hcN1 of a techmce! AlaNei in Its Ofiginal lonn. The concept COOQSpon.dOO la~el~ '0 ceo'OO1poralJ' s.land.flf'Cl$. The seat Qd the German Elt.IlDestag "Ua$ concefved to nl)'l only Qnsr..9 efltCiOAl opetatiOo '1Mth miflimal cner9Y consumption. but also fQ act as a symbol of e -Qel1ll)Cfatic and tf.snspar&n! parhClmOOt a modQl ~ &COlogy- (el. pp 148ff1, Since the bui1din'9 sceseoce was largely preserved. the OOr'MIrson could De bas&Cf 00 me advanced neatl"9 and ventll('I(IOf\ system de'lleloped by

".115 a.,"-lliIgI'Nl5Ct. Muriel'\. e.KdtJI'iIg Iho~ad Wflt!iabM ar.naml;!,,\. !YOposed~oI.ft~~IILJI()orIfl\aI.·~\'~ 1-y;;IQm IIo'l1ti o::dnO eanvll.!llBI

".rr S\1loVliIgt1'lJ5l!o.Muncl'\.lilee>lleUoetoM.1tJfIraeadel:§lpnl·~ 110 11'01 oQOI'allftl!Mlt. U·lI&aI"I'I!!I fIMu'& 181_et'oJ 1Rilb' t'y

".1B ~c.-~~I"ii'l'.ltHi&fI.BMn(l969).E~E~:iQIfIQ· oIIJdl1QQri!Jb'lYo'llhO'HtOEI8o:ndconISf9llC:lElIi8.IISl

".Ig ¢~oI~M'""II.Jh.ti&El.~.rac8de~In'~

s.

tL C" ='--
- - - -
, l J
\..,
.~ u .11.16

J.17

fairly !wrtulenl manner .and with mltltiv91y ~gt1 v l)locit,o, l'I-lt! rlllStiiting eddi9S 'Iustled ~B rooms With air, The ver'bcal a.r ~IS rooched neilll.,. all u1J eeo areas. In the proposeCl.a s pl;:J.cement ... entnauon system, Ihe pre-pfOC;esscd lt~h:aT Is in,lO:c!ed nOllsele-ssty into ee room acoaa a large area. Oue to U18 COOler tompeu;ltl,ll's of this air. n sims 10 the tIcQanCi tonns a kind of ~sea' 01 cold .air. It rISeS alc)ng .... '<Irm bodies _occupants and computet's - brir'tg1f'i9 treSf'l air directly W1tO eo space I;Ind dIStrIbuting il ar'Oun(J the room NOIselesS and draughl·Uec-. It absoms ~~ and is extracted tilt ,he top lF19· 4.16). Up 10 iOi)er ce .... OI~_ nat and external loads ere ulilizM via heat f9cQl.<!1fy Sj'5c' terns. 10 pre-wenn 1M frasn air Itl ...... inler, or 10 iXe-«lllll~ 10 surnrnes. Another advamaqe of this svercm is the f1'OI1es1 iMlall8ltion Might required in Ule ceiling area.

The pmpoo~d !&eMic:a1 UP-9fades flOl 01"I1y f'St!II:.a.tty ledoc.t floo'gy QOO:;tJmptloo, !hey ersc 'CUI weralir.g CO:S~ fO( rel):air .erKI mauueeence in hair:

- replacement Qf jat:ad09 insulation-

• imprQ~'eme:nl lOr sreo ng !'tom 9 _44 per cent to g=12 per cern (approximatel:.') wl1h the help 01 3Cr'l1ayli9ht.dir~ lcuvers

- 75 per cera feduc!ion Od r9C(uirad .air volume

• a r stlppl~ temperature reused from !lreIJiovsty 17 "'C 1.0 20 GC in sumner ~htQlJ9h disPIacern911t ~'entilatton

- iocrease in the anergy eecc ... efY coeffiCient tel roughly 70 per cent 8S 8 resullol new svstens and ec .... pl'1"'l!fJl'

Former Obember Of D~pu'ies High-f"ise -Lsnger Eugen' ~ 6o<v>

The former Chamb8l' of Deputies I'ligl'l-riSE! for the Germ.;m Bundestag nas been in operatIOn fot O"'Sf 30 years.,. Ti'Ie lnncvatrce design and concept fOl the landmark. erecte6 between 1966 and 1969. wee oeateo by Egon ~. Today. the bu-,t1ing tccses variolls UN If'Ist1I:\i'IJ::m. (Fig.

~ .19)_ Tbe buikfing is divid-ed il110 five zones: erwanee. deputy cnlces, reSlauran!/cate end kit'Chen as wei'! as 9>::juipmoot nccrs. It oonsiStS or a (:ir'CUlle'i~ and a ~pl)' C0l'9 cons.lrucUtd v O'i1J'I il'hSitu concrete. lne loaQ-bearing steet sk.eJeton s1ruc.1wE!o and 100 pr'efabri~tad QOI1Crete floCf ~bs. The column grill on. tM twO ICmer acces ~ 7.&1 x 7.50 m, oeceeasrea to 3.7.5 x 3.75 mOil Ina ~atltl'lo~ (R9. 4.18), The- shading sySUlm is fixM ri~id[y in plae~. 1 ccosrsrs or glass-fitlr€l relnloroed poiyaS!Gr ~ SCi'@¥r tasteneu to the vertical beams (square sac(iomj 01 tI'IIl' facai;le_ "The olstal'lCe oot'wOOn IOl.JIIGrS af.ICI outer bUild ng .edge i$ roughl:.' 1.2 m t,Flgs. 4.21. ~_22)_ The <tcmntaged lI'Iis design is: the passive usa it tnak.9S 01 SOlar rad atlfJfl. TM .arl9le of toctdenca cnancee ee a result or me projeCeon de-,pell(! ng 00 the season, and in SW'm8r the s~~em. ptovid$lii effecwe ooacMg 'or II'IQ o!lleM.. 'lNltI'lOot Q rnfItSI'I- 11'19 visu.al contact WIth U'8 0UtSiI:Ia. trlQ sM1Jo,.o.· \\ !"lIef ~ also I~ds to heat gan)s. The ofltces are SUfJQI eo .... ttl at vra induction uelts ffiOOmQd bekJ\v tM: .... -J(JoowsiHs 01"1 ee ~sid9. neeo-a« Is pre-warrnec (or pre--cOOled) in 1M ceolra1ized I)lam 00 th9 e~uipmetll flOOr .aM U'aI'lSpt;C1M to tie Induc1.iQn un ts 't,>13 11'19 Support ¢OIll1'r'InS l-ex !1'Ie steel gore ere. E'rle-ry second co'lumn COl'l(fl.JC1S air .ancl cold ot \~'W'Il water. The InducliM uM$ e:.:tract $.f>Slit a~ at floOr Ie\.·",l end inject rresu "'.If il'lI1O 111& 1'"QOm.fill (:>$>iling IeWllF'·g· ':'.2W Deper\d"ing on U19 00(IIil'l9 loads. this I~ds 10 ""llIfIa~ ;300- hJgh air VelOCl11oE1s (draug.hl) and lood rlCil. ... roses, froro 1h!I

· ,

tioll. an eNec1I v e contlibU'lion 10000rd MInimiZing en'IISoSlOf'IS.. espee.a ty ~ CO~. ilnCI ~ililirlfll.a pfIIfCl!ln'lilg& ~ .. genera· tN'8 en&rgy seeeee lFig. 4.241.

Seasonal Energy Storage (AQulla'l

If elll;l(:tfll;tty ody is reQuired in 11'1& R8iChS'l<}9 01' 0l'Il8 01 the OCher buildin.gs. (he process heat from the CHP cycJ8 IS r~ed. '" lhe 'ann 01 hot water, 10 a watl;!f-bealing layer. a so-ca led aQUifer resel"lrOif" In IMfltef. he3t.ng energy In the reservOir is availablo'Of me ra v ar:sed cycle (trom

65-30 "C, ct. pp l5Offj, To store water at a mean lemperature oC rQI.IShl')' 50 *C Wltnou~ undue ecological ~aot QO the enetgy balance ne." 1M surtace, :s:alt ..... ater·bea(.tng la)'"QfS (aqu1E1fS)al apJlfQ:(imatelll.llOOm bakm the sul1ac.e ere esed. There ere no OOIec1IOt'1S 10 Lhe U~ Q' me a(j~, oecacse a 60 m bamer. in 1M rom Clr a. r.ayer of day. s.8N88 as: a na1J;,lr,el1 9?OQlogicai -s.ep.e;retiQn. The Mal of thB warm water recovereclll'OOll:1'le aco-o- C3f'I 31SO be us.e4 W OQl9r'Qte w:anl'WIIir registers and licor heaM.g {J rec1l:J' or il"lCli. reoctly. or vt.p a Ileal ~1"Ir1lp. As a means of oooling the buildi~ 2I11od the air in $Ur'l"ln'lGr • .gr'Oundwa~ar is (jr'3Wfl frem a second. shallow aqlJnfer reservoir 30-60 m neep. In anal""9:;' to the prino,Plo 01 tharma1 810(<198. !he "'J3l'med .... '3ter r5- rlMumed at 800tner location soms distance away_

NaturaiVantiJatJon

The ~II')Q his~l(: ilJ( doots are used to venntate tre plenary 0011. Ftes'h air is dra ..... l"1 ill 01"1 !1'19 .... '9St see of ee bu,t(Iing above the portico and warmed Of cooled via large hBat ~C:hangers "''IttI minimal pte~(e esses. $Io...ty-i"ellOlllrn.g fans transport me u into a presswe fkxJr beneath ;he I'IaII. The j;)recond troned fresh aIr e then feci ,n~Q the h;;ll. Warm. span; air is. dra'M) out through openings in the t;onicaJ dayhgtu,"'9 enucture end escapes at h top. whereby thenRall energy is e;(trac~ed by a heat exChanger jet W 156 11). ~enable windtt'.'~ (rootof-drl v eo 0" m;aI'Iual) Sind e seccec ~t£lrnallayer or glazifll) mak& n .posMlle ~o na'LUfalty venOi· late rnarw Qi 1~ I'(lQITIS for a large part of the ~r (cf. pp.152ft).

Da:.'ligh~jng

In oon1ra-s.l to she oonc-e.p1 by PaulWallot ani;!: D:;Ivid GI'O"Ie - '1M Cfiginal Reiclts,ag Ml"n9 was f1~I:.' :symboliC: lin elku'· actef - ~\I'lIg·htlng is an eeaeotet componem in the cont-emporary en9rQ:I concept and a. ... iSible -CMra~ Of the core. A cone wilh 360 m.rf-ors !iet if'I"to (f")e gtSl.5oS dome directs dif1usa daylight into 1M ~ndIY !\all and rMuces power conSlJmp1)Qn for artificial ~htlng. A~ lligh!. 11 sets the dome agio.>.' [cf, pp 158ft)_

SoIaf Energy

One variatIon - one bUilding block - of utilizing SOlar energy ~ to employ v&getab'e Oil. The cse 01 this natural and r&generalJ\l8 row matellals hefpS to dr8strC81ll~ -eeoee

4,~ ChItI'tOI!If~~~IWis&.eonn.kliloll9~~ln«l~~""'!11 ~1I013(Af_pr(II:I05(tCI....nblat<Wl~ ...... "If1d~ 1I""III.Jc1ioo",.t3(BI

4,21

422 CNn>bef04~hogl'Htse~eLoQl¥'l·.SoIn..'~ ... .;t1 ngodSl\8odiflglb..rv9l1.~III~~.QII

4z:! ~.B.1onl.t!)4).~Fo;r,,[U"J;!~



. .,

caa

Gro~'e- II ..... 850 1M '9~1 01 thlll! engiooer' 10 U\II,ze the I~ a 01 the bwed 119 mess 100 eeete evenly (kS!flbu'le!;l tOOt'fl t.en\per eroee regBrdless of occupation. &l\'ternal alf CQrldnlOrlS Or . other Influeoces. Pleoaty heils, re.ctcjing and fe1reShm&r1 91'63S ",'fire supplied with frMh air. N'umerous acr iniets ber19,Hh the seats ana spent air vents If! '!he ceiling ..... used ro ventilate toe plenary hall. Grove em~h::lI)'6I1 tne 6YS19ffi ct displsoemEN"lt 'VenlJlatlOn that is. common lOda~. A. th& lmccetant aspects oj the concern ,£!1lQ QUE!stJOn9, 0'1 ~l r.; were teared - ..... Itf'tout computer sim~tion - 01"1 1: 1 IIlOdtI!. Air was, !raflSpcw1e-d ... ia l'Iug8 ducts al'M1 t1J( re~! to rlXil,lC9 the CC1!W&'yal'llCe e-flon:: at tne b~,n"'ing the ~ was to be sleam-pcMolBred, but b:,o 1tJ9 end of iI"Ie ten-jrMf CCf'l5tn,lC1iOf'l phase. &Ieertlc tane blew t1'19 air Wough the various duC1~. The a3rge ducts were necessary to k.ee!) 1he pressure soss to a ~inimum, because of the bv ca~1 r::i rtIe aXlal1ans:ll aV~I.II8_bI9.at 11'19 lime. The ION:a ~ veloc:!t.es also helPeQ tc prevent lmrusfve eo'ses. I-Ieatiflg pones W" «uo the supply aIr ducts made it pcssibte W Mal 111& at, ITIOfEI cr less to tt.e desired temperature. Adiaba'lic COli'no by mean'S of water :5J:Ir'.a~ en$JLJriBd 'lNI1I'Ie air 'Ihi:IS alrT'O!'! full)' .s.arura.lei;l [8-8.5 '9 wster '''9 air), As tI'I~ air ~'.i1'lUfld to warm. re~tive nurnidily leached the desirabre !eve11llrtua t,' on us CJWl'). WI1n means 1hal appear simple 100ay, G~ acnie"eo: a corrdortable, cons.1an1 indoor c.fifl'llllte, especia}J in me plenary hall: tl'l9 air' VIas warmed to a lemperanre 01 20 etC in e mixir\g process m chambers neated ;0 CI"lI9rEll1l: ternperatcres, A century Ja~et, this: concept served as me oosis 101' one of ~ fT"IOS' modem bo\Ji!d..ng systems. rM'lIcl'l achie'lo'8:{t efficient oparatioo with minimal ener'9·~ 00Rsumpnon. The snnuleucns whiC:h me German. Bundestag r.'!'Iposed on the pla.nr.ers - min~izg, 100 COOSOO"IptJOn OIlossi ~I$ and the CO~ emrsecns - led '0 ue ImplemefLtaljoo ot tI"Ie fttlowing. rneaswesr

• NaiUf81 ventnancn

• Oayfighting

• UtilizatiOn 01 sOlar energy

• Vegetable oil as reG9r't9r'ating fuel

• Power·heat,cooling cO'genara!ion Seasonal enerogy s~oroge [aquifer)

Power Gel"lleraoon and Distribution

The. aclminii5.1fiitlon 01 the GElm"lBn Bundestag su~~ aclditiCHUl rneeeures. which eaerers the enef9Y ctIfICSp-1 from 1l"19 R.eicll5t;1g to Eln btJirdin-gs In tile parfiamental}' C $IIl1ct In If'Ie Spreebogen area, a OOfTlPrehensi\'e ctJOC:ePl. reforred e as !he ·pl;lrliamentary power 9r)i;I.- Al;lditiOl'\a' complementary system components ..... tJich.an adl'ler! to me pnncoto 0.1 co ... ..ar-li~t co-geneeeucn, were set up in IDe rema nlng buildings and nueccorecteo. The I..IS.&r po.\-et" demar}lj detennitle-5.11\e !iupply. The W,fIIsU;! Ma.t rSsu.:;ng Ircro lhoe cenccsucn process is used lor hea.ling ana. or COOling. E.'«:ass il}1~etg~ is fed into me parliamef'lt.af)' _pU.I.1!f grid, whtch supplies 1M Reich.s~a9, the PauH.ooe-. Ji.~ Kaiser· end Marie·Elisabeth-lUclers hot.J$.e.s. The grid allcwS 'Of a more evefll~ lIiStribtJted. OQlimlZed .ancl tnu:s etriC:..ef1t road distribuoon as \\'@lIas balancing iM ewe eottIIXehensl". system. Tho CHPs ere fuelled by vegetaole oil 1'1 tM lorm of memvlester . atso known as ·biO-c:liesel: .... f'lach reduces CO] emlSSIOI\'S by more than 50 PEl( cent compar~ with jossil fuels. Tho pru-liamOOtary PQl.Y9t' gl'"ld is easec on;ll CQmprehensi,-,e appro.ae:n to pCM'sr genQl'a,ion and (iioS[r,OO-

atiOll time'S ana 31$0 prLWides a solid '[UXlauon !Or ~aellity ~amen! lrOught~ 75 per cern 01 the rOldl cost feQUofed -o OQefate a burld>09 tor 30 vearsJ- A3n!'lloQ d_nd buildIng «ccesses can onty be optimized I! archuects and EII1gineors

• (!Opt 3 DeVo' way of thinking: they must approaeh ta::>ks from 3 ~'l'ster"r'liC and not ontv a systema'IC persp&cli~'e. \\!hat Yo'4;! ;e@(lare syStems ~ m83suring, databases, indl.)5tna· pre. T.}l:JnCI)lion as well as intell~oot controls and comptehel'Tsi v e ~ ectronic data. man8g~nt New IOO8S, designs and ootld.. ~ metnods can fais. ttm aMilVS antic:jtlal~. albeit r.El!fely .:is rvered. Qual1Y In Cl"8ftsmanshlp lO IndustrIa' standardS. CQmpIe~ i;lt4ilf:J'\'I!jjI processes become manageable through pIaft'orll9 l)fo.teCtions. aM 'Il"M$. aH.c:ient - <II hll.lI"1dettlQl'l tOt ~,thal -s. sustaunable buildIng.

-.

1 TlIeK«l-~I",I.'otd!l"),9!)TJ-hl"t't~~i!~OI1

~Change-~mec:onl1;1auaJCQI1I'Mn'4fIIOIIhI! :;IgniI. 1lW'l'S<alB8tD~~II"'IUi!JOSIfII;I'Q4:If1O~tifl!l;l~J ~~_~.~'dIJI;$..'~~.1"DTIl ~00g r.oVOI~ 4$401n~ 'ThabolV!1he~tIQn.~lII'IQ~d~ h&i"!1~~-hHlco-ggn.JI':ltq'l~~lI"lQgn'tdcn~ ' . .2002.~I;f",g(lleCl4"~1tJQf!4W11I~VIV<!~ ~r;,lE~I;;IoI(II'!b)'ro'O.Opw.;1~50f~CJ"<I;JfOd5ll"ll'1 ~oIuplo.50KW9l1(llQIIllAkeM 1'lSI;~ flf'OPiltM;! ~~ ~~.YmN_~ 0.

4 1h;iMW"l5b1l,l.e:iooloorrmcnlot'j,;~w,er.l~

~'~I-e4·DUId"l9~,[I.l.aIm~~tI'~ ~Thos~4thBbaW'="IJo.o~IjIoJ\~ll!;!n.l!:lIQI)'piIf· ~preoerngIlDEIQ088&!I1.I:Iu&._'ril'tlo£IS~~1;u;15 ~11~..ng<fl:lUThflrr.MsUOl1il~;omrllttrred 'b~IhI!~

5 n.fniJU1'VT1''9IOctlIestotorr.eM8ieMIIB~O,t~.:2m'$lQ~

.:b,ighr(tlINlll46)

6 n.~~.Sir"Fr~BflaLJM (17N .... ta571~1hD ~&ealelWMdafWl'Wr!..,11i06,1~l&lISedr.o9Sl~~ b-!;V'bi:5e!llI">8elfeeuol wfld~d4'IglID"'9~d03r,r.!qL ThIJ scalVrangeefmmW'O'ldIofoeOleatf\llO',_,l'Idtoo"clI2 "~.lI'oersngeol~rooma~'~.aUlf"iIl!l5: drl:OIKt In OiN 19<'6

e ~·l'aI;aOeconMlUCl.lOo; Nea!.11!1emanl a~, 2m2IV1'.:AI1 Qp~;raz;nQ:T,",~6e'44MrlaireaVtty:~ii 8mm "12r"1'1l,..efM'lSZR.no1llenr'ol!5eparM.tl'!irOtrlIflltne:iIllemill' ~, ,"9IlIo:IIj'ro..r-li.IJ'Y11I'.CIII.!W,WK,U.~CI!tIlt~ ~t;Q8ft"Cifltnl

9 JW2IIl'¥4ran5lXdatinlhD~oo;1:II;noth~~Ti'I:S!itt"O'

~higI'l\lCU'ne'llo.rt~I'OI)',I!lQt~~IiM.1hi8: 1'I'IfIhxIi8\'E1t)rSVl'li'lI:lli1(WthoI1f'CM",WlfnIow«.urlat~~1J

10 Ad.llC CtCtOIitIg I'" (ffl!ocr~W8 000k'tg1

l' ~~il1(1~Mb..nl.~r~llrt:r"1IIIQ-

iOnaI~ .: ~L.t:IIZt~or·MI""I»'-QI,.If.~!!Iii\INS6fIf't.

12 :ScrplJQl1lac1't'iobgy~COI"IOtIlOlV>D)(Nso1be!!1Tht!i~.;.n

(1I~liOn,~por.;rI""~llt'IIJhIl[LIr~I-SIlIIICMYI ,_,

".24 ~,e.t.\.parII.ament:lrypowlll'Vd,~dl!!l"$';-i~ _,

".25 ~MJOnbuklo9.~~II,'.'Cr'!~,~11Id laca(M. ooo"aI "dlabOn. r~IiOt'iiootoIlCl .. -ta~~. b!,wIdIflg;

--

1~'liig ,-- 3luisenbb:il<

• '!'lWnbiodo. :SF~CI\arIoeIar)'

c EliI::ritIgODkl$lO"a~

• ~noo'~aljle

_. T!)~~M.ontOf 1'Nla~~~ T_

• HlJ,1LtI'Ill'l:51ir ~lJl.I"K:n AtJlIOIJI\.IIlf'I.;NMItw'I ~(BA$I

_ ¢oIrtIiMd'_'61'd~

""1rA ICHPI

OO~ ~ioons, In tho F:eic'h:sta'9. 1~ ~I was '00.1tnie: I~ ~lc811y efliclent aficl ecolOog calty SuSUMablB 8utJ::iro. n'IOVs SUpply- In ~d(hbon to eUlcrency, me SytntJohC Cilar ;(!IcW 01 thiS; bUilding dQSlgm~d lor rectuoocJ energy COI'\!M.lfI'Ip1ion arec ~In~ed an mPQf1ant role. A p~ syStem wee tner9torl;!ll(JSl.8l1ed on the rooc a$ an at1l;llJOr\al scrar component. """,ich enables nearly emlSSaOn-free tolar pOWer 9ef1I9f3tH;in,

Er\C:rgy Savings

ih~ blJlh:Mg Is run tn etane .. by operaoon. uarg;e srx:.-a.'I}IJI mass .aM s.ho(Herr'n OOt:UpatlOfl periods.). Floor nealing covers tnOSt 01 the he:abtlg demand In VliRtef, malnta fllng.a low tompetatura le~e' ano prll;lsefVM"lg a steac:ty state in tile bu l(iing ItIrc)ugh constant heat SJJJJDIY. This prfWents a decrease in internal w~" terrceeeneee. The ad'J3ntage d 1his opoeraling rnEI[hoci is lhat II"le peru< Ileallr\og ~d:s are ladlJICad by fOU13hly 30 per cern. 'lNhlle GrO'w'e ... ..as u~

to prt:tClSE!~'" determine the -cons'an_! Ill,JCtI,l~1ion.1n l'Il!atng dam;lJ.ncis In the- Relch:s-tag. dynamic buih:Mg "$ImuLatol progl.emmes. fl'I<II1<e II possible 1oda), [0 calC;ui:at& hl:M.,il1)' nei1ing loads. In summel. 000li09 ce lings COOlinuaily e:df.ac.t he,at 1f01Tl tI'Ie building ..... Ith little effort Jfl terms at energy .oonsvmptiOO, A mechanlcat veo.ntilalkln :wsJ;em IS activq;tell only when inlllrnalloo.ds riSe rapidly betat.iIse theft! are mor·e cccunarus (pe-ak ~Cfl. iIlls system design dras1ici:J11y reduces the: power d'emand for the fans, eeeeuee melr USB is limited to 'very shoc1 penods ell i:.lme Moreov9r, the vatying demand for hea1inog, ClX"tTing and

jXl\ ... er iflthe pat1iamer'llal)' power gri:d en!iur'9S e~"1en1 u~mzaooll 01 uie CI-lPs. The utility SlIppliet 9EWAG StIOP es pea'k teed and s.tand·tt-y cower if tM eapacify lim! is il1Xoee--d'M, A d\JaI and spatially itJaependent 1 Q-kV SlJp~ ensures tha11he gr'tO Is supplied ..... rth pcmer (Fig. 4.24', TI""!; dvels and pipes (also for h$atitl!l¥OOOling and ml!- aquifers are laid illllf'ldetgroolld ILII"IOOIS between;he tlu·tclinOS. ~ ccmp!e:w: powe:t generatiOl"l and stJpply ~'19m feQU"es., overarchitlg energy ma.nagemen.t. \'lhiC1"I tJSeS r;:.-~ precesses 10 erewe 1M! en.enJY :s-uppty JS. OI)tlmiz,eod at al, limes.

E:1ficient B\Jii.(l ng - Stan.dardizEld Build'f'lg

A vanei1Y of methoos and tools are feQIJ.;red to redoce ~ energy consumptloo 01 bui.lI;fir\g even <:turing r.M plannng and conStructiOn phase ana 1.0 e~re com1011'1. EI~-en ..... flt:IiI ec~omic: resources ere scarce. These if)Ch,Jde ~:arrUallM cak:ul.CitiOf'ls.aM ruenenc rTlCldel. ng, emplOyed eo dater· mine paramatera socn es te~rature QOI1CiltlDnS and rocrn quality. Ftom both the eccocouear and 1M &coIogic:.allJefspective. the Quality of the sYS19ms installatiOn \~ arw;i~ ma tM..rih:::hng's snuetcre .shOuld also be monlCt"ed and N:I'o monll.M at the earl iesl pOSStble stage. opumil..a'tiOn has tong becere a slandard in industria. manufact\flng processes. (e,g • automcbne manu1aetuff3): ttns aspect stili seems 10 be ne91ected in build,n.g processes. TI'!8 curenl research ~nto "systema I;IflQineerlog" aims to de-volop a methodi.cal eccrcecn !I) organiz.iflg compl&):. buih:Jng Ilrolects, iM'Iicl1 makes n p!)SSil:!iO to alSO standard za r;he technical reQy·rementl;i: tnat cnang;e from Prolect 10 PfOjI8Ct in architecture. Fully IlfEIlabric.at&d solar ooiir;Mg ~ nerna ere 1ral"k5oform'E!ld lruc COOOfElflt btJildlfl9 modula$. Given 'he same con$trUC,jO!1 ccee. this leads to gfOO.:",. imP«We<i quality in ex6C;l,.,ItiOf'I. shorter assembN :,.f'lCllAStlI

lItilizing Daylight

. I'r'HJt F.O_WIet' ,[IIno Heide G Schuster

The Tas..ii.

F.'M'J $li'PpII we.\ilrhef p:CIf6C1'iOr.I1O I"I'1fNtJl'iK.ICriOnaf _sm

"Care must be taxen ...... 'h all buildings. (10 M$Ufej tl'lal1i"ley afebrtghtl···I,~·

Th8 ~t winaows we-e conceived less for uti izil"l9 dayillght INn for .... en111,a.lin.g rootnS-. The toJS& nseu was int8neJed 1.0 prcwode prO':QCoon S.g.a1fl5t e-Jdreme weather oonditkJn5. and toof1'e. safety. HistOric:any, buil.Qitlg:s.nave atwa'l's been "",~nned in.an integra~ed manner based on necessity: tile charae1erisbCS and effectS Of da)'ti9ht were WfIII·kl'lCffl1' eeeecse no eee- medium CQl.Jld provide adequate ifluminaliOn. tt was only after me in ... eruiOfi ot elecmc:al light ano Its 'Nides,preaCi use ltIal architects and ~nnen. began to IOs& their kn:;tMedge of daV1ighl This... and ee <l1VlSlOfl "" planning in.;Oo ~n, Ol.IIlChh9 ,;Jhysic;!}, l;M.Jildinog :5yS1em:s and 1OaQ-be~ring sys-~ems. obvlatM the intClgrmed interpretation of seaee aeo light iPAlich was superseded b~ <II Qurely physical a~prWlch to technical SOIutiOR$, Attiflcla:! fig"': was seen as indiSputable pt09fess becau~ it alkmed f()' the ¢reabon Q( 'Ni~~ rooms.and enCIrl"l"lQJS room depths. But the indusmal revoluli~ also made II po~ble w reanae larger opeMlgs 11'1 ,~ b\lildin.g s1cin with me help of glass ana iron. Load·ba-asin(;j. solid walls were efirninated; ewe roofs. could be covered iI'I qtass. The eVOlu'lioo Of tne curtain ..... all ,,-liI;med for me crM~iOn of glass·steel ~5C8des that were- indetl4W'ldent oi tne ioao-bearing seucMe. and the in"'en1I~ of a r-condirionin,g -Sy$!MnS made It possible to compensate fOr me ooeme-atll'lg IfI OOilding:s r,gw~in91'iQm ee large glazecl soteces.

The iiII:erior (If a buit(!ing could thus be cooled and ilr\.lmi· nateod ~ependen.t lIf elima:e and weather conditiOns, AI[er several genecllltiOns of arcbuectswere no 10000gQr c()mQelled 10 design witl'! dayligtll in mind. there Vias a noooe~bIe laCk of ttalW!g and eeecse In thas wee.

Today ...... 9 have aocess to !echl1Ological options. 'Mllch can minimi;re mal1y M tne ptllblems. esscoetec wittI .grass facades ill the ~_ Ne\I'ettheless..1here is a grOWit'l9 lIi"It.erE!S[ in da~igh1ing. itIS-jlifed, 00 the CIMII'taI'Kl, by IQWer ecsta dor lighling and COOling and, on the cmer hand, by user COmfort. The influence of daylight 01'1 humans end the Signllficance QI iIlaYligl'n CfUalwty are 98f1et3i1V unde-..esti· ma~t)d_ FQf 1M Iwt: vetee alone Is ;(II ptXII" irKiiCa!or of the I»ysloiogicel and il'S:,oChOlOogiC-a1 e'facllI' the surroondin.gs. As 1M- numbl9r ~ ~8ilable woes 'Or '9ias,$ ant:! materials.

eoeeses. SlmU'.8ltlOn tccls. ... thlch facilitatill tn ~ pIatIntI"lg ru\d deSign lIr COA"Ipiex sy.M(tI'nS, WIn gal" I" important;B,

~"'9""",""",,,",S<Joo> ,_ 4t"

-Mora and rrore. so It. seems to me. ~i9f'1t IS the beaunter c4 me buil(l,ng:J

Ma~er architects hews always worked wim Ii~ht 3Jltj rts enects in intMctS, l.igh11S the prereqiI,Jis,ite ror an:;hi'illClJ.Jr'El_ for erchnecnee cannot be peruivM .... lttlO!.Jt tryht_ lighllS. ah'(l. varied and changes neEllrly iI;Iwry eeccoo. 1i'1.eI1ig€:fL1 use of dsytighl can act'Jie"e. a ~flrlul imensrty in me spa- 1te1 erreer eeo a'mlken ereuona m the obServer The architect can mani"ut.ate light in terms of cololJr oi1fld iI1ten:sity. u{llize It direc:tlv ~ ind.ec;ly, or emplOy n nits na.1Uf"al state. Openings can Nut the trMsfbQn frQlTl tne itnterior space 10 the exterior or d~belatel:,o -rran'll!l:- !hill 09:<tetiOr space.

tt is rmportant ~D dis:ting1.lisn ~n ambient lighting dllsigneo to achieve a spe(:lfie effect - lor ~, a mystic$l spatial effec: .., ohurches - and ee UI! Ity !igl1~ing Ina! is essential for ee cse of e. blikllflg, for example. OffIC@ bUildtill}S- The rule lit 1hr.Jmb rOI'" II'Ie latter IS: the more dayliigtn is used, the more CQmf~b!s is. the 1.tS.e(,

Changing ceoues ewer lime wrought the a!cremen;iOl'19d eh:;mge$ in archi1ec:1lM"e. In ttle cast. tne unperauvewaa to attapt to tnc reglonal cnmare. today, artifiCiallignting and healIng or OOIJling make it possible to desi9n architecture indap~oot of ebmate condirloBs- - v."ilh glotJai r.alher lI'Ian togionpl -C~l;Ic.leri&'ic.s. Today. the ~l'lguage of aecnuec- 1.\We is more 0( less 1.00 same ~h;jwide, 1'E19Qrdless ar -M'I6re a bi"ilh;llng is looatM, BuL OOt)r!Q:,o 0CInSJ..ImI;I11Cf'1 - partlcula.rl~ inlignt'flg - IS Slrong1y depem'lE'nl on U1B Ic:J(;aI elimaw. ctJltura.1 environment and building torn. A Getman engilleer recerl11y made 3 melTIOfBbte s.talement "rhe bas: and most effective form of ene..g.y etftCi8OC::,o e thl~g,"3

VlSl1BI~tlOl'1 and Vfst.ral Tasks

The sensitivity to ligtlt of the human EI!je 'anges rrom :J;OO-700 naooretere [nm~ and is optimally adap1.&d to sOlar radi:alioo: tM gtl9at.es.1 .senS!tI"tty lies. In the r:anga (If

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57

at 10000 Ill: UIflCItr overcas! eley. lor e:t.ample. tre (at1er rMlUld If&nsk'He Into 3 mirwnum il waoeoce Of 5lXI bt kx the Il'MorlOf. How",lo'er. It is ot,llr'll iJ'l<SUfflCiem. (0 lIlT! I btl~S.S In 1,,"&nOr igtloog to horizontal iIominance (at a.·qking pl3ne 0185 em above floor k!vell. to- veneer ilbDonanoe, in paf· tlcul¥, IS "91'\111C3nl With regard to Ihe biolog>eal eff9GI. of IIgl'lC 3nd 1()1' Specific visual t.a.sks. tot' eJt3mple. tooklng at 8'JChiblts on a museum sert.ng, The US4!If's "i$!Jal il'l"lpte$SlOfl 01 a room IS, l"IowoYer, no!lntluenced by illuminance, bur by

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The spec1Tal conpcsuco ot dayhgh4 should remai., !SI31- Ieretl by V'Ie glass ~ $h8d~g ceace of the ...... rn::SO-,O,O beca1Js.e i1 ~ 'Ihe ~equiM& fOr COO"ect COIout' fendr1J(W'1 n U1e room (ooIQur neu'lrahty}. De1Elr percepoon ~iI!I~1!II"!'II!If)' OII)04'1anl lot maf'Iy ~I taW; r3i11e1ences. e~iS' for otfloGe 'toOO. prtl~i~iOfl mechanical work .and 1extil& WOfk. As 1;Irigh1nes.~ mereaaes. sc does IDe fesoliJ'lioo capacrty (j)9I' • eecree 01 d&1aitSJ. jJl~ ill mil'liMal eewee.to- exampia. through CB$t e.hadows. is raquired. TD surnmaf'lle: the eMiciencv 01 \IlSOOI petl'Otmance oe-eeees as illtmw'laJlcEl increaeee.

PfI~atldPsycJ!O/OgiCl>l """"" oI,,¢,' ·Ught:lng is roe en e)l;IiI01 science. bLrt atso an a"_ IN; aH&c:ts oojeC:ts and humans.;

Natural light with cast shadows, tluctuarD"lS ano OOIour rendito"llS the yardstrek bv WhICh hJ.nall5 assess hgli~ quaJ.4y, and ~ in part rala;ed to CUltufal baCkgfOUrlO. Cifmate and Iocilb.or'L Personal experience eec plays a rOle, PBOI'le are mflu9nCed by II'Ie o<evaihng lJ9hl ceocscos. Their blorhy1hm is based on the naueal chatlge hom oa}l' to I'Iigm. tne c:luratiOo and inlen&'IY of sunshine • .eond the spectr~1 c~tion of li9h.t When W9 eonsi&lr 1I"!a~ humans did ~ OfiginaUy inhabit eoeceee space. we can easily ~der5tand how woddng e.xcluSi\·ely ufl(jQf atttrlCiar l'9htong ecoeecos can leacd It) Illness. In :some latrtudes.. (e.g., Can!~ E;uro!)B~ •• hese is a riSk llr ii'lruf'liCienl iI!l;<post.IflI: !.Q <JayIIgl'lt I9SP~II:,o IfI .... .,ter • ....t.ch may CElI.tSe the\i'<e'JI-OOc..nentsd wLnt'ef d'e~ (SeaSOClaI AJfecli'o'eOiSC«fet). We now 1cr'H;:wI1Mt ~e 'Of I~ ~ CNeI seveet hcus per day to a vat'li.eal illlJ'l\irl2Ji'\Oe "" at least 2500 I>i. is ffl:Quireci too synchronize the intSm.iji1 elcdr:.""- ~1 The ~l:IJX.Ilet8d m.nimum ilh.Jl'l'lilMn08 in (Jfr~I!S. 00 tne oeehand_ is Of'Ity designed lor visual periQnnance. not fa ire erceceo W$!em. that is. ~he S~stem wl'!iCl'! onceoees the tMorhythm. Tho called-lor SOO bL in the WOI'kpla.oe (hGrizontal me3~rement) is tar too lOw in tt1is r@garCl ': 11 one .... 1W8 to provide the amount 01 t.ght necessary ~ the bqhythm .soIOIy With the help ct arhfi(Xa1 hgh~, ~he resull >M:A.Ild be a "*.aSltC jump in tne average amount of energy that IS consumed and 3 OOfTGlioponding incre~e in COOI~g lOaas MoI'eover. light qua1ity is R'lJCh dlmlrushed by tne use 0# anificial light. because 1he lane<{ only renders pans OC iN soecewn and distorts- eo appearance of COioIJI's in the if11eriof

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the maximum ra[lialiQli JOlenMy at 550 nl"l"l (yelk:w,.). dirrrfi.. iahing as rL r68Ches tne s'l'lOit~ .and long,wl;lve radi;)t.QIl. !;peC((l"IrTI. The reroe 01 the human ~1'ft Ms dir!9fent rrpes Q'I re~ptots: awro;(lmat8~ 5-ti mllllOfl cones fOl COkJur per.cephon 110 oayrlght and OYer JOO mUhon «es. ""'IC" I!!!e eeneinve to liQ"ht and react to b# light in1.9nSlty (mght visiOn). A Ihll'd type of recspro-s that in1luenee 1M orca. otan beha\liQw of h .... mans [i.e.. lor Ihe- biolOogic.al iMQr oeh::lI::tI:. was onl:.' eeccceeo in recent yea'S.

The light eensfn .... if:;' (:If me e:y9 de:pend&n! 00 IN wave- 69ngth IS the retcsence for II'Ie pIiOIometrlc Uf'Irts. iM'Jic:h ere empl~OO to measure ,and celccrate lighting ljB:;.igns lOf'!;cial SI·unitSO):

.. ll..linlnoos 11w:. tot'D~: total light DU~P1Jt 'Of IlIIlumil1lXl$ 'SOurce;; una- lumen (1m).

• I..I.lminous Illtoosity [I}: l",mil'lOU$ llux in SO!I(I ;[I.f'lgie Of 1 sterudian tlm'Sr): LM'lit: calldel~ [Cd),

• IlIuf'l'liOanca- tEl: lumir'lOUS f1u)/area (tf1'\l'm7l; unIt: 1l.C( (be,

• wml"'illnce (Ll; ImpreSSion 01 brigl"ltnoss el1'"lSnaMg from a Jlght SOOfr;:B or iUumlroatecJ suri"at::e, gi v en as UniIQ)$; intensify per ares ~C{li'n'I2I.

The bendW'id!h of the tIIigluness. ,hat 1$, I~nce, per. cept ole by _he human eye COVErS ao astQnishing range: lli FlQC'ILWnal Si\iJatiOl"rs wTtl'r roo v i:si.on Irem 106 to 100 cG'I'ri and in diurf13t sncanons with ceee vision from 100 10

104 (:d1~. AdtlJ)la1.i.on Is ac:htcveOlM:tug.h ediusunem ... U1e pu.Pll end trloche:mlcaf processes in lhe retma, This process lekes lime, ~3.rtic.uIa.rI~ in IDe case 01 adaPtaoon from very tngh to very IOI.\! tumi.nances. a 'a.Dhar ellQerleece wiih gl:are '1klen d1iving at night (up to 30 miJ1U':es'~ ac;l.elpt.ation from a bright to a dark environment, epprecmately :) minutes for ue reverse)_ AltI'K)4J'gh less r"IOtIC:N.Di!r BXueme ccenest ln luminaace in the l,I\s.vl;ll field Of eeeec;;00 is iuS! as unoom1ortable because the eye aaeeeu to simultar"!eOO51~ adapt to me bri~tyt and tM dark areas. Exposure to oootnr.$t glare over loog periods. especially I"r the workplace, causes: iaUgtJ9 and diSCOffj'OI"L Vary tIIgh kJmit\(;looBs. present, for example ..... tten direct sunlight 1;;1. S omo reflecttng eurtacea, elso result itl uncomforcable ~e effect~ \\lhlch must be avoK!-eld at ,....ofKstablOl'lS_~

AsidelrO«l '9Jar'e prevennon, there ate :s.r:lr;i 1JOI'\S requremems that must ce CQIlsidered .... treo da}:'!i9htlng Int@t~ aucf as. contact WII,'h tM e;<terior, br'Ig'htne-s.s.. ooIQI.I I"IWtralifIJ and d~tall reSQIution. Vis,1,la,! ccorecr Wltn the OU~~O!! 1J"Itough. wil'lrMws. Is a basic requir8f'l'lef'lt; ns ~anoe D:I room Qualiry rae been proven itt many US&( SIJr..'&'j'S.

8rtghbne<SS is esaerulal both for rtre peroePtfOll ~ tile oierlor s.paCQ and for the alton- and 9ffcrless e-"<e<::'JtO"l!l1 ce lain 'l,rl$.Ua., 'las'ks. Def.au1t s.!.anda.rd littlminanoes- for ~ types 01 room USE! shOufd' be undarstood as minImum values (e,g,. 500-10CC1 lx for 01fil:&s}: higher vaiues re:~~ bener viSUal perfI:lQ11aoce:.t. The same a.,pfIiles to !;he Iarn~ boundary v ahJe of lhe dayllght.actor (rallO o1l'1Orizonta.l i1luminanca in .he Interior to the hOrizoo~aI ilhJrninance on 1M exteriO( under overcast sky) aIXOfding 10 DIN :5034~ tile le.:::torl),9 per cern !!II' li~'in9 areas I t from one Sioo represents 1J"Io absolvte n'linimum. wf'l8reas good da)lighlng r&quires cooslderabty I'rlgr.er 1<1it::IC("S (II :5 P'GIt car\! ~ fTII:I'e ctapc:nc1flg on room use. Given a mean extOrlCl" 1tVl'llnan. ....

m aud lion 10 ~vI'ght can be QI)f:lmlfn~d ....,m tnB help of calculating the dayligh! autonomv (Q8reemage Q' ;ELI"Inual WQfk hOurs 'filTh cJaVlighlof'lg) Of uti II' Ii""! ng ~per«tl'l~ge Or olIl"tnU<l·I.ghtir\og a ... ailabte lhrou~ daylighf). The ~8fm luminatlOO, intrcxil.tCed by AVchnl('. takes noI 001:,' the dact light-dependent cse 01 8rtlflei~1ltgh'l ng In10 eeeoeu. but al'SO 8 quanlifteatiOn of daytight uMM"ien the 3111'ICia IIgl1'In9 is dimmed. Various processes are used to calCUlate annual power CQnSU'I'(ltlOl"llle., energy-cosls for art1iClal lighting). A standardized analySis prO<:HS .s amlc.pa1ed wh@l'l tM Geernen Institute fOf Standard.za:;on imQl~ts the EU-1juitk!ollneo on lhe ""lOlal energy ~fflcieoc:,' of build· InogS.' t.4Qni:OI'''''' ~ case stud.es. ~ 'Ine lEA'· revears ceer diM8I'1OIncEos in energy ccosumptcn fOf 8I1,.1iCiaI igh~ing In deeendeoce 01 Qay1ogh1 utlhla~JQn.

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OayfighL a ... ailabi'Ii~. sotar al~ltouCIB and sunsl'nne i'W)U'rs ere strongly I;fependent on the IoeaI:iOn of the site. A C1irn.are anaf'ySiS is lJ'Iare101"O abSOlu~ely eeeeoter In the pfaf1l'W1Q Of building dE!'SigflS. and particularl:,' in day5g~g design., The 03'!,tl191'1t a\'ailoblhty in the e:((eriof space is many t:mes gr6a:rer man in tM in:eriOr of a building. Tnus.. an overcast sI<y .PfQ'hcfes an ~:verage 01 awro.xmately 10000 lx. wn.cl'l can be ublized for IigtltiOg in;he iMenor. In summe!', this verce rises up 10 100 000 Ix under cfear~. we (h'!t8f6fttia:te be1vvgetI diree; a.na diffuse tad13110t\, The lattef IS Isrgety 1lO"I-l;ilrectional and is the produtt Of scan:eI'ing of solar radrabofl in !tie atmosohere_ Chrec'! fedi,a1ioo, en 'Ille oche- hand. is d.i"eC1ional depending on me SOIat i!WffiI.Jth. 10 Germany. an ;)nnu~1 average of 37 per cenl'~ of c~e(;t raodiatiorl are locldern on a vertiCal facade ""1m ~ exposure. dropPing 10 roughly nan met varus b" east- aM W1;!:;It-facilllQ facades. DiraCI rMiaMn is oeceoeeot Cf'I the degree 01 ccceoees and is sublect to $1TonQ variaJ:iOO depending 00 weather C:OI'II:iJiloOl"IS. Oa)'ligh'l.lflg design IS based (In an evtII'Iiy overcast SkY (EI-9 .• da.yligtrt faG-lor). In re£!lli~. however. the IlJI'I'IiI'Iar'l.09 vanes .aCCOfdll'lo9 to SOlar a;!irnutn and bUild fig orlel'lo1S1ioo. It is Q~a8~e.s!. for E!xarnplo!!o. when the ~th is a' its higheSt. 'n ..... tlieh case ;t .... ~ make sense 10 clerlcc' the .z.enlth lig'ht srto the ntercs.

~ Pat.amt;l!ot:n: .crwesrmg${J.aoem.rh Ugf11._

• Atehl~eC1.urEi i$ the sage and correct pta:,' 01 ee bodies In ~ght.~

Uf'lxl.n Planl\ll'lg

In addition 10 the climate condiriOns, the klCaIJOn Of a. bUild-'09 In its immediale environmeot plays an important ro'e. Shading lrom neighbouring buildings Of trees as w@1l as OI'ief'lt8bQr1 in11uence Ihe incidence of da.yltght in10 the in1eriQr to a eeesoeeere degree. These param&1&rS musl De ~n Into cons.d.erahon IrCJm [he ... 'el)' ooglnllll'lg in 1he lI"IitI8Il ~CI'Ie:s 01 0 desl9n.because lhey have 1M ~l"ooges1.

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ColOur !OmpOfililUre in '!.he s~-WEl ... e range has a PDs,~ Ie iIlflueACEt on hOmlOf'le prOOU¢bOn and seeseoa Changes lighl ha ... e B posi!iVe!' B'l1e<:;t on mood. GlVtlll the s.<L"ne ilUtrt,. naoce. daVl!ghl has. lWiee U"Je in1kJenc:e on UWt CirC3t:1 an sy!i.tetn than an irlCanCiosc..enllamp.1~ 11 IS ute only aVai1at.le and, rnorOOVEM', lree SOt..Jr(;9ior a higher aoo more ef'!9C'II/1:. 1e v !)1 ~ IlIl"I'AInation_ A oosm v e "sychotogll;::a! effect of I g~ is 3ch-evBd '.I,'hen a room appeera b:rigrn and ceen There

15 a erose OCIr,elabon wim the l'O()(n·enclos. n9 ~aces. mus, a rocen that is prOOon'lil'\3ntty black has en enlirel:.r gifrsrent ettect on people men iii room With light surfaces .!lind Idel"il,Ci!lI lItJ,Jminanee.. The guooolines for b\lIIGI\g pian!'lIng include l;I: st8tem&flt lhat ...... 'ndO'o'JS Should offer an I"IIlOOl;i1ruC1ed ",ie-.'J. This is vital. because {J18 ilnfCQn;atlCl'l., wI'lolCh ee user in lJ'le inlefjO( ga1J'JQfS from looki"9 'Il'ItOl.l!ilh iI w.flljOW, Ie g., perta.ir'llng tc season and waa~her}, IS &ssen. tial for his or her comlOf"l_ Da)'hght makes ill'¢SSib1e ~ create an en._,ifQnmem. tM brightness of which WOULd be perCehred as ulicomfOf1able i1 n ...... ore created '10 lh artJrl(i:;., tlg]'lt. tn omer "lOrds: the reliabiliTY QI visual ~onnanc8, 'H1'Ilcn artificial light O1iel'$ iI'I i.heory. is ou'twQlg~ by i.he incsaased ,flad ness for greater per1O(mance In day:rt rooms. Ps~c~loglcal gl8lof! is a ~LJ.bject'l,fe ~imenL wniCh diffors fOr' dayfighl and Cil1i'lcialUght under id~ cal ooJec1.i.v'8 ooncMoffi (CCt"ttra.:st and IUrnWiat'lC&}, Tne cause for tI'Iis differing evaluation tas noI heM fully ell.Pla~ SCIemlflcaltv. U Rec.en!ly. expesfmerna nave been unQerta:(e:.\ with variations in ar1ifiCialllglll in me w~ce. But evert 'I'l Ihts case. (laylight is preferable over artrr.cial fig,l'it. ~ the changes ill det~light are unpredictable atlCI henc:e mcttJ in~er'estinQ to peo~.

ee.1~ 08y6ght and Mr(.c.£a(Ugftl

OaiIighl diffe.r~ Qualitali\'I!I:'Iy arw:l (j_uarrtiret~l~ 1rM'1t aru'lCiaI light In many different aspects, tor exa~. in spectra:

COO'I)Xl:::itiOfl and bri!)'htness es wet1 as in flu-C1UaIJ:)n a. eme C(M'S9 0' a day. This is why daylighi cannot be replaced by MiliOiaI1.!9h!. Human be-ings need dsJ1igh1 because It ~tjsfiQS f\\'O basic. needs: illumioatlQfl of ~ room and the biologlCE!lI stimulation of [he P3vchok)g;caJ atJlJ phy$lcal sense of wen-be ng. It is g8f'leralty agrHd that "IN(rl;ing in dayli'!;lht causes less snss and d soorrr.l:Wi thallolong·;e.-m \\lQfking in af\ificialligl'tl and tha, 'ItIoit lar.E"" can even have a neQ:2l!h'e ilmpact on heaith.'· FtY O:'I~ reason, interiors de:!ii{l.fJOO lor ~yCjme use- anCl OCQUjld.o."al ere pre1etably I.t with daylight restricting the use at ~j,o.aJ Ii1)1'It. whene"'er possible, '0 thoSe times w'hM daytitgl'tt IS unavailable. Economic a~ ecological arguments alSo SI.IP" port the minimized use of Mificia' light. 'IM'IiliQI dayligttt IS (fOely available in the form of sctar energy. aftlficia11tgh'l consumes elaClric:lty and is thl,lS; a maJOr eontribu:Of too '11'19 operating costs. of bUIld ngs and to the stre-SS on the efMrcnment. Sutllight is ~ Ql'tIV fre.e • ._..~ttJ e IUil'IlflOVS powM of roughly 110 mw, It IS also far i'I"IOf6 efti(;:ieflt that! artiflCL3! ~rC'S$ (&.9 .• ii'u::-.andesoent lamp 12 Im.W, n~ I$mp SO 1mtW,l. At ine same tme, arttf'teiallignl. andthittr&n'IeMous V',rastecl {tnergy 'htIic'h is raclia1ed as neat, eeeeuies a grQa1 daa! to room lempBt'alurEis in SJ..IlVIW, 1b3' is. to COOl ng loads.

A Pt{lfcqulslte for saving energy consvmed fOr lighting :oS!D prO\lide autorreue cerurcl ~ the 8f1Jlicial Ji9hting $)'~'am ... dependence Qf dsylight. "The: required use Qf arti1loal It~

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s..th au~!ed lSys1P.mS 1'e$4XlnCl kl the currant il"lcideoG!:J or SOlar rad atl(.'ln and *0 usual!)' ooupled .... ·oth the building aueoreron sY'tem. lh9 dear ad ... ant~ge IS ~I sudl SyStem!;. pre>tent OVEWheaMg In me Jt'1teriOl' as a rosul~ Of effC)tS rn tnBII'IU<I ~atoon or ''''001'1 cse-s aro absent. At the same tIme. 1M)' mon,tOf ,he interactIOns between heating, GOCJllng, 'o'8nt.I;111on. s.hading and glMB protectlOl1ln a centralized '~ShiOn, eOSl.Wing oPtimum adJUStment and h3ffl'l()t!izaoon. The d'S30vamag& is chilHly &~iBnc8I1 by IN!I user. Mlose heedom 0' choice ~ limlted:and who may el(perle~ ;Ii constantly ad/US11f'1g Sha<Mg system as an unW81eome d ~r~C'IOO. ComP'e~i~ aU'lon'ICuic COI"Ir1OIs wl'1h m9~al cctcoe Is. a good soM.lOfl because 11 enanles 1ne uset 10 <ldlUS1IIgtrt.f'lg coru::lltJO(1s on an Indl ... i~~1 ~SIS. 'IJ'II'I"MWJ 'lhrsoptlQfl is net prO't.'idad. ~JI!Ince has. ~ 'that I.ISefS try ~ manipulate the system Of even 5'M1c1"l ofl IJ'teCOOlIoJs. .

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"$ha{l:ows. have erways been the brushwork of the !radi-

lMOI"IaI arohit8~_'U

.A.rd'lit9CtursJ drawings have atways usecl1tQnt al1ld shadow to render receces. '01' e:JtatrItlle. ina MOrj} ~1a:sttC; fashion. GiIIOm9tJy is the basis accorcmq to whici1 snarlows are 1I<;lMl. ma'Ona "possible to d8l.fll'mif'IQ !tie ceeeee pet~tiYe 01 Shadows depenoog on the time 01 day and

the onentanon and tocal1on of the building

Daylighting ~ pll;lnned on ee tees 0' saoceoeeo guidclines,<':l In Gennan)" DIN Sl:aMardS lew wi~(m amensions are maJOl), based on veear CQI1t.e!Lc~ w,_1h the OU'lSide world. and less on Il'1O dayti9l'1t Quality in tJ'Ie ifi.e--rioe. Daylight ts measured with 1he d~igl'rt f~ClIor. met e, ltIc rauo ~ ... teri()t to exteelo- illum,nance uOO9l' an e- .. ecast sky (the mememencat mean at a neigh! of 85 em above nee- level). However, the OOyIigtlt raeo- does. not i~lcate the quelity of 1;fa~lighting in interia's: it ts.~ hel~ in rapidl:,- as:s.e:ssing ue minimum t&QlJltements for wall Qpel'WlQ:$.

AccQrdin.g ttl the dayligh1 factor. tile valuas in loems Ioc.ated on 1he north and south Side of a bt,lIldin.g are Similar. even thoI.tgh the light ooncf tions ara clearl~ d fferent ill leality_ Other important plaMing and Q'DSI9~ pat3J'I'I(l.ers are, 'Of examoe. the ifYtetior illuminance 'or open OJ c;josed shading and glare prO'lElCIJOr'I. as wei. as. mo ctiSIr'IDuOOL"t OC light it'! the room rOt drect solar mcoence and the re~,.dtirn] lufflrf)3nc(!, which is an ~nt 'aclor in '&rn'ILSOC glare. AdditiOnal .actors in thiS case are the ceecr IIlcidence fi'QITI II'Ie \rlSlbte pcseon of the $ky, 8xt@rnalrenec1iOoC'.ll"ltoDulld· Ings on the OPPOSll.8 Side and onto the grOl.lnd "'5: wetl "'5: fetleebf'lg so-aces in lhe rOOIii_

.$..9 PooI..BI(IIE~Ofl.999:'.BaMachaod~ The~IQQ.

~gI.'!RIotM .. ~~..oo.g,lat.g~L;JOn. .s.IC~lI'IlI'Ilb1'O'~.BCCCI'dll'l1llllll-""'r.;IowjlO5i'bQn. ~1'~I~LP".OmIII.al'ldt'l'l$ll"llllftllLle1lO1'1

~I~ Pt.tJk.bfflr)', l.tInIJ.iIJ L'996). LiImOP AlcI'olQCU A.;]oO~ ~ ~",lFa1'IoItI'IB;b:Ura.c.ldB~ShilL;lf19.

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62

impact on the SUbOOQ~f11 eoorgy, consumptJoo 11'1 a budd. ing A dO'o'6ltQ\'ln diEtflc1 In 1M Ctlloose cl'tY Qf Shen~ (Fig. 5.8) is a neg.atrVe examplO The dls1as'!Ce between tne a.partf'J'lel'll b'loc-kS 1$ ~)(tfemel:-, sman. As a femil. the«!. IS re more than a mn'llmum of air movement and no light 'Pef\o!!eatee Into the spaces. This is exac:at1xUoCl by .al"lOther majOr problem arl:sin9 from tha r~rge glass BnQ tne1a1 $Jrfaces on the 'acades: 1I'Ie retlcC1ion from tno9S& faC800$. can lead to proecunced refleC1.ed Qlern e ... en m nor\h·raclBg rooms. This parameter must also be taken into consiOer3- ueo n mc build ng deSign. 1l'I19- ebapa of the btlllrJng (lie.ts,1CS uie orientation and dapths 01 rooms, ..-.tlich pta',,:an imponant role later on 101' the- dril:Sl9n oi 1he building. SIr .... anCl .he nee<! for artifiCial lighting. In nigho(ises. room Cleptr, and height. planned' courtyards, alT~ or hght wells a!.vel! as 1erracin9 Of' recesses • ....."I.;h am ln1endEld to aJlQw &:;light tc penetrate eon the top dcIwn 10 the ground' 'Ioor, are mportan! parameters.

Building Skin

TI'Ie bui!<J ng sk\n creates l""e It-8l''1sitiDn .rom if'It@I'lOf 10 e:¢eno- and viCfi versa. Oesigt\'S may vary oe'IWeen perrora'oo facades (1enesif8tlon) or Mly glazed facades, The WIIChng skin fQrms a membrane. Whu;h ragubte$ the ~uali;Y of literiO( lighting in conjunctiOn wiI,h use and et'tSllr~ 1M c:(changeo 01 light. air Me! heat. At ,he .same urre. II pm. vices weather protection. influQOces the appearance of a bwlciinQ. creates a sphere ot privacy and scneurnes even SCfIIes as an ~rMing 1l''latt-Oml.

InteriOr

l1'I& Interior Is only percei\led as a re~.JI; ot Itght. Kf!Y p;anfrift.{ll;Jfld design parameters are the surface 5:tructtn 01 ltIe scece-ercsosnn Stlrfaces. the poMiOO of the 'IM7kSt:I.. tion in relation to the window and the afrangemern 01 the f~nishings. Bri~ht scrtaces are gene1ally prefarab'e Cl'o'er d.Hk eurtaces because they teffer;t n"IC(e light.. and' rrli.i::te suria'CeS ale prB1era:b'e to glOSsy surfaces,

StladifrQ and Glare Protection

~A glaSS house- v • .ri~ Shading is 1il<e a Porscbe .....rtro.st br'Qaks:~t

An errece ... e siladino s~s.em prevents O\!etheat'f'lg m a building's interior and adapts '0 drfferent '.\'e(!thar and igM conditiOns, The a·m is 10 f&4:l'tlce enerQY ~tlQl'l!Q'" COOliJ'l!) and IIghMQ - Whtch oonstltu~e a large' percer'lta~ of the uual ener~l'" consumption In off.c:e boi1cltngs - ana Ill) provit:!e a glare·free wack erwiroomenl_ Geflera.l~ spooking. it is easiest to prO\lldIl shading for south-facing facaoes. because of !he 1'U91'1 soer altitude. tMlic'/'J faci- nates Ight delleclioo. U5t· and \,.'E!:;:U·faC:ing teceees, on the omer Mnes, must CQIl!{~M with stronger inetdent SOIaf P'CL(!tJl.'M as a restlll Clf lower solar altitudes. SI'ladlflg .an.d ligtrt deflection ",re diHtCliU to realize -n these conditionS A p;;sslble soltJ'liion is to replace 11'19 rroee common l'O"iz.ootal shading elements .... lth 'll'er1~al eleme-nts to better reRect solar incidence from shallow angles. AcCQrd 1'19~.1,I1e silat;;difllg system determines me look 01 a facade m a ooill;1· Wlg {lependif\g 01\ cnentanon. The system may' be hiQoeO u~btru3LveJ.,. in Ille facade o:::av~ty Of serve as an expftssive de-sigfl aterneru. Manit moveable sh(lt~in9 $YSMm$;art equipped' ~utrt .automated controls for opt mum ef1ictel'lC';'

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#ted roofs. m:;:.recwor. o"en r~ In oonsid8rsbJ)l higher heating enQtgv consumption than hOnZon131 roofs W1~ ,aised IIlchnes.. Skylights With VOO cal gtau <.'!r8&S <ire 1he least attecu ... e soiutll)O from 8. lighting p&fspectM!l.

The hOflzontal .glass roof at me University of 6remen ~f;!mpld1es the ef1ect.ve realizattOfl of Sh3<hog ana dayligh~II"Ig: 'M1h the help of cus10rntled glass. (Ftg 5.13): a colOur SCJeen pnnt PfolAdos sun and glare protection; e ... eriy oeIritll,l1ed IIghling ., U'le entrance lobby from direct s.-unhgl'11 In Clay1ime supplemented by 3ftI1ICi3llight al nigh1 \radiaA\ kJminaires. ii1tlo\1e the rOOl) i!; 1lI'0000ed I'Iitn ,he help of indi\'idl,l;al 91;]5$ elamen\$ 'h 1h Iight-direc1lng ~f"sms.

t..¢ISIJa~~rw;JA.rria

Lighl ereus a/'lld a~ria are atc:Mee1Ui81 means 00' I~ing C!aylighllf1tQ compact tll • .IIidll"lgs. will'! oeeo llOcf:s., ·.rl'iicr. wou1cI' be t;litficulL t>O light ... ra I:tle axternal !acade$. OtftcE!s eoecen to sucl1ligtrt $hafts. Of a,ria, e v en eose ~tec:J In the Il3"a9-' .IiI!:dIl.pnt89OOUS POSiLtOt"l. musI sa'liSty aJl the reotIlo.lltemlDO'LS lCf dayligh1ing. meE!lning. "!be fIWIiml,lm d;ptligtu factor and. above sri, viSUilil contact wim !I'Ie ooiSiM. A $I,INet')l caeeu out b~ Hans JOrgen Schmrtz£':> indicated that v i~al contact with the out5.td'e through an atfilSn has a $19- nulcent i~noe on USCr acceptarce, This msa.ns !:hal

atria witi'! full-time ~ati0n9. shol.l6d not be fully enclosed: in other worcts., a glass. rOOf ab"!@t is noc. ~iciM! ano Sl'IouId be complemented by a gl8$S facade to 1he ex!erior. Sufficient Qayllightlog iOI' WOI'kstaoons on !tie IOY/est IevcllS ensured if tM angle of light Incidence does noli sepees roughly 4-5· eeese the enw-e he!9hi 0' IDe atnum, as demons.1Tated in Compu'!er simurabons and meaSurements. Terraced floors Of cone-sl'la,PeOl COUflY3fds are ii1dditlonal arcn.tec1Utal tools uMd '0 realize- hi,gh I..I5et" d~nSity in. canbinatiorJ with good daylight COf'lC£It()nS. NiUTOOW atria eeo coortyatCls can be reaJi2e<l wf'Ien tilera are no lull-1ime workstations 0f1 the IQo.o.rer levels. Nal'l'"O"' CQlJr1yal'"(ls Qr sI'I;,1'ts can conSiderably tlugment measurErS lor dir'eeting SJ.KIlighl at the roof level. espeCIBIlly on wnny Qa,vs-

"'_''>

The arrangement. :Size and division of windows ~ en Im~t role In OOy'li9hM9. Thus, IIOc:I'·to-ceilil\4d wind~"S allow daylight to penetrate dSl?pg tnt(l1~ space. veerees a glass breast wa~ has vir1lJ!all:f no .actvantageous etCect fOr the in1erioL To 81\SlJ'6 suffiCtenl iJlumil'\QltlQn in sioe-Il rooms. t1'!9 room dopths ~ oot -O;«;&eCl2.5 times me window height. Light-directing measures must be implernem.9CI fOr rooms wittl openings. on OtIQ S"iCl'Q aM greater depths. In eese cases. a horizontal Qivision of the OQef'Ilng areas is recommended to proviOQ arMS: with vews of the

$.13 EmIll'lCllIol:Cltt.IJnM!JWOIBtfJmefll2OO".J8n~An!i~ UgI-f-dl-6!!:tiog ~.,-.s MI ifllegf~Dd tnod'le I«JI (el. fig. 5.251. $.14 R'&Doootroil.Me~L2OO2).J(~.TI'INiOItIldF'llF1r$Il.

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5.13

TQdav. !he r8aJ''S,lc rendrnen ~ ar~l.ec.turti' $C;al"leS I!I no longer.a problem tha1'lks 'LO a~3noed CAD technokim. exc~lcnt vu;val rendllioos or lhis kll"lt! ere 1JSOO11!J1' Cleat9d lor COI'rlpelillOO50 Of flI'e:;lIffit8tions 10 good effect. ThIngs aJ'1: more comphcaWd. hQwe'wlr, If lhe a'm is to "cast ~C:B~ In the .3PPf(Jpria1e lighl; tha1is • ....tIen '!he 'ernilbon is 10 be 8C(:ufaOO! frOm ve perapecnve of IIgh1ing &f'lgiI"\MnAg_

Too current mBrJ<.etl:llace offers a variety 01 sotrware- for da),l.ght sirnutation, ll'Iere are Simple programmes, wnj~ ate I.IS\,IaILy capable of c.alCA.llabOg both arti1iC*alllgh'! ano da~light;I' !hoay etso provide <lata on thO e v erC8$1 Sky,:he dayliQtJt (actor anti lhe (e6ultlng distribubQn ol illufnlftanc:& and IU'fI'linance i1l the room. Tnesa pfogr8J'J'ln1es af8 ffiall'tt I"ISCIj 10 eos.abfrsll mrrWnum window dim8i'lslon$ and m ._ mum brightness ratios: for daylighl and art,ffCiailight. They ere less he pful, however. In a.ssessJng the. Qua It't 01 hgh'l. They ate easy to operate and can be used 10 f'i.j;li.dJy esa. onsn ba~ic tesurts will'\- regarQ 10 lila see an.d poY.tjon 01 oPSrUngs- during ,he de.si91lI=ir'OC~SS. Other progf<3!'M'11;rS take the clear, sunny sky Into ecnstderauon a~ ~re mereteee capable 01 provkllng realistic ano Physioklgir:::ally C(t. feet calcu'JBlion.s. These pro~ammes ImPOrt CAD t,Ies..a."Id util ze tnem for the :slm\Jlat'Cln. In. ad(J.ftiOn to iJlufhna,fiCe afld IUnWlancG, lhey else prcvide acwrete oee on rna.~en. ars. WIth ae ~!iOn to l'FJooi1y Il'Icli ... idual c:haracteriS"Jes. fOf '118 cak::ula11on 01 dillu.slng, defracting C( .rjjeC\ing ceeae. terJs~ics. hO'.J.".e'lQf, njs fr~:II:~uerWY necessary rc 00Ils.1.I 1 ao(litlonal progf8nimes lhat are cU'Stomized for 1he spec_i&c case. The complex nature of these progr.ammes f8qr.ates.a great <t.rnounl of tralnin.g and t'he relevant e,i(_pertiSe fO( -e . able interpretanon.

~!S

Llgh1itrg from abOve - througn Qpenin9S io me root - i$ far rncea etficien.t than ligh "ng from the side - througn opMings ,n f!'le wa.lls <bececse ee entire hemisptrere is. eva 1- ante as a light source. IMndO\ ... e set «uo \'/3. Is, on me ore hanlj, IAn 01'11)' tap irno haft of;ha hemisphere- as a ligl1.:

SOUf>C9 and tnus ecnieve on7y one ftftn of 10e IUuminance gLven With skylights of th9 same size. A second reascn, ~~ wrndows are less eltQCth.'9, is the dlS~ of ongMness under an overcast SkY. which dim.nisnes b~ ~fN'O;(Imatety one: third lrom the zenith to the horizon. AAothl¥ ~e~ advantage of skylfgh,s is that they allow' JiQl'!t to peneeare into floors of any depth. As liUJe as '20 per cent of skylight eree Pet floor area can achieva COmror1able r;Ia)o Ig~ seclotS of roughly 5 per c&nt. II is JmlJOl'1Bflt, l'IlOI'EIOI.'er. to ceo Stder thQ solar heat 9ai.ns in COOiUflC\ion 'WIth da)'Jiglwl19. 'The inclme of sKyh9hts ifl relation to U"te SUfI ~, ~O(e an impol'1ant lacto{ - n the optiffillied use ot so1ar -energ~ 11)' lighting and h&at/oglcooll"'9. Pas,si\'9 solar heat -gaJns are oesirabla tor healing appJicalions; Ll'iey are u.nd'i)Slrab'lit hoI. ... evet ...... ;!I.h re-gar(l !O cooJiog enorcsuons ..... flich are ~ pnme Importance In work en v ifonn"loots. where WI,i1iOn:S, which allO'-lo' only d'1fuse light to oenenate and QMlect d rOO' sunlight, are preferred. In. the case of hall rcota.vne rS(r.11!1'1 aetli9Ved by means 01 tranapareru north she<ls .... :h an iOCrn90f 60", ..... trlch do no! allo ..... (l rect Ilghl'o penetrate, e~'en though they create jewa.' ad v al'ltageous ligl'lbng C(lI"I-ditions than hotizontal windows The ISfQ8 rOOf area Q1

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ReIB ... em onst(l'latlOllS ,UCh as rotl&r bhnCls Of Ver~e'h;jU'i bllnQs need nol bo Idonlieal W1lh th&fi'l'lal wn IYO[8C(.IOI"i: they ean also be moun!ed separately and on the- inside or ee window. This 8 so prO\lides ack1l11OR81 oaeeve solSI' neat ng 111 the cold seasce. The thermal sun prOilectlQn s~l!;I not InTerfer. With daytiQI1I"'10 and visual COt'Mct WIth the OU'IsicM, a &t pulalK)(llt\a1 is. nat so easy to fu 1il if QOQ takes a lOok at standard blinds_ Mfic~llight is freQt.lBntll' requrec In Intenors When the Shading s),stem 1$ 8C1J"~tel'3. M~ny dll18fent SOIuIJOnS can be eat600fizad aCCOr~g 10 !I'I6 roucrMng. simpli1je~j_ cntena

Ae~lblhty

, ~tantJ:.' JI1 effect (e.g .. anti-sun glass)

, etrecwe depl;lnQlRg on SOIa.t emooe. r'I~N~ 16.'9 .. rOQt oveffl:3n.g. rlgid 100000e)

, Ireloble accord "9 to user I'I'IeImplJlB,tJQn (mo v eanle instaltancos such as croos. V8Mt>an eroos. a ...... flLl'Ig:s.. hofizomaJ aM varucar bJwas, swil-chatJre gla_ss'1

Re(luctlon 0:1 mdiaUon transmission;

• unditfersl'\1ia1ed reduQ'lion of global radl.aticJn tmrect and diffuse, trcn all d,rac\ioos)

• UlIec1ive spectral reduction of the in'rared range oc SOlar rad&i;l~n (not v.iSllOleI

• s.c10C'!i ... e- directional reduCtion or dir&Ct ~<U' tacfiatiOn {trBns.parent for dittvse radiation}

Ptaoerrerm

· eetenat in f'om 01 glaziog

• internal, behind glazing

ote-et on room SIde of glazing

flexible solutions are ~temety eo v sn.l~-geQVS fty d;ayilghtinp, Coo~'ersety. constant leduCtia"l of tr~iOIn as. W@II as rigid ~dlng <fe,pendlng on solar :alti1Udeo are parncur::ltly disad"'<'Jntageous 101" na1l.lral ligl'l.1 in a r!lOM ~Qeeia.ll)' l"ll'"ll:ier.allQ\'erclils:t:;;ky.

Oayli.gh1il'lg la influenced by the ,oiffel'E!n! options fer reducin~ me. tt-ansmission 04 sctar ra-ch<aWt"l: undii'f&l'8mia'I&CI -ecocuoo withooL CCf'l$jd'era~ion lor direcoon. specee!

range and radia'tioo if'Itf}nsiry, (e.g" in tI'Ie ease 01 standard antt·S\Jn 9'laiii), abo h ... l&ts light transmesiGt'l, whilcih is a disadvatttaQII!I esp&eialfy on OVfII\Cas~ days s.e.ecli ... e seeeear antj·s\,m g'I~Sii nee hlgh Ilght traft5l'l1i.s.sion and low infr.ared

!,l7'OI!ICO~.DU5:MIdOrt(2000).~I<,ochIlfldPw1rlll'll U!1fl-d.ecti'IOota"flmet.K8de~tlIeOOt,l~I:ti!~ ~1ii1.oOl'l"'4IIl~It'Ie5haQClgs.YI!um<$InI"M,lel.j!og 50.2151 !a.1S. Daj..8vi1Jlallilft'll,lfl(Horo.~~'fofllC»lt1nxvnY<':'jll~~ .... ~alI r.glltatAI.IIorSode-MroomW1~hQ~lroot~

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outside and wilt! shad ng as we I 8S for dayltgfM ~e :;mCl tight e-ecncn. The n(M' OffK:9 bl.Jll~ln'lil for Ce:~ t iouGtle in O(.is.~ldorf (fig .5 1711s a good e~le. The lolowillil baste plineiple ;ppplie,s: th~ rauer rhe 'hin<bn, II1e De11af the rosulti(lg d8~h-gllt utlliza'llOrl. Other raCIa$, ~ as snading proJeCbOf')S, car. have a negall'lB 'fl~ 'because tl11SY reduce not only dirGCt radl:tlton O~ also I:l8 poercenlage of d1juse tight unoer an ~l!Ircast ~ .. ;;11'1 air-eel. which IS noI as ad .... an1ag«!U$ i.n GI9tIniI\)' as it IS I o!hE!f ccentrles wrth more $Olaf radia!ioo. In [«ms cI 0fI\~ buikhng il'l!eoo'S., a facade S.ys.1om can be s;;Iuj 10 be ~ ~ acslgll90 If it anO'NS dj,juse light to eeoeeare ~lO tnt room but ootlects dlreot hgtl! In Qfder tc avoid el«:es~e ~ g::nns and, atcee al1. to' pro v id~ a .g:lBr'iI!I-free work et"rYtI\In. ment. Retle-cted glare on IiIOfIIW(S can OC;CU" even II) ror.nfacing rocns 0( under overcast skies~ ln8 :same 1$ true fcaerect glare wilen 100000g out of a w ndow, Glare ~ is rcquirM in the tast cese; it ShOuld be adiustaOIe ndependent of thE! Sl'lacJl~ ~)'srem and, ideally,!jotJ 21110'.'. ror vlsual ecmect with the Ol..l'L:sid.e.

l.i{Jhl-d.'n;!CtifIg, Gl:Eua- and Sl,in-ptOIet'tJbn SysrMlS

The design of tf'illi.$l)arenl buitdil'l9 oompon€!l'Its and '1'ftIOOWS is. on tile 01\19 hand, de1ined by the- primaty f'oo::tM:r1 of liQht pene1r.ariOflan:d veua! tr.ar.~renc.y_ On tI'Ie ~ hand, uiese Gleffi8rrts ru'lfil at'I important e.ct"ItroI 'fuf1C'lJOn wim reglilrd 10 ~fOn91y Iluctualing tadl3liOn in'ens. es and are also re1evant for aspects of I gtttlrlg at'Id'Mating-' cooling. The primary 'lIfIcttoo e fulfilled IIfI the ~ and Cfientltion '01 1:1'19 t!yildl{tg. the sl:~ing and plac~ ~ windOWS, and tile selectloo of the ~t :franspafervt glallng for 1J'i€t lea!;U f~rab18 oondilions. (e·9-,:an ovefcas1.:S-:) 10 some degree, intenor lighting CC)1l also be irnPfO\'ed ',", 11'1& help Qf liQht'direC1l"ng svstems.."" These systems ~ ~ possible tel light v8I)' deep rooms thl"OuQtI windows. or W!JY tall and narrow rooms, ti1rQt.J9h :skylights. De!lectiOn oIlifrose lighl11'O(fl1M bright ~nith range of iI't~ overcas: Sky IrequetJtly emplO~ed for window installatiOns., haS proyetI elebcrate aoo Inefficient because 01 tl'\e mode.'a!t avaIiII:lIity 00 light 'There Is, boweeer. nQvia'Me aJ'!emaf:i1lefcr narItfa!:ing rooms, A far ITICIfEi eftectfve a,p,proael'l IS ID reor.:t: iI1ire!:t sun radla1ion, espe.:;:ially in oom~na'llOO .... ttl ~ meeecres, 'Cf example, Ngid, hoOzonlallOu\'f8S .-.1tIe uppQf' half of the window, IrecflJenUy referi'ed to as ~ shefvss. There is a "* of glare. hO'W9vet_ v.nefI the $III. Io\'~' iii th& sk)o. unless a rroceebte $lUdillQ system IS- ~

... idOO. 11'19 House ~ coorrons in lOl'1don {Fig, 5.29llu successful example of integratin9 li91'11-dlr9C;tlng and'" lat;on luncboos In the facade, The ri9i(l, in:ernal and .... nal nor,zontal IOtNres serve to redeect dirfuse gilt, alSlnbute aJtiri~llight aflCI provide steo ng. r.bleabll Ilgh'·dl'-i3C'Lin~ IOI.Vl.lT-i3s in Iti& tOP half Qf lhe ~~ Niow 13'1 tt:llle.cl dirMI $unliQht into me depth 01 f,I rOOO'l. So-caIeCI light·deflec::ting glaSS has ba-en 3Va. lab!e 'n ee malUlplace tor some years. It allows. for glare-free dcSt;'rIbuIICft sunlight in lhe depth of eo room Without the M&d tt-1IdtI[iOnal rle-x~ble components. The system e1fec~ ~.er'tlCBII'" I'IOrizOnlal oenecuon of d teet radia1iOn. c~tlfI9 even IIId glar&-fTee Ilghbflg up 10 8 rOO(n deplh of , 0 m... G ate P'O" [ection, that e. ooecucn a9s"nst dir9C1 sun Incioenoe

ute OC(:U,P ad area or hIgh It.Jminanr:;e near v.lt'Idows. $hOIJd 1:1$ llexible aM osw-oceeaec.

rTIinImul'1"I- Gi ... en the complelfrty ct the 'Ield, (he cOllaboration of arChiteCtS, experts and light engineers, on the one hand, wod oents as users and teencet backer:!;, on the other hand, nee gained in impona~ as we'" Th'S- means. how· ..,."E(. !Nt the aJchi~ect. who continues to acl;jl.~ (3. gefleralis! and relies on e)(,pef1s to" individual areas, has to DeC(me Inrtmled in 81 at~$ ~nd mUSI explOre 1J'I&!'nOS! Important ISSueS In Ofder 10 OC)timize and Mrr"l'lOl'lize tho:s cQlIab0f3iIOl'i, This etlort ES worttMtlilo. because designing WIth day! 'lilhi. is a-ppealing In WB)'S thai worIc"ing \I\o11h anl;lcl~U light can ne v er

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tr.an:smiSSiOl'Io, (eo,g., to.'lal energy tr<I.Mmi;t.a1'lce g.mgh1 \rilrlS.mis.s;on L O.2W_50I .... tu3feas 9 sl'ltl • ere ;(!.ooroo:ilT\{l~~ identical with s'Itlflderd afltl-slIIl glass., T'aAS.p~eflt shaCl'ng systems. v.hich target d feet sese- rad'l;ltJ,on fa detl6C:tlOn Lind allCWl C!lfflfse light to penoetraqe., prOVicle dayhght..o.g visual oontl;l:Ct gnd glare 1J'l001!1>Ctkw"l. Unl-a:JCI;(!,1 tradotir'l'iJ oi me s~ is ~ntliJllOf loose :;:oIutiMS;. whK:h QPCrate WIlh lransparent a,I)d c1ir9Cuonally selecbve hoiogf<lms. inwoo. rated IntO' me ~Iass.

~ 1Uf1Clicnai ~ritlCij)le 04 lJ'.ansmlsslon hQlogIams. far 'Lh& purpose 01 directing lighl aJOQ whicl'l can be iIltegra1.eo (1 lamina'loo glass as transparent him, IS shown in Fj~ure 5.25. Light IS onl)' rc:<lirected if! case of a de-fiood angle of incidence and is comh1noo WIth ~ctral OOIour 8plining. 9S IIfI a pi'ism. sc-ceueo wmte light hOIOWa:ms... "nf'licll remix 1l"JE! rainboW COlours into .... ohile, ate osec for ro:;m lighting, The piaeemem of the sh3dirlQ svstem has primarily an in~ (In the«l'lsl ccneracre: It JS jar II1IJI"a del9ler~5 on the inside men M the ootside or it'l iI'Ie interstitial space between panes. On the othet tland, the IflCrea:s&d drl tllC'tor on external lnstaltatioos can etsc have a negative Impaet on tM lighting umcnens. CombitJing [lie cliff~ priflciJ}les 101' ligl1H:litectlon. gl..are and SUfI ;:II'Ot~ opens up a variety 04 ccucns fOf' diverse locales and architectural sdees. (see pp. 1421')

A Plea f~ U~izln'9 D::..y1igll1

The au1l"Jo(s are activ€ at the- interlace of reseeen aI"Id develOpment. on me one hand. aoo concrete implemBtl!d.liCf'l of d;;rvliglt,ing concepts. on me other hI;I~. In ee ceeltitutiol'll. t'hey have :;:cugh1 to address the mos.t imJlQftim topics on daoytlghi utilitatioo. In eartlceler ihOsa thai.are pertirten( to cerent debates on the theme. ana 10 ~ relevant examples. The US'e of s.oIar radiatkln rot IgtMIg ~ a disci£llin.e !ilat res been long ne-.g'lectM. ~'rfrth e::q:tef1 planning and desig.n. however. 1I'1e a.vaiDable cetcos offer tremendous advatltages for people's healtll. wel!-beng and performance in the .... 'QI'kp!aoe. but alSo for sustaim;lbi w as a result low energy costs. ASide trorn the QlJ3,lita'tive SiI!IMIcence of daylig'hlifll9 for humans ane archhectcra. wtI!CI'I nas been described in dalail. it is Impoftanl to draw a:t.enliOn to Its ecological ar'tCI ecooomic relevance: dayhgl"lt. without pcncteme. is r.eMily available afld' i~ envirormentally friendly an" ecst rrOO_

Architectl,lre- that is optil'r'lized fO( day1ighting can orQS".ica lower II"u;! oparaling costs of oon·residenrial tJul4d h9~ .... Ittcut any notable lncreasa 111 conswctoo costs. Q::nJpa.r8" tive obs.ervat'ion of s.e1QC:led office builO nqs nas sh:M'O tha1 dayligh1-dapend&tll control of the lIgllting system and optmized ligtJt-directing.aM StIadlng sys~ern$. translate r(li;O annual powe.r savings 01 25 ~~ or roughlY 2.5 €/m:.The S<1\'ings IlOtential is evBn gftJater ""' terms of pe~ costs if one Includes lhe reduCtion In. jj ness and 1M IncreaseCi perlotmatlC9 01 the 1>tl!Jdln9'~ users n ttle ealCUlot~. Ttl!) {Jain 01 a single ''lCfl<ing dp~ rept'esents. ~. 25 E/rn:- per year, aec:otding to tht1 auU''O(s' fJ)!perieflCi' ~ soonBf a larg91ed use ~ d3yhghl is included lIP ee arch tecturar d9SiQn process, the better the OI)pOrt\nl\' !C de'l.le'Qp an erlle/en.t solution and to renee tachnicPl rrees ur4'3S - eno tl'Iete'lCit9 ceets atld 81'16f9Y O(lI'IS1..Imp1101'1 - !O oil

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Page P'rO;ects

72 P~S.:Si\'fren8rgy tel'T'8.«lcl f'K:IuSlng .JDII;1,i"VI8$l<aiItMM

78 HOUSing estate in Kcfding <bN_

82 Pa-SSi~'IN!nergy terra09cJ hOUs.-ng ---

88 PtJin! "lOcks in IRI'I~bruc:1( ~gD!&~

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1 12' Office l:M.iil(ling frI Sol hull sm tri'

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)38 Solar factory in BrI;II. ... schvveig _,'_

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Passive-Energy Terraced Housing in Dornbirn

Archi1ec.~: JQMf'lnBS Kau1m:IDrl, DC«lbirn Energy coRSl.lttMts: E·Plus.. RaJf LElI""nng8t', Egg

Enjoying a vie'.v to tne Bre-gem: FOI,esI. m.s ro\'I.' of ~Ine ler· rB.COO houses wi1h a communal un!! at the end &S SI!uated on rne ou,~ er Oomb-Ifn in VorarlbElrg. Ausuia. A ,group of ctienls. InCiud nglhe erchneet himse1f, jooeo fOfC13S 10 realize ;I'IIS scharne. The dwellings form the first stage of a mj.xed d~pment. Fun~r holIsii'Ig strips and iii cornmescra! tiM aee also planned. The use 04 jlI'ef.abric:ated tirotter elements

helped to ensure 10'11 productiOn ccse and a shOn COOS1n.lr>!)on period. The Indi v iduall\...o-stQreY rooses. eacn -Mth a flOor area of rouQ.ht\l' 80 ffi2, !;lIra. v a fleOO"bIe use 01l1'1et Internal spaces. The only ~lCec;l eJcmenls are ihe ground floor krtctJefI, taiC! out sloog tile westam party ... en of eacn ho\.Is.9, and ee wcs I;Ind bathroom 00 the groun-d and lj(s1 floors. Ftom ute open kilChen and liVIng area, a single-flight staircase, wi1h &~orag.e space tJeoea,h, leads to 'iI'tO upper tGvel. Here. there are 1;\\'0 rooms. with the 'bathrOOlilIfl1he middle and a separate WC. In Inc ernrance hall of each dV/eUit'Lg. a Yap door in me f\OOr provides access to a small ceaer scaee coniBining med1(:1nical servrcee, ....t'Iich ccmprfsa a cornbinalion of indi~ 001 oilnd COO'Imu~1 systems,

The high oensity O1l1'1e oeveiooreor means tha111'1e site has been €l!!p'loitad .... IIh gre.l!lt eoonorn:,-. It W.;IIS ne .... etnesese possltse 10' create a small open. space with i;lwoor patio on the south Side of e~'ery house. Pivoting shutters provide vlsual 5.Oreeflirlg to .he bakXlrlles and the pr! .... ate points ~ access 00 tI'le garden slue. A small porch·like structure, ~Iing of a lanet ng wi~h a sioo wall and roof in flbl'e·cemen.I s.hea~ir\g. forms ~ :SaJlptutal element on !hIe north (ace of !N!CI'l reese. The porc:nes affCl"d pro'lectiOn agaii"lSl1tJe W'El'ather and also doMine tne eoesoce s.ltuation. Flamng spaces v \~IJ be provIded tater In the form of an under'{jIOUfId qerage,

The CCC'l5()Iti,Jm of cnenrs racel v eo a grant from lhe SIa!9 of Vorarlbefg from funas to SUwoo environmentally fliend teesingn 1M reQbn. The IEI\'oJc4 fioa~isl 5UIJpcctwas eaicnateo aOCOrdinQ to a points system based Of! a comprel"l~ list of Cl'ltena. Thssc Iflcluded the use of ecological building materials aru:! roms of ccosmctco, and cute meas~es 'I1eSigOOd to l:Il'"OmOte casalve 1oo.'1·energy hcwJsil'l9. The SyStem peovroes suWQf1 fOf iru;lividual building -concepts ~-EI'hT'1 up lot specific -situ,a,1ions. The :!1cheme- wee plein~d and EtlC,e.cU'lill1:l in such a \',Ia~ IMI it ,YCMk] aehie v eo the- ma:.ciroom p¢$$.lble suosldy l.If)1j$f mis assessment system. Wrth,~ 10V0'-QO$4' ds\'9Iopmoot. the i!I'chitCCA and otl'!(Jr Clients have I'I\iIInag.ed 1,0 reconcue the needs of QUBhtaliVfl OO1>19f1 With hig.h erwil"Of'lllnen.laI smndardS.

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74

COOstruClion

The ten renaced uni1s were erected In a dey lorm of CQn$uclion l'Vlth Ilre'fa.'bricated, multilayer tmber elements. An amend, ment 0= the state bui111 ngla\VS In VCt'artberg allowed lJ'I9 patt')o walls to be tlull in tInl'tier. ExecutecJ In a tVlo·l~f klfm of conSlr~ let' SOUI'Ici-insulalmg, currceea !tley provide a cernred one·hOur life resistaoce. Onty one cress-wan, bewJHn neeses 5 and 6,. had .0 be buill in reinforoad concrete ae an additional means of fse proteC;iM, It acts as a ngid Slab tha~ a~ SQNes to brace tne 'OW in the longitudlll.ill direction. The gr'CX.Ind IICOf seb. c:onsi:s'ing ~ :softwood box elemen1s fi1led

v. th insurati~. is borne by tile concrete basement \;.Ini1s on ee I'IOf1h S'td'-e of 11'10 !'IoI.IsM and a. strip fourxl'.ation along \he .south see, The u,pper 'I00I' construction consists Of prefabricated. flve.,pIy, solid larnlnated·lirnbBr efemants spanned betv.oeen

tile party walls CI' the houses. There are no f\Jr1her finishing:;; CJn r!lp: the smooth 5Oft\'YOOCI surface forms the actoal'looring. If was also jXIs:sJble sc oo w·rthou'l irnpact-scunn ifIsu!8tiol"l ....;mir. me inCIi'Vidu.e.! dvl9l If'lgs:. The soffit ls 'jniStied wilh a $USpilJl"ld'e~ layer 0' laroeh boaming, wi1h elaC'lfica-' n,lfkS, laia in me ntermediale ca\lify. A pre1aMca1ed, SOlrd Ia.mi~ted·;jmber OOBS'.ruC1ion VJa!io also used for tile sat root The OU!Q( '.-.'8l1s !:0I\Sis.I of In:s,u1atM timber box elements, oCOffIple-19 .... l'th '!he necessary door and windO'N openitl9s. Work tlxecutOO on site Included '!he lfipl.e gl;;kiing, ~1'19 e,:.;,1emal hi;lrQomallarch bearding, tne toof Insulalion and hnlshll19s, and me gypsum fibrebootcJ l!fIings 10 the in1emal wa'is.

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Housing Estate in Kolding A:rcl'IItee:l.Sc 3.XNj(lt~9tl, .Ar1'1J.JS.

lars Frattk Nielsen, Kim HerfOrth Nelsen

This D;)niSh de v elopmern, comprising 59 terraced hOUse-s and e bullOi~ wim communal laGilitles. was tM ootcome of a cesnpelilion tor -91'\\,IlrOOrnen;;)lty frieru::lty conslJlJQ1ion. To ecneve a maxIimI,In'l 8;(piOltJliOf'l of SOlar energy, the bccsea ,are turned

011 an angle (II t5" !O ~ north-s.ovth axts. thQi'eb)' flllSOrinQ me ideal orientat;on ror builoifl9s at Ihis lall1ude. The oorth-laei~ EOO~I walls ere in .a \.\:eIHn:s.ule~9d munnever form of ceosecceco. Th9 sootI'I 'aces, in contfS!SI, <lS8 fully gle:zM. nnegratill(t In uie glazing Cli every tICH..t5B is a. varti,Csl SOlar wa.fI element betl.."een 6.00 and 8.40 m~ in. area. Behind me dOubCe gls:zirlg In mase strips IS: a bl;J,Q'k, perforated street-steel pa.nej, wi11\ a cavi~ and a layer of Insulation 10 [he rear'. "",'hen e;<iJO$eId to aotar radiation, the steel Paflel heals Uf;I and warms tile .. 10 the cavity_ The system i$ I.JS.ed 8S a supplemaraarv fOrl'l'l of h.e.atlng, oornpleml3fltlng 11'111 cerura! tleating supply from the comrm.rJity bl,l~ fig.

The- solaf wailS are di v ieeo lnto t'.'.'Q secuons. l1'Ie 1O\'.<ef pare serves rc prfll'!.eat the fresh-air lruake. WI'JiIle the heal gai"lS In tI'ID upper part era s.,or-e!;l in 'IIle 200 nvn concrete Pilrty walls between the neeses. If th9 temcerature 'Ni1hin the solar wall riseS above 30 o:oc during the "eatlflg periOd. a. ISIl is S:v. tohed on v..fllch blows the heated .air il'lto the ~o(ag.e wallS. These. in lUfn. yietd melr heal at night to tI1e d\IIelfings. At the top Qti

the solar walls are ventilation tlaps_ In s~er. when the fans are usned QH and I100fing is oot n;lqui,ea. the flaps can be opened to afloYi warm .air to eecece. thus 8'c'Qiti.ng O'Verhealing or meweu.

Two Q'iffer'ent types or pfefabricatM Ul,Crmai $lOf'age w.e:Hs were dQ\lcloped. TtJe .system for tM party walls censlsts df concrete uni£"S wi~h I:>uill-in healing «ees .... 1th not·air cirGUla· liM. FCf.he outer \'I'3l1s to lh$ ""ltd reuses Of e-ach {ow. Mllow cellular cceerete elements were mLill'\Ufectured With an integrat layerl;)1l:1rru<enstone.

On oornple;ion of the 'YOrk. test measurements were mach~ in .... IJO rapresentanve houses. to !j8!ermine lhe LI'Iermal behaviOUf of mo solar 'Ira'ls end thE! sTOI'age mass. ParaUel to this • a -UlfVe~ W&-s carried oot among the. resldent$. The 'Wall $'YS'OO"'IS have J;lroved effec.lfve, and tM users are $arfSh9d with lila sys1em. In 1M case 01 'tOO SOI[lf wall stnP50. the COSIs .... '1;IrEI

7 per cent t1ighet ,h;a.n for cooventlona' forms of constructiOn Ii.e. a atandard glazed 'acade). The CCt501S kIr th.e s1orag.e wall ",,>ere 45 pet cam nigher man 'or 3 ~t briek wall. Theo energy saMgs achieved WIth this system (115-1.2:5 k\l'lih.l'l'rt-'il) compensate for" the greater outlay. rcwever'.

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81

"Er.:lwJII~ ~contI'~ilIOmfIifiISWJh"ll~t~,;'tJI3I'i1r OII(.'IDOO~~F"rL'lJhIllI'(IMUI:50lnflOb ... or p..vtr:1~wa tIf'If1"1:e81JTf"009hlt'oo~IllO(I!;'U) IlleIOpHoo.t:l~:J~lI1l/1oO!llll;:Rflt1.nr'Id ~lXIC*d Ilitr(lJLi!fI$~0Y9"'dlltts.l01Nl~. EvcIy~l\;UllIgl;UoKl!oOlnrwJlfw~(II1 e1'l11d<1" :trOt' 015,20 mo. oI .... flIcl'! 4,21) nl".'IUI usMb'I'I6Jh01rn.."~·~~~

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Passive-Energy Terraced Housing in Ulm Aretlltect Jchannes Brvclrer. Sturtgatl

Med'lMical serviOOS: 6btik, TUbIr.gen

F:estr<.lIned lin its d~n and ec!IOOmlc:all('J Its oee or reeceees. tl'u5 dO\lslOpn'lent if! UII'Il, Gie.'many, comprises 1a passwe-anerg), houses lal:(! out in thr8>e stepped Uef"s. Oespi1a Iha hl:gh dellSity 01 tt-B estate, wNoh was c:llctated by cost lacI.OI'S, the different le~'9Is 01 the OOI.lsif19 S!tips. mean II1et ~rv dt.\'GUing enjOyS pan~mJc V)CI'I'9 and a 9'l"eal de-al 01 $I<.Inlight 'rom the soulJ'J. The ;jfchilE!ICts C:OO!;:B a mixed form 01 construetion: me south mceoas QOnSis.! of large. 'PI'ef.ebrlca~ed timber elements ..... tllie the e:w:tetn~ walls on lh9.oOtID sWe and the Iood-bQaring party wans were cceseoerec wrLh large s,<i.ndlime bloCl<S, The USQ oj rein.fcued -coocrete floor slabs ;:I 'IQo..19(I the cteatilon of Ihr'ee QDlumn.ffee storeys thaI '!he cceccame can lay QUI aQOO(dlng to personal needs and which can tle reseuetIJrecI 3' a later date. In ae,ld.i1lon. it is pOssible to olVj~e the houses il'l!o M'O IOdependem LIlits Cf 10 Ins-tall an office.

The individual ct.~~lIi~S 00 ~ t'la"'l9 tnelr Own eeparete heatng S:,'Slems.. Unocontrolled heat losses are .av0iCS9d by means at ughtl1 see\Qd pin~s in ,he outer eoclOStJre as 'h'eH as a high standard of mermal Insulation: 40 em in the rOOf. 30 em m t1'!9 outer ~\I8:JJs and 00 em 'beneath ve base sla.b. The balCQC"lies. and PQfeMS a1'e dlSOfe~e cOl'1str\JcliooaJ ~men~5 set in frOnt of the facades to a'llOlCi creatil'l\! thermal bridges. In ad(lition, all .... i"leJows are tri,pte glazeO'. The VQnti~Don Pbltt not onl), heats the intake of t!'esh ail'; through hee; tl9:CO\'ety and a process of geoltJermai hel'l! e:«:t\.;I.ngEl>, it ensures en agre-saNe indoor cseete and '9.000' air ~ua.trty. If the energy eon mese $QI,IrC9$ plU$ trlat (l"er-ived from nsotatJon Is nOt adequatt) In coldVleather. a beck-co system Is a~'ai.tabJe: reslduaf neet can be drawn from the return fb" of a di~tlct-he.atjl1fl service to til ~oove~tiona'ly bui1t block 01 nate !'\Barby, The flot,,'wB.tQt &Jppl:,o IS tJfOVu:eed by :&01.,( collectors concealed in me planted foof. A ~hotovoltpic plant for the generation Q4 elecuicity can be addeO' 11 requWi3'd, The requisite CMnections nave already beoo it'!s.lalled.

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~~fiI:v'9tel ~1M"I~wood~~boar(!l '~'.iL'Om'11(ay,l~baiIJm ~n'II'I'IIBV.)l'rWIefill'WOC!~'II"I$I..ti:«1 13nvnd'1~d a.:o..mn~~peIyth«'lElv~ptIUI'bI!T1IIr 12.5nvn~l8porbOaltl, WIOCItIed ;!t'I(Ip;IU"!M

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3 oplWIl:ea~4fIt~lhtriple~ing "11oor~.QfI: 2(l(M10;ik~1 ~trm$Cr6ed{)l'l~atr..gla}'er 2DmmklrlJae..SCl..-Jdll"rWa':o;."l

~ WMd trontclooY·I • .;'1rig~-»arn(:(.Ire 6a.ra~~ ~~rm'I~opa~'Sl~' .;(IrM'Ila-"""~WIl.'1&1 6mmgr.aIllht'>tIlbO&fmat roofi<l.llJiOg~

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MechaniCal s{ll'\iioos: GMI Grasser & Messner, Oomblm

Irmsbrucl<. Ihy ca~rta' ofT)'ro! In Austria, lies. SlJ{f,",.mdeci by rTIIJI.IfIt&ins j(J ute brool:l ... an6~ of the RiWlr I nn. The Lonbaeh d~elo,pffl8f'lL, .til -pt.Ib'lcl), ;3S:s.fS.'OO housing estate. was erected ... an ::mracti v e situatiOn on the wes'l~m ootskirts. of the city beneath the oJoIOQ[ded fOOtl1ills ct a eta n oi I'I"IOufItall"rS II;) tM reeth. The six blOclo:.s (If uars were constructed as Ii:w.....aMrg:,b4.1ildings. They are '.aid out Qflsel to eaCl'l other in cneoceboard fashiOn and S1.epl:led up thE!' gentty sloping site: at variece levels. As a result. the SIJfI is a~ to ~netr.ate: deep into the OOIJIi1Yard spaces l)ety"oeen uie tJuildi~s. The layouts of Itt€! flats in blocks A Ct,i'ld e and in blocks 0 and E are idBr\iicaL The central building. b'lock C, contains d'Io'eliings fi;W" seniOr cdizens as '. .. {ell as communal soeces and care facilities. C0ntinuous b:aJc:ooies arQUoo me ovtslt.'kt of the blOCkS pro .... .oe protected ectooo spaces. and there are surpriSing V!.eWS 1:0 me surrounding anescece in ail erecscre.

ll'IEt c~:act VOlumes of the indMd uat structures I/..'rtt! their outer bI,lffer Z(lMS l,uereUle stafttn9 point to( II"ie innovative energy ccocect. On 1M f"OOII of every block. sctar energy is harnessed by collectors and used to heal tne bet-water supply .and to pre"ea1 ItH:I fres'h-alr intake. Il'Idi ... idool h.~'in!J and ~'en· t euoo needs ate met b~ (fecenlr.;lJJil'Qjj compact vE!nbialion sppliane:es in o ... ery d'...-elling. Prict 10 thIS ecteee, 1I'Ie. mecnarucar servlcee concept had been teetec in O'Ih1:1r d&Velecmeas that we-r-e muon smaller in scete. The OOn~Pt and the tQl'TTl 'Of ccnatrucncn were OOOI'dlnated 10 prOvide a I'IJgh teve! of c-omfert r1lr' the 29S -cM\f!lIlflgs (\vit'h a t~aI nco- area of 21.500 m'l, .at me same time enslWing So 10\'1 he.atir\g'ofIrlflrgy factOr of 20 K'IIi~.a. That moons a reducncn 01 CO ernesms o123i tccnee 3 year QOrIlI)sred wilh !I'te usual figure for M'II hOUSKng developments in Austria {60-00 k1oi\'I'IIm-"a).

Si'lllpliln ~~':$IXII) Frslb8~ 1).nIjJel~DB1Qa'f1 tledcC......,h~ !i'1t1r.119U~lI) ~~JI3o 1.'500

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• In"~li,1.~ng~.,'IhII~ r~l, \tit frWI-il.r.nta:.<.e Is he.il1!!o!I1O 16-20 'C b'fhNl_act.dffom~UlftiU'-15) Il'It'ot. ~ao~oentCl"'~~g,fromlhrtexNIIldl ... (20-22"C'J"~ wll'l!lUlfll'ft~~l1~, ... IIIIQ;W

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lhoe1r~'1.I:"'II1IIOO!lfnI.ISDI!w~~ [E(I-10$m>PQfblodo;3 ~tiId in hCM'l1l1t'!; qllhi;I~p~. ·1",~,u-.~nccwEl:fl!r"l:!:~iI'I

~~O~I:O.f1~llAI'eOil 4CI~&I"'Cw'1(j.tI'1ef1,l'edmhot~~oh 1tw~~ints~lDl.W'lere~~M ~~ INlneM~II'OU!llt1~·6S.~ T:i1tIln'O"i!oetrlCillnllNlllll'leolloc:\Tlcwawhllal,.1

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The c~aet form of the block9,., "~II'I a good raoo between the foottJrlfIt area eno 1~ votume (O.2'~, provides a SQUnlj basis lor minimizing ener.gv losses. The crnrance rans act ee 'tM.Jf1e.r zcnea eno reduce me problem po~d by the .root doors of uie Ijo-eliings - normally .he W'&8kest pca.ot Of the ouw skln III terms of Eln~y leases. The fiatS ate heated largel:,' vla ute vl;!nlilaMn s-ys.lem. 'O'fI1tI the LIS.9 of minimally dlmen~iorll~d heal pumps. In this system. frash .)-1 has to 00 prehee1.ed 10 at least 5 oc. :since 11'10 heal pump would nc 1009er f~01ion eJticrenu)' 81 lewer temoerliltu~. and mere .... ourd eJs.o be a l1anger of coMensa'ion freezifl9 on 1he ou,gol09 skle of the teet&:Kchenge uni1.. Tile large numoe- of dvl'e"llings inevitably receesltates a gfe~ler VOlume of fresh ai', Cost ccosarajrus aflcj lacK of space led to a decision to provide healing via w3'ler-fi!Jed sOlar S~OI'at;;e elemen;s fjtl1er thitn by means 01 an earth grid. On the rccrs of the tsooe, e mildure of glycol and wa'lef in me solar collectors is neaeed and pumpoo;o tile teetexcha!')g€l ~ils in r.1'II!!: SOlar s.wrege elements, The heat kom tMls medium lluiCl is uanslerred to 1he w.ater in the storage t~ and '!he cOOed medium is ;l\Gn reMmed to ~ ccaec'I.Cf'S. Th8: tanks ere 5iwe~ed in t1\oo.t!I comers of the besemern .garages t"'at cermet be used as parking spaces. scie :sr.orag~ elements have a fUl1het advamage over earth griO·$ in 'IMr. me:,allow ternpermures ICo be cootioUed. Theoy can erso be I..IS.ed in sumner to help heat the hot-water 5'Upply_

peceeeseeo compact vef'ltiJation s.p'p'iances 'IIiII'Ill'at Mate:o:-chi.nge elements and minimlJJ'l-sized hQB~ pumps I'tavEl been il"k5-lel!etl in 1M MthOOO"l Of 9Ve1J' dweltng betJinll rooml'leigM glass Sliding ocora. Fi:egutatGd by pressing a simp'e set o! buttoos,. too acpnaocas can 00 operated al three ditferenl levers to mee! If'IdlviduaJ healing ana vemifabng needs, The pretreeted filtered air suppl,;, is tI~Y1l into the li\'ing spaces

by rotary .~ns. Exhau~u air Is ~cked out VJa disc valves In the sani'lary and anc;:i_ry spaces, A SpeC181 '>'ideo film was producecJ and dis~ribU1e(! to every household 10 [nslJuct residents JI1 tile opet.atiOn 011f'19 SV$1em. lMlen the e:.<temal temperature tails below 10 "C, a gas heater is automa'ically acn ... eted

and supphes a coi'l\len1ional radiator Installed In ffVery flat.

The (adi.;l.~ proVtQOS l'esidenlS with an addl,lCJ1a' source of heating or a place to ory wet Clothing. The outer ski!') of the tJuilcrng is so hi'!;]hty fOs..Jlm&d !hat the Intemsllem.P6r8rure geflemtecl b~ secondel)' Mat eccrcee rcecce. ap~iB~es a.nclI19"t!Mg) WO!.M not jail O&'IOYI aooul 15 VC. even If both h8a'li~ S)'Stems. ware OU1 0' aC:liOi'1.

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Lawyer'S Practice in ROthis Atd1itect Flail'lP8ln1 Drexel. HoMnems

Mechanical se(\'lcas~ QwJslO1 Oraxel, Aa<nhard WetSS, Bfegenz

In the ceru-e (It P.Ql;his, a 5l)'\a1l cOO'WOOnty in \IIor'ltrlMrQ. AUstria, a cuelc structure wllh s1lir\g!e facades $.lands seffOIJnliOenrl\l' eeeveen the okIlJilla.g6 o'hlJl'ch and a number I;)f 1:i(,lIlijings eM lra-chlional (;0fTI51rl.lCtlon. Ha ... lrlg grown derelict ever ee years. this; wmer :;l;Q(lciJltutul oolticMJs-e wee demol· iS1'led QO'a'l1'l 10 the tOtmdalion 'Ita11s and nas IlQ'W beoo ,®ullt and cM\l'ef'ted me :;I legal practice tor the client. A relntcced concrete sM1eton-.rame atrucuse braced by a staircase was lnseted wimm 1ha 19X1s1ing refurbiS'hoo waItS, wruch rrQYl ceoslst ~ ~one :an11 lamped ccecrete. The build og res been raised in ~ignt, and tI'\e new concrete flOcfs are eU]lpOl'ted Of'! eeco Stotey by sigh' sleel columns. A CCf'lstruction iOlnt betvlEflfl ee solid masorvy plinth walls and the limber facade above ~rkS tM kansi~iOn between ofd and new. The two parts are construc-tioRally and thar'l'nally seperared, The ne.v external waus are in a (nree-Iayer nghty~ght stud oons.1ruCron with a high dl1:gree of thermallnS!.llation (ovel(!ll thiCkness 36 em}. O~hef aspects tI'Ia; support the passNe-en.er9Y design are me com;paCt cubic form 01 the blJilding anc !hI} gOOCl r<ltio beM8en me footprint area and the 'o'OOJme.

The racades are dad 'Ji.1h a hOmogeneous. $1t;in, -01 untreated Canadien farch snlngle5. The ex"tt1!1'l$l'lle areee 01 g\aZil'\~ are otWE!rBI1 a-x~cmall:.' by ba~ of timber strip -claclCling. Abme balusnaoe re ... et. these .stJnsoodlng s;tnps. are divLded in:C' top~""l.Jng pivoting ,aleme-nt:S In 80 x 2.0CXl ern specially mell!,Jrecnneo b8ad-tJlas119d atcrnlnlum frarnas, The elements. V'mi.:;tJ can, be lilal'klallY coereted by the s.!aft 10 provide protae:liOO ag;ainst il'l5Olf:lllon and g'lare. loon an lmpotant cart

01 ttle oaeeee eftenJY concept triple gl>azin-g ''i8S t.J~ed woughctJt foOr the rQCftl-Mlght oMtIdows benlnd the f-a-cade :shal:ling. \'JIlile the largs ba~S 01 'i:<ed glazing ccoser Of CWl~ glass 'Mlh an argon-lilled -caVIty IU • 0.6 Wfrn'I<l.

1M glaZing 10 tM casement dOOl'S cs tilled with ~PtQn

IU = 0.7 WIm'K).

If'ltemaJI),,. the buHdin9 Is dlsooguished by us melicutous detailing: e)(posed ccocrete surfaces .... 'Ith an oiled finiSh. ~h bfings out the grain of the wood shU1ienng: b'laek Murrunous terrezeo: end perforated birch ptyv.'OOd 'C' 'he C@-ltingS. Ins,ead ct a OOr'rIIentional heaoog lnstallation. a QOIll;r(II\9d <litSUpply ane alr-extract Sy$!em·were fcreeeen ..... ,-u, -1;1 rriinin'la'~ omenstceeo Mat pump and a heat-recovery facility_ The external air Is l)re"tl&atQi:! D)' a roughly 5O-metJe-1Qr)g c.;J~h9r· mel ccnectcs. The frestl·air ductS are incorpct".a!~ in tria. solid concrete 4100r stabs and funcuon in. the. renee 01.a hypOCaust syS1.Qm. A tlynl;lmlc :slmultHiOO ~rogram was oeec to tes. tht} 8flQ(-g), -COl'lC:etll at the Illanoog :s.,age, allowin'!;l an~ (lQC&SSa1)' OOfl:Sti'Uctionai d'lanBes !O M rrmde in good .ime_

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TMbLllid rtg IId .... Qod ~8(1.~~ l~IOt;;l1'<I IIllCtIIry sceeee CO t.iI~h t'IooII, ThIr aaglam I'Qr ~91~1I1h11t1r.,~tOI!IIrf.,.. t~Dh"rQ(:2gCllj",,~~C*lIo!drto'40h.la-rJ

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.... flenob':f!lrnal:B~lillA'i!lari!>.XJ"C. 'h1Qr;lta"ati'rklr\'.o'II1IFlflAl~'<'StRtl'-IXIr-brf\cIof hO<Itmg loam. on ~edd m)~ In f..Qbn.M'I, 0'1 tl'4 MOOr'Id &1'. ~\~ tnwlllr V,a!- 8 n.gh .... '01 ofinaolfttlOi\,ib:ril'rer'QlI.$I3Iln~ilIIfIr=n1hQ 17~8oofjS ~tJtdNtty 1"IICOgfli!allie~ lhfr~.~:ifI,tIf1l'rejj"8OI.i':I1~t~ ~~~8~1l1JI'rlJlo!oe.a~~s.!'"~ On .. (;oId_\·_11It.ilI~qf $OIiIr,8(f<a~ ~n. ~JhW:nglo&:frc.t'ltJ&IbV r;lngirS~~Q1D.'llIiI!c:anbec~lnbute<:llf)~~ltJ(I;ug;bM. Rle l'TIII):"fIijmlrViL·oJ"ioiIlOad!.,th!rtll.dOngrx<:~1'r llII!oealyrrqr. .. .g.:r.o!l'r.!rllhe.(rd{)Lrcnalllklru:~l 1l~l"I9&O&dund"'""~O!IIIdflOr'l$ 1)qtt:n'Ie~ ~fQ&ly w])EW1'll,t;tlJ$ n~~orlho (lilY III ve .... o! tile WlmIiIl ;i~1I1;Jk1XCU'

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sports Hall in Wangi Arohitects.~ Fent Solar ArChlt.e(:MO, W,I

In ~gl. S\yltZB(land, the- e)Cj~if1g m.ultJ-pUfDOSe spats. hall has now eeen (tXt-aooed by -1;1 new Mil - tl'le f1f$' minimum erHN"OY rminetgv"'1 SjpOI'tS hall In thal oountry. o...u1ng lhe plat\nmg ~has.e, heBItJng-eflergy needs were calculmoo at

4, 11 k'lr.~.a_ In O1oor worue, thB efl9rgy consumption is

90 per cern be:lo.v chat ot a conventiOnal spor'lS I'laIL The clear cubtc vOlume oI1ht! new slnlC'lJJ(e- eno Its facades. ~""9 01 prefabricated 'f.rood-Mel-giass el9menlS, tOOTl a boll! ceotra'S( to the ~in.g briCk buildlng_ A M'Q-Slc.ey etltrance tract bet'-~-eell tM h:a1ls L!nks tile 'l'lro ssructures. On u".,a ground tloot Is a large ro:rer jo- viSitOrs. Access for pupils is 03.1 sub1l00r level.lmernally. the lineJy artlC\llated Ioatl·b~rii"lg str1JC1L1lG is in neuva lofnbe1. which baa been lett exposed. To .sohieva the reQuired minimiJOl'-9nergy standard, the ooildmg was ceoStruCl00 wiltla SOlar-eG1jY8 ·Luc;ido~ glass rscaoe, 8 :SYSiOOl develceeo by the arcraecte 'hems~s. Thick Ia.yers 0= lI'1siktiOn al1(l an a"rtig.l1t skin also serve 10 (educe tile hE*l~in!) needs. Tne lhermal insula'tj(ln in tile east and west tacaoes is 160 rnrn 'llbck; ln the nonh and south 1acar;:le:s.. It is 200 rim thick; and in the roof. 400 mm thick.. PreneaMd air from me l.I.Icioo facades also flows into the cavity ceween lile lhef'lN!ll insulation and tile planted l;:ry.er of tM roof.

The Lucido facade (unctions as folJOo,'lS" S\!nlignt penetrates .;II s: ngle QUtet pane 01 to~ner\ed glass. and ma solar ~9tgy is aDsOl'bed 0:.' a ~)'et' of WIXId loewes in the ca v i~ to the rear. The air in tne cavity is healed to a temperature of BI'QlII"I(j

70 "C. This thermal energy is stored end rel~sed tater into ~ InteOOr .• n '.lie''''' D1 tI'Ie tM9,'h temperaii.IQS. Involved and;h9 thermal expansion lhey cause. 100 elements are point Ji)(ed '101m sloued openings at 1.250 m cern-es.

The system 01 fenestration fOr' tM hall c::-t:)(Isist$ 01 rune openable casement unilS within a latg.er area 01 fIXed ulple gJa2:lIlg tU s: 0.8 W/rn"K). ThIB post-l;lM·rall ccreuucvcn was executed 10 cessrce so!""r'efletgy sll;lnOOrdS. oee impomm1 cri1:erl.on <:A whiCh es tnat a buMifl9 should h,MI, an airtight seal tn50 = 0.6 It'l}. In the creeera ha", a \1'.;.100 oj 0.2 rr was acrnsved The v entlfaOOn plant. wilh scope fOl' neat·reco\'EI()'. produces warm alr ..,Ia an air/wate( exchange s.ySlem. ll'Ie air ~ tbert b'lown into 1M haLt The. ooe(gy ne-ede-d fa- this precess IS provided bV the healir.g plant In the exiSTIf!g half. If! th& urst ye-ar of operation. eddi1iOnal therma) energy was rQQlJlre.o ~r'orn NovDmber onwarda. tK.iL by the 'bagil'lrlo ng 01 Febrvary.

It was possIble to teet !he sports hall entlr8t~ from sc4ar sources, In comparison with a coovenbonaJ nail. lhe

Wangi COI'MM.mIW saves rouQhl)' 14.750 1i!r9S 'Of fuet 0I1,fI year'. ai\CI carbon dioxide emi$$iOns. are reduced by roughly 50 lennes.

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In~rflICf.lhIl~oIlJ"1(1 ~i<lftoo"'t!lfal;<lolJ& ;lCijI ~:l!'t!JI",ando1Iel(lrget(r(:lec!ud by Ihtl OIa~SoITCo!l11'4~IJ«)'Iidern.lIJQ'l~doOg, I'II{II'I kr'I1{;M:1rM1lJft1~ ~ oN~ ~ [t.(or cos, COr'I\'tICI.onOJiT~'l'tiIt1IIl$~1Vilylncr6M<11,1lI"IO (I)1;c~l'e,ijllslXMrM!oN

111 WI'TI1Jf.1M $U"I'a. roil'r.! 'till OIl 8 rTIldt ""* angli! ail'lC~1!!' nll~ponlIlli'loltle9l;'t!,S!tfIdwfllm _angled klvir<!9. ~bNet"brll'r'..pQrillWlEr&, the OCf"h"eCliOOprOCI;I!MCkK:r~. ThaI;OilI'ITy~ 1I'4$103CfJ$1)Ot<'-'CII)I\hl(:u1,"_lflll!i'l!\,nttiorlM :!Io11oftl\:1l"'n!.1.MIng~.The:;IOrI!d~ 6MfW anD 1hll &C~ "'er~ins\I~'\1ioo1'tlduCe tJt>.v~toi1m.nhw,n'1.lnlhl!l~M:JI, ~\t'Jd'Jl\ilr$a\~.-r'!I!IoIr(lI.J{IttI1G,IJJOrn:a,~ Ell"1;t vwttJLIlly 1'10 IIIJI;f"JiI~ in lempel8ll,1"Q. ard U$4W!ef'lPlM9lJf~elrMlXlroCJh\a~.

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Secondary School in Klaus A/Cl'lItet~: OLemeh lill\(! un~ertrif8~r. 8reQ9_nl

McchaniC(llI s.eMCBS: lOT Consulting & Eng:neefing, HorIcnems

VQfatlber9, a small state itI Au~ria, is 1t:ftCM1'i for tl'Ie hi9h an::hi-Il:JC1ural qLJilllity otes bwitdifl9s. In the realm ofllf'rwonmental and ~r eons{fl,.lCoon, too, one lioos piooeering ~IS such as the secondary schoOl In Klaus, \....nieh \'IaS esecoieo 313

a psssive-aoorgy strucuxe. W'ilh a t1taa.1ing reQlJiremant ct

15 kWI'~. a oonlrCfled .air-supply .and ~'lI'3ct system centimed .... 'l1h an air/eartta heat-exchange grid, and me awroprj.. eee Insulatlon values, 1he .sctlOol ccrnclles .... ttn Vorar1bl2t"Q standards for passl.'IIe-energ~ OOildin9$. 'ThIs timber structure is thus a pilOt scheme in 'M field of school consWt;:tion.

On lI1e basis or a stud)!' it had oom~ned, lhe loCal authority decided 10 sell th9 old schoo' wilding, lor erwirClr'Wilel"ltill .and economic. reasons • and to tctJleIc:.e ft with a new one. An oxiS1iflg epons haiL tract I'I3s Men rGLa/ned and .... ;11 be refur~ bisl'led taler in a second phase of construction. The school is si~uated dlfe¢1l.yon Ihe read between the- '(0.."'11 Q1 KlaI"t5. aM a neaiby il'\<:Ii,,I$lriai area, The Clearly artlcl.,llated volume 0: 1tte tf'Irea·S'la"ey bu,h;;ding, toge!tler with 8 'fWOostorey 'i~g tract to me existing spens hall. weens tnc treE:l-lifled pla'ygf"OOOO !tem 1M road. me !3l;:hool provides ,e-.act'lill9 Ie.- 12" ciassee. Thepupus DOme from Ktaua ano the two nearby communities of lI.'elier and FiI"axem. At the head of the classroom tract is a ~"'lrstorey entrance seece. ... Jhicn Is also used as an assembLy hall. The upper ftoor 01 the lin'king tract aCCQl"M"lClda.tes <II mur'ricipaL library, Accesa to t1'Ia: .... 'IO-o.aV te::u::h,ng tract is via a long oorriI;br IlIiJtI'Kna;Qd by roof fightS. WCs. ancrUal)' spaces ~nd mechani.cal services are notJsed in box-like suucunes inserted wimln jhe Eayoot,ligm wells Elxtr3l"1r:fi~ over the fu'll !\elg'ht of tM build.mg .allow daylight to pooetra!e to the lOt.o,rer nee-e. 11'19 main classrooms on the 9roooo and fitst fb:x's of the eastern 'rac:t are conneC1M by bridg.es to 1t1e corridOrs, Sull:Shading to 1M \\~ndOW5 is provlded try automatically ece'rolea jcuvree. whiCh can also b8 In.divir:Juall)l operated if 'equirQC!, The I\Jlly glazed scu!f'I face of tne 3ssef'nbfy ~Jt is crceecteo 8ga;ns~ insolation it! summer by a 30 pQr cent P8f~e.\OO steet-cccocr screen 1ixed 10 a .s,'teIeI kame S-IfUC~ut8. The. bui!{hng 0QI"I!i-1S.ts entifElly 01 prefabricated timber ererrerne, 'l'1i,h the exception Qf the: staircase ceres. w~h are

in rerntorced C(lI'Icroto. The schoo cost only :3 per Q9nll1'101'80 Ihan a comQ~uabLe building in a conventional. solio !orm (I! construction. FrOm !tie cutset. the arcn tee's and meetla.niear servlces engi~ars collaborated to acNe~'e a schoof 'nat 'IIoLild comply wim passl\,le-ener~1Y standards. A ~ 01 persuaslon wee needed durifrg Ofelwmi~1)' ctscoeaees wilh local alJ1hori~ oornm.i.mr6S 10 ensu-e not only a high te,,~ 01 aro1li· tecsse. but the best and most eHicienl meor::harltCal services

for Ihe si'uatiOn.