You are on page 1of 49

BRASILIA

OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
INTRODUCTION
Topography & Climate • Brasilia, the planned city of Brazil,
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
is a monument to honor Brazilian
Bosco & Silva prowess.
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • Brasilia comes from the Latin
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
‘Brazil’
L.Costa’s Abstract • It is the third capital of Brazil
City Form Basics
Sector Functions Salvador (1549–1763).
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
Rio de Janeiro (1763–1960)
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://gosouthamerica.about.com/; http://www.distritofederal.df.gov.br


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
LOCATION
Topography & Climate
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.aboutbrasilia.com/maps/goias.gif
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
LOCATION
Topography & Climate • Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Goias,
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Brazil
Bosco & Silva • Federal District
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest - central part of Brazil
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
- divided into 29 regions.
L.Costa’s Abstract • 15°30' and 16°03' South latitude
City Form Basics
Sector Functions • Preto River = East
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion Descoberto River = West.
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/bsb_aug2.htm
LOCATION

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


LOCATION

REFERENCE: http://www.aboutbrasilia.com/maps/satellite-cities.html
LOCATION

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


LOCATION

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


OUTLINE
I. Introduction TOPOGRAPHY
Location
Topography & Climate
• Brazil Topography: amazon river,
Culture Brazilian basin (60% of country),
II. Conceptual Framework little seismic or volcanic activity near
Bosco & Silva South American Plate.
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
• Brasilia: Matto Grasso Central
III. Plano Piloto plateau
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract CLIMATE
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
• Tropical Savanna Climate but is
Accessibility more similar to a subtropical
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
highland climate/ eternal spring.
Satellite Cities • Dry and Humid Season
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/ ; Matt Rosenburg, http://www.about.com/


TOPOGRAPHY

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CULTURE
Topography & Climate • Diverse Culture:Portuguese,
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Africans, Italian, German, Other
Bosco & Silva European, Japanese, Amerindian
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • Architecture : Cubist ideas,
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
abstract forms, baroque, colonial,
L.Costa’s Abstract modern, combination of skills
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
rather than one
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
• Portuguese legacy:language,
IV. Reality of Brasilia religion and law
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/bsb_aug2.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 1823 – José Bonifácio Silva
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– bill to move capital inland
Bosco & Silva – Brazilian Empire Expansion
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest – new capital name "Brasília"
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
– later dissolved, Emperor Dom Pedro I
L.Costa’s Abstract • 1883 – Dom Bosco
City Form Basics
Sector Functions – Italian saint had a dream
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
– construction of a new city "Between
IV. Reality of Brasilia parallels 15 and 20."
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/; http://www.infobrasilia.com.br


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 1889-1891 – Republic of Brazil
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– Brazil became a republic in 1889
Bosco & Silva – Article 3, Cruls Mission
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • 1892 – "Cruls Mission"
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism – Comissão Exploradora do Planalto
L.Costa’s Abstract Central is appointed
City Form Basics
Sector Functions • 1894 – "Cruls Quadrilateral“
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
– demarcated 14,400 km2 area
IV. Reality of Brasilia adequate for the future capital
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/; http://www.infobrasilia.com.br


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 1922, Sept.- Stone Foundation
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– first stone of Brasília is laid
Bosco & Silva – administered by Planaltina, one of the
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
satellite cities of Brasília
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
• 1953 - President Getulio Vargas
L.Costa’s Abstract – site for new capital: 15°30' to 17°
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
South and 46°30' to 49°30' West
Accessibility – Vargas commited suicide the
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
following year.
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.brasiliabsb.com/; http://www.infobrasilia.com.br


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 1955 – Succession
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– successor, Juscelino Kubitschek
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
• 1955, April - Kubitschek Promise
NOVACAP Contest – rally in the in the state of Goiás
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism – in response to a voter’s question
L.Costa’s Abstract promises that, if elected, he will shift
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
the federal capital to the central
Accessibility plateau.
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.distritofederal.df.gov.br; http://www.brasiliabsb.com/;


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 50 years in Five - Kubitschek
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– make Brazil grow in five year term as
Bosco & Silva much as the previous fifty years
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • NOVACAP (Companhia
III. Plano Piloto Urbanizadora da Nova Capital –
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract New Capital Urbanization Agency)
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
– Headed by architect Oscar Niemeyer
Accessibility – Company to urbanize the new capital
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia – Series of competitions between
Satellite Cities architects and urban planners
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.distritofederal.df.gov.br; http://www.brasiliabsb.com/;


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 1st Place -
Culture Lucio Costa
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
• 2nd Place -
III. Plano Piloto Boruch
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
Milman, João
City Form Basics Henrique
Sector Functions Rocha and Ney
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
Fontes
IV. Reality of Brasilia Gonçalves
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/bsb_h1i.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
CONCEPTUAL
Topography & Climate • 3rd place - Rino
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Levi, Roberto
Bosco & Silva Cerqueira
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
Cesar and L. R.
III. Plano Piloto Carvalho
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract Franco
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
• 4th place - M.
Accessibility M. M. Roberto
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia Arquitects.
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/bsb_h1i.htm
PLANO PILOTO

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
PLANO PILOTO
Topography & Climate • Lucio Costa
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– a modernist architect and student of
Bosco & Silva famous modernist Le Corbusier
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
– responsible for the layout
III. Plano Piloto – utopian city
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract • Modernism – Le Corbusier
City Form Basics
Sector Functions – unplanned development = chaos;
Accessibility centralized city planning = ideal city
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia 1. Well ventilated residences near
Satellite Cities green spaces
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/bsb_h1i.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
PLANO PILOTO
Topography & Climate • Modernism – Le Corbusier
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
2. The separation of residences from
Bosco & Silva workplaces, with industries
Vargas & Kubitschek excluded from the city proper
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto 3. Exclusive space for cultural
Modernism activities, near residencies
L.Costa’s Abstract
City Form Basics 4. Separation of the circulation of
Sector Functions vehicles and pedestrians
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/bsb_h1i.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
PLANO PILOTO
Topography & Climate • Lucio Costa Abstract
Culture – Presented a solution that evolved
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
from spontaneous thought process
Vargas & Kubitschek – Urbanistic theories of founding a city
NOVACAP Contest in the wilderness
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism – AIMS of Plano Piloto:
L.Costa’s Abstract • Ideal city, ideal society
City Form Basics • Symbol of Brazilian greatness
Sector Functions
Accessibility
• Lead to the development of the central
Costa's Conclusion region of Brazil
IV. Reality of Brasilia • Become the new center of Brazil
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Costa’s Notes
Topography & Climate • Costa’s Notes: 23, presents the
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
solution of Plano Piloto
Bosco & Silva • Notes 1-3
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest – Form: two axes crossing (one is
III. Plano Piloto curved); a plane; a bird in flight
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract – Adapted: local topography, natural
City Form Basics
drainage, best possible orientation,
Sector Functions
Accessibility – Free principles highway engineering:
Costa's Conclusion
elimination of intersections, the
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities curved axis, radial artery.
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
City Form Basics
Topography & Climate • Notes 1-2 – City Form
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
Costa’s Notes
• Notes 3 - Highways

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link, 2010 Tele Atlas
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Sector Functions
Topography & Climate • Notes 3-5
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
• Residential districts have been
Bosco & Silva placed along the curved axis
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
• civic and administrative center,
III. Plano Piloto recreation center, the municipal
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
administration facilities, the
City Form Basics barracks, the storage and supply
Sector Functions zones, small local industries sites,
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
and the railway station along the
IV. Reality of Brasilia monumental axis.
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Sector Functions
Topography & Climate • banking and commercial districts
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
fell alongside the intersection of
Bosco & Silva monumental and back axes
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • location of the entertainment
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
center is along the intersection of
L.Costa’s Abstract the monument and the highway-
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
residential axes
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
Primary Roads
• Curved Axis
• Monumental Axis
• Back Axis

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link, 2010 Tele Atlas
Sector Functions
• Residential
• Administrative
• Commercial
• Entertainment

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link, 2010 Tele Atlas
Residential Areas
©panoramio
Civic centers
©panoramio
Administrative
©panoramio
Administrative
©panoramio
Civic
©panoramio
Commercial
©panoramio
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Building Hierarchy
Topography & Climate • Plaza of Three Powers house
Culture fundamental powers (equilateral
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
triangle):
Vargas & Kubitschek • Government & Supreme court
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto
base of the triangle
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
• Congress at the Apex
City Form Basics • Church at the center、given own
Sector Functions
Accessibility
square.
Costa's Conclusion • Monumental Axis: Government
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
and Municipal Plaza evident
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
Building Hierarchy

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link, 2010 Tele Atlas
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Landscaping
Topography & Climate • Superblocks: surrounded by bands
Culture of greenery planted with trees
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva • Strips of the Districts: Also planted
Vargas & Kubitschek with greenery
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto • Park City: Filled with open areas,
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
such as parks, squares, for flower
City Form Basics and vegetable gardens, orchards,
Sector Functions Botanic garden
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion • Cemetaries: end of residential
IV. Reality of Brasilia highway axis
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Vehicular Circulation
Topography & Climate • Notes 6-7
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
– Secondary Roads: controls heavy
Bosco & Silva vehicular traffic
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
– Traffic: controlled by roads that
III. Plano Piloto would either go on a platform,
Modernism underground, or under the platform.
L.Costa’s Abstract
City Form Basics – Clover shaped Turn-offs: circulate in
Sector Functions the different districts without creating
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion an intersection
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Vehicular Circulation
Topography & Climate • Notes 6-7
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
OUTLINE
I. Introduction Pedestrian Circulation
Location
Topography & Climate • Independent Paths: local pathway
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
systems were created for each
Bosco & Silva district (residential, commercial,
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest
administrative districts)
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
• Separated from vehicular
L.Costa’s Abstract circulation
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.infobrasilia.com.br/pilot_plan.htm
Railroad System

REFERENCE: http://www.aboutbrasilia.com/facts/metro.gif
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Costa’s Conclusion
Topography & Climate
• Airplane, Monumental Axis
Culture • Four Scales of Design:
II. Conceptual Framework – Monumental scale (symbolic)
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
– Residential scale (comfortable)
NOVACAP Contest – Gregarious scale (social)
III. Plano Piloto – Bucolic scale (park city, rustic)
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
• Dignity of a capital city:
City Form Basics – Esplanade, where the ministries and public
Sector Functions buildings are located
Accessibility – the bus station, where the two axis cross
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
– the Cathedral
Satellite Cities – the Plaza of Three Powers.
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jmoersch/pp.html>
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Costa’s Conclusion
Topography & Climate • Superblocks: uniform height of six
Culture
II. Conceptual Framework
stories, no high rises, and vast
Bosco & Silva motorways
Vargas & Kubitschek
NOVACAP Contest • Ample parking, low population
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
density, open green space for
L.Costa’s Abstract people to enjoy
City Form Basics
Sector Functions
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jmoersch/pp.html>
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Internal Migration
Topography & Climate
Migration was not expected
Culture • South: Wealthy Migrants were offered
II. Conceptual Framework jobs and homes to go the Brasilia
Bosco & Silva
Vargas & Kubitschek
• North East: Journeyman laborers and
NOVACAP Contest teachers, expecting to earn the minimum
III. Plano Piloto wage
Modernism
L.Costa’s Abstract
• Goias: Young construction workers,
City Form Basics accounting for 25% of all migrants
Sector Functions • Goias: Unemployed, illiterate migrants,
Accessibility with no skills or income
Costa's Conclusion
IV. Reality of Brasilia • Sao Paulo: Poor migrants of similar status
Satellite Cities those above
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jmoersch/pp.html>
SATELLITE CITIES

REFERENCE: 2010 Google Map Data; 2010 Map Link


SATELLITE CITIES

REFERENCE: http://www.aboutbrasilia.com/maps/satellite-cities.html
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Brazilias Reality
Topography & Climate • Failures:
Culture – Debt: produced a debt of over 2
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
billion dollars, 1960s Massive inflation
Vargas & Kubitschek – Culturally Inappropriate: good ideas
NOVACAP Contest in theory, but in reality they could
III. Plano Piloto
Modernism
never work; based on European
L.Costa’s Abstract theories
City Form Basics – Unsocial: Ideal community was not
Sector Functions
established, no multi-use places (only
Accessibility
Costa's Conclusion
home and work), no character
IV. Reality of Brasilia – City for a car not for a pedestrian
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jmoersch/pp.html>
OUTLINE
I. Introduction
Location
Brazilias Reality
Topography & Climate • Successes:
Culture – Symbolic: unified Brazil, source of
II. Conceptual Framework
Bosco & Silva
hope and pride
Vargas & Kubitschek – Easy to build: sectors
NOVACAP Contest
III. Plano Piloto
– Establish New Brazil:
Modernism location connected the rest of the
L.Costa’s Abstract country together (central location and
City Form Basics superb highwy network)
Sector Functions
Accessibility – provided a growth center for Brazil to
Costa's Conclusion expand westward and to tap it's vast
IV. Reality of Brasilia interior resources.
Satellite Cities
Success and Defeats

REFERENCE: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/jmoersch/pp.html>

Related Interests