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Projects ongoing: reflections on

archaeology and industrial heritage in


the Ironbridge Gorge

Paul Belford

The Ironbridge archaeology unit emerged in the 1970s, and has undertaken a wide range of work both within the World
Heritage site and elsewhere. After a brief overview of the early origins and history of the unit, this paper reviews the
work undertaken when the unit was under the directorship of the author, between May 2000 and August 2010. For
most of this period the unit took on external commercial projects as well as undertaking conservation and heritage
management roles in the Ironbridge Gorge. Following on from the 1999 CBA Report ‘Archaeology and Conservation in
Ironbridge’, this paper sets this work in the broader context of developments in UK archaeology during that period, and
considers some of the lessons that have been learnt for the future.

Archaeology has always played a central role in the 1970s out of a series of conservation and restoration
activities of the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust. activities that were undertaken by the Museum. Its
Indeed the Museum can fairly claim to have been origins therefore stem from two deep roots in the
one of the key institutions in the development of the soil of British archaeology. The first is the
discipline of ‘industrial archaeology’ – as Michael development of ‘industrial archaeology’, a
Darby and Sir Neil Cossons have shown in this discipline initially somewhat removed from
volume. However, although many papers have been academic approaches to the archaeology of other
published on the activities of the archaeology team periods. With its origins in a technologically-centred
at Ironbridge over the years, none has looked at the interest in the remains of specific industries,
history and development of the unit itself. Many ‘industrial archaeology’ failed to develop more
individuals who have worked for the Museum and socially aware and theoretically informed
the Ironbridge Institute have made significant approaches until the late 1990s. For much of its
contributions to our understanding of the industrial history the notion of ‘industrial archaeology’ was
past, and to the broader study of historical also closely bound up with the conservation of
archaeology. The story of archaeology at Ironbridge individual sites and industries. This situation has
is quite unique, and there have been many changes changed over the last fifteen years, so that
to the unit’s role and scope over the years. The ‘industrial archaeology’ is now firmly part of the
period between the conference celebrated by this mainstream of archaeological enquiry and is much
volume and its publication saw another change in the better for it. This is tempered by continued
direction, with a renewed emphasis on curatorial noises off from adherents of the purely empirical
functions and the cessation of commercial activities. approach, who rightly continue to remind all
The time seems right, therefore, to place on record practitioners of the importance of understanding
an account of some of the archaeological activities basic industrial processes.1
over the previous decade and to set these in the
broader context of the development of archaeology The second root was the development of ‘rescue
at Ironbridge over the last forty years. archaeology’ more generally in the UK during the
1970s. In this the Ironbridge experience had
ORIGINS OF THE UNI T something in common with the activities of other
museums – perhaps most notably the work of the
Archaeology at Ironbridge was never formally Museum of London’s Department of Urban
established as such, rather it evolved in the late Archaeology (later MoLAS, and now MoLA). The

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construction of Telford New Town from the early


1960s, and specifically the creation of the Telford
Development Corporation, resulted in widespread
landscape change and social upheaval. The
Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust was created in
1967 by the Telford Development Corporation as a
key element of the New Town project, and many of
its early actions were associated with the
conservation of industrial heritage. 2

This included some traditional forms of


archaeological investigation on sites being
demolished or redeveloped, as well as other
activities which would now be regarded as part of
the archaeological canon – such as oral history,
building recording and historical research. Indeed
some very important work was undertaken in this
regard by people who would later be closely
associated with the archaeology team. For example
archive research on seventeenth and eighteenth
century primary sources was undertaken by extra-
mural students from the University of Birmingham
under the guidance of Nancy Cox and Barrie
Trinder, resulting in the compilation and analysis of
wills, probate inventories and other documentation
brought together in the Philimore local history
volumes Yeomen and Colliers in Telford (1980) and
Miners and Mariners of the Severn Gorge (2000).3
Fig. 127. Real and reconstructed heritage at Blists Hill. Top: the
blast furnaces in the 1970s before restoration (photograph:
On the ground, the initial development of both the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust); Bottom: the Shelton Toll
Museum and the Ironbridge area generally, was House being rebuilt in 1972-3 after its relocation due to road-
strongly influenced by the agenda of the Telford widening (photograph: John Powell).
Development Corporation. This sought the
improvement and modernisation of the former East
Shropshire Coalfield, often – as Roger White and Known as ‘David and Sampson’, they were built in
Harriet Devlin have remarked elsewhere4 – at the 1851 and relocated to the Blists Hill site in 1971. 7 In
expense of what would now be regarded as heritage the following year a Curator of Technology – Stuart
assets. Thus much early industrial housing within Smith – was appointed, and work began on the
what was later to become the World Heritage Site restoration of existing features within the Blists Hill
was cleared. The Ironbridge Gorge was in many site, including the Hay Inclined Plane and the Blists
ways very lucky, since it had been identified as a Hill Blast Furnaces. By 1973 the Shelton Toll House
‘high amenity area’ with particular historic interest; had been acquired (Fig. 127), and work was
buildings, sites, monuments and landscapes outside sufficiently advanced to open the site to the public.
the Gorge fared less well. 5 Other buildings continued to be acquired, including
in 1978 the Squatter Cottage (followed a year later
In 1970 the new Museum Trust acquired the site of by its pig sty and privy).8 The philosophy of Blists
the furnace and museum at Coalbrookdale, and in Hill changed from a Scandinavian model to more of
the following year appointed its first Director – Neil a North American one, and although even then the
(later Sir Neil) Cossons. 6 That same year also saw Director acknowledged that it was ‘ethically a weak
the beginnings of what was then called the ‘open-air link...[which]...will always be regarded critically
museum’ at Blists Hill. This was intended as a place from a conservation point of view’, its existence
where historic buildings and other structures could be justified through ‘its immense potential as
affected by the creation of Telford could be a vivid communicator of ideas and images’.9 This
relocated and re-erected. The first significant new continues to be the case today.
item to be relocated was a pair of nineteenth century
blowing engines from the Lilleshall Company blast The restoration of the Hay Inclined Plane was
furnaces. completed in 1976, along with its associated canals

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archaeology at Ironbridge, and its essence is still


evident in the corridors of the Long Warehouse.
Within the Museum, this so-called ‘golden age’ is
associated with the Directorship of Stuart Smith.
Smith, who had been appointed Curator of
Technology by Neil Cossons, took over the
Directorship on 18th July 1983 when Neil departed
for the Science Museum. He is fondly remembered
by past and current staff for his intellect, humanity
and tolerance.

The quantity of work which was undertaken during


the 1980s were the consequence of unprecedented
and unrepeatable circumstances. Firstly there was
the foundation and early development of the
Fig. 128. The restoration of the Canal at Coalport during the
Ironbridge Institute, and the associated
1970s (photograph: Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust).
development of the library and archives. The
energy, expertise and enthusiasm of its founders –
through Blists Hill and at Coalport. This process including Neil Cossons and Barrie Trinder (as
was carried out very much in the pioneering spirit Honorary Historian) – were matched by the staff
of much of the early canal restoration movement. that were taken on at that time. These included John
Formal archaeological input to project design and Powell (with strong links to the vibrant and
management of these and other conservation and influential Bristol Industrial Archaeology Society),
restoration projects was still limited, although a David de Haan (formerly of the Science Museum),
number of artefacts began to be recovered. The Tony Herbert (a key figure in architectural ceramics
principal contribution made by archaeological and conservation) and the late Michael Stratton. At
research during this period was in the recording of this time the Telford Development Corporation
‘plateways and working-class housing’; the research provided funding which enabled the development
agenda continued to be set by historians. 10 There of new courses and activities, and also supported
was increasing recognition of the need for a the library in acquiring many of its collections and
distinctively archaeological approach, and in in subscriptions to periodicals. The Telford
November 1978 the Institute for Industrial Development Corporation also supported and
Archaeology was launched. 11 Initially established in enabled archaeological fieldwork both within and
collaboration with Aston University, it subsequently outside the Ironbridge Gorge, as a consequence of
developed in close co-operation with the University the creation and development of the New Town.
of Birmingham, and moved into its premises in the
Long Warehouse in 1979. However the main driver behind most of the
archaeological activities carried out at Ironbridge
It was the creation of the Institute (later the during the 1980s was the Manpower Services
Ironbridge Institute) that saw the formalisation of Commission (MSC). This body, created under the
an archaeological agenda in the Ironbridge Gorge. It 1973 Employment and Training Act, was
was here that the Ironbridge archaeology unit came responsible for delivering the Youth Opportunities
to be housed, and where it subsequently remained – Programme (YOP) and other work in the early years
despite occasional attempts to relocate it. The first of the Thatcher administration. A YOP scheme was
few years in the Long Warehouse saw a dynamic set up in 1981 to undertake archaeological work in
synergy between historians, archaeologists, advance of Museum development. The first
archivists and curators; a dynamism that was qualified archaeologist, John Malam, took up post in
enabled by the lack of precedent, an absence of this year; his primary responsibility was the
formal structures and a lack of operational targets. archaeological recording of groundworks associated
Instead, there was scope for creativity and invention with the construction of the Darby Furnace cover
which saw the development of new and exciting building.
approaches.
The original YOP scheme was replaced in 1982 by a
1981-1992: A ‘GOLDEN AGE’? Community Programme scheme with a remit which
subsequently ‘evolved to include the archaeology of
In many ways the spirit of this early period the Gorge as a whole’. 12 The expanded team
continues to characterise outside perceptions of included David Higgins, Michael Trueman and
Amanda Winkworth. On Malam’s departure in 1982
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David Higgins took over as the director of the unit, saw the departure of David Higgins, who went on
with Michael Truman as ‘Senior Supervisor’. to do great things with clay pipes. Archaeological
Various projects were undertaken throughout the work at this stage was still largely funded under the
Telford area during this period, including MSC programme, and one of the most spectacular
somewhat ad hoc ‘rescue’ excavation of sites in and projects undertaken by the unit took place in this
around the Town Centre development, parts of period – the excavation of the industrial complex at
Dawley and Lightmoor, as well of course as the Newdale. No less than 16 people were taken on
Ironbridge Gorge. Ten more people joined the during the period 1986-88, largely for the Newdale
archaeology team in 1983 to carry on this work. project. The Newdale site was a short-lived
Relatively large-scale operations took place at Coalbrookdale Company ironworks of the 1750s
Jackfield as part of the first restoration of that site, and 1760s. The excavation and building recording
and also at Coalport and in central Ironbridge itself. project was directed by Philip Barker and Mark
This work carried on into 1984; new recruits in that Horton. Philip Barker ran the University of
year included Kate Clark. Birmingham extramural training excavation as part
of the project, whilst Mark Horton and the
A second Community Programme scheme was Ironbridge team undertook building recording and
established in October 1985 to undertake historic landscape survey. Indeed the Newdale excavation,
building recording. This building recording team which covered 4,500m2, was described at the time as
and the original archaeology team were combined ‘by far the largest controlled area excavation
in 1986 under a single Community Programme undertaken on a site of this period’15. The project
scheme. A report of that year recorded that the was partly funded by British Coal and English
scheme had six full time and 14 part-time Heritage, and marked the first steps towards
employees, and noted that ‘this scheme constitutes developing external sources of funding for
the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Archaeology Unit’ archaeological projects.
which was entirely funded by the MSC.13 Much of
the early work of the Ironbridge maintenance team Other non-MSC projects which took place during
was also done by MSC staff, and this period saw the this period included work at Coalbrookdale in 1987
forging of close links between maintenance staff and for the Telford Development Corporation, and
archaeologists which were sustained into the further afield for English Heritage: at Longnor
twenty-first century. (Shropshire) in 1987, the excavation of a Severn
trow at Lydney (Gloucestershire) in 1991 and
One significant development in 1985 was the building recording at Broseley in 1992. However
agreement by the Nuffield Foundation to fund two such external work remained a very small
research fellows – Kate Clark and Judith Alfrey – to proportion of the overall workload.
undertake a comprehensive survey of the
archaeological resource of the Ironbridge Gorge. There was also time and Museum funding for
This ‘Nuffield Survey’ took place over three years, synthesis and research. A volume describing the
and provided the baseline data from which coarse earthenwares of the Ironbridge Gorge, using
subsequent research and intervention work was excavated examples, was produced by Alison Jones
undertaken. Using the 1901 Ordnance Survey in 198816; unfortunately the intention to produce a
mapping as a base, the survey looked at the known series of similar volumes was never realised. In the
history of each individual plot of land, and same year the former Fletcher Memorial Methodist
presented the data thematically. Four volumes were Chapel at Coalbrookdale was converted into an
initially projected, but only three were completed: archaeological store and offices, although the main
Coalbrookdale, Jackfield and Broseley, Blists Hill office remained in the Long Warehouse. The
and Coalport; the final volume on Ironbridge archaeology team undertook a building survey
remained unfinished. Most of the data gathered ahead of the conversion and renovation of the
during the Nuffield project informed Kate Clark Chapel, and the report of this work rather
and Judith Alfrey’s 1993 book on this Landscape of plaintively noted that ‘funding for a new
Industry;14 and the Nuffield survey still forms the archaeology unit is now vital as the old MSC unit is
basis for much archaeological understanding of the slowly being closed down’. 17
Ironbridge Gorge.
1993- 1999: ARCHAEOLOG Y AND
Gradually during this period the composition of the CONS ERVATI ON
archaeology team changed, with some of the early
recruits being replaced – new faces included, The early 1990s saw some significant changes in the
amongst others, Michael Worthington, Malcolm structure of British archaeology, most notably
Hislop and, in 1987, Mark Horton. The same year following the introduction of PPG16 in 1990 which
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meant that archaeology became a developer-funded The Severn Gorge Repairs Project remained the
part of the planning process. English Heritage primary concern of the archaeology team, and this
introduced its Management of Archaeological Projects important body of work saw the largely successful
(MAP) in 1989, which was revised (MAP2) in 1991. integration of archaeology and conservation in
The Museum was also changing. In 1991 Glen dealing with these complex and relatively recent
Lawes was appointed as Chief Executive, and in structures. In many cases these monuments were on
March 1992 Stuart Smith stepped down as Director. their second or even third generation of repairs. The
Kate Clark left in the same year, to be replaced as archaeological objectives were to firstly produce a
the director of the archaeology unit by Wendy record of the structures prior to any conservation
Horton. work, and secondly to record the repairs as they
proceeded.
From 1990 the Telford Development Corporation
began to be wound up, and its assets passed to In practice it was not always possible to segregate
several bodies. Some properties remained in the the two activities, and so ‘much of the building
portfolio of the Commission for the New Towns (the recording was undertaken during the main repairs
successor body to the Telford Development phase’.18 Similarly the range and scope of pre-
Corporation). The Severn Gorge Countryside Trust conservation archaeological investigations was
was established to look after woodland, and the largely dictated by the needs of engineers and
Ironbridge (Telford) Heritage Foundation was architects, and so it was not always possible to
created to support the Museum in caring for the arrive at a good understanding of the archaeological
many monuments, sites and buildings in its care. conditions before the conservation work took place.
The properties taken on by the Heritage Foundation Sites covered included the Upper Works and Upper
included key sites such as the Coalbrookdale Forge at Coalbrookdale, the blast furnaces at
furnace and museums, the Upper Forge, Bedlam Bedlam and at Blists Hill, the Blists Hill Brick and
Furnaces, and the blast furnaces, inclined plane and Tile Works and the Hay Inclined Plane. The story of
tile works at Blists Hill. An endowment provided an this project was published as a CBA Research
income which was intended to support the Report in 1999; the monograph also discussed the
maintenance of these properties. success or otherwise of the methodologies that were
deployed on the project. During 1999 the surviving
The transfer of property to the Heritage Foundation team largely disbanded, with the departure of
was accompanied by a large-scale programme of Wendy Horton and Richard Hayman leaving
repair and conservation, which had an Shelley White to hold the fort as conservation work
archaeological component at its core. With funding started on the Iron Bridge and at Jackfield.
from English Heritage, the Severn Gorge Repairs
Project provided a core for archaeological activities 2000- 2010: HIS TORICAL
at Ironbridge from 1993 to 1999. Staffing remained ARCH AEOLOG Y
stable for most of this period, with inherited staff
such as Michael Worthington and Shelley White In April 2000 the present author became the fifth
joined by new team members including Richard director of IGMTAU, initially on a three-year
Hayman; additional staff were taken on from time contract which was tied to major conservation
to time to help with external projects. projects at Coalbrookdale and Jackfield. Whilst
these formed the backbone of the unit’s activities, it
External projects were also developed during this was made clear by Glen Lawes that the unit was to
period, and although these remained secondary to become financially self-sufficient. In fact external
the main repairs project at Ironbridge, they did commercial projects were to become the most
provide an important source of income and variety. significant part of the unit’s work for most of the
As well as work within the Gorge for the new local first decade of the twenty-first century, resulting in
authority and other bodies, there was also work an increase in staff from one to a maximum of
further afield. This included building recording twenty at one point, and a concomitant increase in
projects such as the Etruria Flint Mill in 1995 for turnover and profitability. Until the end of 2008, all
Stoke-on-Trent City Council, Wolverhampton of the costs of the unit – staff, equipment and
Infants School in 1997 for the Dudley College of consumables – were required to be met (and, except
Technology and the Red House Glass Works in for 2008 due to the exceptional global economic
Stourbridge in 1998. The team also undertook a circumstances, were met) through income received
certain amount of work in south Wales, including a from projects.
report on the Cyfarthfa Ironworks in Merthyr
Tydfil. Many changes were needed at the outset.
Astonishingly in 2000 there was no email; indeed
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for most of the Museum, paper memos were not funded directly by central government or one of its
replaced by internal email until 2002. Moreover qangos, but by a new funding stream which was
there was no direct outside line to the archaeology developed in the later 1990s: the Heritage Lottery
office – all calls were routed through the library. In Fund.
the first few months the unit bought new computers
to replace the ageing Apple Macintosh acquired at The first of these was at Jackfield, where the
the outset of the Severn Gorge Repairs Project – and Museum was embarking on a radical restoration
set up an email address and phone lines. As with programme. Although acquired by the Museum in
many developments during this period a certain 1982, and partly restored then, large parts of the
amount of ingenuity was required to circumvent the Jackfield complex had remained in a somewhat
Museum’s procedures; fortunately there was decayed state. The complex was built in 1873 as a
considerable autonomy as the main offices were purpose-built tile factory, with its layout reflecting
then a mile away in the centre of Ironbridge. the processes which took place on site. An earlier
Without the assistance of colleagues in the Museum potworks was absorbed into the nineteenth century
library, the marketing department and at the factory. Starting with the north range and the
Ironbridge Institute, the modernisation of the entrance building, the conservation project worked
archaeology unit would never have been achieved. towards the more dilapidated structures at the rear
of the site. These included the Mosaic workshop, the
As well as these technical improvements, the Mill Building and the Clay Arcs. These last two
archaeology unit developed a new series of required extensive rebuilding, which provided a
accounting and auditing procedures and rebranded unique opportunity for archaeological observation
from ‘IGMTAU’ to ‘Ironbridge Archaeology’. and recording. The Mill Building contained much of
Further changes which took place as money became its original machinery, and excavation of the cellar
available from commercial activities included the revealed an important deposit of very early tiles –
eventual digitisation of all illustration, new survey the designs of many of which were previously
and camera equipment and so-on. Inevitably, the unknown. Due to the constraints of the project
self-financing structure in place during those first timetable, much of the physical excavation work
eight years brought the usual ebbs and flows in was undertaken by Michael Vanns and Tim Jenkins
terms of staffing and equipment; however it also (then curator and assistant curator respectively)
allowed freedom and autonomy in developing new with the assistance of the archaeology team.
projects and new directions.

Philosophically, the unit also entered a new period,


specifically seeking to change the emphasis of its
activities from the basic conservation of industrial
monuments to a wider understanding of the
development of industrial society. This change was
driven by the research interests of the staff: not just
of the present author as director, but also the
enthusiasms and contacts of the many bright and
hugely talented staff who came and went during
this time. In particular the unit tried to explore
elements of the Ironbridge story that were not part
of the ‘great man’ history – looking at workers’
housing, landscape archaeology and social history
more generally. This echoed the broader changes in
the discipline of ‘industrial archaeology’ and the
related fields of post-medieval and historical
archaeology.19

Conservation projects

The scope for this new approach was immediately


apparent from the outset. Two major internal Fig. 129. Jackfield. One of the 1920s clay storage areas to the
projects were undertaken during the early 2000s. In rear of the Mill Building revealed in 2006, constructed of
some ways these formed part of the continuing concrete which used tile waster fragments as aggregate, and
Ironbridge tradition of publicly-funded lined with assorted undecorated glazed ‘seconds’. (photograph:
conservation work – except that these were not Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust).

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Fig. 130. Jackfield. Excavation in progress on the potworks kiln in 2007, later incorporated into the tile works, and subsequently
demolished. The kiln is now buried under the concrete floor of new-build commercial lettable space, income from which supports the
charitable activities of the Museum (photograph: © Paul Belford).

Fig. 131. Jackfield. Finds associated with the kiln, including biscuit hollowares, saggar and kiln furniture, and slip-decorated glazed
earthenwares (photograph by Simon Roper for the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust).

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Fig. 132. Commercial projects in remote locations. Left: Belowda Engine House, Goonvean, Cornwall. Excavations in progress in
2002, one component in an holistic project which included landscape survey and building recording; the engine house n the picture
was demolished with explosives in the following year. Right: Barrow-in-Furness Iron and Steel Works; excavation of one of several
hot-blast stove bases in 2003. See text, page 178 (photographs: © Paul Belford).

Fig. 133. Research project within the Ironbridge Gorge. An overhead view of completed excavations at the Upper Forge site in
Coalbrookdale in 2005, part of the CHART project. See text, pages 184-185 and Fig. 144 (photograph: Telford and Wrekin Council).

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accommodation for the Museum, and a new


attraction – Enginuity. As at Jackfield this was
substantially funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund,
and the archaeological work included building
recording, below-ground investigation and the
monitoring of conservation works. The complex
largely dated from the 1860s, with additions made
around the turn of the twentieth century, and later
still through the post-war period.

Major discoveries included the realisation that


many of the 1860s buildings actually incorporated
earlier structures, including parts of an engine
house and other power transmission features.
Remains of cellars, furnaces, flues, plateways and
other features were also encountered and recorded.

Smaller conservation projects during this also had


an archaeological component – including work on
the former Coalbrookdale Institute (now a Youth
Hostel), at the Boring Mill in Coalbrookdale, and
repair and new building work at Coalport. The
archaeology unit also had considerable involvement
in developments on Blists Hill. These included the
construction of the Goods Shed in 2004, during
which the team recorded remains of 1920s furnaces
associated with the Brick and Tile works. More
substantial works took place ahead of larger-scale
redevelopment in 2007-2009. As well as further
discoveries associated with the Brick and Tile works
(including flues and a chimney base), the project
also impacted on structures associated with the
Blists Hill Blast Furnaces – most notably providing
the opportunity to record the boiler house
associated with the south engine house (Fig. 135).

Other blast furnace explorations included trenching


around the old furnace at Coalbrookdale in advance
of improvements in interpretation associated with
the 300th anniversary which this volume is
Fig. 134. Coalbrookdale Project, 2001-2003. Top: part of the
commemorating.
office complex prior to restoration (the building now houses the
Museum’s accounts and marketing departments); middle:
removal of asbestos from the covered bays; bottom: a cellar
discovered underneath what is now the education department
(photographs: Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust).

Elsewhere on site, the demolition of the later


foundry revealed an early kiln from the potworks.
Numerous fragments of eighteenth and nineteenth-
century slipware were recovered, as well as kiln
furniture and saggars (Fig. 131, on page 175).

At the same time as the Jackfield project was


ongoing, work was taking place at the other end of
the Gorge. This was the restoration of parts of the Fig. 135. Keith Hinton and Anna Wallis undertaking
excavations of the boiler house at Blists Hill Blast Furnaces in
Upper Works complex to provide new office
January 2009 (photograph: © Paul Belford).
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The archaeology team were also involved in Commercial activities


conservation projects in the Gorge that were
undertaken by Telford and Wrekin Council. Of The unit already had a long tradition of undertaking
these, one of the largest was inherited from the commercial projects, both in collaboration with the
Telford Development Corporation. Among the Ironbridge Institute and latterly under its own
assets of the former Corporation inherited by the name.22 However this became the most important
Commission for the New Towns (later English feature of its activities between 2000 and 2008. There
Partnerships) were the dams, pools, sluices and isn’t space here to describe more than a very small
culverts of the Coalbrookdale Watercourses. The selection of these projects, however the list of ‘grey
transfer of these watercourses to the local authority literature’ produced by the unit is provided in the
was accompanied by a £2.2m restoration and Appendix to this volume, and gives an idea of the
conservation project. This was undertaken between range and scope of activities. This period was
2000 and 2006, very much in the spirit of earlier characterised by the ambitious development of a
work such as the Severn Gorge Repairs Project. national portfolio of external projects, and at times
Ironbridge Archaeology undertook historical and the unit became somewhat overstretched.
archaeological investigation as part of the project;
archaeological work was closely integrated into the In Cornwall, Ironbridge Archaeology undertook a
engineering programme, and the results of major project between 2001 and 2004 at Goonvean
excavation and research were able to inform China Clay mine (Fig. 132, on page 176). This
conservation. The results suggested that the basic involved the recording by Shelley White, Simon
layout of the original sixteenth and seventeenth Roper, Alexandra Norman and Anna Deeks of two
century system is preserved; moreover much of the engine houses (one of which was later spectacularly
original fabric also survives.20 On a smaller scale, blown up as part of the expansion of the mine) as
stability works in the Gorge also produced well as extensive historical research, open-area
interesting results – such as the recording of wharf excavation and landscape survey.23 At the same
structures and a watermill at Lloyds Head.21 time the team began the excavation of the former
Barrow Iron and Steel Works in Cumbria. The
Barrow project started with an evaluation
undertaken by Simon Roper, Austin Ainsworth and
others; here the team found the remains of concrete
engine-houses, hot-blast stoves and a complex
system of gigantic subterranean flues. The
evaluation was followed by a watching brief on the
kilometre-long site which lasted about six months,
for which it was necessary to rent a flat in Barrow
for Austin to live in. Towards the end of the
watching brief the unit undertook an excavation of a
5,000m3 area of hot-blast stoves (Fig. 132, on page
176). The field team were joined for some of this
time by a group of students from the University of
Bristol as part of an ad hoc placement scheme.

The Barrow experience brought with it the


realisation that managing large-scale projects at
opposite ends of the country was too much of a
stretch for a small unit. There was simply not
enough of a financial surplus from such projects to
enable the expansion of staffing and facilities to the
next level. It was never possible to sustain
momentum between projects to keep the unit
Fig. 136. Coalbrookdale Watercourses project. Repair work in operating with fifteen or twenty staff – and the size
progress at the Upper Forge sluices. Adavance archaeological of the Coalbrookdale office, which at best could
excavation had determined the original form and extent of the only accommodate about half a dozen staff, was
overflow arrangements, and the excavation data informed the
another constraint.
design and reconstruction (photograph © Paul Belford).

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After 2004, more distant projects were always repair and stabilisation works. It was discovered
undertaken on a smaller scale. The present author that in fact the allegedly fireproof building
and Simon Roper continued to be deployed in contained a great deal of timber in its construction.
Cumbria from time to time: looking at post- Sophie’s experience at Ditherington – as well as her
medieval emparkment, the charcoal blast furnace at deep familiarity with the Jackfield complex – stood
Backbarrow, an experimental blast furnace at her in good stead when she supervised another
Wilson House and indeed the whole town of major textile mill project, this time at Tean Hall Mill
Whitehaven. These last two projects were in Staffordshire. This began in 2006 as a request to
undertaken with Cranstone Consultants. Other undertake an analysis of the power transmission
more remote fieldwork included Shelley White and system, but evolved into a substantial record of the
Alexandra Norman recording a very early iron- entire mill and its associated buildings.24 The project
framed textile mill in Derbyshire, Simon looking at included the recording of graffiti and oral history.
coke ovens in Lancashire and some mining features Sadly this project was also one of the death-blows to
in Cornwall, and the present author exploring the commercial side of the unit’s activities, as the
mining landscapes in West Devon and developer went into receivership in 2008, still owing
Pembrokeshire and a gunpowder factory in Kent. a five-figure sum for the work. As a result this
important study remains unpublished.
These more glamorous long-range projects only
formed a small proportion of the unit’s work during
this period. Most of the ‘bread and butter’ jobs came
from the west midlands region, and in particular
Staffordshire, Birmingham and the Black Country.
One early foray into the Black Country was an
expedition to the Soho Foundry in 2000-2001 – a
joint project with Birmingham Archaeology which
was sadly curtailed when the roof of the building
collapsed without warning. Other building
recording projects in the region included the
Wolverhampton Low Level station, canal wharfs
and chain-making workshops in the Black Country,
the Hawkesbury Junction engine house at Coventry,
the Glenfield Railway Tunnel in Leicester, and
former hospital premises in Stoke-on-Trent and at
the Royal Hospital at Wolverhampton. Further
afield, the present author investigated a Welsh-
language printing works in Denbigh in 2002, still
with its original type foundry and Heidelberg
printing machines. One of the more interesting
projects was the cataloguing and removal of the
contents of the Newman Brothers’ coffin fittings
factory for the Birmingham Conservation Trust in
2006-2007, supervised by Simon Roper (Fig. 137).
This project brought with it many of the same
ethical and practical issues described elsewhere in
this volume by William Mitchell, who was himself
briefly involved with the Newman Brothers project.

As Mike Nevell has reminded us in this volume,


textile mills are a particularly iconic industrial
building type. As well as the Derbyshire example
noted above, the team worked on two very
important sites during this period. One project that
showed great potential, but was subject to
numerous changes of plan and direction, was that at
Ditherington Flax Mill in Shrewsbury. Here – at the
‘world’s first iron-framed building’ – the team was Fig. 137. Building recording projects. Top: Royal Hospital,
involved for most of the early 2000s in recording Wolverhampton; middle: Newman Brothers’ coffin works;
parts of the complex in advance of, and during, bottom: Tean Hall Mill (photographs © Paul Belford).

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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

Fig. 138. Tean Hall Mill: the main mill range (photograph © Paul Belford).

On a more positive note, two large excavation system and to the mill buildings themselves. Bone
projects took place back-to-back between 2004 and button-making was one of the many activities which
2007 for the same client who was unstintingly characterised the later history of the site, the full
supportive of our work. The first of these was at story of which was published by William in the
Edgbaston on the site of the former corn mill. This Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire
project was supervised by William Mitchell and Archaeological Society in 2007.25
involved Emma Dwyer and Cassandra Newland
amongst others – both of whom joined the unit after The other substantial excavation project during this
their post-graduate studies at the University of period was at Wednesbury Forge, which had been
Bristol. An area of approximately 4,000m2 was established in the sixteenth century. A desk-based
excavated, revealing a complex sequence of post- study by the present author and Suzanne Reeve in
medieval developments both to the water-power 2001 identified the potential for major deposits
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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

Fig. 139. Tean Hall Mill. Top: general view of the exterior, with the main mill range to the right; middle: early twentieth century fire
evacuation sign in the scraping room; bottom: ledgers and other paperwork discovered during archaeological work on site.
(photographs © Paul Belford and Sophie Watson).

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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

Fig. 140. Wednesbury Forge. One of the thirteen phase plans drawn by Sophie Watson for the final report. This shows the
penultimate early twentieth century phase, the swansong of the use of water power on the site being marked by the installation of two
turbines in the former wheelpits. The complexity of the site is well illustrated here, with other water-power features in blue, flues and
furnaces in orange, steam engine and grinding wheels in purple, workshop and domestic buildings in green and grey.

Fig. 141. Wednesbury Forge. Left: team photo taken in summer 2006 in the eighteenth and nineteenth century sluices; centre: poster
advertising Wednesbury-made products for the south American market, recovered during the demolition of twentieth century forge
buildings in 2006; right: excavation in spring 2007 revealing the remains of sixteenth and seventeenth century timber tailraces
(photographs © Paul Belford).
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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

associated with the Forge, which at that time was


still in operation making garden tools.26 However,
the complexities of land-ownership and funding
arrangements meant that the next stage of the
project did not take place until 2004-2005, when
William Mitchell, Simon Roper and Sophie Watson
excavated a series of trial trenches across the site
and discovered that many early features survived.
As a result an open-area excavation was agreed as
archaeological mitigation, and this massive project
(over 12,000m3) took place intermittently during
2006 and 2007.

The project found remains associated with all


periods of the forge – from the sixteenth to the
twenty-first centuries – and included oral history
and process recording as well as documentary
research and excavation. No less than six water-
wheel installations and their associated tailraces
were found, including the sixteenth century timber- Fig. 143. Edgbaston Mill. Cassandra Newland and Emma
framed originals, as well as impressive eighteenth Dwyer recording the remains of the eighteenth century mill
buildings (photograph © Paul Belford).
and nineteenth century sluices, wheelpits, culverts,
flues and furnaces, hammer bases, buildings,
railway lines, yard surfaces and workers’ and
very limited material, but which nevertheless
managers’ housing. The recovery of so much
involved all staff in often quite difficult conditions.
information is a testimony to the calibre of the team
Sometimes these were caused by the weather, but
– supervised by William Mitchell with the support
sometimes more complex adversities intervened in
of Sophie Watson – who worked in often very
the smooth running of the project. Many of these
challenging conditions, including the disastrous
seemed to happen to Simon Roper. At an evaluation
floods in the summer of 2007. A full account of the
of workers’ housing in Bilston, his portaloo was set
project was published in Post-Medieval Archaeology
ablaze by local youths. He was once stopped on the
in 2010.27
motorway in Lancashire in the famous Ironbridge
van by Her Majesty’s Customs and Excise and
Landmark excavations such as these were always
accused (wrongly) of using red diesel. He also
the exception to the general workload of watching
suffered a car crash en route to Cornwall, fortunately
briefs and evaluations which sometimes produced
emerging unscathed. William Mitchell was once the
victim of his own enthusiastic machine excavations
when he destroyed the sewage pipe of nearby
offices at Wednesbury, and the Ironbridge
maintenance team had to be dispatched to save the
day.

There is not the space here to describe all of these


interesting projects and many of their anecdotes are
probably unprintable. However it is appropriate to
mention the support that the unit enjoyed during
this period from the various curatorial
archaeologists in the region and elsewhere. The
unit’s work in this period was also supported by
English Heritage who provided opportunities to
undertake watching briefs and other interventions
at local sites such as Buildwas, Wroxeter and
Lilleshall. We also enjoyed a particularly interesting
Fig. 142. Dave Lane, from the Museum’s maintenance project for the National Trust at Attingham which
department, at Wednesbury taking dendrochronological was brought about by their archaeologist Jeremy
samples. The close relationship between archaeology and Milln – an investigation of the ice house which
maintenance teams was an asset (photograph © Paul Belford). turned into a larger project looking at an earlier

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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

forge, and was published by Simon Roper in the In the early summer of 2001 the country was in the
Transactions of the Shropshire Historical and grip of foot-and-mouth disease, and severe
Archaeological Society in 2005.28 restrictions were placed on access to the
countryside. As the crisis wore on it became clear
Research projects that many of the sites earmarked by the University
of Birmingham for training projects would not be
The period from 2001 to 2007 was a high-point for accessible. Roger White, then newly appointed as
the unit in devising, developing and delivering non- Director of the Ironbridge Institute, worked with the
commercial research projects in Ironbridge and present author in developing a training excavation
elsewhere. These were undertaken in conjuction for undergraduates in that year. The result was a
with several higher education institutions. One of five-year international programme of research and
the main rationales for developing these projects training which involved over 100 postgraduate and
was to try and explore the often unrecognised social undergraduate students, and developed close links
history of the area. Peter King in this volume has with the University of Bristol and Wilfred Laurier
noted some of the constraints on understanding University Ontario.
imposed by the ‘official’ interpretations of the
Museum, and it was partly with the intention of Initially the project examined a number of sites,
revisiting some of these interpretations that the including the ‘Tobacco House’ and the Arboretum
present author developed several collaborative in Coalbrookdale, the tile works at Jackfield and
projects. Foremost amongst these was the lime quarrying and burning sites in Benthall woods.
Coalbrookdale Historical Archaeology Research and However the main focus was in excavation at the
Training programme (CHART). This was Upper Forge. This multi-period site was the location
inaugurated in 2001, although (as with many of the first steel furnaces in England, built by Sir
aspects of the unit’s operation during this period) it Basil Brooke from c.1615. These had gone out of use
emerged as an ad hoc response to a particular crisis in the later seventeenth century and the building
and only later developed a more sophisticated set of partly reconstructed as a malthouse in the 1720s.
objectives.

Fig. 144. The CHART programme. Excavation of the first steel furnace in England in progress, with Kate Page-Smith and Emma
Dwyer cleaning the ashpit and flue in the background. See also Fig. 133 on page 176 (photograph © Paul Belford).
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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

Gradually a number of tenement dwellings and


other structures were added to the malthouse
building, and, when it went out of use in the 1840s it
in turn was converted to a row of back-to-back
houses. The houses were demolished in the 1960s.
The excavations found the remains of the two steel
furnaces, and also explored the remains of the
malthouse and the tenements (see also Fig. 133 on
page 176). This project was particularly successful in
identifying and examining new aspects of the
archaeological story of the Ironbridge Gorge. 29

A related research project was the Upper


Coalbrookdale Landscape Project, which sought to
reconcile the well-known pictorial evidence for the
eighteenth century landscape with the
archaeological and landscape evidence. This formed
an adjunct to the CHART programme, and was
developed following the SPMA Estate Landscapes
conference in 2003. After preliminary research in
2004, fieldwork was undertaken in 2005, largely
under the supervision of Kate Page-Smith who was
then completing her MA in Landscape Archaeology
at the University of Bristol. This involved the
excavation of various features in the Arboretum,
revealing in the process the remains of the
eighteenth century formal garden and associated
summer cottage.

Public archaeology

One other important strand of the archaeology


unit’s work in this period was the development of
public archaeology and outreach programmes. This
began with an archaeology dig in 2000 for the
‘childrens university’, a programme of workshops
arranged by Telford and Wrekin Council. The
childrens university programme continued into
2004, by which time the unit had undertaken a wide
range of small-scale excavations around Blists Hill.
The last year of this project also used the CHART
site at the Upper Forge.

The Upper Forge site in fact generated an


overwhelming public response – both from general
visitors and from former residents of the tenement
houses. The site was opened to the public for the
CBA’s National Archaeology Days in 2005, with a
wide range of other activities as well as the
opportunity to participate in the dig. National
Archaeology Days had previously taken place at Fig. 145. Public archaeology. Top: Bessie Williams and Betty
Blists Hill; but from 2006 until 2009 the unit also Duddell visiting the Upper Forge excavations in 2002
developed a series of excavations around the area of (photograph © Paul Belford); upper middle: William Mitchell
the old furnace at Coalbrookdale. In 2009 the leading National Archaeology Day in 2007 (photograph:
trenches excavated in the Arboretum were reopened Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust); lower middle: the Ironbridge
as an exercise in community archaeology with local van before excavation in 2006 (photograph © Paul Belford);
bottom: community archaeology at Hinkshay in 2010
residents. Probably one of the most exciting public
(photograph: Telford and Wrekin Council).
archaeology events was a ‘community’ excavation
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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

undertaken on behalf of Telford and Wrekin focussed on the landscape, monuments and
Council in collaboration with Nexus Heritage. This buildings of the World Heritage Site. The ability of
took place outside the Ironbridge Gorge, at this most intensely-studied of landscapes to reveal
Hinkshay, and generated an enthusiastic public new understandings and interpretations is
response. undiminished. Several lines of enquiry suggest
themselves: the use of LiDAR to inform landscape
THE FUTURE approaches, the impending restoration of
Carpenters’ Row to improve understanding of
Archaeology at Ironbridge is so embedded that even workers’ lives in the nineteenth century, developing
the very act of archaeology itself is now becoming new theoretical understandings of the more recent
archaeology. Recording earlier trenches and repairs past, and the ongoing catalogue of the minutiae of
to monuments is commonplace. More unusually, everyday life which emerge from often minor
the former archaeology Ford Transit van became the conservation and repair works. The existing
subject of a widely-reported ‘excavation’ by the archaeological collection is an important resource:
University of Bristol. regionally, nationally and internationally. That
resource is not just the many boxes of pot-sherds
The future of archaeology at Ironbridge will and rusty iron in the stores of the North Lights
inevitably be very different from what has gone building, it is also the monuments, buildings and
before, but will be able to draw on the very rich surrounding landscape of the World Heritage Site.
legacy of the last forty years’ work. When the The potential is immense. One thing is certain
present author took up his post in April 2000, some though: just as the ghosts of archaeologists past
archaeological colleagues remarked that ‘it had all haunt the corridors of the Long Warehouse, so the
been done’ at Ironbridge. Certainly the ghosts of spirit of Ironbridge will infect and ultimately
incumbents past haunt archaeologists at Ironbridge: possess the soul of any archaeologist who works
the walls and furnishings of that shabby but cosy there.
office have absorbed the enthusiastic chirpiness of
David Higgins, the robust Australian vigour of Kate The future direction of the Ironbridge Gorge
Clark, the dry pointedness of Wendy Horton and Museum is clear: to provide a visitor experience
the occasionally hysterical enthusiasm of the present which creates sustainable revenue to support and
author. develop the academic and curatorial work of the
Museum. Hopefully the archaeologists of the future
In many ways the undertaking of archaeology at can harness the resulting opportunities, and can
Ironbridge has always been different to archaeology continue to transform our understanding of the
elsewhere. In a rather old-fashioned way, even in industrial past.
the 1970s, it was concerned as much with the
conservation of a monumental past as with critically ACKN OWLEDG MENTS
investigating past culture. Indeed ghosts of this
approach still haunt the Ironbridge Gorge, where The work of the archaeology unit over the years has
one of the roles of archaeology has often been to act only been possible with the support and assistance
as the uncritical handmaiden to the top-down of many people. A full list of all of the unit staff over
historical story developed in the 1960s and 1970s. the last thirty years is given below, but in addition
However, as the foregoing account has hopefully the following current and former Museum staff who
shown, the archaeological story of Ironbridge – and have helped the author in the last ten years: Karen
its relationship with the wider world – is a Armstrong, Mark Ashby, John Challen, Michael
constantly evolving narrative. Ghosts past do not Darby, David de Haan, Ruth Denison, Janet Doody,
proscribe future directions, but they may well Bob Giles, Diane Gittins, Paul Gossage, Melanie
inform and assist them. It was definitely not ‘all Haywood, Sophie Heath, Tim Jenkins, Ken Jones,
done’ ten years ago, any more than it was ‘all done’ Simon Kenyon-Slaney, Dave Lane, Glen Lawes,
when Kate Clark left in 1992, and it is certainly very Richard Mills, Kirsty Nichol, John Powell, Joanne
far from being ‘all done’ now. Smith, Barbara Taylor, Michael Vanns, Kurt
Vincent, Margaret Vincent, Mel Weatherley, Gillian
No longer reliant on the vagaries of commercial Whitham and Mick Whitehead. In addition the
archaeology, and with proper funding and support, often considerable support of former colleagues in
archaeology at Ironbridge can develop some very the Ironbridge Institute has also been very welcome
interesting new directions. In particular, there is real namely: Emma Bass, Marion Blockley, Harriet
potential for closer and very fruitful co-operation Devlin, Janice Fletcher, Tony Herbert and
with the Ironbridge Institute, and the delivery of (alphabetically last but absolutely by no means
new research and conservation programmes least) Roger White.
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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

I RONB RIDG E ARCH AEOLOG Y Matthew Morgan (2005-2006)


S TAFF 1981-2010 Neil Moorcraft (2001-2003)
Ian Morris (1993)
Names in bold are directors of the unit; dates are Jeff Morris (1994-1995)
often approximate, and apologies are offered for Richard K. Morriss (1987-1990)
any omissions. Cassandra Newland (2004-2006)
Alexandra Norman (2000-2003)
Marie Adams (1986-1988) Kate Page-Smith (2005)
Austin Ainsworth (2002-2003) Timothy Pearce (1986)
Richard Beale (1983-1986) Martin Plimmer (1986-1987)
Paul Belford (2000-2010) Jonathan Prince (2006)
Elizabeth Bishop (2005-2007) Suzanne Reeve (2001-2004)
Charles Boyce (1983-1985) Shaun Richardson (1993-1994)
Andrew Brown (1987-1988) Jeremy Rogers (2005-2006)
Melanie Brown (1992) Simon Roper (2002-2008)
Charles Cable (1987) Mark Rowland-Jones (1985-1988)
Kate Clark (1983-1992) John Ryan (1987)
Trevor Coates (1987) Mark Sherratt (1993-1997)
Paul Collins (1993-2002) Peter Shingler (1986-1987)
Giles Dawkes (1995-1997) A. Simpson (1983-1985)
Anna Deeks (2001-2003) David Smith (1993)
Emma Dwyer (2004-2007) Nicola Smith (1991)
Helen Edwards (1984-1988) Paul Smith (c.1984)
Richard Elliot (2006-2008) Phil Smith (2000)
Joannah Elsworth (1992) K. Stone (1983-1985)
Heatheranne Farley (1983-1985) Deborah Taylor (1992)
Anthony Hanna (2000-2002) Julian Temple (1983-1985)
Richard Hayman (1994-1999) Richard Terry (1986-1988)
Martin Harrison-Putnam (1991-1993) Hilary Thompson (1983-1988)
David Higgins (1982-1987) Victoria Tranter (1987-1988)
Keith Hinton (2006-2009) Michael Trueman (1982-1988)
Malcolm Hislop (1987-1988) Thomas Vaughan (1996-1997)
Christine Holden (1988) Mark Vernon-Smith (1992)
Mark Horton (1987-1992) Anna Wallis (2006-2009)
Wendy Horton (1992-1999) Sophie Watson (2003-2008)
Susan Isaac (c.1984) John White (1991)
Raphael Isserlin (1983-1987) Karen White (1992)
Jo Jackson (1992) Shelley White (1991-2006)
Kate Jarrett (1992) Mark Whittingslow (1983-1988)
Tim Jenkins (2004-2005) Alan Williams (1990-1991)
Alison Jones (1985-1987) Alex Wilkinson (2006-2007)
Hakim el Kraar (1991) Amanda Winkworth (1983)
Patrick Law (1983-1985) Andrew Worthington (1992)
Mary MacLeod (1987-1992) Michael Worthington (1985-1992)
John Malam (1981-1982) Philip Yorke (1986-1988)
Gerry Mico (1992)
William Mitchell (2003-2008)

NOTES

1 This debate has now run its course and here is not the place to describe it. The empiricist viewpoint was represented in the 2000s
primarily by Ron Fitzgerald and Roger Holden, whilst a socially-aware and theoretically-informed argument has been advanced by
(amongst others) Mike Nevell, Marilyn Palmer and James Symonds. A more cautious, and perhaps ultimately more appropriate ‘middle
way’ has been expounded by – amongst others – David Cranstone and David Gwyn. See: Belford 2009, 179-194; Cranstone 2004;
Cranstone 2009; Fitzgerald 2007a, 51-55; Fitzgerald 2007b, 115-118; Gwyn 2009, 83-84; Holden 2004, 113-127; Nevell 2005a, 87-95; Nevell
2005b, 177-204; Nevell 2006, 3-16; Palmer 2005, 9-17; Palmer 2010, 5-20; Riley 2005, 41-47 and Symonds 2005, 33-58.
2 De Soissons 1991, 64-69.
3 Trinder and Cox 1980; Trinder and Cox 2000.

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F o o t p r i n t s o f I n d u s t r y

4 White and Devlin 2007, 48.


5 The relationship between the New Town and the historic environment assets in its care is explored more comprehensively in Belford
forthcoming.
6 Cossons 1979, 180.

7 Once installed on their new concrete base, and roofed with a modern steel shed, they were promptly Scheduled as an Ancient

Monument (SAM 301) – a status which continues to raise issues for their conservation and management.
8 John Powell, pers. comm.

9 Cossons 1979, 184-185.


10 Trinder 1986, 6.

11 Cossons 1979, 186.


12 Truman 1986, 7.
13 Truman 1986, 7.

14 Clark and Alfrey 1993.


15 Cable et al. 1987, 1.

16 Jones 1988.
17 Brown 1988, 1.
18 Hayman et al. 1999, 5.
19 For a wider discussion of this, see Belford 2009, Cranstone 2009 and Belford 2010b.

20 Belford 2007a.
21 Belford and Wallis 2008a, b.

22 Commercial projects here are defined as projects undertaken under the aegis of PPG16 (replaced in March 2010 by PPS5), in other

words as part of development control under the planning process. Other ‘commmercial’ activities included running externally-funded
conservation projects, and public archaeology events and training digs, which are described respectively above and below.
23 White 2003; Roper 2005a.
24 Watson 2006; Belford and Watson 2008.
25 Mitchell 2007.
26 Belford and Reeve 2001.

27 Belford 2010a.
28 Roper 2005b.
29 Belford 2003, Belford and Ross 2004, Belford and Ross 2007, Belford 2007a, Belford 2008.

188

Related Interests