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Waterman CPM

Environmental Planning & Design

31 July 2008

Middle Quinton

Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment

H3016a_01
DRAFT

31 July 2008

Middle Quinton

Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment

H3016a_01

Quality Assurance – Approval Status


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Contents

Summary ........................................................................................................................ i

Section 1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 1


Section 2 Methodology ............................................................................................. 3
Section 3 The Site ..................................................................................................... 4
Section 4 Previously Identified Archaeology and Cultural Heritage........................... 5
Section 5 Documentary Sources Including Historic Maps and Aerial Photographs . 8
Section 6 Site Visit..................................................................................................... 12
Section 7 Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................ 14
Section 8 References and Sources ........................................................................... 16

APPENDICES

Appendix 1 National Guidance and Relevant Local Policy

Appendix 2 Warwickshire and Worcestershire Historic Environment Record (WaHER


and WoHER) Sites and Listed Building Information

Appendix 3 Time Chart and Glossary

PLANS

Plan 1 Previously Identified Archaeology and Cultural Heritage


(3016a/01 07/08 TD/TB)

Plan 2 Extracts from Historic Maps


(3016a/02 07/08 TD/TB)

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Summary

S1 This desk-based archaeological and cultural heritage assessment has been


prepared by Waterman CPM Limited (WCPM) on behalf of The Bird Group of
Companies Limited, to support the development of a new eco-town, Middle
Quinton, near Long Marston, Warwickshire.

S2 This assessment has been prepared in accordance with Planning Policy Guidance
Note 16 (PPG16) and Planning Policy Guidance Note 15 (PPG15). On a regional
level it is in accordance, with Policy QE5 of the West Midlands Regional Spatial
Strategy. On a sub-regional level this assessment is in accordance with saved
policies of the Worcestershire County Structure Plan and on a local level, with the
Stratford-on-Avon District Local Plan Review 1996-2011 and the Wychavon District
Local Plan, adopted June 2006. None of the saved policies from the Warwickshire
Structure plan are relevant to this assessment.

S3 The aims of this report are to assess the potential nature, importance and survival of
archaeological remains and cultural heritage within the area of proposed
development. The archaeological and cultural heritage background has been
assessed using the Warwickshire Historic Environment Record (WaHER) and the
Worcestershire Historic Environment Record (WoHER), which hold records relating
to archaeological sites, chance discoveries and archaeological site investigations,
and, listed and locally listed buildings. The history of the site has been documented
by a study of historical maps, books, articles and aerial photographs held at the
WaHER and WoHER, the Warwickshire County Record Office and the National
Monuments Record in Swindon.

S4 This desk-based assessment has shown that there is some potential for Roman
remains in the north of the site. This is based on previous archaeological
investigation carried out immediately north of the site.

S5 The assessment also uncovered limited potential for medieval remains relating to
the medieval shrunken village at Long Marston to the west of the site. Extensive
medieval and post-medieval ridge and furrow ploughing was recorded across the
site and its environs by the English Heritage National Mapping Programme. This
would suggest that any potential medieval or post-medieval remains are likely to be
of an agricultural nature and are likely to have been heavily impacted by later
ploughing and activity associated with the Central Engineers Depot.

S6 Although some potential has been identified by this assessment, it is unlikely that
any remains survive which would rate as of greater than local importance, and
these could be dealt with under a suitable planning condition through further
investigation and recording. Initial investigation could be carried out through a non-
intrusive programme of geophysical survey, followed by trial trenching in the event
that the survey identifies any potentially significant remains.

S7 A group of historic buildings were identified at Broad Marston Grounds, also


referred to as Long Marston Hamlet, in the southern area of the site. Although
these are not designated they are of probable 19th century or earlier date and
should be retained and restored as part of the proposed development.

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S8 Other structures on site reflect its use as the Central Engineer’s Depot from
the1940s. None of these structures is of particular historic or architectural
significance, but some building recording may be required in advance of
demolition.

S9 The proposed development would no significant impact to the setting of an 18th


century building, Long Marston Grounds, which lies immediately to the north-east
of the site or on a group of listed buildings at Broad Marston to the west of the site.
It is recommended that the landscaping associated with the development is
sensitive to these buildings.

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Section 1 Introduction

1.1 This assessment has been prepared by Waterman CPM Limited (WCPM) for The
Bird Group of Companies Limited to support the redevelopment of a new eco-town,
Middle Quinton, near Long Marston, Warwickshire. It sets out the results of an
archaeological and cultural heritage desk based assessment. The location of the
site, as well as the wider study area, is shown on Plan 1 (3016a/01).

1.2 The aim of the report is to provide a summary of known archaeological and cultural
heritage information for the area, based on existing data and the analysis of historic
sources and aerial photographs. The likely nature of archaeological deposits and
features, which may be impacted upon by any proposed development, is outlined.
The potential impact upon built heritage on site and in the surrounding area is also
considered. It follows best practice procedures produced by English Heritage (EH
1988) and the Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA 2001) and contained in Planning
Policy Guidance 15 ‘Planning and the Historic Environment’ (DoE 1994) and
Planning Policy Guidance 16 ‘Archaeology and Planning’ (DoE 1990). Relevant
passages are included in Appendix 1. This advice recommends identification of
the likely presence and significance of any archaeological deposits or important
elements of the historic environment at an early stage. Local plans tend to reflect
this guidance.

1.3 On a regional level this assessment is in accordance with the Regional Spatial
Strategy for the West Midlands and on a sub-regional level with the Worcestershire
County Structure Plan adopted in June 2001. None of the policies saved under
government direction from the Warwickshire Structure Plan 1996-2011 are relevant
to this assessment. Relevant policies are set out in Appendix 1.

1.4 The Stratford-on-Avon District Local Plan Review, adopted in July 2006 and the
Wychavon District Local Plan, adopted June 2006, set out the relevant local
guidance for the district.

1.5 With regard to designated and non-designated archaeological remains Policy EF11
of the Stratford on Avon District Local Plan states:

“Sites of archaeological importance and their settings will be protected,


enhanced and preserved. There will be a presumption in favour of the
physical in situ preservation of remains of national importance, whether
scheduled or otherwise. Developers will be expected to assist in that process
where such remains are affected by development proposals. Development
which would adversely affect such remains or their setting will not be
permitted.

In the case of remains of regional or local importance, the case for in situ
preservation will be assessed against other factors including the importance of
the remains and the need for the proposed development.

Those proposing development on sites which may contain important


archaeological remains will need to submit the results of an archaeological
assessment/field evaluation with their planning application. Failure to supply
such an assessment or evaluation may delay the progress of the application or
lead to the refusal of planning permission.”

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1.6 Regarding the requirements placed upon proposed developments, Policies EF11

and 11a state:

“Those proposing development on sites which may contain important


archaeological remains will need to submit the results of an archaeological
assessment/field evaluation with their planning application. Failure to supply
such an assessment or evaluation may delay the progress of the application or
lead to the refusal of planning permission.

Where it is considered, in the light of expert advice, that in situ preservation of


archaeological remains is not merited, appropriate provision for an agreed
programme of archaeological works will need to be made before planning
permission is granted.”

1.7 Regarding listed buildings and built heritage, Policy EF14 states:

“The preservation of buildings listed as being of special architectural or


historic interest, and their settings, will be secured through the following
means:

a) applying the presumption in favour of the preservation of listed buildings;

b) ensuring that proposed alterations, extensions or changes of use to listed


buildings, or development on adjoining land, will not have an adverse
impact on the special qualities of such buildings or their setting;

c) requiring applications for Listed Building Consent include fully detailed


and accurate drawings of the existing building and the proposed scheme;

d) taking enforcement action to rectify unauthorised and unacceptable


works to listed buildings; and

e) taking measures to ensure that neglected listed buildings are repaired.”

1.8 With regard to the Broad Marston Conservation Area, Policy ENV12 of the

Wychavon District Local Plan states that:

“Proposals for development within or affecting the setting of Conservation


Areas will be required to preserve or enhance their character or appearance.”

1.9 The other relevant policies of the Wychavon District Local Plan broadly reiterate the
content of those of the Stratford on Avon District Local Plan and are set out in full in
Appendix 1.

1.10 This archaeology and cultural heritage assessment forms the basis for any further
archaeological work, such as field investigation, should this be deemed necessary.

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Section 2 Methodology

2.1 This archaeological assessment is primarily a desk-based exercise. The sources


consulted include information held in the Warwickshire Historic Environment Record
(WaHER) and the Worcestershire Historic Environment Record (WoHER). These
consist of records relating to sites and findspots in the area, listed buildings and
reports relating to past archaeological investigations.

2.2 The WaHER, WoHER, Warwickshire County Records Office and the English
Heritage National Monuments Record were consulted for further records relating to
the area. Information noted consists of early maps, documents, secondary sources
and aerial photographs.

2.3 Previously recorded archaeological information, as well as details of designated


heritage in the vicinity of the site, is presented in Section 4 of this report. The
numbers used in the text are those issued by the WaHER and WoHER. Information
from early maps and other historic records, aerial photographs and secondary
sources are presented in Section 5. Section 6 discusses the site visit to the
northern and central parts of the site.

2.4 Section 7 provides a summary of both known structures and features and potential
for hitherto undiscovered sub-surface deposits. An appropriate approach to further
evaluation and mitigation is recommended where relevant.

2.5 A gazetteer of WaHER and WoHER information is included as Appendix 2. In


addition, Appendix 3 provides an archaeological time chart and glossary.

2.6 The locations of the known archaeological sites and findspots are shown on Plan 1
(3016a/01). Plan 2 (3016a/02) reproduces the relevant extracts from historic
maps.

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Section 3 The Site

Site Location

1.1 The site is located approximately 8km to the south-west of Stratford-on-Avon and
lies between 45 and 50m Above Ordnance Datum and is centred on NGR SP 1600
4700. It covers approximately 250 hectares (ha).

1.2 As Plan 1 (3016a/01) shows, the western site boundary is formed by the former
route of the Hatton to Honeybourne branch of the Great Western Railway (GWR)
and the Long Marston Road. The southern boundary is formed by open fields. To
the north, the site is bounded by the road between Long Marston and Lower
Quinton, and the buildings of Long Marston Grounds. The B4362 from Stratford-
on-Avon runs along the eastern boundary.

1.3 The site is occupied, in part, by the buildings of the former Central Engineers Depot.
A rail system runs across the site, which formerly linked the Central Engineers
Depot to the GWR. This is now used as extended sidings. The warehouse
buildings form two distinct groups one in the southern area and the other in the
north. The north-eastern area of the site is occupied by a sports ground and the
south-eastern area is occupied by a complex of accommodation buildings and a
fire station surrounding a former parade ground, now used as a car park. The
south-western area of the site is occupied by a large car park and scrap yard
alongside the buildings of Marston Fields Hamlet and Marston Grange.

1.4 Outside the areas of the site currently taken up by buildings, the land comprises
areas of woodland and fields. There are two main open areas, the central area
between the north and south building complexes and the majority of the western
third of the site.

Geology and Topography

3.1 The site lies on relatively flat land declining gently to the north. The underlying
geology is recorded as waterlogged clayey soils and loamy clayey soils of the
Denchworth association, overlying Jurassic and Cretaceous clay (Soil Survey of
England and Wales (SSEW 1983)).

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Section 4 Previously Identified Archaeology and Cultural
Heritage

4.1 The archaeological and cultural heritage background has been assessed using the
Warwickshire Historic Environment Record (WaHER) and Worcestershire Historic
Environment Record (WoHER). The Gloucestershire Sites and Monuments Record
(GSMR) were also consulted as all three counties lie close to the site. It was
confirmed that the GSMR included no entries within the study area (D Overton and
T Grubb, pers comm). In relation to archaeology, the intention of the search is to
locate known sites, which may be affected by groundwork associated with the
development of the site, and to predict and extrapolate likely archaeological
conditions within the site area from finds made nearby. Regarding cultural heritage,
the intention is to identify historic buildings within the site or its vicinity which are
likely to be impacted by the development proposals.

4.2 The location of the entries recorded on the WaHER and WoHER within a 0.5km
radius of the site are tabled in Appendix 2 and indicated on Plan 1 (3016a/01).
The numbers referenced on the plan and in brackets in the text are the WaHER and
WoHER identifiers. The WaHER identifiers are prefixed by MWA or EWA, depending
upon whether they refer to monuments or events. The WoHER identifiers are
prefixed by WSM. Appendix 3 provides a glossary of archaeological terms and a
time chart.

Designated Heritage

4.3 There are no Scheduled Ancient Monuments, World Heritage Sites, registered
battlefields or parks and gardens within the site or the wider study area.

4.4 There are 22 listed structures within the wider study area. None of these lie within
the site. These form two groups at Long Marston and Broad Marston. The long
Marston group comprises eleven buildings the closest of which lies over 400m to
the north of the site. The Broad Marston group comprises ten listed structures lying
between 850 and 1300m to the west of the site. Outside of either group the Grade
II listed Long Marston Grounds farmhouse, which was built circa 1700, is recorded
immediately north-east of the site [WaHER 482976].

4.5 Within the Long Marston group there is one Grade I listed structure, the Church of
St James which is of 14th century date [MWA 1823] located 400m north-west of the
site. A Grade II listed group of seven chest tombs and two headstones are
recorded in the churchyard which date between circa 1650 and circa 1731 [WaHER
482981]. A second group of five headstones which date between 1700 and 1740
are also recorded [WaHER 482982] along with a 17th century Grade II listed Chest
tomb and headstone [WaHER 482980]. Arborfield House, a Grade II listed 17th
century timber framed house is recorded on the WaHER 400m north-west of the site
[WaHER 482977]. The timber framed Grade II listed Court Farmhouse, which is of
17th century date, is recorded 380m north-west of the site [WaHER 482985]. Court
Farmhouse has two adjacent Grade II listed barns and a stable immediately west of
the farmhouse [WaHER 482986]. A second farm building is recorded
approximately 20m south-west of Court Farmhouse which is Grade II listed and

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formerly served as a Manorial court house [WaHER 482987]. Orchard Cottages are
a Grade II listed pair of houses of 17th century date with later alterations and an ex –
situ circa14th window stand 500m north-west of the site [WaHER 482993]. Butterfly
Cottage, a Grade II listed house of 17th century date with later alterations stands
nearby [WaHER 482978]. An early 17th century Grade II listed house called the
King’s Lodge stands on Main Street 420m north of the site [WaHER7558/482990].

4.6 The Broad Marston Conservation Area designated in March 1976 and revised in
June 2005 comprises two Grade II* listed buildings, eight Grade II listed buildings
and one locally listed building. The Priory, which is of 17th century date [WSM
00864], and a cruck and timbered frame barn which includes material of medieval
date in its build are also recorded [WSM 35100]. Grade II listed buildings at Broad
Marston comprise Broad Marston Manor, which was built in the 16th century and
extensively rebuilt during the 17th [WSM 40321]. A dovecote is also listed at the
manor house [WSM 09010]. To the south of the manor house are The Priory and
Chapel House, which may formerly have been a chapel attached to The Priory
[WSM 00864 and 40322]. A second dovecote is recorded at Manor Farm [WSM
00866]. Other Grade II listed structures at Broad Marston, within the study area,
comprise three 16th to 17th century houses, Martin’s, Rowans and Nolan’s Cottage
and the 17th century Shoulder of Mutton Public House [WSM40317, 40318, 40319
and 40320]. These buildings lie at the western extent of the village along Marston
Road. The WoHER records a locally-listed coach house at Broad Marston Manor.
The building is stone built with a slate roof and has a hayloft, suggesting that it was
formerly used as a barn [WSM27986].

Non-designated Heritage

Prehistoric
4.7 There were no entries of prehistoric date recorded on the WaHER or the WoHER

within the site or in the wider study area.

Roman
4.8 A Roman rural settlement is recorded on the WaHER 50m north of the site. The

settlement was recorded during excavations carried out for the Honeybourne to

Newbold Pacey pipeline in 1999. The entry on the WaHER includes a probable

ditch and several pits [MWA 9139].

4.9 The WaHER records an undated possible enclosure within the northern area of the
site which is based on aerial photographic evidence [MWA 4569]. It is possible that
this relates to the Roman activity to the north.

Medieval
4.10 The WaHER records the site of the shrunken medieval village of Upper Quinton
450m east of the site. Earthworks relating to the village were noted on aerial
photographs at the southern edge of the current village [MWA 6452]. The shrunken
medieval village of Long Marston is recorded on the WaHER 450m north-west of the
site [MWA 6450]. Both the WaHER and the WoHER record extensive ridge and
furrow cultivation in the area of Long Marston within and immediately west of the
site [MWA 6449]. The ridge and furrow, across the area, has been recorded from
aerial photographs. Their survival, within the site, after the development of the

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engineer’s depot and later ploughing, has not been confirmed. The areas of ridge
and furrow identified are shown as hatched areas on Plan 1 (3016a/01).

Post-medieval
4.11 A stone tower mill of early 19th century date is recorded at Lower Quinton 450m east
of the site [MWA 1817].

Previous Investigations

4.12 There are two previous investigations recorded on the WaHER; no previous
investigations are recorded on the WoHER within the study area. The WaHER
records the archaeological monitoring of a pipeline which ran east to west 30m
north of the site beyond Station Road which recorded the Roman settlement [MWA
9139 [EWA 7522]. A total 26km stretch of pipeline was executed through
Worcestershire and Warwickshire with a strip width of 25m. Archaeological
deposits and features were recorded at Long Marston over a length of 120m. A
number of second to 4th century AD ditches and pits were recorded containing an
assemblage of varied domestic wares. First century pottery was absent and it was
noted that the majority of the material belonged to the 3rd and 4th centuries AD.
Other notable finds include a concave moulded plaster fragment recovered from
the top soil which was of uncertain date, iron work and blown glass.

4.13 An archaeological record was made of the remains of the mill at Upper Quinton in
2000 [EWA 6876]. The Lower Quinton mill was a stone tower mill built in the early
19th century which ceased work by the 1870s. It was eventually dismantled to make
way for a housing estate in1951.

Undesignated Historic Buildings


4.14 Marston Fields Hamlet comprises a group of historic buildings of 19th century or
earlier date (see Section 6.11). These comprise domestic dwellings and ancillary
agricultural buildings Plan 1 (3016a/01).

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Section 5 Documentary Sources Including Historic Maps
and Aerial Photographs

5.1 The Warwickshire Historic Environment Record (WaHER) and Worcestershire


Historic Environment Record (WoHER) and Warwickshire County Records Office
(WCRO) were consulted as to their collections of historic documents and maps
relating to the site and its environs. The collection of aerial photographs held by
English Heritage (EH) was examined, along with further secondary sources and
National Mapping Programme data, at the National Monuments Records.

Historic Maps

5.2 A series of historic maps were assessed in order to examine the development of the
site and surrounding area. The earliest available map showing the whole site is the
1884 first edition Ordnance Survey (OS) map of Long Marston Plan 2 (3016a/02).
An earlier Tithe map of the northern area of the site exists, but the whereabouts of
this plan is currently unknown.

5.3 The first edition OS map of 1884 shows the site as open fields with some tree lined
boundaries and roads. Marston Fields Hamlet, comprising houses and
outbuildings, is depicted in the south-west area of the site, and is entitled ‘Broad
Marston Grounds’. A stream crossed through the hamlet with two footbridges
marked and a lane called ‘Sharry Lane’ entered the site from the east with a second
lane located to the south-west.

5.4 The second edition OS map of 1903 shows three new buildings within the south-
west area of the site. These buildings are currently known as ‘Marston Grange’
Plan 1 (3016a/01). A footpath is shown crossing the site and a turnpike house is
marked on the Quinton road beyond the eastern site boundary.

5.5 The 1924 OS map of Long Marston shows a similar layout to the 1903 map. Two
new barns are shown within the western half of the site and two more had been
added at Sharry Lane. Cattle pens had been added along the railway line at the
western boundary.

5.6 The 1955 OS map of Long Marston shows considerable change in the site
associated with the development of the Central Engineer’s Depot. A network of
roads and rail tracks is shown across the site connecting to the Honeybourne to
Haddon branch line and a second complex of terminus lines are shown in the
south-west of the site. A number of buildings are shown across the site which were
concentrated in the eastern area and Sharry Lane had been extended across the
site to connect with the south-western lane shown on the first edition OS map.

5.7 The 1969 OS map shows a decommissioned Central Engineer’s Depot. The rail
tracks appear to have been partially removed. Three large structures stood in the
north-western area. A large factory building stood in the western enclosure which
was surrounded by a number of smaller buildings. The sidings in the western area
are shown in a completed state and a sewage pumphouse is shown at the northern
boundary. A parade ground surrounded by a complex of buildings is shown in the

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eastern area of the site; north of this was a sports ground. Sporadic trees and
bushes are shown across the site and Broad Marston Grounds, now Marston Fields
Hamlet, had been retitled Jordan’s Farm. The new buildings, shown in the south-
west area of the site on the 1903 OS map, are titled ‘South Dakota and New
Buildings’.

5.8 Changes to the site and the surrounding area shown on the 1998 OS map are
limited. The factory structure in the north-east area of the site had been removed
and two additional buildings are shown in the north-east area. A scrap yard has
been added in the south-west corner of the site. The villages of Long Marston and
Lower Quinton were largely unaltered at this juncture.

Other Sources

5.9 Documentary sources provided no evidence of prehistoric activity and one instance
of Roman activity in the study area which may reflect the limited amount of
archaeological investigation carried out. The main source of information for earlier
activity is the archaeological monitoring of the pipeline carried out in 2000, which
includes a general appraisal regarding prehistoric and Roman archaeology in
Warwickshire. To summarise, the appraisal states that, to date, there is scarce
evidence for Mesolithic activity and little material in the way of flint tools or other
finds has been recovered. This may be due to poor quality local flint. Finds of
Neolithic and Bronze Age date, particularly sizable flint scatters, are also rare even
at the sites of prehistoric monuments. Regarding Roman occupation of
Warwickshire assessment of the assemblages of Roman sites in the county
suggest that Roman settlement occurred from the early 2nd century. The majority of
Roman settlements in Warwickshire are recorded from aerial photographs. Beyond
the wider study area are Meon Hill, a multivallate fort occupied in the Iron Age and
the Roman period and Ryknild Street, a Roman road which lies over 4km to the
west of the site. Ryknild Street has some associated road side settlement at
Ullington.

5.10 Both Long Marston and Lower Quinton are thought to be of medieval date. Quinton
is first recorded as ‘Quenton’ in 1221 and considered to mean the ‘farm of Cwena’.
‘Marston’ is considered to mean ‘Marsh Farm’ and is considered to be of early
medieval origin (Place Names Society 1927). The medieval church of St James’, at
Long Marston, has a mixture of perpendicular and ‘Early English’ features. A
Grange belonging to the Convent of Hales is recorded in the Domesday Book of
1086 called Ridgacre at Quinton. The modified medieval church at Lower Quinton
still stands. The other buildings of the village generally belong to the 19th century
with some 18th century inclusions.

5.11 Long Marston parish was one of a number of parishes making up an isolated part
of Gloucestershire until 1931 when it was transferred to Warwickshire (VCH 1949).
Whilst part of Gloucestershire, the parish was named ‘Marston Sicca’.

5.12 Broad Marston hamlet is first mentioned in the Domesday Book as being
subjugated to Pebworth, which lies to the west. The presence of a moated manor
at the hamlet suggest that it originated as a medieval homestead. The
Honeybourne area of Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, which
includes the site, has been noted for the extensive remains of medieval ridge and
furrow ploughing (Brooks and Pevsner 2007).

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5.13 The Central Engineers Depot at Long Marston was constructed as an army training
camp in 1940-41 during the Second World War. During the war the depot served
as a satellite to RAF Honeybourne. Many of the initial buildings were temporary and
were replaced in the post-war period. The replacement buildings were more
permanent brick buildings and large storage sheds used by the Royal Engineers.
The Royal Engineers vacated the site and closed the branch line in 1999, since
which storage has been leased to private companies. Due to the post-war re-
development of Long Marston there are relatively few surviving war time structures
such as Romney huts (Carrell 2007).

Aerial Photographs

5.14 A total of 83 photographs were identified by EH for the site. The vertical aerial
photographs span the period from 1946 to 1993. They show the early development
of the Central Engineers Depot, its completion and its use after decommissioning.
The buildings comprise factory and warehouse structures with single and multiple
pitch roofs and cylindrical storage tanks. Details of the buildings were examined
across the series of photographs.

5.15 There was evidence of ridge and furrow ploughing on various photographs across
the series, with some elements visible within the southern area of the site. The
fields in the southern area of the site, outside of the Central Engineer’s Depot, later
showed extensive evidence of modern ploughing. Within the area of the Central
Engineer’s Depot, the tracks of military vehicles covered most of the area and are
likely to have obscured any underlying cropmarks.

5.16 The earliest photographs, taken on the 1st of April 1946, show the depot with rail
system and road network largely complete. Extensive parts of the south and east
areas are being used for vehicle storage and parking. The parade ground is shown
with surrounding buildings which differ slightly to the current layout. The area to the
north of the parade ground has a complex of buildings on it. The only crop marks
on site relate to modern agriculture and vehicle tracks. The western area is
undeveloped. The buildings of Marston Fields Hamlet and Marston Grange are
surrounded by open fields which show evidence of ridge and furrow ploughing
alongside the modern ploughing (RAF/106G/UK/1345/5356-5358). Later sorties
carried out in March 1993 show a scrap yard to the south-west of these buildings
comprising temporary structures and a concrete yard surface. The south-western
corner of the site which comprises the scrap-yard, parking and adjacent woodland
which would obscure any indicators of ridge and furrow ploughing (OS/93056 183-
187).

National Mapping Programme

5.17 English Heritage’s National Mapping Program (NMP) plot of features observed on
aerial photographs was examined for the Long Marston and Lower Quinton area.
There are no cropmarks at the location of the site recorded on the WaHER as lying
within the site (MWA 4569). With regards to ridge and furrow the NMP data
contrasts with that from the WaHER which shows ridge and furrow associated with
Long Marston extending into the western area of the site. Within the wider study
area earthworks relating to the shrunken medieval village at Lower Quinton were
recorded. There are no earthworks recorded at Long Marston which would

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correspond with the shrunken medieval village recorded on the WaHER. Ridge and
furrow ploughing was shown across the fields of the wider study area on the NMP.

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Section 6 Site Visit

6.1 The northern part of the site was visited in August 2007 to assess the current
ground conditions and topography and, in addition, to identify remains of previously
recorded sites or any hitherto unrecorded archaeological or cultural heritage
features of significance. Photographs of the buildings at Marston Fields Hamlet, in
the southern area, have also been considered.

6.2 The site visit did not identify the remains of any previously unknown above ground
features within the boundaries of the site.

6.3 Within the southern area of the site, the group of buildings which make up Marston
Fields Hamlet, appear from photographs, to include a single storey 17th to 18th
century timber framed, brick built barn and an adjacent 19th century brick barn with
a first storey entrance, accessed by a flight of steps. The remainder of the group
comprises later stone built 18th and 19th century agricultural buildings and a 19th
century red brick house which are either in a state of disrepair, converted or under
conversion. The timber framed building appears to be in a poor state and may
possibly be becoming unstable.

6.4 The northern and southern industrial areas were linked by the rail system and roads
and the buildings across the site mostly comprised warehouses and Romney huts.
The northern area contained a number of warehouses. The western area of the site
was occupied by railway sidings and the Long Marston Bowls and Tennis Club
which was derelict. The central area contained a number of newer warehouses and
the south-eastern area contained the accommodation blocks, a school building and
the army fire station.

6.5 The site was generally flat and may have been levelled during the construction of
the depot. The rail system runs across the site linking to the Haddon to
Honeybourne branch line and was being used as storage sidings for
decommissioned trains at the time of the visit. The road network across the site is
broadly the same as the depot network although some roads are no longer used. A
number of deep holding ponds were inspected across the site, which were
connected by water filled irrigation channels.

6.6 The warehouses of both industrial areas are light corrugated steel and Perspex
structures supported by a number of stanchions and simple steel roof frameworks.
The buildings were open inside and generally had one or two sub-divisions forming
office rooms against the main walls. Since the closure of the depot, the
warehouses have been used by a variety of businesses, but appear to have been
subject to little development or alteration. The northern and southern groups of
warehouses are those of the Central Engineers Depot. A number of new
warehouses have been built in the central area of the site.

6.7 The Romney huts are semi-circular corrugated steel sheet covered structures
supported by a steel tube curved rib framework. They are similar to the smaller and
better known Nissen hut, but are larger and lack the T-section support of the Nissen
hut. They were used for stores and workshops. There were a number of Romney
huts across the site standing alone or in groups of less than four. Most were
located within the northern and southern areas. At the time of the visit they were
generally being used for storage.

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6.8 Two other military structures were inspected during the site visit. A reinforced
concrete and packed earth shooting range stood in the northern area of the site to
the south of the warehouses. The structure is around 5m tall and is filled with earth.
A building which presumably housed guard dogs was inspected in the central
eastern area of site north of the access road. The building was brick built and
comprised two areas of kennels with animal access hatches or dog gates.

6.9 In the north-western area of the site, a small complex of brick buildings stood

adjacent to the branch line sidings. To the south-east of these was the Long

Marston Depot Bowls and Tennis Club comprising an overgrown tennis court and

bowling green with wooden clubhouse. It seems likely that the small complex of

buildings to the north served as the bar or mess.

6.10 The south-eastern area of the site was separated from the rest of the site by fences
and a water channel and accessed from the approach road at the east of the site.
The army fire station buildings alongside the approach road consist of a main fire
station building and drill tower. The former parade ground to the south of the fire
station has been turned into a car park. Three accommodation blocks stood to the
south of the parade ground which were flat roofed and built of beige brick with
wood trim. The mess building stood to the east of the parade ground. Both the fire
station and the northern area mess building at the bowling and tennis club were
built in the same style. A school building stood immediately to the west of the
accommodation compound which was wood panelled.

6.11 The south-western area of the site is occupied by a small group of late 20th century
warehouses and ancillary buildings, which lie in the south-western corner of a
surrounding store yard. These buildings have no discernible architectural merit. An
extensive car park lies to the east of the warehouse compound, which is
surrounded by woodland to the north and fields to the east. The 20th century
buildings at Marston Grange lie to the north of these woods, comprising a large
house, horse parade ground, swimming pool and outbuildings.

6.12 The listed Long Marston Grounds was assessed from Station Road. This building is
surrounded by trees and lies opposite a copse within the development site.

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Section 7 Conclusions and Recommendations

7.1 A desk-based archaeological assessment has been undertaken for the proposed
development of an eco town, Middle Quinton, near Long Marston, Warwickshire.
The local archaeological databases, and other secondary sources, indicate that
there are no known sites within the area of the site and that there is little potential for
significant archaeological features and deposits within the site. An undated
cropmark is recorded on the Warwickshire Historic Enrionment Record in the north
of the site, but there was no evidence for this on aerial photographs consulted for
this assessment or seen during the site visit.

7.2 Archaeological fieldwork carried out for a pipeline in 2000 to the north of the site
recorded archaeological remains relating to a Roman settlement. The assessment
also identified limited potential for medieval remains within the western area of the
site based upon evidence of a shrunken medieval settlement recorded at Long
Marston. No significant potential for other prehistoric or Roman remains was
uncovered within the study area. Limited potential for ridge and furrow was also
identified across the site. Any remains are likely to have been impacted by
agricultural activity before the 1940s and the construction of the depot during the
Second World War. The latter does not apply to the southern area of the site which
lies outside of the Central Engineer’s Depot.

7.3 Although the site has been assessed to have low archaeological potential, the
absence of past finds may be a reflection of the absence of past investigation. The
discovery of Roman remains to the north during the construction of a pipeline
suggest that sub-surface remains may lie within the site. However, given later
impacts on the site, it is most likely that any remains could be dealt with through a
planning condition requiring further investigation in advance of construction. Initial
investigation could be carried out through a non-intrusive programme of
geophysical survey, followed by trial trenching in the event that the initial survey
identifies any potentially significant remains.

7.4 The undesignated buildings which make up the hamlet of Broad Marston Grounds,
in the south of the site, have local historic and architectural importance and should
ideally be retained and restored within the proposed development.

7.5 Across the site there are a number of post-war structures associated with the Long
Marston Central Engineers Depot surviving across the site comprising warehouses,
Romney huts and accommodation buildings along with a shooting range and
kennel.

7.6 Nonetheless, the existing buildings on site have limited architectural or historical
importance. It may be appropriate to complete a suitable level of building recording
in advance of the demolition of any structures.

7.7 The warehouses at the south-western corner of the site have little architectural or
historic merit. There removal as part of any proposed development would not
constitute an adverse effect.

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7.8 The listed Long Marston Grounds lies to the north-east. This building is surrounded
by woodland and although the development should respect its setting, no
significant effect is anticipated. Listed buildings at Long Marston, Quinton and
Broad Marston are screened from the site by intervening form comprising 20th
century development and vegetation.

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Section 8 References and Sources

Brooks A & Pevsner N 2007 The Buildings of England: Worcestershire China

Carrell S 2007 20th century defences in Warwickshire Gloucestershire

Department of the Environment (DoE) 1990 Planning Policy Guidance Note 16:
Archaeology and Planning London

Department of the Environment (DoE) 1994 Planning Policy Guidance Note 15:
Planning and the Historic Environment London

English Heritage (EH) 1988 Archaeological Guidance Paper: Desk-based


Assessment London

Government office for the West Midlands 2004 West Midlands Regional Spatial
Strategy (RPG11)

Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA) 2001 Standards and Guidance for


Archaeological Desk-based Assessments Reading

May T 2002 Military Barracks Buckinghamshire

Osborne M 2004 Defending Britain - 20th century Military Structures in the


Landscape Gloucestershire

Pevsner N & Wedgewood A 1966 The Buildings of England: Warwickshire


Harmondsworth

Place Names Society 1927 The Place Names of Worcestershire Cambridge

Place Names Society 1936 The Place Names of Warwickshire Cambridge

Stratford on Avon District Council (SDC) 2004 Stratford upon Avon District Local
Plan Review 1996-2011

Thompson P and Palmer S 2006 An Inventory of Iron Age, Romano-British and


Medieval settlements on the Transco Newbold Pacey to Honeybourne Gas |Pipeline
Warwick

Victoria County History 1945 A History of the County of Warwick, Vol. III London

Victoria County History 1949 A History of the County of Warwick, Vol. V London

Victoria County History 1901 A History of the County of Worcester Vol. I London

Warwickshire County Council 2004 Warwickshire Structure Plan 1996-2011

Worcestershire County Council 2001 The Worcestershire County Structure Plan


1996-2011 Worcester

Wychavon District Council 2006 Wychavon District Local Plan Worcester

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Map Sources

First Edition 1:2500 scale Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston 1884 Sheets
Glos. III.8, IV.5 and III.2

Second Edition 6 inch scale Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston 1903 Sheets
Glos. III NE, Warks. XLIX NE, Glos. IV NW, Warks. L NW, Worcs. XLIV NW, Glos IV
SW and Warks. L SW

Third Edition 6 inch scale Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston 1924 Sheets
Glos. III NE, Warks. XLIX NE, Glos. IV NW, Warks. L NW, Worcs. XLIV NW and
Glos. IV.9

1955 1:2500 Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston Sheet 42 SP 14 NE

1969 1:2500 Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston Sheet 42 SP 14 NE

Explorer Series 1:2500 Ordnance Survey map of Long Marston 205

Soil Survey of England Wales (SSEW) Sheet 3: Soils of Midland and Western
England 1983

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Appendix 1 National Guidance and Relevant Local Policy

Appendix 1 National Guidance and Relevant Local Policy

Planning Policy Guidance Note 15 - Planning and the Historic Environment


(PPG15)
A1.1 Planning Policy Guidance 16 (PPG16) has been supplemented by Planning Policy
Guidance Note 15: Planning and the Historic Environment (PPG15). PPG15 is to be
used in conjunction with PPG16, as expressed in PPG15 paragraph 1. PPG15 sets
out the Secretary of State’s policy on the historic built environment, and provides
recommendations, many of which have been integrated into local development
plans. The key points in PPG15 (DoE 1994) can be summarised as follows:

• There is a presumption against the demolition of Listed Buildings;

• The desirability of preserving and enhancing the character and appearance of


Conservation Areas is stressed;

• Alteration and change of use of historic buildings must be appropriate.


Applicants need to justify needs for development against the significance and
value of historic features; and

• Planning authorities, where they propose to allow development which is


damaging to the historic built environment, must ensure that the developer has
satisfactorily provided for a programme of building recording or other
appropriate works, either through a voluntary agreement with the
archaeologists, or, in the absence of agreement, by the imposition of an
appropriate condition on the Planning Permission.

Planning Policy Guidance Note 16 - Archaeology and Planning (PPG16)


A1.2 Archaeology is a material consideration in the planning process, and government
guidance stresses the important role that LPAs have in safeguarding the
archaeological heritage through the development control process.

A1.3 PPG16 sets out the Secretary of State’s policy on archaeological remains on land,
and provides recommendations, many of which have been integrated into local
development plans. The key points in PPG16 (DoE, 1990) can be summarised as
follows:

• Archaeological remains should be seen as a finite and non-renewable


resource, and in many cases highly fragile and vulnerable to damage and
destruction. Appropriate management is therefore essential to ensure that
they survive in good condition. In particular, care must be taken to ensure that
archaeological remains are not needlessly or thoughtlessly destroyed. They
can contain irreplaceable information about our past and the potential for an
increase in future knowledge. They are part of our sense of national identity
and are valuable both for their own sake and for their role in education, leisure
and tourism;

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• Where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or not,
and their settings, are affected by a proposed development there should be a
presumption in favour of their physical preservation;

• The key to informed and reasonable planning decisions is for consideration to


be given early before formal planning applications are made, to the question of
whether archaeological remains are known to exist on a site where
development is planned and the implications for the development proposal;

• When important remains are known to exist, or when archaeologists have good
reason to believe that important remains exist, developers will be able to help
by preparing sympathetic designs using, for example, foundations which avoid
disturbing the remains altogether, or which minimise damage by raising
ground levels under a proposed new structure, or by careful siting of
landscaped or open areas. There are techniques available for sealing
archaeological remains underneath buildings or landscaping, thus securing
their preservation for the future even though they remain inaccessible for the
time being;

• If physical preservation in situ is not feasible, an archaeological excavation for


the purposes of ‘preservation by record’ may be an acceptable alternative.
From an archaeological point of view, this should be regarded as a second
best option. Agreements should also provide for the subsequent publication
of the results of any excavation programme;

• Development plans should reconcile the need for development with the
interests of conservation - including archaeology. Detailed development plans
should include policies for the protection, enhancement and preservation of
sites of archaeological interest, and their settings;

• Decisions by planning authorities, in the face of proposed development, on


whether to preserve archaeological remains in situ, have to be taken on merit,
taking account of development plan policies and all other material
considerations - including the importance of the remains - and weighing these
against the need for development; and

• Planning authorities, when they propose to allow development which is


damaging to archaeological remains, must ensure that the developer has
satisfactorily provided for excavation and recording, either through voluntary
agreement with the archaeologists or, in the absence of agreement, by
imposing an appropriate condition on the planning permission.

The West Midlands Regional Spatial Strategy (RSS) adopted June 2004

Policy Qe5: Protection and Enhancement of the Historic Environment


A. Development plans and other strategies should identify, protect, conserve
and enhance the Region’s diverse historic environment and manage
change in such a way that respects local character and distinctiveness;

B. Of particular historic significance to the West Midlands are:

i) The historic rural landscapes and their settlement patterns;

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ii) Historic urban settlements, including market towns and cathedral
cities;

iii) Listed buildings, scheduled and unscheduled ancient


monuments, conservation areas, historic parks and gardens, all in
their settings, and battlefields;

iv) Areas of industrial heritage such as the Birmingham Jewellery


Quarter;

v) The historic transport network;

vi) Strategic river corridors (Severn, Wye, Trent, and Avon); and

vii) Ironbridge Gorge World Heritage Site.

C. Development plans and other strategies should recognise the value of


conservation led regeneration in contributing to the social, spiritual and
economic vitality of communities and the positive role that buildings of
historic and architectural vale can plan as a focus in an area’s
regeneration.

D. In particular, strategies should explore the regeneration potential of:

i) Redundant or under-used industrial and commercial buildings;

ii) Rural settlements and market towns outside the MUAs;

iii) Victorian and Edwardian commercial centres particularly in the


MUAs;

iv) Traditional buildings of the countryside;

v) Existing church buildings and their potential community uses;

vi) 19th and early 20th century urban housing; and

vii) The canal network.

The Worcestershire County Structure Plan 1996-2011

Archaeological Sites of National Importance Policy CTC.16


A1.4 There will be a presumption in favour of the physical preservation in situ of
internationally or nationally important archaeological remains, their settings
andamenity value. Development which would adversely affect internationally
ornationally important archaeological remains, their settings or amenity value
will not be allowed.

Archaeological Sites of Regional or Local Importance - Policy CTC.17


A1.5 Development proposals which affect regionally or locally important archaeological
remains and their settings should take account of their relative importance. Where
the remains are identified as being particularly worthy of preservation any
development which may damage the archaeological importance of the remains or
its setting will not normally be allowed. Where development proposals affect

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regionally or locally important remains every effort should be made to preserve
them intact. Where preservation in situ cannot be justified, arrangements should be
made to record those parts of the site that may be destroyed or altered.

Enhancement and Management of Archaeological Sites - Policy CTC.18


A1.6 The management, understanding and enhancement of archaeological sites is to be
encouraged and where relevant should be taken into account by the Local Planning
Authority when considering development proposals. To assist in this District
Planning Authorities should set out appropriate policies for their area within Local
Plans.

Areas and Features of Historic and Architectural Significance - Policy CTC.19


A1.7 Any development which would adversely affect those features and areas of historic
and/or architectural significance which contribute to the character of the urban or
rural parts of the County will not normally be allowed. Such features and areas
should be retained and their appropriate management encouraged. Features and
areas include:

(i) listed buildings and their settings and conservation areas and their settings;

(ii) significant historic landscapes; and

(iii) significant buildings or features of local historic and/or architectural interest.

Reuse and Conversion of Buildings - Policy CTC.21


A1.8 In considering alternative uses which assist in the retention of buildings of
special architectural and/or local architectural or historic interest, the primary
concern will be the retention of the architectural and/or historic interest that relates
to that building. Alternative uses will be supported provided that the building and
the proposed uses are compatible and appropriate to the special
or local architectural and/or historic character, setting and the environmental
character of the area. Conversions to residential or other use of listed buildings
which adversely affect the special character and/or historic character of the listed
building will not normally be allowed. Where alterations or conversions do take
place consideration should be given to the need for the recording of changes, as
appropriate.

Stratford-on-Avon District Local Plan Review 1996-2011

Policy EF11
A1.9 Sites of archaeological importance and their settings will be protected, enhanced
and preserved. There will be a presumption in favour of the physical in situ
preservation of remains of national importance, whether scheduled or otherwise.
Developers will be expected to assist in that process where such remains are
affected by development proposals. Development which would adversely affect
such remains or their setting will not be permitted.
A1.10 In the case of remains of regional or local importance, the case for in situ
preservation will be assessed against other factors including the importance of the
remains and the need for the proposed development.
A1.11 Those proposing development on sites which may contain important
archaeological remains will need to submit the results of an archaeological

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assessment/field evaluation with their planning application. Failure to supply such
an assessment or evaluation may delay the progress of the application or lead to
the refusal of planning permission.

Policy EF11A
A1.12 Where it is considered, in the light of expert advice, that in situ preservation of
archaeological remains is not merited, appropriate provision for an agreed
programme of archaeological works will need to be made before planning
permission is granted.

Policy EF14
A1.13 The preservation of buildings listed as being of special architectural or historic
interest, and their settings, will be secured through the following means:

f) applying the presumption in favour of the preservation of listed buildings;

g) ensuring that proposed alterations, extensions or changes of use to listed


buildings, or development on adjoining land, will not have an adverse impact
on the special qualities of such buildings or their setting;

h) requiring applications for Listed Building Consent include fully detailed and
accurate drawings of the existing building and the proposed scheme;

i) taking enforcement action to rectify unauthorised and unacceptable works to


listed buildings; and

j) taking measures to ensure that neglected listed buildings are repaired.

Wychavon District Local Plan June 2006

Policy ENV10 Sites of Archaeolgical Significance


A1.14 Proposals for development affecting national, regional or locally important
archaeological sites and their settings whether scheduled or unscheduled, will
only be permitted where proposals can demonstrate that the archaeological interest
is capable of being preserved in situ and without damage to its setting. If this is not
merited, where the reasons for the proposal outweigh the intrinsic importance of the
site/remains or the setting of the feature and there is no reasonable alternative site
or solution to accommodate the development proposed, then the developer must
agree to an appropriate level of investigation and recording prior to and during
development and the subsequent analysis and publication of results and curation
of remains. Applications for development affecting sites where archaeological
remains are likely to exist should be accompanied by an assessment/survey to
establish the nature, condition or significance of any remains prior to the
determination of any planning application.

Policy ENV12 Conservation Areas (General)


A1.15 Proposals for development within or affecting the setting of conservationareas will
be required to preserve or enhance their character or appearance. Development
that would affect a conservation area will be determined having regard to the
following:

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a) the siting, position, layout and landscaping of new development
proposals should respect traditional street patterns, building
lines, existing landscape features including trees and hedges, plot
layouts and views into and out of the area;

b) the proportions and design of new development and alterations to


existing buildings should respect the context provided by adjacent
buildings and the surrounding area. Building materials must be
appropriate to the locality;

c) changes of use should preserve or enhance the character or

appearance of the area; and

d) the development should not involve the demolition of any building


or feature that makes a positive contribution to the character or appearance of
the area, unless the Council is satisfied that there is an overriding justification
for the demolition proposed.

Policy ENV14 Settings of Listed Buildngs


A1.16 Proposals for development will only be permitted where they would preserve the
setting of a listed building.

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Appendix 2 Warwickshire and Worcestershire Historic
Environment Record (WaHER and WoHER)
Sites and Listed Building Information
Appendix 2 Warwickshire and Worcestershire Historic
Environment Record (WaHER and WoHER)
Sites and Listed Building Information

WaHER/WoHER NGR Period Monument Description


Ref. (all SP
REGION)
MWA 1817 1759 4734 Post-medieval Early 19th century stone tower mill.
Imperial 1751- Three storeys high with wooden
1913 machinery and two pairs of grind
stones. Now demolished but has
extant foundations. It was recorded as
part of EWA 6876 in 2000 AD.
MWA 4569 1596 4752 Undated Possible enclosure visible as a
cropmark on aerial photographs.
Located in Central Engineer Park, Long
Marston.
MWA 6449 15 (centroid) Medieval to Ridge and Furrow cultivation
unknown transcribed from aerial photographs.
MWA 6450 1534 4837 Medieval (1066- Site of Shrunken Medieval village of
1539 AD) Long Marston. Visible as earthworks
on aerial photographs, outside of
current village.
MWA 6452 1774 4629 Medieval Site of Shrunken Medieval village of
Upper Quinton. Earthworks noted on
aerial photographs at southern edge of
current village.
EWA 6876 1759 4734 event Archaeological recording of mill at
Lower Quinton carried out in 2000AD.
EWA 7522 30060 56600 event Transco Honeybourne to Newbold
Pacey pipeline. Unpublished report.
MWA 9139 15975 47958 Roman Roman rural settlement, Long Marston.
Includes probable ditch and pits.
Roman pottery recovered. Recorded
during a pipeline monitoring in 1999.

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WaHER/WoHER NGR Period Building Description
Ref. (all SP
REGION)
WSM 00864 14192 46305 Post-medieval The Priory (formerly listed as Broad
Marston Priory) II* Large house mainly
17th and 18th century on an earlier core.
WSM 00866 14002 46278 Post-medieval Grade II listed 18-19th century
rectangular stone dovecote with gabled
ends. Red brick with tiled roof and a
square wooden lantern with entrance
hole and perch in each face.
MWA 1823/482979 1528 4811 Medieval to Church of St James, Long Marston.
Imperial 1066- Has Quire (with early English and
1900AD Perpendicular features) nave and half
timbered western bell-turret and south
porch. Grade I listed with 14th century
nave and chancel with 16th century
porch and a restored bell tower.
MWA 7558/482990 1519 4796 Post-medieval King’s Lodge, Long Marston. Stone
house of post-medieval date. Partially
rebuilt 19th century. King Charles is
believed to have stayed there during
retreat from the battle of Worcester.
Has stone mullion windows with
continuous hood moulds.
WSM 09010 14200 46300 Post-medieval Grade II listed Square stone dovecote.
WSM 27986 14025 46323 Post-medieval Stone and slate coach house with hay
loft over at Broad Marston Manor.
WSM 35100 14068 46318 Medieval Grade II * listed cruck and timber frame
barn, with ranges of late medieval and
18th century date.
WSM 40317 13990 46432 Post-medieval Martins, Grade II listed house of late
16th or 17th century date. Timber-
framed with painted brick infill,
extended in painted brick to south.
WSM 40318 14025 46403 Post-medieval Rowans Grade II listed cottage 17th
century timber-framed and painted
brick, extended in painted brick each
end. Has a thatched roof with ridge
stack at original East end and East end
stack.
WSM 40319 13923 46391 Post-medieval Nolan Cottage Grade II listed house of
late 16th or 17th century date. It is
timber framed with painted brick and
plaster infill. And has a thatched roof
with central rendered stack.
WSM 40320 13958 46376 Post-medieval The Shoulder of Mutton public house,
Grade II listed and of 17th century date.
Thatched roof with ridge and end wall
stacks.
WSM 40321 14048 46306 Post-medieval Broad Marston Manor Grade II listed
manor house 16th century largely rebuilt
in 17th century. Built from Cotswold
stone with some blue lias. Has an
imitation stone tile roof with coped
gables.
WSM 40322 14135 46202 Post-medieval Chapel House. Grade II listed house,
possibly formerly a chapel which was
associated with The Priory.
482976 16689 47574 Post-medieval Long Marston Grounds. Grade II listed
farmhouse built circa.1700 with 20th
century rear additions. Limestone
ashlar with dressed stone returns.
Building has three unit plan plus 20th
century rear wing. Has 19th century
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WaHER/WoHER NGR Period Building Description
Ref. (all SP
REGION)
fireplace addition.
482977 15167 48109 Post-medieval Grade II Arborfield House. 17th century
timber framed house 1600-99, with late
17th century rebuild and 20th century
alterations. Date stone in house reads
1685 AD. Limestone and brick infill.
482978 15077 48157 Post-medieval Butterfly cottage. Grade II listed house.
17th century with later alterations.
Timber framed with plaster infill and
plastered brick outshut.
482980 15295 48108 Post-medieval Grade II listed Chest tomb and
headstone approximately 6m from the
Chancel of the Church of St James.
Chest tomb to John Cooper dates to
1643 AD. Gravestone circa.1700.
482981 15269 48110 Post-medieval Grade II listed group of seven chest
tombs and two headstones
immediately south of Church of St
James. Circa.1650-1731 AD. In
vernacular Cotswold funerary tradition.
482982 15275 4814 Post-medieval Group of five headstones
approximately 13.5m north of chancel
of Church of St James. Grade II listed
1700-1740 AD.
482985 15022 47884 Post-medieval Grade II listed Court Farmhouse.
Timber frame with plastered infill and
brick laid to Flemish bond. 17th century
L plan with re-entrant block.
482986 14994 47871 Post-medieval Grade II listed two barns and a stable
immediately west of Court Farmhouse.
Weatherboarded timber frame. 17th
century with 18th and 19th century
alterations.
482987 15010 47858 Post medieval Farm building approximately 20m
south-west of Court Farmhouse. Grade
II listed. Manorial court house now
barn. Datestone 1671 AD. Probably
representing an extension to a 16th
century building. Coursed blue lias
rubble with some ashlar dressings.
Has later alterations.
482990 15190 47973 Post-medieval King’s Lodge. Grade II listed house
now hotel on Main Street Long
Marston. Early 17th century date with
18th and 19th century. L plan building
with rear cross wing.
482993 15274 48236 Post-medieval Orchard Cottages. Grade II listed pair
of houses. 17th century with later
alterations and ex-situ 14th century
window. Timber-frame with plaster infill
and brick. One coursed rubble wing. L
plan.

Middle Quinton 3
Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment
H3016a_01 31 July 2008 TD/ng
Appendix 3 Time Chart and Glossary

Appendix 3 Time Chart and Glossary

Time Chart

Palaeolithic c.8000BC and earlier Early stone age, early development of


man and earlier hominids.

Mesolithic c.8000BC - 3500BC Middle stone age, nomadic hunter


gatherer groups.

Neolithic 3500BC - 2000BC New stone age, first settled agrarian


communities and monumental
structures.

Bronze Age 2000BC - 500BC First use of bronze, divided into early,
middle and later sub-periods.

Iron Age 500BC - 43AD First use of iron, divided into early,
middle and later, some interaction with
Romans and others.

Roman 43AD - 410AD The first historical period, with written


records, saw southern Britain subject to
Roman government and culture (also
Romano-British).

Early medieval 410AD - 1066AD What has been called the Dark Ages,
the period from the departure of the
Roman legions to the Norman
Conquest which saw the colonisation of
much of Britain by Angles, Saxons and
others.

Medieval 1066AD - c.1500AD From the Norman Conquest through to


the Renaissance.

Post-medieval 1500 - 1945 Everything in recent Centuries,


especially monuments relating to the
Industrial Revolution and the military.

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Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment
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Terms

Air photographs Photographs taken from the air by archaeologists and


other organisations such as the OS and RAF often show
archaeology on the ground in the form of cropmarks,
earthworks or soilmarks.

Archaeological value/ Value relates to known archaeology and is


Potential synonymous with significance and importance, whilst
potential is a gauge of the probability of further
archaeology lying undiscovered beneath the surface.

Artifact (artefact) Catch all term for a discrete archaeological object as


opposed to a site or debris i.e. prehistoric flint work and
later metal objects and ceramics, not pottery sherds or
walls.

Deposit A sub-surface accumulation of archaeological material.

Features Discrete remains forming part of an archaeological site


i.e. ditches, pits, hearths, and walls.

Listed Building Statutory protection for buildings with special historic or


architectural value. Grades I and II* require consultation
with English Heritage where affected by development.
Grade II usually dealt with solely by local planning
authority.

Mitigation Strategy Preservation/retrieval of the archaeological value of a


development site through excavation, repositioning of
development or change in the nature of development
once identified through evaluation.

Preservation Although current guidance advocates preservation of


(in situ/by record) important archaeology in situ i.e. by not developing the
area, the alternative (especially with less important
remains) is to preserve by record through archaeological
excavation.

Scheduled Ancient Statutory protection afforded to archaeological sites


Monument and monuments deemed to be of national importance.
Consent required from EH for activity impacting on the
site (SAM).

Middle Quinton 2
Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Assessment
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Plans

Plan 1 Previously Identified Archaeology and Cultural Heritage


(3016a/01 07/08 TD/TB)

Plan 2 Extracts from Historic Maps


(3016a/02 07/08 TD/TB)
WSM40318
WSM40317
WS
WSM40319
9

MWA6450

482982 WSM35100
WS
W
WSM
M35100
M3
M 35100
35
51 WSM00864
WSM0
482993
482980
0 WSM40320
482978
4829
4829
482977
48297
4 97
77
7 7

482981
4 WSM27986
MWA6449 EWA7522
MWA1823 MWA9139
WSM40321
MWA7558 WSM00866
WSM09010
482985
482986 482990
482987 WSM40322
M40322

EWA6876

MWA4569 MWA1817
482986

Broad Marston - INSET

Site boundary Archaeological site (area)

Grade I listed
482987
Building EWA7558 Archaeological site (point)

482987
Grade II* listed Ridge and furrow (area)
Building

482987
Grade II listed Broad Marston
Building Conservation Area

482987 Locally listed buildings

MWA6452

0 100 200 300 400 500metres

See Broad
Marston Inset

Drawing Title Plan 1:Previously Identified


Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
Client The Bird Group of Companies Limited
Project Middle Quinton

Scale As shown
Drawing No 3016a/01

Date 07/08 TD/TB

Checked

c WATERMAN CPM Akeman Barns, Coln St Aldwyns, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 5AW
Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey with the permission of the Controller of HMSO, Crown Copyright reserved. T: 01285 750555 F: 01285 750636 E: info@waterman-cpm.co.uk W: www.waterman-cpm.co.uk
1st Edition 1:2500 Scale Ordnance Survey Map of Long Marston, 1884

1969 Edition 1:2500 Scale Ordnance Survey Map of Long Marston N

Site boundary (approximate)

Plan 2: Extracts from Historic Maps Drawing Title


The Bird Group of Companies Limited Client
Middle Quinton Project

Akeman Barns, Coln St Aldwyns, Cirencester, Gloucestershire GL7 5AW


T: 01285 750555 F: 01285 750636 E: info@waterman-cpm.co.uk W: www.waterman-cpm.co.uk 3016a/02 Drawing No
Checked TD/TB 07/08 Date
www.waterman-cpm.co.uk