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Archaeology 5th Edition Contents

Preface 9 BOX FEATURES


Experimental Archaeology 55
Introduction Wet Preservation: The Ozette Site 62
The Nature and Aims of Archaeology 12 Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamun 64
Cold Preservation 1: Mountain “Mummies” 67
Cold Preservation 2: The Iceman 68

3 Where?
The Framework of Archaeology 19
Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features 73

1 The Searchers Discovering Archaeological Sites and Features 74


The History of Archaeology 21 Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features 95
Excavation 107
The Speculative Phase 22
Summary 119
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology 26
Further Reading 120
Classification and Consolidation 32
A Turning Point in Archaeology 40 BOX FEATURES
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project 76
World Archaeology 41
Sampling Strategies 80
Summary 50
Archaeological Sites from the Air 84
Further Reading 50 GIS and the Giza Plateau 92
BOX FEATURES Tell Halula: Multi-period Surface Investigations 98
Digging Pompeii: Past and Present 24 Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter 102
Evolution: Darwin’s Great Idea 27 Measuring Magnetism 104
North American Archaeological Pioneers 30 Controlled Archaeological Test Site 106
The Development of Field Techniques 33 Underwater Archaeology 109
Women Pioneers of Archaeology 38 Excavating the Red Bay Wreck 110
Processual Archaeology: Key Concepts 41
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologies 44 4 When?
Çatalhöyük: Interpretive Archaeologies in Action 46 Dating Methods and Chronology 121
Broadening the Frame 48
Relative Dating 122
2 What is Left? Stratigraphy 122

The Variety of the Evidence 51 Typological Sequences 124


Genetic Dating 128
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidence 51 Linguistic Dating 129
Formation Processes 54 Climate and Chronology 129
Cultural Formation Processes – How People Absolute Dating 133
Have Affected What Survives in the
Archaeological Record 56
Calendars and Historical Chronologies 133

Natural Formation Processes – Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Rings 137


How Nature Affects What Survives Radioactive Clocks 141
in the Archaeological Record 57 Trapped Electron Dating Methods 154
Summary 72 Calibrated Relative Methods 159
Further Reading 72 Chronological Correlations 162
World Chronology 165
6 What Was the Environment?
Summary 174
Environmental Archaeology 231
Further Reading 174

BOX FEATURES Investigating Environments on a Global Scale 231


The Maya Calendar 134 Studying the Landscape: Geoarchaeology 238
The Principles of Radioactive Decay 142 Reconstructing the Plant Environment 245
The Publication of Radiocarbon Results 144 Reconstructing the Animal Environment 253
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates 146
Reconstructing the Human Environment 261
Dating Our African Ancestors 152
Dating the Thera Eruption 164 Summary 274
Further Reading 274

BOX FEATURES
Sea and Ice Cores and Global Warming 233
El Niño Events 234
Discovering the Variety of Cave Sediments 240
Pollen Analysis 246
Human Experience 175 Elands Bay Cave 258
Water Pollution in Ancient North America 263
5 How Were Societies Organized? Site Catchment Analysis 264
Social Archaeology 177 Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GIS 266
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swamp 268
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Society 178
Further Sources of Information 7 What Did They Eat?
for Social Organization 186
Subsistence and Diet 275
Techniques of Study for Mobile
Hunter-Gatherer Societies 194 What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet? 276
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societies 198 Information from Animal Resources 289
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and States 207 Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and
The Archaeology of the Individual Domestication from Animal Remains 291
and of Identity 220 How Were Animal Resources Exploited? 307
The Emergence of Identity and Society 223 Assessing Diet from Human Remains 311
Investigating Gender and Childhood 225 Summary 315
The Molecular Genetics of Further Reading 316
Social Groups and Lineages 228
BOX FEATURES
Summary 230 Paleoethnobotany: A Case Study 278
Further Reading 230 Butser Experimental Iron Age Farm 282
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asia 286
BOX FEATURES
Taphonomy 292
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia 182
Quantifying Animal Bones 294
Ancient Ethnicity and Language 193
Bison Drive Sites 296
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Camps 196
The Study of Animal Teeth 298
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis 201
Farming Origins: A Case Study 302
Interpreting the Landscape of Early Wessex 204
Shell Midden Analysis 304
Maya Territories 208
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL) 210
Archaeological and Social Analysis at Moundville 216
Conflict and Warfare 218
Early Intermediate Period Peru: Gender Relations 224
8 How Did They Make and Use Tools? 10 What Did They Think?
Technology 317 Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religion 391

Unaltered Materials: Stone 319 Investigating How Human Symbolizing


Other Unaltered Materials 334 Faculties Evolved 393

Synthetic Materials 341 Working with Symbols 399

Archaeometallurgy 345 From Written Source to Cognitive Map 400

Summary 355 Establishing Place: The Location of Memory 403

Further Reading 356 Measuring the World 404


Planning: Maps for the Future 406
BOX FEATURES
Artifacts or “Geofacts” at Pedra Furada? 320
Symbols of Organization and Power 408
How Were Large Stones Raised? 324 Symbols for the Other World:
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekem 330 The Archaeology of Religion 412
Woodworking in the Somerset Levels 336 Depiction: Art and Representation 418
Metallographic Examination 347 Mind and Material Engagement 426
Copper Production in Ancient Peru 348 Summary 428
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experiment 354
Further Reading 428

9 What Contact Did They Have? BOX FEATURES


Paleolithic Art 396
Trade and Exchange 357
Clues to Early Thought 398
The Study of Interaction 357 Maya Symbols of Power 410
Discovering the Sources of The World’s Oldest Sanctuary 414
Traded Goods: Characterization 364 Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavín 416
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greece 420
The Study of Distribution 374
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Art 422
The Study of Production 382 Sacrifice and Symbol in Mesoamerica 424
The Study of Consumption 382 Cognition and Neuroscience 427
Exchange and Interaction:
The Complete System 384 11 Who Were They? What Were They Like?
Summary 390
Further Reading 390 The Bioarchaeology of People 429

BOX FEATURES Identifying Physical Attributes 431


Modes of Exchange 361 Assessing Human Abilities 441
Materials of Prestige Value 362
Disease, Deformity, and Death 447
Analyzing Artifact Composition 368
Lead Isotope Analysis 372
Assessing Nutrition 459
Trend Surface Analysis 378 Population Studies 460
Fall-off Analysis 379 Diversity and Evolution 463
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreck 380 Questions of Identity 467
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australia 383
Summary 467
Interaction Spheres: Hopewell 389
Further Reading 468

BOX FEATURES
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Death 434
Facial Reconstructions 439
Examining Bodies 448
Life and Death Among the Inuit 452
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog 456
Genetics and Language Histories 462
Studying the Origins of New World
and Australian Populations 466
12 Why Did Things Change? 14 Whose Past?
Explanation in Archaeology 469 Archaeology and the Public 545

Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanations 470 The Meaning of the Past:


The Processual Approach 474 The Archaeology of Identity 545

Applications 476 Archaeological Ethics 548

The Form of Explanation: General or Particular 482 Who Owns the Past? 549

Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several? 483 The Uses of the Past 554

Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanation 491 Conservation and Destruction 558

Cognitive Archaeology 495 Who Interprets and Presents the Past? 571

Agency, Materiality, and Engagement 499 Archaeology and Public Understanding 571

Summary 502 Summary 576

Further Reading 502 Overview 577


Further Reading 577
BOX FEATURES
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwe 472 BOX FEATURES
Molecular Genetics, Population Dynamics The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhas 547
and Climate Change: Europe 474 The Fortunes of War 550
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanation 477 Applied Archaeology: Raised Fields in Peru 556
Marxist Archaeology: Key Features 479 CRM in Practice: The Tennessee-Tombigbee
Language Families and Language Change 480 Waterway Project 560
Origins of the State 1: Peru 484 Conservation in Mexico City: The Great Temple
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, of the Aztecs 564
A Multivariate Approach 488 Destruction and Response: Mimbres 566
The Classic Maya Collapse 492 “Collectors Are the Real Looters” 568
Explaining the European Megaliths 496 Archaeology at the Fringe 572
The Individual as an Agent of Change 500 Internet Archaeology 574

Glossary 578
Notes and Bibliography 587
Acknowledgments 634
The World of Archaeology 503
Index 637

13 Archaeology in Action
Five Case Studies 505

The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins


and Rise of the Zapotec State 506
The Calusa of Florida:
A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Society 515
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers:
Kakadu National Park, Australia 521
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of
Rice Farming in Southeast Asia 528
York and the Public Presentation
of Archaeology 534
Further Reading 544