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(i) vagueness or unclarity in the description of the project

(iii) misleading reduplication—describing the same project in different words

(i) material or extensional equivalence: p ≡ q (p and q have the same truthvalue—i.e. in the

actual world)

(ii) natural or naturalistic equivalence: p ↔ q (p and q have the same truthvalue in all

naturalistically possible worlds, i.e. in all worlds with the same laws as the actual world)

(iii) essential equivalence: p ⇔ q, i.e. (p ≡ q) (p and q have the same truthvalue in all possible

worlds)

(iv) intensional equivalence: p =syn q (p and q have the same meaning)

(a) performative utterances (such as ‘I promise you £5’ or ‘I do’ uttered in the marriage

ceremony), which are used to do or perform something and not to state anything, from

(b) constative utterances, which are used to state that something is the case

(ii) Austin later claimed that all utterances are used to do something, for constative utterances

are used to state something, promises to promise something, warnings to warn someone of

something, and so on

(iii) Accordingly, he distinguished between the locutionary act, the act of uttering something

with a certain sense and reference, from the illocutionary act, the act of uttering something

with a certain force (the illocutionary force), such as stating, promising, warning etc. (The

illocutionary force was distinguished from the perlocutionary force, the causal effect the

utterance might have, say, in causing the hearer to turn round)

/PTO

2

(a) The Illocutionary Act Project (Strawson, Price)

deny any locutionary purpose, and identify the illocutionary purpose (non-cognitivism)

what does ‘is true’ mean? To find an expression intensionally equivalent to ‘true’

(α) The Ascription Project (no takers) to describe the locutionary purpose and

content of truth ascriptions

(β) The Deep Structure Project (Ramsey, White, Williams, Grover et al.)

form

(ii) The Metaphysical Project what truth consists in—to find necessary and sufficient

conditions for being true

to find actually necessary and sufficient conditions (p. 5), to fix the extension of ‘true’

(in the actual world)

to find the essential features (but not the meaning), a definition or analysis of truth (but

distinct from (ib) above)

(iii) The Justification Project (Bradley, James, Blanshard)

(not really a theory of truth at all—p. 26) To find a characteristic mark, which we can

recognise, of most true statements by which their likely truth can be determined

(i) the Assertion Project (ib), a division of the Speech Act project, is introduced (p. 9) in the

middle of a discussion of the different senses of ‘iff’ which eventually distinguish subclasses

of the Metaphysical project (iia-c). How does (ibα) differ from (iic)?

(ii) necessary and sufficient conditions may identify only the actual extension, or the possible

extension (p. 24): “‘necessary and sufficient conditions’ is ambiguous in a way that parallels

the ambiguity of ‘if and only if’.”

(iii) how does the naturalistic project, as described by Kirkham (p. 20) relate to naturalism as

normally conceived: that everything is composed of natural entities, those studied in science,

and that the best methods of enquiry are those of natural science; and to physicalism? (pp.

196 ff.): “all intellectually respectable concepts can be defined ultimately and entirely in

terms of the concepts of logic, mathematics and physical science.”

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