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9I ARCHITECTURE FAQ

1. What is an Oracle Server


Oracle server is a database management system which consists of an
oracle instance and an oracle database.

2. What is an Oracle Instance


Instance is a combination of SGA and background processes.

3. What is an Oracle database


Oracle database consists of database files which provides the physical
storage for database information .

4. What is SGA
System Global Area used to store database information that is shared by database
processes.

5. What are the mandatory background processes


SMON, PMON, DBWR, LGWR, CKPT.

6. What are the components of SGA


Shared pool, Database buffer cache, Redo log buffer, Large pool, Java pool.

7. What does shared pool contain


Shared pool contains most recently executed SQL statements
Most recently used data definitions.

8. What does database buffer cache contain


It contains copies of data blocks that have been retrieved from the datafiles.

9. What does redo log buffer contain


Redo log buffer records all changes made to the data for recovery purpose.

10.What is the function of SMON


SMON performs instance recovery by roll forwarding the committed as
Well as uncommitted transactions and rollbacks the uncommitted transactions.
Colease free space in datafiles.

11. What is the function of PMON


PMON cleans up after failed processes by rolling back the user’s current transactions,
Releases table or row locks, resources held by user processes, restarts the dead
Dispatchers.

12. What is the function of DBWR


DBWR writes dirty buffers (buffers which are modified but not yet written to
Datafiles.) from buffer cache to datafiles.

13. What is the function of LGWR


LGWR writes the data from redo log buffer to redo log files.

14. What is the purpose of checkpoint


Purpose of checkpoint is to make sure that all the buffers in the buffer cache that were
Modified prior to point in time have been written to the datafiles.

15. When does DBWR writes dirty buffers from buffer cache to datafiles
When a check point occurs
When dirty buffers reach thresh hold
When time out occurs
When a tablespace is taken offline
When a tablespace is taken to read only
When a tablespace is kept in begin backup mode
When a table is dropped or truncated
When the database is shutdown.

16. When does LGWR writes to redo log files


When redo log buffer is one third full
When a commit occurs
Before DBWR writes to datafiles
Every 3 seconds
When there is 1MB of redo in redo log buffer

17. What is a parameter file


Parameter file defines the characteristics of the instance

18. What are the types of parameter files


Pfile, spfile

19. What is the difference between pfile and spfile


Pfile is a text file , spfile is a binary file
Changes to entries in pfile take effect on the next startup
Changes to entries in spfile are persistent across startup and shutdown

20. What is the default location of pfile


$ORACLE_HOME/dbs

21. What is the use of control file?what information it contain?


Control file is used to maintain the integrity of the database.It contains information
Like database name, timestamp of database creation, tablespace names, location of
Datafiles and redo log files, checkpoint information, current redo log sequence
Number
22. What are the logical structures of the database
Tablespaces, segments, extente, blocks

23. What is a tablespace


Tablespace is a logical structure of the database that consists of one or more datafiles

24. What is a segment


Segment is a space allocated for a specific object within a tablespace

25. What is an extent


An extent is a set of contiguous oracle blocks

26. What is an oracle block


Block is a smallest unit of storage for read write operations.

27. What is the default standard block size in 9i


8k

28. What are the parameters for sizing the buffer cache,shared pool,redo log buffer
Db_cache_size, shared_pool_size, log_buffer

29. What is a password file


Password file authenticates privileged users to start up and shut down an oracle
Instance

30. What is an archived redo log file


Archived redo log files are offline copies of the redo log files that are necessary for
Recovery from media failures.

31. What is a session


A session is a specific connection of a user to an oracle server

32. What is PGA


Memory reserved for each user process connecting to an oracle database

33. What Is dedicated server


Server process handles the request of a single user process in dedicated server

34. What is shared server


In shared server, multiple server process handles the requests of several user
Processes

35. What is server process


Server process is a program which interacts directly with oracle server

36. What is user process


User process is a program which requestsinteraction with the oracle server

37. How can we control the size of SGA


SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter can control the size of sga.