THaI'.D~l H.U)NG VUONG .T.RONG .THU· TlcH .

XU·A·

fIOANG lJUNG

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THO NG rlmg cuoc di tim diu ,,~t xira CUR Ioai nguo-i, nhf1ng toi li~u gJli

chep tronq tlur tich xua vAn IA .nhuIlg rhtlllg eli' Cr:1 ban,. Is nhilng cho dua

chu yen cho cac nha sJ.lt hoc, .. .

(y Vi~t Nam, ~cac nha sir hoc dii ttin·cir vao'tAi li~u:ghi chep trong l~tr.t!ch chir Han lit nhfhig tili li~u xira 11htili dilng thai" kct"hvp ·vui '·vi~c khai quOt trong long dal. lien hanhdieu Ira, nghlen ,~iru ~~i,8oDg cun cdc dan t¢e milhl, l1Ui d~ khOi phuc l~i Iich 8lr"t~ ,lien chung -fa., Cap .nganh T~k~~o·cli hoc, dan (Ie hoc Vi~t Nam tuy dii C6,.nbi,~,t1~~,l1g ~ien.dimgk~j,C~O.8J!:hQc,Dllt~ng;b~y con trong-Inroc dau xfty dllng, ClIO. nen, tai l~~u. .ghi. ch~p;:~_ng) ,cprt ·JI4H. trong tplt .tlch xira vAn con chiem 1116t'vj"lr~:quan tf9.ng trong cOng' \liec nghlen Ctru' Iich stt nuoc nha.

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• ~. Ba h'r Ian .. ~~U'6c khi ~o~ ngA~b, k~o~, ~QI(:p.gbie~.cU:,u I!~~ 8lf 10M ~gU'("i

pha~trI~~. bAl~g, vito'n~tl~g h\! ,heugh~,cheR.tr~,ng .. ~~,tJ~~!!~Y~'f,~'q!nh~ str ~Qc phOD~ ~len· Vl¢t Narn ' dukh9~ ph\l~ )l}.l t~~l, 141~ ,.H~~?~.yR'<{~,~ ,~~t, ,lh?:t : ~~! ,/;I

vito grai doan dBn: d~~ l~ong Iich su' ,ll';l:'!C (a., ( . ",; i',; 1;"': i: '. " .'

... Van d~.th(yr_~~i,'~Iilng Vuong laO mc)t- van d~ quun trong troug ljch sir dan IOc Vi~t Nam, cacfnh~:s·ir hoc phong kien khi vi~t Itch sir dftlllt)~.fa,kh611g th~ ])u qua dtrqc thai d~i HungVirong.: Viin·d~,·thui :d~i J::I.ltIlgJVlla~g <du' hau nhtr tl~lt thnnh cai ntit cua -lich sir .c~ d~i Vf~t iNam_t,"lthe.ng ':c,bi dtr~c cai .nnt uy- thl that kh6 ma gilti quycl thoa ~ dOllg cac .. "iin d~ "khac 'frongt Iich sir" ~l> ;tl~r cua dan t<)c Viet Nom. Do d6,: thol ky, 'nAy dii dtr'lO ;·-nbAh·:~ dAp~ ·ta ~ xac''"djnh'Jir'·lfiU.· Ngay" nay, cAe nganh khoa hoc phdt trj~n ·dii.~c6':nhieu\·~·chiritg!cti\ba'sttng\-cho nh&ng nhan djnh ve thai d,i .flilllg1-.Vucrng truce day::~v8 "d~ ~th6a:'- nh~Ji. vi¢c ~khOi phuc thai dai HUIlg. VU(yl1g cau Ctl v8o·titi ]i~it ghl1'chep ·trong".'thU'~ "ttch' chlt Hantxtra 1A

dung din. . .

Tal li~u ghi chep v~ thai dlJ-i Hung Vuong trong nbitng sach chir Han xtra, ngoai nhfrng sach do cac nha sir h9C. phong kii!n Vi~r Naill vi@'t, chung fa con

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chlnh 4u<tl .ltiti p. fDgng.ki(n' . Q1'P~,fA·, BO.-aA~hl'~o nb 1J nmy01 a~,n frong n icu

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. : :". . B4 . .a.ob·(Iichq\f sda~·:him~·BO ··.·'cli~kl 'Ir6n ··lit bOo irr. }P9f Vi~t~lit ky;todn,- thu cua Na6 Sl~ Li~i1hi~ttvaoltb(ritJihk;lJell'l'~c~~8iA~. ~Ol~"cJ~~'~pa·Y·-idl ; tU'.o~_ .bb nb&ng 'phln boaJ1g ·duVnS· do ic8Ct ,hge' lIiJ.r1cj1~.g·bllcl;lepJI ehf1;lh)thWo. gJii_ ,~'Yi.o: Iieh SIr .. thai -Hnng ·:Vvanllil~\dlQ ;chQ,' )jCh··"·8~'ldAq itOc~·V:i~tNam.'· Ng6 Sf ·~Li4D; d·1 cAn cu· vao ~hai,taoi:pbalQi~I>'Vi#tt·tm"kgovA1.Si{~g~:,,,~~biln, ctj.e:lLe~:.YAnLHllu=:va Phan ~hll Ti~n; tb6 •. philn ·Ng~;-Jc!J dA.i:cberunbtul truyh. th·uy'tyc6tJh~ tin .ciy v~ ngu~D .

g6c' Ijch Itl noac ta, .t;4t) .. MOb "dll~\Iioa~l t·hanlJ\.tvlto· .m· .1479. u :., f' : '. ! f ; i ~ .. _ ; " ~ s' • ,

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tblJi HUDg V\tang d~n nbA.:t1:{~h\mg .'ciiAthay'b9 ~',,~Il h~ N'gtiy!nii S" (hay dbi nly. cb-~8t let ~t1i~lIq i~bJ', ifa.qfi'ln 1'801Jll~ '. bqllivl; :1)8.p~.'khi Dbll r Tr1tn cuap

,~6i\ ubll!~"'lctl p~tl~Jlf,CIU\ll ~'Jihltrl.t.t ·c.t~i\··Fa 'h9\Ngu.yl~ }1Jh~Dg LdtrQ'c'.8ia: h9 I cli. ~ch e6 ·11. d~fl.'r.)"itd·~·\kholiig) ~Int.., ~13?V •. tl, ..... 1 .b~1l1Ph\l ~I~Q J~ong ,Bach .nien bi~u 1 ma· TrAil cQ6i' ceng ··,Ji~~ ill~it~ hiOu. c~a~ Trin~ 1)5 Nghl~D~ rb'eo t8\1:\ k~Ao, cliu I cua

. oacl )U)Ci gil-nooc ,a 'tht~ (q~~~nj.i~~il8y<c6t thA IIA :·,cjuyan~,; Vi~t j chi _ cti.a,;Tr~n Phli I s04D; aau ct6, ~~ .Vln Hiru Ina' 1,1 ~thAnb··B{fi ,Vi4t .a kg. r2ii b! thtit 14c m(tt thqi

. sian d8j~a~i""~'I~~~!,u.~(1.~IP;t.~~y. Y~I~"9'R ~~P;Y~P.I~~k k~6. t?lm tJur m~ng

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:1493 VO Quynhvn Ki~u Pbubien .soen l'J~'T ,Tic, gilt I V.l~t~ tf;~n',1J linl: d~' dVa. vito nbfhig sach ma ngay nay kbonR COlI nhtr Giao ChI kg (kh6ng ito (toc, Qi~). ,Bdo

eve tl't'y~n: ,(k~OI1~'I~O.,t~C, gH? qi~o"fl*du;~g c?a Tfl~~ ~O~lg Va T!'?g ~bn dal B~i1Dg(lh~ ky lhll,9) lA.~gU:O:l ~run~ q~~cdA '~ng~ang 'yl~t N~tn loeb, Ngofl.,i

$~ kg ~u,o, ,B6,T~~~n :~~~j~ ~t Jlbf'~t ;,th~~12rh,d.nll~~. ~Ii' ~,~a' vitti 11hihig Iru~I~~ I Iinh lhl~ng trong dAn glan C1 ntrac ta. LY T~ ~by~n dft top hQ'p ~1 trli},~t1 (~8~1'v,

tb~n tho ~ 'mi~u/:'d~nClitr.nC1(:lrb~~"lltt6-Cf."ttong8li('h,f 'tltr~Cd~ 'muc Tan '\'i~n huu tllunll'khlldllg' quae hi~Ji. ~tng'.,I#rO'I,g; t Li,t~ "Ujt~n"dil 19bI' th~p '(~Au chu)tellt cAn bo~ CUR ,San ,Tinh '~it"thuy:'fiti~"ti'lhc1r l-Iuhg1\~udll·g:,'tpb. tthh !/:alit chlch1qdal,

tu y I 'n6i r~l1 g -:d ~ : 1:r~ti., ~ h~ t, phil p,l: ~o.h! I nhttl',' qu'd (t~c 'trl e'il ' ~ Ijl' \ btJi t~ ~~ 'd Be6 nhl~u' hoc gia 80\1,11: lfji \it I bb' sung' ii:uyfn' hib-I(Vl"v6y: ;ng~yllnay'j 'chong lit 'da 'co nhi~u bon k~I'ilc ;::hbau. '~il!ifng: trUY~'l' bh~p 't~o~l'g~ Lthllq N li.n~:· .chldh' qildlllJ ' nhithJ.! truy ~n dii, '.1 trve: ll"oYi!.u 'k~llr ~u'u 'd9'i tro~K '4AO 19ian/ cae' hQC 19i1 ph()llg' kl~.li r dll 'still t6p'thAnh. NgoAi lihilng 11~uy~n' c6 'ngubn glSc lrong dab' glatt;; lhed ~i\c bhlt 'nghl~n crru co mOl so truyen bAt ngu~n trong nhil-ng sach xua nhtr Tffi quy /(g ell'" Tl·tl-'j;tJg QuAn 'PhOJ1g 'doi /·rCSng;f"Nant IHdi ;clJ !llch"'ky cua,NgO:,Lai ·(10)( NgUY~11 'V'\r ••• NQ\ dung lai' Jj~t1' ve ';tllai·~ld,t~1 Hung V~aDgrtrobg" hai cquyAn; Bacli lkA tren: cop mang 11hieu tmh cho~' huang "tltiapg'; :nhtrilg ,c6bg,p~lnl'l1Aor! phan anl1, (ttrffc tluh bll1h 'kfi h(li t~' tien 'chung' ta:b ,thbi X8: xtr~: id6.iHitn'tnay, 'lfhh ;Nabt' c/llch qud;, c6nhleu ban 'kha~ nhau, t nhtrng ~·truy~n trong '¢8~, ,bAn: kbOtJ8 hoA~ I"loan 'gitSl1gf nhau. ; C6 'ball gum nhi~u itruy~n, 'c6 ·,ban. it < hart; 'ubttng'!c6' m~t 41~u,khi~Jl chung tll chu ~.

la cac ban do d~ughi! chep Tfuy~n H~t'g·'B6.i1g thl! la'lruyerli hol,ve' thai:llu~g

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. : Co thA, nol, ngAy,pay. C'Q1~h~ 8~, 119C, n~"c t~I~~~ ~Jl1a,vi.p U!,~Iig ~~~i lieu

(Zbi. ch!p, ~~,lho:i, HU~~~fY,l1i~~lg ,~~ngil~J1~~g ;'~'~~H~~I~!~~~l~~,ft~~j~~',~P'~i !r~ng thill ~a l:t~l,~J1ai:, dQt ,fI'~ :i.1 '.HI "(",dt (~~ij ~)i" ~tfr~~tf"'t~~j)J;:'itHt Hli',,'~~fti'·'h·l . 41!t r f,' i ,

. ,: "'I: . Ngoni ra, trong ~'nh(lng 'fC8Ch: )xtra'i'llhlr';;~c,~)'Tral(>a/d'4p,{'lDlr: ~ dfa chi' cua Nguy~n; :1·)·51 i d(Yi"L~J(143{j),. ,Vdn"itai' lo~1 hiJtt{eua~~t~t'Qu,B6nt"'Vi~1 ,glant1 lhdng khao tlJng lu"n cua i L~ 'Tung (. 1514),. 'Li~h; ~J:l2u ~/~jr ~hlrC1ng lo(it «;hlr~ud:' Phan Huy Chit~'!Su llpc' bl khao'cua etng~XuAn'llAn'gl B.pi'¥i"J,r1t~/(lj:cuaINgb ffhl"SftV4v.l. lit nhuong'sach Xll8',c6.'gia' trjtiv~ Imft :khiOf.ct)-u~d~ul.'!co,,~Bht(~h~p v~j~tbbl'd'Jl ~tIlti1R Vucng. I '/,' ~ :,I! ..: i o ',,\>, '('.~' \)/',' '!~~, (1.i;hiIPf,I);;n!l;l·f~iJ:"'!'li'~i, ''d />i' IIIi1 • ''',')0'

"", :' '2. Nblt ~Oy~ ,ch~,tlg tal ~c6 lh~ ~biy Ih\~h' 'g~' 'bb~p' ,~~, ~'h~i '~unR ytrdng'lt.ltB · llhiit 'cua mrcc ta la'hbrr1ig'8'chjvi~~lvAo:l~Mlnhit"rr~nl~ho~iig lh,~'lt' ,thti"'13. l htl' 14): Cac hoc" i.til' phong ki~rl r IUlaC i ta, dli ,dila 't1o \ 'tli'li~ nil t'~b~g' nb fl ng' gli~h Trung Quoe; XU'8 han) va! d118 'v.6dJ trtiy~n' thiJytilt Ittd~ ·tfdy~ti '~lrdri"dA~' glfllf tt~ ''\itr't

l~i ljch ,8tl ,thai Hung .y~ang.l;~~6Af .tlm 1" :"tUd'~ ,~h~i ~.i, fJP'~g Vtt<1Dg trong .,nhiing -(btl. li~h xua. hon ~~~, ,~h~ng.~, ~h~ .c~~.th~;~lm".~~Iy, tt9ng1,nh(l~gr~O ~aob xua cua Trung Quae. ,NhtiDg,~+~~ l~':l'" bh~J ghif'~~~P '~~~i~i~J;l,d(t:b80 g(j~ ~l~tlNam

ciia Trung QU()C IA nhtrng bf) 8ath vj~l V80 thbl XUnn 'Th~ --.Chien QU()C (lh~ ky

tbtl 5 d,i:n .lhlr 3 truec C6ng nsuyen), Nh~n~ l1<-i'dung tAl li~u chua duoc to rang. Sl1vj~c gbi chep con"~ It)n1vai ~~~n',,~f,t QuJ~g tJ6,ng"QU8ng ,ToYiJDgay

uny, Nhfrng be) Bach 8tl- chu ygu dtrvc bee nha sil J1QC Vj~t Nan) lin c$y vA str dung tAi Ji~u trong d6 IA nhung ,bt) Balch trong Nb! th~p '(r srr. Nhitng be) 911 c6 liell quaD den Ibl1i d,if Hung Yuong trong Nh! IluJp til sir"]A be) Sfr kg run Ttl Mil rrbi~~Jl" pJ1itJ .vj~J,A'; ·alri _141): 8040 ~(nf)l J dung tUI ~ Hoang IB~~· .nam 1500 trtrec Cong JJg(1)'~~ d~n I-IAn )rQ .·~~i nnm r140 truec COngl nguyen) ; I hI) ~ 7'i~n Han Iliff do BaD Co, nha ~vj~t+ Ifill (1ui aPng. Han ~q@.nJ < Ban. Chie~/l&p ibieu (n¢i. dung tll Han Coo 1'~, HQfll.206 .'rlraQ ~~Ong, .nguyen] ~d~n ·,Vllang~·,lt1iingt· narn 23 COng nguyen] ; b., HQ.1l Jlqll.thlr.do,J1Jl,mtVitp dbi,Jpng •. Luu Chieo daijl,\l(1~g aoan (Jlt)i tiung ttf .. llt\ll (Juang. \'0, nAnl. ,25"r 9cn .lI"'i ~'~ll.~~U,15 J.aPl 220. COng Nguyen), (~'(lll' }Jlrang llur do Luu I-:I{t deri Thach 'rail 80,0 (n¢i dung tir Cao 1~b Ly Uy8n. de]l Ai llc, 11lhn

H18-;-H(7) v.v ... Nhnn~ ~() 9iS.l'h.t~ougNhttJujfJ Itt Ili-,lil JlhLi'ng bO chlnh st"r dill Trung Qufic, hab 'Uiim l~hl~ii fnc'gildt'rJlg 'tril!u d~l hi~il 1IO~11. NMoni vi~c ghi rhep 8t.1" vi¢c It Trung 'Quae 18 CIIU ycu. cac sir gia phong kien Trung ().116c con g)Ji chep linh hinh klnh I~, xii hl)J cdc dd)I tl)c a cdc khu vue quanh Trung Quae. co lie-n quun den Trung Qutic nhu "'fril!u Tlen, Mong Cb, \ri~l Nnm Y. v .. 1I I uc hi'iy giir. Nhii'ng bl) Stl· lrong .. Nh; IJu,p IUJ,ir~·do relic JIb .. 8tl·, hec+phong kien Trung Quoc bien 80~)), kbOng IrAnh khoi co nhthrg quan di~m atl hoc sRi Jam pbi~n dien, G~Jl JQC~. ]~hiiJ)g philp ~~li~ll ,6t.J10: Chl~Jlg .ta ~,ill c6 duvc .' nhfrng. tAl.li~u qlty bAu giup [ch ccho vjtl<i·,Dg~i~n,c*p ~§'\ht)i .cb~d4i.)nlr!1c ta, Nhlt':lh vj¢c1nghi~IJ, crru . xii hQi ~J,l,b~ ,~'1;f JJiJl1~1Y~rp'pg;:ph.1.l phung~~f\ dll.,biet.,flac.h 8ir,Vi~t Nnrn xua xU.at Jli~JI muon hrrn h~llgchOGlh~ k§ so,vq"lblJi:Jf4l:I-Hmg Vurrng, h\i, lI~u ghi ,cMp:ve mrec In lr ~V~i ll,,,p Ifr, sli~ c~ nlen dlJi daq.~ C6ng .nguycn slt glop chung ta 80i 8~llg v~n 'd~ 11(1)1.

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sir khac cua Trung QulSc c6 giti tr] khao ctru.: Mhi chep lvl!·Vi¢t Narn nlnr b() TJuiy

!fl/~!f,c:JlllJ.rl~j~Ir!~~'*~'?1 ~gllY.~'l ~o.~ QAq ~g ... y ,~h~, gj~i ,hfJ.,Tllliy kinli c.lt Sach ghi ~(~ i; n b'~'p'g, H~n ,sO;~8, I? i Jf~ oil J Q9~c,: va; ~ac d';1'tIllR: ~~ng: ngoi. t fr, ! Trung . Quoe qUI! CII,C;,j('l~'J~~C:g~~,;~p ~r!l!')~1~~Il,;,f1q,d6'\Jc6 gbJ mt)t.,~(j; «;01) song :,cJ~ay" [If. plnrong N~Jrl '~t~'rg' IQp~c,.llqail ~,~t, Dlrlrc ,'l\.rlH .,m. bi~ni Bnid~ai. ~u~ cl) dl~i Vi¢t rfltlU, , tili Ii~u gill tr] nh~t Itt",)han' chn giai cua Ljch 8,01 Nguyen, Oog 'd~.·tham leJlAo cac

sach xrra "A, nh illlg slicb c_6 gi~ IT!. diro ng thaI. ulnr ·~dn. sach Tlllr(1llg ilnr (I"{li frlly~n' ·c.li~ Phuc '[hAng dai Hliri va ~Ldm AI) kY.\.G{ao L~hdli "gogi v(rc If" (thuoc llie ky thu' 4) lA ~ uhirng' ~ B&cht ~ghil' ·cll~p . v~ mi~n··dlit J;\~al:' In lhal" IIilng Vlr~ng.

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chi cua Ltru Hu deri Thach ~r§n (th~ ky thtr 10), Tluii blnh ltoim VII k{J cilH l\ hac

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~lj· 4qL~r6ng, dii~~'1),,8ACh Nom tVi~' c/IIJcii8~."rblm ~J·loaj rVi~Jl a IlJ~ )(5~ fl11"" ~l ghi

chep, v~ ~hqj .}_\~ng,V\raJlgf IB.f)~lJ~dllg· di~n.Cu8.~B6, Hl,U ,tiyj litraDg (rhii lIY tlur R) <~fing ghi chep ~~h~<j .dlJ.i, .:,11ung~Ytr(Yng.

Trong kho Bach a Trung Quoe, ngoai nhuug bt) sach sil dja .Jy eli dl!i Trung Qu6c ghi ehep v~ thai HUllU VtfaJJg nhu dii k~ tren, con c6 JJhfrng bi) rhuyen sir c~ dlli VJet NaM nlnr An Nan! chi nguy~n cua Cao IIilng Trung diYi Miuh bieu 80"n cDng ghl chep thiJi Hung, V'fang .

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. Chung t oi dii gic'Ji' thi ~ll d nnli sach' nhfhrg' b() S8cll chfr l-{oil xU'n c6 gin tri (Iii ghi che p vi! tbi1i -I-Iullg' VUt1ug; hot.er 'gh i chep 'f!lih· hlnh Iti uti t~,l 'xir ItOI 1111~1l (tiil chung in co Iien (IUatl 'eri !llu7J tdlJi i I-Il'llg .. \'.rang. (:ac t 8lf gih "i~l ~nllf ;Chllt)" In {l\ru vAo Ilhfrng s6ch do {1~ nghien eliu thai k,f db.· Nb tmg' IS' ki~il v~ f Jl&i (lq.i Hung Vuong chua ·dtf<1C· llhat 'bi~l1 t1~y: (1ti 'ho~ohcojl; ~6 ~th6 ctIlth :lllinl 1,·1, illy hAh ll~t cae hQC gin' ViOt Nam' d~u 'xlto nblil' tfbi1g' Ijch :~, ~li'" dAn 'tOe ·tn' 1,011' tQi

lhai d~i I-Iung Vuong. ~ · i·,"r "J~.-~ Ir .~,('.p~t '.;r.''I~" ."!.~(.~ ~.~: ~ ~I q •. , ~ • ,·r. f: :

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. Co the 116i snell' IJf;l( ,Vi~t -,li ky 10all llur cuat Ngo ~ Si lj~ti, Dir u(a "tt!,1 curt NgUY~11 ·rriii .. 'Kluun tlinl: iVi~t 'su. IJaang gldni :crrl1tlit'111"lc 'cuR rrt·j~u I Nguyeh~ 'J~'(cb fr;~'I'hiAltt C/Ul"f111g loa! -ebt cllu Phon 'Huy Cbut(1ir ttl·ltCt b;'~~'~lln·nlr'ptili)lltb()nhg (llrcr]lg. Iii Y ] IJ i '1111 fling' } pllalf . ho p Iy! t lieo i 1\11i)~ f ''th t"~ '; CUR -. cac; ! ll#jc· r g.i a .1 ~\c . d ~ lror g 7'rllYfll flollg' Dalig ~ tIl, it 8ach ·/~rJlll· Ntttlf chicl: qltcii· glli"" bhe p lqi" l'll'Ohg Bach mlnh. NQf dung ~t\e ~sachr~lr~ll tuy 'sAp .lx~pi cO··:khnc Jlhnn,' nlnrug (1ii llhrit lri vui nhau c6- th~· tom tiitIU)itr;s8U:. j'f~l d·~d 1· i.i '·>l;~· ~ '"' .. t·. '-. ,; I·'t 'j' d"1 : ....

: : ' 'Tt» Ii~~ nU'O'«(\;i~tl~ 'Itt'O'llg' fruy~b vual dliL" tMn 'gQ'i lit l{il~h DltO'llg YtrO"1S L,Qc ~r~lC;" dong dBit vuh Vlem De '[han 'N(jitg:'Jify ·cbnl.' ~'i a~·llg ·lli]il1 QuAlt;!·Aiilh ra Lac Long QUaIl] SungLflm ~ .1'.11 inig . Vtrong' lA~J con'lidOStl"g · ttta It,c ·r,Ollgi 4Q nilil. noi ng~i vun, u6lJg (t6' fJ Phbilg ChAtt (11ny l Hi!huY~lir Hfl.'ch'lIQc"lhi~ Vtnh~ Plni), d~t q~{)C bj~u In :y i(n' Lang,' tnjy~H '18 dirt o;P ~ t: I', ),1' I. :' ,r;j\~~ /;~ .. I~q I' "" '" ',' '

• '", ' j" ~~ -.:,'., '! ,. f ,I .~~~ ,. 1i ,t· ,."; dn !Hfot, j .••

, Trong phjin T{a!l~ri ~ri~! 7"411 ,fMn. sach. IJIl/~ Nam flitch qadi ,lqj ghi.;ch~p

hoi khdc : «Th~i ,Cbl~ "N?iiu"V,~~bg, vua H;\,~g ,Y;l'WUl t1~,lt l~, dtfJl POt Mill Yi~' Trl, ChAu Phoug, lay qufie hJtu lit \lin Lang.". ","" Iii, " ;':

NhungBai, Vj~l: 8t"rl)lf9'~ .dp ,:Ti~n.'(~y',J.c),.~i~u,~ dtnh. thl ghi.chep khac hln

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nb tr S8 U : . \ ~ :. !' d . P d r ~·I' h '! I! If r.. f ~ I' , 'I: ~

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'",' tt l)~ll· dai Trang \'tr011g ·llha Chu nam (696 ~l682 lruoc COtta nguY~lt) (, bt')

Gin· Nillh c6 nguiYj J~,t dilDI( ·so tbu~t (a)') ·pbuc <tltticf cae' be) l,d!'tt! ~X~ltflg lit IIiulg· V trang, d6ng d6 b "an Lang. JliCu 10. ntruc Vitnt L8Dg.~~~ 1'trtly~ri·fdtrQ"c" ~18 dai 'd~d RQi IIllUg Vuoug» (1).·

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THl11 &.,.1.11 UNG. VU(JNG

85

,

. Trong thu tich Trung ,QUQC,~ .4~b ,C"," .,BWflg 'thll-,.. ~ia Iy' chi eua Luu H11

di1i. ,Tbl}.ch Tin,. sach Thai blnh 'Jioan -v4:,ky ~cua ,~b4c sir dlri Tong d~u daD sach Nam I.Vi~I.-'cht cua ffbllm .Hoal VieD,~(tb~ ky':- t~li 5) IA .sach dA tblt.l~c, ghi cnep

nhu san: r . "'I •• ,. -,;.' ~ ..•

" -, r .J •..•• ' ~~~, .. _.... __ ' , '.~), "I,.:&, ~~ ,J~

q: Bat Gi~~: ~ht~U'a J.~L.,hll.p~i~UJ"e~, :quAn, IrU"bn~Uil.H:u~gVU'O'ng}) (I).

Sdch rsu« Ngung . t~p 'kg cua Trinh Hung~·dai Btrang .do sacb Vdni tldi

IOQi ngtt.cu~ ~e.:Q,uy BOn din:·~li\.cbep nbtr·.sa~; I~·, .,~ ",. __ ,;\ .,' ~',. ,.

, .,. ,., .. "~~"" j_. ~ •• l .. ,.~: ,. \!\I~l ,,~,~ '.

« Bat Giao Chi dit lly 16t •. nhi~u mAu maJ s.ua kia c6 quAll,tfuong gQi, 18

ijli ~g V tr'!f1g » (~). ,;', .., .. <'; t ,. •. . ,t -, ~ " • ,.. ' . 'i I ,.. . , ... ~ ..

~ • • , .' ' .• 'J ' I;, ~J ~ LI T· n 1 ,\ rf. t ; ~ j ~'" ::1 Il 1 f l r l • t ! ~ J , t.., + -} J £ , , - j ,i ~ " .: ,

Stich An Nam chi (nguy~n) eoa. Cao 'Hung Trimg 14i,g~~·c~~p'in~tr.sau: ;/

(l Thoi Cbu x.'!u, , jGiao ~~j c6 Lac ~'\lapg xAy thanh V~~_I~8ng,» ,(3).

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• J. \ I . C~h err' VRol,ttiu 't!ch'!Tf{ui'J' Qu6ef, Ngo, Si 'Lien 'dli ,c6' liri xet troIllrB{li Vi~t

sa kg to ant hit n b \l sa u: .... L ~ , '. . " ,..'. ~ d ~ '. r • ; ~ ~ t ~ i ' '. . .• l ~ ~.: . ., .. ...,. ,

. '. , .. C[ Th~i ltdttDg'B~ dif~g~htiJ(i~ln~ac' .. cho' ;Giao ChI b v~ phlatay nam, a xa ngoAi dlit Bach -Vi~t,· Vua: Ngh16u sat 'Hy Th] ;d~n Nam Glao, d~ ·d!nh ·dill Giao Chi a phucng.uam.sVun Vu .. chill chtnichauth! idA:t Bach JVi.,t ll1uQc,\·ve,.khu Chilu

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Duong, frJBO hI thuoc ve duyu. ~ (4); ' ... '/ ~'~~I L~' . ~ .; ~ ~J h~P; _;" ,; ,. 'j .... ~~'. ~~'.: j

._ ~'~ .B~p .dai,Hang v.\l(1Jlgsau·k~j 44t,quoc bi~u Viln.Lang,.:tJ(li.Vi~t sir },y loan

Ihu ghj" cbep. cuong VlJ.'c .. nhu sau : lqH~' j ; ~,. ~ •. ':~ .~,~' t', ~~~ ;~, . 'j,. ,- .

i ,:.' .. : "Nuac (y phia.:d6ng:.giap Nnni'Hai,',pbfatA1d~n BaThucz phla hAc d~n hi> »(lng Blnh, phla nam giap mroc HlJ TOn, .tuc Chiem ~ Thanh, nay 18, QuAng Nam, (Hnng Vuong) cbia nuec lam ·15 hO ... » (5). Stich Luang nl~C, fJ{li Vi~t sit kg cua NgO Thl Si, Du dia chi, L{ch trieu hien ·chuang IO{li chi, Sz'r hoc bi khao cua ' BJ)ng XuAn Bing .. Vc1n tIdi IOfl.i ng1t'~I~~~dFpe.p;·I_h_~oi~}& ~O c,u.8, .nlla~ .VAn Lang trong B{li Vi~t au kg loan tha., S8ch Lfnh,Nam chich qudi vA Vi~t au lave tuy cOng

d~~ c~ep ~lll1C Viin Lang glhpd,p );>9'J~~ul;lgl\~n\,bO.,co ,~hlic ,b~n,~c) ~ro~g sach B", Viet Sll' kg toan thu, C~~ sach k~ tren d~u th6n~ nhiit chep mroc VilLl Lang c6

~bQ VAn~ Lang lA' d6 ·cua·jHungi:VllaHg.u" ; .. ~: {:~:., i/ .... _ / _>TI~' ~ i ~ L ~." .. i ,.',' ,

, '.~ ~,,, t'. r ·1 I·t ·'fl· I

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. (' 1) Luu HIi:· C",i' Baang . thu ;. traos 'J(376'; Nh(lC Sfr!. T hili blnh holln vii kg ..;_.

quyln 170, trsng 9.. j; ~ ', .• ~~lJ c·~ j,,' . , : ·L • , ... , ; .' • ,

(2) L~ Qut abn: van dai lopi ng£t - tra~g 149~

(3) Cao Hung Trang: An Ham chi (D8uY~D) -- trang 38.

(4) NgO SI Lt~D : Bpi Vi", I~ ..-',It,· ·lolln . th&r (baD chfr VJtt) - J-JA : Nc)I_.l 1961. Tip l~

trang 59. , I _ .~'~.' :).'

(5) Ngo Sf LIen: ~.eh· di din - t~p I, tra~g 6lt (;

t

86

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,1 ~; . 1 ~ =l~Jllr tjch ~rl:ung :·(l utic 'khOitg· ~ghi ~ ch~'p~:ro rang nttltc ViIi La'DA' g<Jrit 15 bO

uh U" trong saeh sit fila ta ~ nhung 1 nh{rng' liii ili~U1\.ghl chep ral' rae ·,0 trong -'ilbting s.iv h XUR 06; cilrig .i·phon' anh tlnh ,Jllnh 'cuong: vvc !ntrirc 'to, thai' Hung Vtrong. ~ ~'j

Sach Thlr9'ng tlur ctg.i truy~n dAn trong Thug kinh chd dft. cbep nbu~~ sau': «Vutl'Nghi~~ 'tirDg'vo~y~rird~PGiao'CHtl'" p'hU'~rig'~a~:ITheo va C6ng phin

nam cha u Kinh. ~6 .lct8f]\Ti~t x·tra ·:ltt ,11 ., d I ti .{I' "JJ~! 1 ~,,, ,-'.;. \ .,_, 0;; .. ~' ./' t .~,·t .: .. {\ .: ; ,J

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Trong S~ kg ngli de k(h Ta"MI't:bi~~'.·dA.{rglii'~l~vu~ ~ghi~ti 9nf'li~'iTlhl~

dt;u;a. NamGiao '~(1)~· ,)~,~ ntfi( .i.m li/~·~·f! (J·~iJ~iJ" JrjJ "i.,:t r~t'; id~'~ n.;i··~ ,r~··I ~

- . .

Theo l{h~ng ~n Q~oc c~~ Slr.i;c{r th~·. Nam Giao tile ~iao'·PbJ.>tro~llg do,o

van kh8.c~T'Tlll·Mil·)Thien"·ghi":"·j I ~rJ!Jlr fl1J·:,~ ~u:) (n'~\~\\r:~~ ~ ... \.') hdJI. \;1.". ~~~~:"

«V'ua Cliuy~n fIiuc td~ D\rang:;?rd~jf C{~OI C'h(1'i pbtt,yniihilJn~'b!) ~ ({ Bc'1i vua 1'hu8n, vua va cling'v6 yeD dfil Giao Chi phuong nam n, Bat Phong Chau duoc t"(lU /Juirng'tiiu(Bld l!)6chl ghl-chep nhu \·831J:

.. ; ';~P?QDg ~Cha.Q.~i 4~, ~d(yi, "f~lY ,)u.' r ~uye~~f~j~~ :~~n~~~.!quO,~ ~ Gl!lO·f'jCili,~~Vfi Hire nam thu 4 16p Phong .Chan gCim () huyeD.'·· . . ... : II.··· ·(,1111"1\\ \1:"\ \"\("

. . '. ,~; Phong f~~~~~;,_ir .',l~y:, ·baCt :An .Nam •. 'J s~ :~t;i .. f~~,rOia ~i~·, .·~fl)<ri i fltu1, bUY~1l l\f~1 Linh th,uc)Gjquo.~ (iiao Chl.!.nu.~li,fpa·1Y~,n~ Lang ,di,.;~n • (3). ;'.:;~}T .~.;! £1,1 L .·l:~

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~ ,. ~ .. ] Sach I Thflnr' di~n' i cun" '130 ; Hiru' ! dai· ~ l:ltrabg ch6p:·« IJhpng' ChAu . ·11t . rltrac

"'lin Lang xua (chu giii co con sOng Vln Lang) ».' 'f: t', ~ t :. to" j. ~ ~ rt ; r .. , . r~; '! ' , .. ( ~

,~' )'" , '. Trong 'sir' 'h{>c b('khdo;'9tng X'UAn.IBing':ghl : cTheo sachTluilrblnh hOM va kg eua Nhac Su dlri Tong. Phong ~hAu .xua lI1tlnuCrc \'lin Lang' (m)J tue VAn Lang (l~)t .~ ce. con sOng". V1i n '~ .. Lpng.{, T6nkP~QmJ: ~bA.u .xun, " l1gaY~llay Iii dat phd, LAm ~haof~ Son. Tay. J~' ~ .. '~ ~ . H{1''l·., ;~ t'l ~ ?~\1' It .Tf\.ig ·.nr r'~ n i. f i : q .1 ~ I} ~(·1 ,(, :.' r.·, ~ ~ I ~ f ~

,~ , \1.'·. :,',,' ... -t '.\.':~ \ .I~I\~·, \~.Irf\·\"~ t;,I:~(' ."11~ r, •. ,~>d I:~;I fJlJq ':·I·\·~I(J ~;hi'~) '(aL'()H)"',;~'JIJ' 1) .n i .

. -. ~ .t··~·)\\'.\ .,~fi~ :\(}t\ ~·hJ& .ll\"'!t \n.'~; ~,·.~'t·"l\J,\·~· .~'~1>·~l\ H~·\\·\~ \\')\.t,.\ ,·~,t\' n·;_\·. 1,\,,(\ ·.I( .td~r ~. ,~/ '. ,)

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.(1,".: ·3·· ... :Tt'nl1~rhlnh~ *CI htr}nw.c··~"ln' ~'an_\~n ·~.1.~~~\ \(\\\ ~.\~~,I :~H{r:' .·!~·:r.,' ; ~~t~'.l

~·~jli~' ·1 ~~j ·){\·1.1·~ q;' \ .. '~'. i.: ·~\'.lt~' .' .-'~\\~~ iU'.t~l~ \\~\t.\ r!',);~~': .\'H\\ , .~·.I't ".,t, . .'" "'.'1 ·~>t·\· \q,.~.~,

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,i" 'V~quah r~hirc~':ii~ArJ~j,{ tI,icJi_:'fjildi' ;dt' i rl11ltr. san :: , 'I (~l .• ,._. ,: q '.' ~I., ~':; i,'

.' j". ','" ·,.n\, •• l ·1' , " '~~I ;'i:""" IJ"11 " ....• J .)·Jl~·II:; ... l ..•. \ .. l'~''', \ \ .,. ,," -f I ' •

. « Chia cac em (Hung Vuong), ·ra cal i ,~fj,·; 1,1(., ~tt ~cA9 e~: .Iam, ,l~~ng"iv_:u,

1, ..

l\lang va, van 10 lac han, VD Il IQc ltrang, con trai vua SQi 111. quan lang,

con gai. vua gQi lA my'. nuong, tram quan 8Qi 10. ~~ chinh ~ tbAn bOc nil l~ g9i

l~~AQ .x~·~g. a~,t~~ .. ,gQi,~.~ hCin,.dO;i~.~P'i,,~~~truY~~\~fo~~n~f,g~'.l~ pp~ ~~o. Vun

(1(11 dCrl the tQp gQI Itt H 11 ug Vllc:rng, k~6ng ~~ lbay db1 J~ .'. t~ . :.1 ~ Ii d .11' l :;.:,r,

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(2) Ttl Mn Thl"n: Sitch dil diu - traog 31~ J '1 ~ I'. ~ ~

(a) ·Ltru ffd: Sitch liD din -ira'iJg· 14S'1S.!t,d ' .: t.;' h iiH d'f~·~?, ~ ~!:d.; \~. ~,.~~~", ',r ~

'. t, : ~. r:Sarh B~i' Vi~t ~IU 1rtJ iodn~~tJur,' Ouung ·m~c,l~ Lich ·tri~u hien chuonqloa! chi,

Sa hse bi khao;dBq." Vi~t· ,a-.~kg,f'd~u~·('h~p ·.14i chuc Lac ·hau, Lac ttrang, I~n gQi quan lang, my mrong. b6 chtnh ~"a cOng~ nhtn co phu dl}o •. Vdn ddi IOfJi ngu con ghi them ch U-C .. truVng.·.1 tt phu trecti . - m·.3i bt) thu(tc .VAn Lang, .. ~. ~ ... '. oL,., . ~ i

.. '. . ~. .

. . V~ m~l sinh hOllt, .·cae 8o~n gill ~rjjh~·Nam:·ch·lcJi quai d4 ~ citnt c6' :vAo thu

ijch litis',' dang' thai k~t h# khao sAt 'dai"'s6ng'd.c dAn t~c It ngui7i~ ghl l~i rho churig ta nhilug'; hhib inhl rit chan' xite:·· Baj~ song. eua· (jAn··cu· Iue dl» Rong· ven ft'lngi. vfin ·sOng. Jdanh :~c'/t l'Y·bOt ·.cAy' ma In·,' ;'lay· va cay lam 80~ -Iny co tranh

. ~ . , t .

d~t th·anh'·chi~ul~ Jam ·mlni bArig-tlm',lhu, lam i1r'?U;~bAn" 'ctSt gao, Cay·bAng<dao;

trang. blng Itra, BAc 83 lam nhAl~iiA.n~i Phongjuo ··'thil khi c6 ngtr(rj 'rhef ';g ii ctJi IAm·'l~nh.~ ,ri~c~ cllai ~11n'thl g6i dnt lam /diiui~··giet'~trAu~ de lam' dil .. I~J lay cam n~p '(f~ -nhap ... phong. cling ,An·, ,Clt. too_.n-.:ln d~ d~, di .~rirng. 1Xtim -mlnh d~ tr4nh giao~ long v.v. .• 'B~i V;~t.31l kb,.)tdan~ .. thutt.~uang ,m~CJ chlghl ·.l~i Iuc xAm .minh, con bO···nhlillg··'ifc khAc kbOng!:Jchep.··. Vi#, ,u~·ltr(1Cdvi\ Vdn' c1di:loq.i ngrr.thl chi ghi khaii qual: « Buctng Ihai blYi gilt phong tuc lhuliq..,11GU, chnl ·phac· ~ (t). 4 Vl~t sa .luo«, ron gbt.:, chmh ·s\!'> dung. ,loi ke't. Dli t • (2). ; Lich, tr~eJl. ·hlln: chuung loQ.; CJ.fJ gbi lorn tlt: e Luc bay gilY, vua tOi cling di cAy, cha .c~.~!t'm ~il~g (s~n~) khOng (!lli.A giiti ~ han, : k~~.~g. phan bi~t, ~Y .. ~uy~n~; lPtr. ,~&.~~ . i?An: ~~au v@ mlnh, uiSllg nuec

bA~g; .mat~ ~fJng nhau :."qj; chol v!J ',l!» gQi .til dO'j ~l~t. h~p' nhren t, (iI) ~ . ~ ~

:.,,' 'iM()t lrcin~ nhu~g'ii1tr tj~hrx~a: nbtltcna ,Trun"g Qutic"IA Giao; Chdu ngo{li Vile' kg (lh~ ky thrr 4) dtr'lc 'dAn1 trong' :BRCh Thug·. 'kint: . cJ~d ! dli ghi che p thai do

nhu- sau) ~ .. ,."., ~,~.' . :~L'i ~~ ~;··.'l~ ~~IH·,I' JJH,!'~ l :;~ \ ,.\1~. 'r~,~'.l'h~ ;l·. ·1 'J-! •

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c Biri xua, . dat Giao ChI.; khi chua chia thanh !qulin huyen, ruorig dnt"gQi Iii" L4C' di~n, "DllOC.' len' ixuiSng~ tb~~i.tbiiY 'ri~u.· Dan; ~~\l cAy bira tren rut)J1g d6 d~ aiiih ~8611g'jfgQl. IA· ·L~c~·'~~~ti~'~_Lijc~·vudrig· vA Lac hau lcai tr] cac quOD.· huy~n do. {y

cae buy~n' dol (:16 Lij.d J luling; L,c t trang 'co an dangi Kill t X811h )-~ ," . ' :. ~

t .,

". .: .Sarb. Nam, Vi~t chi duvc din trong 1.'hdi blnh qultng kg vA Thai blah hoan

~il.; kg 1".. ,ght ch~p nhu san ... .. :':" ":.' ::,"; ",'.." " ." "

.1·. I ,I.) j~~~'.J ~ \.,11. ~J~,. : I~ I '1) Iii j.t -, ~'.~~' t : •..... , ~ : .• ;.'.

·.t>iH ,cHnf r .Glao.Dhl rriLphl.tnhie~,: .. nhi~u.;dAn.b.j,di.·cLr·d~n d6,{HQ·JA nhung

llguai diu. tlen khal . kblilf d't~'LU't den :~~a. ,1l6q· hut: ml)llb r·-:llnl,. bliy . gih. nJlifn~ canh di5ng:.dol~Qi.la, Hungidi~n·,tva;dAuiJa.Hung·,dnnf(.C6 .met Ong'rhua gQi IA

:~D:i{i~::S ::1 :i~~r:~:~~::;~t::~t~~~~~~~,l~~I~"\~i:~, ~~i ,~a •. H~~~ hln. Lsnh

,. .

Sach Um Ap kb dtrl1c din· trong ThUy·'kinh ~Chll ·dB chep nhu san:

.. . ..

; ',: ~. : I· t ~ . ~.. 'll ~. i l :'$ ., • ~ t ~ .. ~ \ \ - , '... '.. '.:::", \.. . . .: __ : ~ _. I I .!".

(1) (2) n« ,n. Illve (ban.: cht;ttiYJ\t>.~,... N~I, .. 198Q~ tr~ns"14~ ,: I. t :. ~'.'

(3) PhanHuy Chu: Licit. tri'" !.luln chll'o"g lop.i clai - Nhdn u(it chi (bAn chlt Vl(U)-

Ha N 4)1, t 980, t4 P I. tr aDS 164.. - .~ :. ~! . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . , . ' . 1

...

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«\PJliu:1181n Chu ·Ngo~· ~6 giong lIlBll~j gQi~lA~Yall 'L811g. "HQ khong bi~l xAy

nha lllU it Ir@.n':cQy, ~·.iill· ell va th it !- sqng" -, buon ... , ~an! cac.. chat· thorn ~~) IJb fa _ ,no m huyen- doco con song ·n.hi> r-SQi Iii Vii~lJiL.!lng·. cll~;'f (I). ~:': .. .~ '.,.. . ,.; L '!-

~rrong'IStr kg.phiiri Sir'ky sdch"~~,if!~ Mit·a~pinq (t~~lky,.thu 8) dii cheptl~j

y k~eq n~~ng soan' gi~.~~h~c\,f1p~_,-~.~Ul;~~·~~'~\. '~+.; -. it .'{~~~ .. i·· ,~"".;~ d~: \ ;.

, r ~ L,fU Thi"vi~t;· NgU'c1LAq ,b,.~, •. Ui·~Jtai; f)~l1!. tjph ng~y"n~y co uguoi. Au :vi~t. Lninh·'ngilia VlC~j: .. !'rhI,tQc~,~a.~~·t\~i~t:~\X,."tr~:'J~, A~·Vj~t. Du; .. ~i" Cll(,viet: Giao Chi a dai, Chu 10. .. L~~ Viet, a~dai(l;r~n.; 1~l-TAy: A~.,.! xAlll .mlnh ·clt. t6c d~ tr8~~ (giao) long. ,Tty. A.~ L~·c.lt .phia, lAy lftbf~~~rNgtJ~ Nam ~Yi~t.,;vltjAll~ Lac : 4~!11P',9. My~

Th~, ~an vi~t:" ~i~1'1·h9:.i~y,-·jy~jdM,.·~".pg ~~ ... ~t~D. ~~r" ;n i!j h. ;~r! '. '; '. j ': ~':'~:i " ... p~ , .

. ..... «Ngtrai ·Au·:Viet cIt ,t6c'ixlmrmlnh» (t). i';r.\l 1\f8&·Trinh~.;theo sach ~ Qu_qng ~thdu icy (th~· ky -thir .~)- chep : eGiao Chl, :·<;6/·r;uOpg L:JCi dAn 86118: ·bang ruong. ~6t theo thuy. trieu tl~n xu60'g (~a·:C8.')l ~c~y) ·gQlIA\.L~~·~ dan. Coi trj( cae huyen SQi 1il J ~~c . 1 \lang t co l itn .~. dong gi Ai < xa nh o (3)~ I S~1j. dd6 ,;, i sach Tu . tri ~ i lu'ng g; dm:, .dai

~rong .. Ttr Mli· Quang cling .chep Iai do.nJ tyiiti· tren, i 'c' ~: "r~: ;.. " .. ~ rf ~f ~. ~ n

. .

·Sltch·(An·~Nci"n~·.chi ~'(riguy~n) ttiajCab~:Hiln!g fl'rung·di1i·Minh dA·ellll cu vao

thtr tjch eli ·ch~p IQ.i~·nh·tt sou: .r: , I~t .-l~rJf·.~·l:) 1{·~1 ~:tf/ ~·/t<. \ .. .' ..... f ,~,~ ~ ~r : ~r~r'~ ; .. "

,. ., '« Gi ao ChI' x tin: ~ k"h Ccll.tra' ·~"hili thAlli).' qu.~ l1UY~1i"c6 ~ ruong LQ.c ,'theo: th uy trieu 1~11 xu'otig; .. khai ~ khli~l . fu(Jng d6 ·la.~ I.64C ~ dan,' ~Th(5ilg ~ frf 'rueng d6 I Ia Lac Vtrong. tiitipvi~c,.c{) .Lac ,hrc7ng.,!4~u q6'" ~,n dong giii xanh. Hieu nuec Vin

Lang;' phong tuc thuan ··phAo,.'.cai .tr] theo loi, ket. ~lUt thirng"lil '.,:: ~ . . .-., .... ".;

..

Sach Phien Ilgung tap kg eua ·"rrjnh Hung din cr Vdn cfd; IO{Ji ngll chep

~

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nh u· sa u .. . ... . ... .' ~ ,,- . ~ . -. . t - . t I ( '.. . .

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.. ..'. «Bit Giao Chl.» .: xrrakla.co quan Ir~bng.gQi.AA;H~ng ··\~llaDg,~;t~(Jng vAn 18 Hung hliu •. -tu·o;ug.vo Ia Hung ttt~g·);,·.Tr~n.S.~8ach.~J~i~;(fjc4i ~~la T'Dg.:C.~.n~dAn trong Vdn (tal IOfJi, jng(f i,g~i :., f~ Giao .. CJ~t.,~ 4¢; ~~~~iJlh~~,:pPt!B.·~~~~p'; i.t~

x u is ng ~ (4). i". .' . , " ," ,. ..,. ' . . . .

''', ,\ .: Nghi~l~ 'c~u·8in'h'b~.t~h·illh"lr!;tbbi' ftlilng vJo.og~. ~Act h·QltgiaIVl~1 Nam d~u khong tll~ hi> qua truyen Vi~t ·Thuang· clSng chftrt ~"trt: HMOt H(ti~h Hddng luu \~ 1 it', ~ :h In 'het" r cae '. ~tic];i s ii, 1 x \lEt 1 oils' lSf '4 ~u~ . ghi . 'C h~ If vir hctjng nhtn .. ' . ell· 1 8.,; · vi~c DO y. Nhli t tr~n:~hbirD.g t81 ~Iie:u I.dl.~htl. ch1ingj-ta~·bief··i1·tr6chVlt·it~ Lang gam I 15 ~b«), ftt-ong

d6'co bO !"\,i~t . :rliir~Ilg:~~lig 1 hh~:"' ~~'\p'iad:Cht, ~ CUU : C~~" Vln : Lang v.v •.. 'd~u

dave hAn hel ~ cad !lach '-/ghit Jai, H/~J.'~ ?'U~~ .... ~ ~'\'l ~}~'.: ~.},fj'~.~ ~t, ;~~.'": I t (~~ .. ;.~~H)·;'.' ._, II ~ 1

Sach Lillh N am chich quai di! ~h'l:f,~pe,p I ~~itnh mot truy~nit6 l@~ nigm kh io sach xun .cfin r:.rr"ng .Q~6c, ,",I~trH~p.u\~iH\~\~·· Udo r1 ;(Tt{~ ~H.~'J·' ~.: ',\ 1:r~ \P.~ .' ~ t' .... ~. '.1

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(1) Llcb 9,0 Nguyen: Thug ·Jdnh ch6, IQuy1!n 38~ trang 513~

(2) Tn MI Thldn':f Sitch' !an ~dln!::quy~.D -~3)llt*Djr'607! ~t(· '\", ~~ ~ ;~ ", ·1·~·~ ,.:-.~ tr:

(3) Ttl 'MD TrInh·: Sa .kg lciclt lJn~- NGnl'\Vifr rig !iJr} 1rugfn, trabg 11066. L ~

- - .,.

(4) L~ Quy B6n : Sach dB dAn ~ lrang J49.

• J

89

\~'~\ 1ft Ve.(dC1iiiba;fThanhJ,'1~Vllg)(~J)bit(Cb.1J~t ~png, j YWfl.ng .. ~~ai tb~~.t~i ~tl1,;xllng 1A hQc~"Vi~t: Thllang dem\fhj~\b'CA~ tltr1S~J'tje»~'lciS~g!,~jj~a~bl"Vi~t .il.·uluf!c,. ,/)lr,\dla c:hl/>B~i Vi~")$it klltq.(ln,:ithl]!.~~Cfrq.llg i~lJC'j4J~udgh\)ll!l'!s\t:'pVi~p,t l{~Jtrtn~~U'¥,~ru t i1 H~.' :

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r : 'Thu· 'tich xua cUff Trung Qrioc~~hhu:;'Su-!kg ~'iia~fTlr'tMli(rrhi~n+,t\iATlllr9'ng

thu (d'{li,1r,uy~n iCual\l?hwrl:hlHg, q\lQ:4:'~hep. j d~V.thQ'i, lJ~ •. , cijpgl c(>:lghhl'~ Tbanh ,rUO'D,g llwALChuj,Ct.llnam i Giao. ~,Chtlc6;1l",O:c:,NjOti.;rh,~lrng(~~\.ll1g·:,:ul)ieu,· J6'p! thong

~,. ..' , " 'i • po '., T _ '

ngon den hienchim tri'.trang~~vJv.,;.I·fJ>~iri·ni-l(1 ti]. 'i~! ~~l;'U/l~ l :$1(011:' ,:jUl'j .'.'~' ,·L I

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d fA! i t (TfJong' ,Prue, thu\wii f.ni~.ll~ ,saQP ~ ppli\Jhi ~ti'~ doi::; IAn ~£tb~ ,:,'ky ,thl\-: 4)",;11 QU II an

thu, Nam Man ~rLlY~n (q. 116),) Ap'uN~m ~.(?bt!l~lg>uyen~,;~~4~ql;chep ·Ja.i: frU,y~n;tr~l),

¥,c.lh" !s'Ci~h1)ulI,al1:fJt~fhh\~~Hl,l. ~:JR~epIJ~r¥.r~p,.~~~eH !/~~~~\,\te·~f h~~~~' krhd.O:P~,.~p~~i xay ra 11 t 01 ~ U rna ,O';t al,. u~~" .. yA n~04f'l ~rl ,t_rang, f~nl~?t't,pg'>L'~~~f ~r I\;;~P ~l)i='~~ j,~th b~

Ngoai truyen dang chim tri trang dtrgc nhieusach ghi chep, Vi~t su- luoc con chep mOt vi~~ quan b~ giila Hung Vuong vai phuong B~c thai d6 rat c6 gia

tr] cho cac nha khao cuu lA~,vi~c: < i' ·U' " ' , , . ,

.« Vi~t Vlrtmg;Cau'tTi~n'(505'_,465 truoc (~6ng' nguyen) dii sai Stl tbi du,

Huns Vuons chong 'ct? lai t (2)~' '1' :~,! 1 ' '

n ,0 • •

1. ,q. jjlw":'. ~}~.1 l}l'j~H U, •. ':HI.J~) :~H1., (r H,ii.:, '~HZ ~H' d ;:~~. lir~ Lh ;:1 ::.'~~::'.

dd'!:,t ... l'iLLI :gJltYi! '.l.tJd2J i!l:~ n1:'11 j;$j.~~n·i!'~H ~\!i_\:;. t.f! .Id, ;.:IJ1/ ";~r.~. (j,\: l '},:l oJ"'~'

:; i iI!li~~lS..g!I'/'i v'bHg- Jt.ul" H~~(i "lr~"9 ... 1Ji;fL< .Ii h~~ 'till) ~. >; Ii 'ts: iii, r. t , d , j

,1·iL· I,'; ',ja,l'fi 1-.1 -,11'\';11 :,j'/,. !,llill Jt;'lV" ·;,1 bt'lllV ;11HrIi HI;; ··""'.1;;; .j\.,) ) :,i, Ih,,,

.;, ; L~ it:a{~~~W: a~.I1.~ti ~ '&~lli iiichurfl JJl18fh iilHbti~'lii V~'I S1!1·'~hLivo'nl eUa iHMr

\I .. .,~q~l j,.., ...... ,. ·!..~~~.)t ImP. i1.:)R'·), Jlf.~J.. 'n;'!~f. J.Ht~, .. u~ "~<~;~l~P!{,dd ,~I.: Y; ! ~ gt .,' c" ~

~ona tr9!1" ~\l ,rqv~IJ ~ , ua VuDg» nJlu.e sau :'! .,' ., .,.: ",., !, ' ." ,

"'" 9.~~ .. ,.; ~'!l .. , _, "",l!i: (no' ·~.'r/.l,{ ~rl'r1JAt\l~t~fj. (.;.d.~ ~~nJld:~ q'!,'j, krH~ ~'~}' \i: '~fil~ ·,'l ; '~i

;ptIl:J:~.Yua !411IDU'O:~Aj,Y1f?~g~i'l1f~CaAJ1, f~~&,a: ~gJlJ!)~)I3~f,:rhu~'JI~e.ll Phan, nhan

"i:t~!pb\1., ~~a~ltru:(rQi,:rJ:~ ~It()~ .~1~Yl~x,:~f.1.'9'ng~,~~4 Cqll.gAfj:yria; Hung. Vuong; Hung V uong :Jtljbns ugA" M~,~p~n~ m.apgi~p:ap.J. P,~an'i i ~ll,O, ~ ! hoan tll,a nh ; ch it ng~o!: ~rtrc,rc" eli ,1~inbddi ii.da~, ~un:gj fYlfClPg .. dj~t ~"P'c,:~'Jil?:b~ang'.*j,cAi Lt~n/ pu{)'c .. }ai, A lJ, ,~~C, raiile1l"lam~iv,u.A »,,~.jl_'tl~i~; '~., dH~l) ~'j'1}1;Hi ~U"~'f';l \,~}~~H:'·Hl:,).idJ.'1dUd.d ;i,l,t' iL"I'~i;~ u!') uf·Nhtrn:gitroiig· 'trrJy~d cC nui:,TinaVi"~i1f; thh ~~ptichin'h ThucPhau. cau IhOn kbOllgtdtrQ'c;, mangtlong-oan.o,' ";~Hlrlr 'i!.~/{6 \) ·.:,~dl'·~fd{jdA ~';in ,;' i.~d • d It,,' 'i.-,i :' L.'!

',).;;_;nsiJil!,Vi~I.:~iJl1i~b tl?hh '-b~~p"(lth.~W*taJit.· 'hE ;~kb1 t:r;Jhg 'mue; ;Bcii Viets,} 'kg to~m'tt.~~tll~fi~J) kap!ltuH~tlJ.'ltig "lr<n\k;iiHit' llti'6c ~i~nW'n(li;drin~ tro~g'Lrnh N arilt, 'Ch(cJi'~' tid'.! v ~~f &~/ 1 r~~~ ~1i~~g' ~h~h' tigu .. 'y~n nhAn'l:tii~t 'iliroc. mit chi- ghi: «Cti6j '({i1rftid, 1tclilgIVirdNib!JC(jn'yul._t.Th~eila:Phahl danh'dubi mb. len thay s (3);

, • J, n ,I d , I ... # J J H U';( d ,h. l J. 1'~! ; Ii' I ;! d, ~ I ~ i ~ ) oJ :- iiI :1 ,i

Thu tjchxua ella Trung.Qutictuy khong chep kg nguyen nhan mat nuac

clla HUJlg Vuang' nhir Stl sach xua cua ta, nhung d~u ghi chep thting nbat Hung VU'aQg, bj Thuc 4i~t.·; .",...,;.;' r: ':.. . ,: ..

, IlJ'. ,,.\\ ! \', ':~ l . ~ ~/H.(:t) l tt, 'lAt .UJU1~HJi.1~ ... ~ Hid: ~b di",' d.! ti ";1. '! ;

. .' . .: .. . ~ ~ .,.t 6- " •

go

HUNG I VO'NG DllNG 'NUaC (I)

!' t.", ';Sach'Quang~' Chdu: kg (lh~~ ky thw'5) duQ'c ··TIt"Mil rTrlnh 'dAn trong Sir kg sach Iui va \ duQ'c, Ttl j Ma"Qu8hgt'diI1))~rong TU4llr;, thdng: gidm' nlnr: san: jC 'Saul binh luang ,;Thuc"Vtrang:" ,Ttl ~dit~nhr\b4i ~L4c ',hluf 'tl1'~lttrng ."An Dudng ,VtraDg,

trjvl. ;, huyen dPhopg .,Khe~ ,( 1).\ '111.: . "U d ri':'J;~) L' -( ~ (;: i,;r~"'r' i ~~;rf ,: ~'.! •• " _.: ; ~ , : ' :\ d i " !

{' ;~ ,I! Sach:'Giad Chdu ngoq.i vtrci 'kI1, t1u(Ycidin' trons'Thug kinh chu': « Sau~\30.000 binh 'nrong ThUc!}VuO'ng Tu.~danh·Jb9r'IJ'C{·vtldng.(L.,.d hAu,' khuill phucicac Lac

ttranJ. 1'hl.lC V 1l00ng Til xllllg la An Duong 'Vltang!,i (2). 'i.~J', !: I:' t'.1 ' .. '~I':'; r!', ~ ~ d "f i

, ,. II, , Socii (Nam Vi~i' chi' !d\lQ'c" dAti, itrdng'! C(lU Buung" tlur: \ «, Sau,. 30.000 binh tuong cua'Th\l~ Vl r ang'~danhi·di~t~·Hitng Vtrang. (3).H; i'~!·r I,;,\!p(1, -"n'l, ~ ;!'~('. ', •. '\'

, • 'U" Sac~ iAn'~a!m' chi (n~by~~j!~~~p."'ih~~::s,u:\cn ;:; i"C:7Ytttrl,g' Ida: 'ituy~~ dtrQ.c

18 dJ..· thl bi Th" V" g·d\~tlH'('),,;~d\.,.l~\tl' .J1~O')fl rv .'f·~~t t·r,~ .. \. ···.1~ (,';: t i"",'j '[1

ul 1 l.lC tran' 1 J) 4. ,. {'.O'... . ' . ", .

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ft. \.. ~. ',ai 1 l • : ,~. ."" 1 ~ l ~ .... " • : -f..' , •

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. Nhtr chung ta, dii ro, sach su' xira cun Trung Qutic c6'~ nlen d,i 1lr8 hon

sach chfr H8.n ~ii8 chung to. Do d6, nhtrng llii Iieu ghi chep trong nhfrng sach

do tuy!t, nhung rilt. q~y bau, Nbfit III ,~~~ng s,*c~. ~'t9'CiP,~~.J1yt~~nl~I~ nhfhng sach da duoc cac SIr gra Trung Qu5c va VIet Nam sac nhan.: 18 nhitng be) sach

co .gla tr], '~o. ~h~ng. nha: ~~c( h~~,~u:~n.~.thc7i ~~i ~~ep. f:'i\k~o n.gbi~~! cll,u cho chung ta,llt tal lieu v~ thal:"ung,y~al:lg! ~trQ'~.,ghl .c.heP. ~~b. man mOI'ch.~ Ine)t

it; ,co n,hilng tal Iieu gOp chung v~o"hhil~ Str vi~: tub hiuh It Linb' Nam, Gino Chi'v.v;',' 1n .nbtrngncl gom~CAJ Nani~·\ttltng·Qutic:hi¢ti'ilsy:/rlnh}hJnh!d6, cling

d~ l1i~~ 1ft vl;'cachQc'giai!Trung QutiC'~!ltfp,(A~t~l'(Ojgl QU()c"ila~hinh; doido,'hQ chi :ghi chep' nhfrng ·s'! .. vi~c'lnao':cln~thi~t' c6\~li«ltifquat1r.ii11?8u Truttg<Qti~'.1 Con nhfrng /8,,': vi ~c) luy' r't ; quan' 'trong' {d6r).'(v6i: . t&~ h rihU1lg~'fltSt':}'\1bl 111'91-1,1 ;kh6ng :cln

thiet thi ho khOng ghi, Chung ta kh6ng nen ~6 dinh Y ki~n cho ~Ang stfvi~c:l!ch 8tt nao cling' do' 'sach sir 'Trung1:QulSa chep' ina/til; mOt. khi; 8tt,: .,ifo fljch: ,su ':d6 chI thily lJ sach cua ta rna khOngt~~yb '8ac~ Trung Qu6cu141~.d~tl~~v'n\ 'd~ ,nghiqngc)

tlnhchan xac',cua tAi,};li~~~.r ~gay;\ c~ \:q~~ng (~11,. vj~p .. J.i~~ stt~ ctia ta dU;Vc ,cae hoc gia xu~,~t\a Tr~ng;~Qti6c, g~i (;~~p, cq~ ,fP, ;ch3 g~; ch~,p. .kh~ng ~IYj ,d~' ~h~ .trong sach cua tavHo.gh! ~~4~p!d<.>:n glaq,;!ft clt\,~~l).~mr lA~!"Vi. v"r" cp, c~~\ ,c~~ng, ta pbai tin: v~o ,sach ~lfr!~U?; ta I;1J~; sa,?, ~i~,~' !~,i t~l,li~'t. !!c:b,~~/ ~~~, f11.t~~~8.., ~I~~~ ~'ra

Trung Qu~c, .. t~y ,8~C~1 CU~. ta XlJtit . ~~~n muOn. .hcn. ". ..' .' . .

j 'j (:, t t: . \), r I 4: 'l r H' ~$ A It·· t r\ ,. tdJ ~ ~ Lilt ~I u 1 ')0 n () h n t f'1 i :', !.} •. '{ ! ~r If,} I ~ rr. ri f

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(J) Tll Mil Trinh: SAcb dl din - trang 1066. Tu MI QuaDII: til' trJ th8ng' giam

tr a ng 90. ,. . . .' , . . " I ':.;.: .

(2) Llch a(lo NgllyAn: 5Aeh 41 din ~ trang 012.

(3) . L~u HIi! Sach til din-traol '14370}J G.l i5'! ;~1j . 1jS~ \. ',n r H';~' ,,"< It!,·, \ l'

(4) eao HUDg Trtruk::SAcb dl'{Jln L:!!'ttJD84Jt38r :ttd? 11:';d) ~)"Q'!~\li.' r'l'; ,r', \;; I

..

THaI i BAI HUNGVUO'NG .. :.i / f tl

91

U! ',1 '/ ,V~~: thai d,ir~Ht)n'A ~llang, sllch"Jca8 ta':ghi :chep tuong 'd6i :;dly. du ,va' s kieri nhtn d!nhh~u:,nb\l.thfShg:'lnh't.- ;ead b9Ct)giatLpbong ki~n Vi~t Nam dl d~a vito

Jli.lii'n8, i~?,~)i~,U,,?,;~g .. Jip ,C.l4. y!rp~i. iS~. c~) ~f~.n.i g 8utS? ,xU'a, va,; ~~bd-ngt~uy~n. thuy~~ d~'!d~9'C:~~~i ?~~J,~~ ,tn~~·~.D ~'y' c~kl!. ~~.~') d,;~( 7f~Y. ' dung · t,h~~ I!~b su. ,Phi!

f.~~g ~~.~" J~., S~~I~~~i~,~~ ~~~'1Y!~t)~~~,~~ai'~? n~~~.u.~tS. sAng tl.m. bl~U,vil ,d?~ nliaE!tt sach ~\lr:" ,f9)~Hhl·Jl!~,lin.) ~f,~~~ ~_n,~i~Dld,~~l. :gh,~t :\ch~'t tr8?g '~ll; .,dlu . t1.~n,. cua dan t«)c ta, Y Itl~n'chlJng tuy c6ng ;nhan 811 t~n t~1 eoa thaI dai nay. nhung do

., . .

trlnh dO cac'ngAn'" khoa hoe con thap kern, cac hoc gia phong kien Viet Nam

khOng du, suo chung minh. IJ~ to ra tfnh th$ri' trong va ton nghi, cac nba vi~t Stl

; khi ghi chep giai doan ,nay" dii chep .~R9.tph~n 'NgQ.{l.i,fc/J,/ '[i~ll~b"~n~; Ngay nay, nhitng chung Cll, kbao c~ nee, dan .tc)c, hoc vacac nganh khoa hoc khac se glup chung fa giai quyet SlJ ban ,khoAn nghi ngl!-i cua, cac tlU- gia xtra, khi chep giai dQlJD ljch. .3tl-i,uay. 'tCbungl ta'(rii,t, 4ung Jr.ong .viec ~ stl1d1}ng ,1J1c)t, each tin cOy;;nhfing lajjiJj~u, gbi trong ~hitng thtr"tjch Ht~,.tran" tUyi~fi:Dg ltai:(Jieu .cln: phsi·' dirge.cae khoa boo khAc tbirstbaoblt,Jnb.cbAJilxacltilan, ntra~1 Treng. khi chua co; lAi lieu; dA )1actbQiilhtrng ~aijj~U;'tgh~fch~Jt~tnong:lhU'[tich :k~. tren (nb't IA'ngay 'nay tai .lieq khao. icbt h9C~ .dAUi}t.(»~hhQc)~a(s:nh6nl,~htlDgt c6."th~ ~ ~ngayi cang. .dung), thl. ehung ta ,,~n nen Jran J troliA'jlibi~;otai liOu {idon 8ai:;vl~'nhiing 'Jlili! li~u! ,d6 .con duoc den JlgAy ,n~Ytt'ltbeogehu~g .tOi~{fch\\ngJ'da~ t,irngitrai;.qua~ hang, chuc, th~ ky tbir thach, . lrAi qUIllJnbii'lg"~"tr~(: tU~~fCU,:a cac.bachcc' trong cac trl~u4",dll-i phong kien glJn JQc, cb\i- khOng ~phajt,ton ,tqJ, dtlQ"~~do Wa)t tvAi: ca.nhan. ,tuy,",iti~n ~c~ng i nhan, .Thai. ~c) congo nhan .. linn chtnh. xac hoan: i toam reua cae' tal: Jj~u , trong thu tich cling khong nen, nhung co ith4j:~dQ: b,ao bo 'cae, its.i,li~u1d6' l~i J cang I khong ,th~;chap; nhan dlrgc.

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Nhu-ng tal li~u trong thu. tjch ~ xtra; chung tOi di\ din 'raa: tren dii cho

chung ,tAl th~YL~c)ti ~4cq!~paljq"atj SI1I!xu~~ibi~n;thoi, dlJi!~ung Vuong. cuong v~c JJ~(1CI Y~H ,ha~g" tlnhhinh: ,xft,i;bOi J 'Y4"sv: ~ suy..vong. ,cuaf~fluDg, V\long -; .Hlen "nay,

, ~4H.:ph~:!~j~~ .. ,uoYj~t ('~41mh~- t~l1,a tJf~ni co ',sCt; Jot J1eu ,~'4p .nghlen ctru ; .thai: ;dIJi Hung , Yi~~ng~h~rq~gl R"~j tr~~t Rghi~~ ,cli'u,!"CAC ; ,n~ia~ ,~4') hQP, Vi~t Nam dA, dAn 4h~,:gi~~ quy~t)AWflC~~Q~ ~~.~~,~,t~~,~,:V~ qa ~q~.~c)\ :~iS, 'Y,"i~n~ dl d~n nh(ttri.!\ ;!;!

"'>1 id 'I'ren ico 8ai~nhftDgitaii'li~u!ichu·y~u trong'nht1ng thu tich xira c6 gia;tr!~

, chang tOi thlly co: m~t~'86Ihh~n a:e/~)nh\f sau .. ;, ~ ,~). ': ~ ~.' r~1 \ i." \: I ,. I'; .; t " :' : .1. I, • '

'd: \qnd! ~ >1 H;I) u~,4,l,wll.:JJlI..i.>t OH I <)(I,d.1 ';':1/ '!i\j'l~', iii;" . ,I; .. : _ I', .• i , . .)., ~

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d n, r 'f ~ d) II ,". 'i 'H ; ~ II ~D d 1.1 : U \ , "'I d I ~ d }t Jj ~ :,' H L' i i:; ti, J n .• j j ) ~ I ,/ • i t i' ,i· ~; ,',,' ~ , I I : , . I j

S" xu't:Pl~I\'~~t\~j».~~gly~qngt ~~\~a<tbH8hl.;chep', r'tkY,/,nhi~u chi ti~t, co sacb chep sa lave. .Trong qua trlnh ghi chep ,vilo ,sach, cac sach sau d4 can ctr

v ilb' 'nhitng fAiliU6h ~~IDJ1h; xao·.'Dhlt: a ~4Ch trtt~! i ltr6'c' : h9' .nh tbig chi ti~f kh6ng clnLtbi~t botcHs,* tvi~(i"fqu4'hoa'n«?d\taJlg. lhtl gOD Ilfi ·tbtlrili'nh'irig'trang' s.r!thuOc gial f dOlfnt4lu1'tl en fCUW 111l'ocrial,CAclsAch 'RbI' fcli~p!~ :c6'-j khac J, ~nba u "dOl chut r: phln

,cbn lY,U! vin la'cung·cOng!nh6n~c6;t~D',t.,.t thb-t,Hu·llg,:;Vtrang.; N6t dung; till ~ li~u con cho chung ta th'y: Hung Vuang ,va LQ.c Vucng 18, mc)t; 'ngn-ai 'Vi~t ;:a 'mroc

92

HUNG .vlJ(YNG UVNtj NUO-C' (J)

Viin Lang cung .chung lrong .Bach Vietll; 'Ihtr- tich Xlr8 ... dA ~ l(tp· met phis" he: Viem Be-Than NODg-~e,Minh7-Lt)c,.-T~u.o~Su~g LAm ~Hun8 tVtrang ~ (truy~Ii r18 d~i).

l~1 ., ~ ~Jerf;J;~~~,~ .;.~}~~ ~;~:'~~Y~~;,f;~ ~f~~?:~':4~~~~-~Y~:t.~ ~~;;:cg61~:

tjch ~!he p H.un~ ytto:~~~ to.,P: ~lLt~f. V~n ~~~: d6~g ~Of~ ,~~~H~g:~~aul I~? _y~i 1r~~~ 9~5~I.~dal v~n;,Ch~,!;~a,1l,~,~}!f1?~}1&6;7:::H~,2 :tri~'~C-,~,~~~,~~~~~~)::_ ',.' Ii' I.

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,~t~"~-'B!a ban 'hoat dl)ng·eiia~Kinh "Dtrong;Vut1ng ;vA'Hitng:Vtrang, tAi li~u thu tich -; d~u xac dinh \(Y, mi~rl 'nam .ngoat t c6i~·tru'ns ~ nguy@i1 :Trting QU()C~ x tta.: Chung ta: thly c6 ba cuong IV\rC DUc7c· Villi; Langi)tn) ·nh·o1khtle· nhau tf hubt VillI Lang bad gain tir h<l - B(rng Hi nh . de·n n \rae" H ~ Ton: (Chiem 'Thahh )t~ IAilcuarig 'trt -Ion 'nbfit l nuoc Vliri~.Lal1g' gbnt ·15,. b«), , theo 'cic uhaughiencuu ctrdng(\i\fC~''15 bO° ~ hep 'hnti cuong ·v1;fc' tlnr nhfiS ;f nuec ~"An Lang ]A~ mi~n Idiil Phong -CbAU 'C6'~IlO1lg Vile h~p hon ca. Bieu d8ng~cbu y,rvr trl ,dilt" Phung ChAu~'kh6ng"~~t.tC1tT;"goai~ pharn vi' 15 b(»; vj tr l 15 be) -khong c6~bc) nao 'Vtr(1t khoi pham 1 vi' cuong' WC.jllrrl."nhit. TAl li~u 'con cho chung.ta~th(yjmi~n'drit!\litn Lang cllng In'nlien dat' Gfao;Chl, dia ban ~ sinh tu cua ngtriri .: L4C ,. :Vi;:t (Bach £Vj~t ).~" T Ai .lieu con t cho bi~t - chau - Kinh ~

.chau Duong trong. 9 :cQAu·thai, trub'd H8Df~bno glint r 8 t1.1i~ll-' nanl Trung Qu6c: V8

uoc \7 a I I a ng , : L , , "- j ~ 1 . , -. ' , ..

11 U (': ~}l:,~ ': ~ H.j t~ ;':1' .l: ~~ ... rf':tl.t ",.i.;IJ~: d,.t.:t ~lJ{,h >';q ~ ~ tl'/;~ J'.~ :;c, ~i ;

. -': .: Ten: 8Qi 15 'be) cit8.:n\l6o~V1iD ILUltg;'tCQO saC'b~l~it(~hl~_ctJl~p·kh611g~ hoan .. tdhu gioJ1g nhau, chLrogto" i~n' SQ,i; ;~ut~~'d6i~ngtt()(' Aaft~d~~' t'~.~i~~trbg·c~ttg" r6'tri,i)t !Iii: ;b(.~ sacb 'nao t,iillg; ghi)·che)j 10. 'be) ~·v an ~blfg, 'Viet Thu,CftJg, !(}iao' CblrCuu' :CIiAl1

v .1.' .. ~ T al · '1i~ u c6u' cho' ch1.idg! 't~ ';th~11.:V li~ 1I.~ng ~~~j C tlll I It \t'~e.·g~tit' ~ 5' 'b~ 'd~ ti,8 thai Icfing ]A l~n rit<)ll~. "iet thilitngJ~~ieti 8q'i 'n\fO'f be. thuOc1Hiil1c'/Vlltl Lang,' fc6 titi~ li~u lal ghi. chep Vi~t ~r~hl.r(Yng~flA:-t~n· mot ,n\la0l~l~ng .blOtt' Giao (hi cOng IA t~n mot be) t.huc)c nuoc Van Lang dang thai' co cbii' Giao,·-Chll rt)hg~ gom::eA ~ Jiu(rC·~cV~D Lang hoac tuong irng vai ctrong VLJC mroc Vln Lang.Nghien ciru ve Ctrong V\lC ruroc "an Lang, chung to thiiy cuong 'Vl1c 15 b() phu h«;rp vai ctrong Vile mi~n daL BAc B6 vA hAc Trung Bc)~}Vi~r~1fth'>ngay t.nay~va ibaot sCtm·.'mOt'-lpbhn dill nam Trung Quae. l\lj~n dat cua.,bO ·Van Lang bao gom n.hling Ini~.n d(t Vfnb

Phu;' Ha 'TAY'-'ngay nay, ·Nhlf~·~v$yLpH.lY bv~~),vai' tl\1 ll~u~ tk=hlt{;clJ I hQb. ~ j~ n 1,r-·· .

j . ~I;" ·"1 T~ rf.~.": \ -'; :; d--· (d~~ ... tt:.rff) i.i~~ f~ .. d ~f !'H'!) l~fJf1.·~ r .~··'tl1; ~;, I ... ~ '. • ' ..

"~'<'j~ .Ten g.9~ l&l·p;(/rcq, ~h~~P,9~~.~ng ~~p :I.~ulit~hiet;l·vl\g.,~~if~uang hote·: muen hon, ~Bie~ .. ; ,dqj~~ng .d@ ',hi~ll"iyl c~~ PQI ~~4/lpho~~i· ~j~Il:;-tho:i~" 46 mulSn xac ;djnh ~\1'~~g :vWC DlJ,Oq _Vln Lang .. ·~~h; m~~J~ t,ml,t_n~ tdtr01;1g~ thoi -dnng "d~~ chfh dinh ~j~p i~at, ~~o:i 1I4ng; Yllqu8 ,\"fI rtti',: ~ ~r~~g~111i~ chtral tim. :dl1V~~ t~n" 'gQi, ch'n~ sac

~ua,tllCri !I:I.qng.':Y_lla~g.l·; -Ld ~.~~nll;)···~~!··:'. ~ f'~"/ ~:td~~:'1 ,ipq"dl. 'J(';dl ~:J " " ,'if 1 ,,~. '·'l·~

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,ft;.j ;{f"V~; lb· chu-c1xa')11c)i .mroc lNi1n Lang:;)rt~~Ji~'u' thtr tjch :·de~d cho biet. dmri Hung Vuong hay L,~(~ Vuong thl c6 Lac htiu, Lac urong cai tr] .dan.. Huong dat

lr011B: pham yi i ¥n~~J1a~g 1q~9'G;SQiv~~.~a,,~ ,di~~.}. (f,q tlnr tich f:0~ ~110bie,l\, ~'o them ~Qu'~~ 11~C t~.(Yi~gl ~o~, ~~(~b~I·~~i~11,~1F~rang t~J.'4~haI?i ~9.~, r.()~ d~p:~~ao ,iirllg •. Tuy ghi ,('h~p, t~1 chu'~, itr1e~ du:~i FQ. J11~¥ .~~~ .P~~llg. ~i~~ .nhu ~Y~~" ~1l11g di~ll chiip i nhan d~9'e lil C~~, saqlll~~'u. e6qg;~h'"L~q~i~~qi phOll{tt.U.'f,;eiHrt~':\~p. phac, kb6ng' ;pha~ bi~~, .q';1Y~:~J ~yi ,y~ I ~,!i~.hPto~\.n~~~)1'R-h~!!l~59g~'i tp~y,~ F~. ~4'if~g i l~\lC}l~~~ mlnh, .cat ~~~\!pg~~ !~'·Y'''.~ ~~q) gh~ sheRtr~,I:+pg,)~~hu~~}o; ;C,8.9}?9P ,gia An; ~;~y! ~~ng~ kbao cuu ~~~9,l\fhenH4~rq'p, .P'hU;ll~dSl! NI~CI1f~n, cung ~.'~l~~O J~PUl~g tll;~llh~I~;~~ay /~~, rang hlnh llnh xii h(li thai do, Cach trong trot nhtr cay ballg dao, trong bang lua, theo

mroc trieu .Ien xllong giup cho rac nha nghien cuu th~y duoc trinh d~ san xuiit Inc d6.

Truyen "'i~t Thirong dang chim tri,. viec Can rri~n cho ngtrci sang du Hung Vuong, tuy co dieu chua chinh xac cilng giup chung ta thiiy diroc sll quan h~ giiia ruroc ta va phuong Bae 111('. bay gi(Y lit co th~ c6 diroc,

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4. S".uy vong cua Hung V"O'ng.

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Cae tAi li~u trong tlnr t!ch da d<>ng nhat cho rAng An Dirong Vuong dii diet Hung Vuong vao nam 258 trtroc Cong 11gU)Ten. Mfic nien dai Day c6 th~ chjip nhan diroc. COl} \ nguyen i}h~n suy vong, tht cac tui 'li~u deu cho rang do Thuc Vuong kh~.l1g lay' (luQ'<;' MX Nuong, luang long olin. COlI Hung Vuong chii quan coy c6 binh cuong luang gioi nen khoug phong hi, den khi b] Thuc l))]8.11

. danh thl b] mat mroc, Tuy Hung Vuong b] diet, I .. ac hiiu, Lac luang con ton tai

· tiep sau mot thai' giari kha dAL Bi1i B~ng Han (the Ity thrr 2 sau Cong nguyen), su- sach xtra con' ghi chep « Hai BA Trtrng VOll dong ho Hung, chi tell la 'l'rac, e111 len IS. Nh], nguol (y huyen Me Linh,' dnl Phong Chau, ron glii quan Hung nrong dilt Giao Chau i (Linh nam chich quai) chep theo ,C)'t k!jcutl Tir !VIii' Thien),

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Trong bai nay, chung t6i chi trinh bay 'nhfrng tai lieu va 11hir.ng thir tich X1.r8 c6 lien quan true tiep den thai d~i Huug Vuong, mac du nhfrng tai li~l1 d6 c6 th~ khac nhau doi chut, Nhfrng tai Iieu trlnh bay a day nharn muc dlch d~ ban than tai lieu xac dinh thai dai Hung "UO'Dg c6 tOll tai hay khong, Con nhfrng ta\i Iieu xoay qU8Dh, van d~ thai dai Hung Vuong nhir tsi lieu ve Viem Be Than Nong, Kinh Duong Vuoug, Mall' Di, Giao Chi, 14~c '1i~t v.v ... chung toi khong ueu rn, e hi tan man, tuy ~Qng .'at qua n trong.

94

HUNG1VUONG :'Dl]NG: NUCrO'(I)

Nhilng titi li~u duoc neu l~n'ftlphln -treIr'luy;'c6~gj.a;':lr'. .nbung: chung c6

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giA tr] den mire nao," tai lieu nao lit truyen tbuyet khOng clang tin cay, xunl xu

ciin uhfrug nr li~u; ~y (yl dau, chuDg'~it~l~id~ danh phan fv.~c/~d6dvao'\nhirng baD bao cao saunay.»: ~:,. ,'oroJ .).~.!j l'l~od ~}~L,l /l) i'U 'f~n'(;'H'1 .. ,t,i ;'~;':d .;,rtr;'lf l :1:1;:;

", :, i \ MQI ;n'gtrOi d~ti t~iy'rlS~. ,~,trifcY~ t61 ~n~y~t 'ca~ 'pHA:su-' bQ(tVi~t Nam d~ti illl dung tri~t! d~,~hhil:ng· tlli li~t1 kl~"~f~ri ,~~ ~ rigbi@li: '~ti-lf~ I~r*ng (lhltf xii IbOi t Hung VU'<1og"v.v.:: n~llmi(chll,'a c~ dil~i6illth.i~W.'ithu~g 'tM'l,~ti ~6t'c,acl:i Idly' dti. Trong btlri' :l>a,o cao 'nay! chu#g tor\c6$1glrlg)fn~tf t~"'nlifr'ng~ !tllr";ll~ij, 1 ~nnilhg' :'thtt 'tich itt~ tllc)t ,t each tu(yng'd~i',;c6 i h~ th~ng' ~~l.!tq.&ng·()d6t) d~f' QUj( ~~ t :th'6i' d~i Hung VUOOlg', tuy sau 'nay' t ti~p' tuc'b'b ,8Urig" ~h~it(fft1tlll1~tf e ¥n6f pliaf h~~~ ~ dtiQ4~.'N~u 'ca6' a~ng ch (thilyi dtrQ'~nh~'.vty ;'thl' t~1ihg 'l6f'M tH~l\t:c~1 :hft,U"<t'ii hoan' UlAnti' nhiem ~b ..

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_. - ~ - . . .

Cac dang tien nhin oqu6c -ttl ella dan ~c· Vi~t~la

Hung Vuang hay Lac Vl1f1ng.? Nhieu ng\tC1i da- ban den va~ d~ nay. ma ngtteti dau ti6n lil Henri Maspero, .. mOt nha Dong phuong .hoc uyen bac .thuQc: Phap qu6e ,Viell Dong hoc vi~n (Eeole.franeaise d'tExtr~m.e - Orient) trong bai Le royaume de Yanlang (BEFEO, noXVIII, 1918)~ Sau do c6 c~ tranh lufngiO'a &lCu6ng LeUti vd'i (fng Hoe Nguy~n Van TcL a mien Nam tntd'c~1975, mQt':so nha nghien c(tu cung c6 ban d6n, chang' han tren tap chi Bach Khoa, PI;1~Ip ROaD My (19~9) t~i.cliii wang Hung Vitcmg con'. ~ ViemJ19(5) thl l~ cli~ tt1.tdpg 4c Vudng. Bai nay. khong nham di~m lai toan bQ Iich 811 cua van d~ rna chi nhaclai -nhiYng y kiln. chinh ella ·~c tac giA, d~c bi~t 18 cua Bao Duy Anh, Hoa BAng, Tr4n Quae Vugng d~ phat bi~u trong cac CUQc ~~i nghi ri.gh~@ri ·c(tu v~ _th<ti ky Hung Vttdng, t6 chuc ;~,u~c. day (s mi~n BAc, tit'cuoi 1968 de'n 1971, in I~ trong cac t4P ky yeu Hung

Vlic11fgdijng ~li(j~ "(HvDN). ",,, .'.: . '. ,

NglJCti.da d~ nhieu tam tri va thai gian nMt V&.0 vAn d~ nay khong ai khac han lit hoe gia .Bao Duy Anh. B6i vd'i Dao Duy Anh, .eac vi quOc t6 cua ehung ta tnl6'c sau

118

van Iii Lac Vuong. That v~y, ngay tit nam 1938, trong Viet Na~ van h6a su cuang (Chung t8i dung ban in Ian tha hai, Nxb Bon Phuong, Sai GOD, khong d~ nam), Bao Duy Anh dtl vie't: "Sa chep rang Lac-Long-quan phong cho nguni con trudng lam vua a nude Van-lang xung lit Lac Vuong" (Sdd, tr.25)~ Ong da ghi nhan rang phat hi~n v~ 811 nham lao tu Lac Vuong thanh Hung Vuong 18. th~e}c v~ ·"nha c6 hgc" (danh tit cua BDA) H. Maspero (X~sdd, tr~2:5·, chth.l:).· . ' ~

Nam 1946, trong Nguf,n goc dan t9c Vi~t Nam (Chung toi dung ban in Ian thrr hai, Nxb The gidi, Ha Nl}i, 1·950), Dao Duy Anh lai vi@t v~ xd 'hQi Lac Vi~t· nhir sau: "Cac hi) ·l~ thi it dirdi quy~n til tntang gvi 10. lac tl1ctng-, cac Iac tuctng ·thl phuc tong it nhieu m9t vi tii trititng cO ·lh@ l\lc ·han he't ca gQi 18. .lac hdti bay l~~ V11ong." rsea, tr.65). (J 'dciy:6ng ciingcho'bie"t 6n'g' dA thea y kie"ri cua nha Chi-na hocH. Maspero, "cho rAng chu Hung-vuong' chinh lao chtr Lao-vuong vie't_ l{tn ra".

(Sdd; tr.65, chth.L), . _:.' . . '-.. ~ .

- Chin Dam sau, trong Cd SU" Vi~t Nam (Nxb ~y dung, HA Ne}l,' H)~5). BAo Duy Anh con bay to~mQt l~p ~ttC1~g ranh mach ,va dtlt khoat hen nfla .. Khi nhac ,den ca~ truy~n thuye't xua v~ nude VeIn Lang ehe,p kong Linh Nam chich quai (DnA viet trich) thl ngay -sau hai chit Hung Virong ong daghi chu trong ngoacdon nhu sau:

"Saa' I~i"la Lac vtfO"ng~l (Sdd, tr.83), Holle nhu ong da vie't: "Cai danh hi~u Hung vuong.may sita lit Lac vuang (Chung toi nhan manh .. HT) chi la phiem chi cac t.he h~ til trmrng tit xira dii lanh dao dan tQc Lac-viet trirdc va sau khi ho de: dinh cu (j. B;lc Vi~t·nalli" (Sdd, tr~93). Con it nhtrng cho;thuQc-v~tl~p luan va hanhvan rieng cua ca nhan thl duong nhien la ong da chinh thirc va

true ti6p dung hai tieng Lac Yuang, chang hanrfLacVI1<tng la vi til trtrdng t6i··cao. cting chi 'la ·vi tu tntdng the tiJpcua be} lac lie'nhi~pL~c.;vi~t( ... )"~Sdd, tr.93)~ Neu tr1J(tc kia; nAD1f"i938 -va DAm ·1946, ong chi nhAc den·'·Y: kie'n cua Maspero nrri ctJac chu thi .nay ong: d·a: dua tha.ng vao .l~p iui)ft chfnh thttc·ctia"minh=··V~ danh hieu Hung vuongthi H~· Maspero·~dii vi~ri-cac sach Giao cluiu ngooi IlljC'ky vA Quang' chau. kj·mach~g minh rang eai te·n Hung vliarig chfnh !"la cai ··ten: Lac vinmg chep lAm. ra (. .. ). Trttd'c hdt ~~ngt1C1fta chep hai 'chtllq,c e va ... IOn nhau, r~i_,chillgc .'IOn thanh cllilhung

til. Chinhmdt, s~ ~~~ii 'n~ds ta chu ~hich sa_~h'DgiVi~~ sli kj toan tbu ~Gllg <ta -thay choM.:m,-tu chu 19csaIl!! chu hung' m~ n6i :r:~ng danh h~~ u "lac ~l1dng" sau b~ ngu'ai taIam lA, "hungtudng", nhungIai-so uy quy~n cua w..P truy~n xua nay vAn gQi "Hungvuong" ma khong dam n6i de'n eai Mm tit "Lac vliang"sang ;';Hung vuong" rsaa, tr.92-93). , . . . .-, .. ,; , . ..;;. ::.

I ." •• I· . I

. - .

Ba nam sau, trong Licit sil· Vi't-:Nam~·~ qltygn; thl1<1rtg (Nxb Van h6a,HA NOi, 1958) o_~ngvc\n duytrtquan digm ella minh nhti6ng da ph~t bi~u trong C6sit Vi~t Nam tuy khongchi tie't ~a.ng:"(vi day la mqt be} thong s11 danh

cho· mOt d§i tugng r-(ing rail. <

- -. . .

Hoa BAng thi diftan thanh danh hieu Lac Vuong tit

nam'1950". Ky ten Hoang Thuc Tram. trong Ltch·sil xii hqi Vi~t-Ndm (Nxb' The' gid'i, HA ·1iQi, 1950), 6ng· da danh hirrme}ttrorig ml1arm\lc cua·qi.aY~ri .sach tho vAil d~ "Hung vuong hay Lacvirong?". 6ng, nIiii.c lai cUQc tranhluan v~v6n d~ dangxet giOa Sa Cu6ng LeDu v6"i (fng Hoe Nguyen VAn T6_cfing nhu nhAc i~i quan diem' cua Dao ·DuY: Anh ·trang: ·Vi~t" ·Nam· vdn luia s·u

114

115

116

HIU Thiht

cuong va Nguon g6c dan t9c Vi~t Nam .. 'I'rongphan phan tich ella minh, Hoang Thuc Tram da can ell vao Giao chtiu ngoai ouc kj, Thuy kinh chti va An .. nam chi nguyen Iii nhung sach cua ngttai Trung Hoa, d~c b,i~t IS. vao An-nam chi luac ciia Le Tdc, mQt' nguai Vi~t- Nam a th<ti nha Tran da di theo quan Nguyen, dg khcing dinh r~ng Hung Virong chi lei do Lac Vuong' chep nhdm rna ra. V~ sit li~u rna sach cua L~ Tile dB. cung cap, Hoang Thuc Tram cho bitt riing: "Khi nao nhdc d6n "vua" cua Van-lang, tac gia An~nam chi luoc d~u chep la Lac uuang ca." (Sdd. tr.72). Danh gia tinh xac thuc ella sa li~u trong An Nam clii luge" ong d~ vigt: "N~i dung sach d6' tuy c6 nhtrng di~m dang ket an (ve l~p truClng, quan diem, vi theo Milrig Cd ~ HT) nhirng tuu trung ( ... ) cling cung cap dl1qc nhieu sii' Iieu ( ... ) cho ta ke CUU9 D6, vi, theo nhu Le Tclc tv nrii hoac nhUng ban van ciia T~c lJ ben Nguyen da giai thi~u trong cac bai tua, thi Tile lit ngttai thong minh, hoc rQng, di nhieu, rat thong thao v~ dia ly va ljch sa ban qufic, nen ngoai nhung sal sach Trung-qudc dung lam tai li~ u, tac gia An-nam chi luac condem nhung sq kien sO' van tit khi

con fJ nude nha ma ghi chep VaG nua" (Sdd, tr.7~-73).

v~ 8t1 nham lao da xay ra, Hoang Thuc Tram vi6t:

"Con viec l~m "Lac" ra "Hung" tht su than Ngo Si Lien, ngUi1i the- ky mtll1i Jam, da chua ro a Bq,i Vi~t Sit kj ngoai ky toan thu, quy6n 1, ter 3a: Lac tuang htj,u ngoa vi hung tuang (.u) Lac tlilJng sau ltim lam Hung tuang, Nhirng tai sao N,go 81 Lien khong .noi de'n Lac vucng? C6 Ie vi nhilng cd' nay: 1 .. Quan niem ton qtuin ctla nhd nho ( ... .) dau dam bong dung neu ra mQt thuy6t dinh ngoa, bao 18. "Lac vinrng sau lam ra Hung vuong" vi e Ia tai la miit ngtliii doi, thdt kinh vdiqudc W, tAt nhien tu

trong trieu d~n ngoai nQi, sa than se 18 cai dich cho muon nghin mui ten nham bAn!' ( ... ) 2. Hai tieng Hung ouang dd quen dung trong dan gian ( ... )'rat kh6 Slta l~i cho dung trong khi noi duQ'c ( .... ) 3 .. Thea tam lj chung, ai cling thich cha ten co nghia dep hem nghia xdu (.~.)" (Sdd, tr.73-74).,V~ phia ca nhan, HoangThuc Tram dii co m'Qt 14p truong rat dat khoat nen ong da, ke't luan:

"Nhung day 18. sit hoc, khong phai 18. chuyen cam tinh, ta phai .hoan toan khach quan rna tra lai s\!, thuc cho lich sit~ VQ_Y til nay"tlli1ng nen. vfe~ lit Lac vztqng,(Chung toi nhanmanh __. HT)~ (Sdd, tr.74).

Trd', len IS. y kie"n cua :hai hQC gia danh tieng ve sau d! tham gia cac cUQc hQ! nghi nghien ciru v~.' thai ky Hung Vuong. T~i hQi nghi IAn tha 11 tc5 chirc vao thang 4-1969, nhiYng nguoi dB. tr\fC tie'p d'(it Iai vAn d~ "Hung VlldIig hay Lac Vuong?" v~n lit B8:0'- Duy Anh va Hos Bangtngoai ra' con c6 Nguyen E>6ilg Chi.

: ~.. ~

Trong tham lu~n G6p,y kiln v~ van d~ 'Hung Vztang,

Dao Duy Anh da d~t lai toan hQ van de thir tich mOt each nghiem cin, ranh mach v.a rat xac dang, Khong quen nhac Iai Yap. d~ "HungVuong hay Lac Vuc1ng", ong kh!ng dinh rAng' sach d~u tien ghi chep v~ danh hieu Lac Yuong la Giao cluiu ngoai uuc kj thUQ<; the ky IV, con sach ddu tien dB. chep nham t~t ca cac clift Loc cua Giao cluiu ngoai vue ky thanh chtr Hung 18. sach Nam Vi~t clii thuQC the ky v. V~y danh hieu nguyen thuy van Iii Lac Yuang, Tuy nhien, vi nh,ang lj do te nhi nen trong h()i nghi nay -ong da to ra nhan nhinrng ma phat bi~u· nhu sau: "Dit sao nita; ( ... ) cai danh hieu Hung Vuong giin li~n vdi ngudn g6c' va v~n menh cua W tien ehung ta rna trai qua boo nhieu difi sa cu'"~tU' Dai Vi~t szZ hy ve sau va truyen thong cua dan tQc'van gQi the', thi ngay

117

.' I·... : ~

.... • ~ _. • I I

. ~N~i th(t batronghoi nghinay co·rtryc i4ep d~ ~~p den van d~;dang ~et;la Nguyen V6ng Chi. Trong tham luin Tinh chdt xii ·h~_i thai fly Hung Yuang, ang cling di~m lai cac sach XU~~~cQ ghi chep v~ Lac Vuong 13. Giao cluiu ngoai Vl!C ·ky~ ~Q~ti;rtg .. Cluu: kj, quye~ truoc d\1qc Thuy Kinh chi: trich;d.G. .. n con quyen sau·.t~}·:duqc Sll:ky

sach. dn trich dan. Cae sach tren de·u nhat loat ghi,~Lq.c Yuang, Lac.hdu, Lac tuang v:v, Duy chi c6Nam,V.~t chi cua Thdm HoaiVien .: (the'~.:kY V) r6i sau do· 1& Phien Ngung tq,p chi cua 'I'rinh HUng 4ifi, Dl0nr . .la _bao nhi~u chiJ. lqc d~u chep nham_ thanh chu hung, lam hao tOn nhieu giay m~c eho.cac nha nghien cUu d\.ii sau. Nghia la danh hieu nguyen. th·uy, theo Nguy~n D.6ng,Chi,. cling l~

LacYuang (X.-Sdd., tr.293) .. · .: !.

Dh hQi .nghi Mn thu]Vthi Nguyen Kim ThanvA Vuong L-Q~ khong nhimgchi thtta nhan hmhthirc g6t! 13. Lac Yuang ma condi sau tim hi~u y. nghia cua tif.t6lt;tc nim (Thii tim rt8l1imgPc:n.gil~nghiacila tit tti"Lqt:",lIVDN,

t.W,~tr.134~141). -.'. C·l .. _ ;r ....

. .' T

.. T6m lai theo y kien CUff nhirng nha nghien c(ru. tr~p

day t~:'nharig nguCti tn!e tie'p th~0'1u~n:v~m6i quan 'h~ gifra hai danh hi~tJ Hung ~lidng·va Lac VUcJri.g thl Lac

Vrl~g mdi' 18: danh hi~un~~~h thuyv~~~?' btc~~Jl nhl1Ih ma thanh Hung ·Vlitmg ch~ khorlg~ph~l lao ngilgc

lai, Can nhn:Dg'Dgil8i .khnng trl!c ti~p neu {itn d~ l~n'd~ thao·lua·n, 'khi~c'h nhan rli~nh d€'ri- danh'hi~u·nguy@~ thuy, cring 'd~u' nhlt loat g'Qi Iii Lq.c Yliang. D61A'Tr'n Quae Vu'{1ng tr_Qng: bai Vdi Y kien, chfUllf quanh van de thili 8jJ Hung VlIOng (X.,HVDN,_t.Jl, tr .. 130), Nguyen Linh

trong bai rTill~i van d~Vf tri nuac Thl!-c crla'J'hlJ.~ Phon (x. .sdd, tr~193), La~.Van La trong bai T~,.",.hieu eke.

49!~d,·:hQi~ithiti kY Hung Vliqng qua cht d~ lang dq,o.lI DUng Ml1!mg truac Cach. mqng thdng 'C6m (X. sdd;tr.308 va~310); Nguyen Linh va Hoang Xu4n Chinh trong.bai Brit nuoc tid con ngUiJi thai Hung Vuang (X. HVD-N, t~III, tr.92), v.v .. Con tat ca nhtrng ~gU(li khac khi sa dung danh hieu Hung. VliCIng thi,4eu 18. g9i theo thai quen chu. hoan toan khong c6 ba~ c{( ~ cho rang danh

nay chang ta v.~n tran .trong va gilt theo, con cac danh hieu Lac htu Lac tud'ng tIP chung ta cling .«;u. ,gQi theo sit CUt coo de'n nhUng danh.tirLac dien Lac dan eung cU.gQi the, chu ,khong theo- Bach Nam Vi?t chi rna d6i.gQi 10.

Hung cd". (HVDN, t'~II, tr~280). " ...

. Trong tham Iuan' V~ Hung Yuong ·va xii ·hQi Hung Yuang g6ril c6 hai ·ph'ri. . rna ·p~!n d'u c6 ti~u' d~ ,Iii Bring Vuang hay Lac Yuang, .Hoa Bang nhae lairang "vI!' "Kn· d~ nay, ·tn.t8c each mang thang Tam, .nhieu ri.gt1iri ilhi~ti IAn dA tranhluan nhungchua nga ngU~' Nay den hie chang fa can phii lam cho drrt di~m~'· (Sdd; ltr.287).

0... x h \.. b~ h~ .,. ~ h T Q ",,;

,ng ·van ,C _ 0 rang .. a_u ... et·.· at;! sac ... rJIDg, .: uoc xua

d~u chep.Ia.Lac VttC1ng :va .. lcin· nay ong;-·da khao sat.j nghl~ ciia t(~. c8. cac _chu ~c· khac nhap'd1!.<!c . dung dt1 ghi danh hi~u Loc :Vlidng thi ,th~y rAng nhij'Qg nghia _do.

d~u. ~ong C9 gtla ~ dep ~a,. Nhungeng cho ~a.~g ~~6 lit mot 81/ th~t khach quan t6n tai, chung ta chl ~6 nhiem vu 18. tra cho Xe-da cai chi cua Xe-da" (Sdd, tr.288) .. Tuy <:hu trltO'ng "tra choXe-dacai chi" cua Xe~d'a"nghla Ia tra': cho "HungVucng" cai danh hieti-L(Zc Vitcmg·:nhttng

cung ~~ti'~ft0'DuYAn'hvA cu~g'vi llhunp lj do tt nhi nhu ella Dao .. Duy Anh, Hcia<f~ang .da n~a~·i1hu'1ng rna ket lti~·n rAng '''rigAy .nay, chung ta, du muon. db khong, v§n ca phai gQi lit "Hung VUdIig1t~~·IiiQt tit.vua CO Y-righi~· cao gOy, d~p.·d~, l~f vita ·dlf<1C iJu' .hanh phlJ;·bi€n.tlt xira

den na .. Y"~ ·(Sdd, tt.288)~ ,

118

119

Hu TIIim

..

xttng nguyen thuy phai 18 Hung Vl1c:1ng ca. Rieng Nguyen Duy Hinh trong bai FJie?m qua tinh hinh. thu ticli v~ thai dgi Hung Viloltgthi cho rA.ng Hung VzJcmg va Lac VltrIng la . hai each ~t ten khac nhau eua nhirng tac gia khac nhauddi v(7i ngttoi dang dAu 16 chuc xii hQi duong thai a nl16'c ta rna thai. Dil la ·Hung:Vtrang,;hay Lac Vlidng d~u lA-ten do cae nha vie't sa phong Irl@n Trung.Quoc d~t ra va ca hai ten d~u co the giai ·thich It··do· d~t ten dllqc (HVDN, t.I, tr.9.7l. Strang nhien la ngttoi takhong thg de dang cha'p nh~n'.r*ng· day la mQt y kien c6 ean.cu.

T6in lai, van ·'de ·c6 thg coi nhu dB. ro rang. _. The nhtfug -trong hQi nghi IAn thu III', 'TrAit Quoc Vtiqng l~:i co mQt bai tham luan nhan d~ V~ danh hi~u Hung Vztdng (HYDN, t.III, tr~353-355), qua .d6 ong mu6n xem Hung V~g lit .mOt .daoh hi~u rieng .bi~t chu khong phai .do Lac Yuang hi chep nham ma ra. Ong.muon "tiep .can van de. Hung VI1~g-tit nga dl1a~g ngon; ngtrhoc", vien Ie rAng ~C9. nhieu t~n;dRtJ teQ_"ngUifi, .. ten cay co, cdm thu, ... c~a -ViE;t Nam thai c6' dttCi1c gfU bdng .chi! H61J" nhirng that ra.la phien. .am.~ ,tieng vu, ca" (Sdd; tr.353) rna yeu 16 hung trong Hung Vliang III mQt truO'ng hop ..

Tran"·Qu6c VlIgng cho r'8.ng·Hung IA mOt yeo to tieng Vi~t cO tuong ·ling vdi cac ytu i6· sau da.-,: Kun' eiia tieng MltO'ng co nghra Iii con truUng nganh ·tntc}ng nha lang, Khun trong cac ngfm ngft thuoc ngft h~ Mon-Khmer va ngfth~ Tay-Thai nhir tieng Laha, Khang, Ksitlgmul,'Khmlt, Thai ·TAy BAc va Lao, co nghia la ·ngl1ui til,tn1ang, ngl10i c&m dau, cung lit tieng chi gidi qiiy tQc, chi ngtlb'i dl1c;tc tOn kinh. Thi du: Khun Borom la ngttiJi tu tntltng mra huyen thoai nita lich sa ·eua ngtlai Lao; Khun Qudng, Khun Mun, Khun Pien, v,v .. la nhftng til tntOngciia ngttCli Lahava ngtlai Khang,'Khun Coong la ngtmi cain dAu,

chi huy viec lam chie-c tr6ng mdi trong Ie c6 truyen mirng thAng tt1n cua A~nha Thai Thuan Chau tntlic each mang thaI}Z Tam. Ngoai ra oog con lien h~ vcji tieng Mun-da a An eo; ngon ngU nay co Khunzt chi nguai cdm diu gia ~c hay caclmh vtlc dai sang, ton giao. Tham chi ong: con lien h~ vi}i thG ngft Son Tcly ngay trudc trong phirong ngi1~BAc bQ; d d~y tte con chiri nhau co Call "Tien su ong Khutin nha may". Kluuin dl1qc giai thfch nhu la ong t6, ngtlili cAm da.u mot gia tQc. V~ ml)t ngU nghia lit nhu the. . .

v~ mat ngft am, Trin Quoc Vltt;1ng cho rAng cac phu am dA.u k, kh', h de dang chuy~n d6i vai· nhau vi d6 lit nhtrng phu am cU-ng vi tri cau am (ngac sau hay It1O'i .sau) chi khac nhau v~ phinrng thrrc cau Am, (k 18. am tAc, k' la am b$t· hoi, kh 13. Am xat) rna thoi. Rieng -am h tuy khongphdi 18. amlt1Bi sauma.laam thanh ha.u nhttng·v~ vi trf thl cling .nhu cacam tren, no dl1Qc phat am ti mQt vi trf-v~ phfa trong va do d6 c6 th~ tham gia loat chuyen dtli nay. Phu a.m rna tie'ng Han Vi~t phat am 1ft h von tuong ling viii me-t am h hay kh trong cac phinmg ngft tie'ng Han hien dai. Theo St:t phuc nguyen eua B.· Karlgren da:'dug.c dong dao:cac nhangir hoc Trung Quae cung nhu nude ngoai thita nhari thi trong co am Han ·ngil, cac phu am ddu ooa.cac tit"(am v~n hoc truyen thong cua Trung Hoa ·,gQi la -cac thanh mAu - H:T) kien, khe,· hieu, hap, hua d~u duQ'c coi lit cung vi trf va d~u duqc gQi la nha am, tiream l11ai sau theo thuat nguhien dai. Tit hien nay phat am Ia hung thi a khoang the' ky thu V iNam. Vi~t chi 1ft sach dc1u tien ghi chep danh hieu Hung Yuang ra dai vito the ky Day) khong the co dang nhir hien nay rna phai co phu am dau lit mQt phu am It1ai sau nhu kh hoac k ... Do d6 rna n6 rat gdn vai khun, kun, hh.unzt.

120

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Hili Tilih

Tra len 18. each giai thich cua ... Tr~.n Quae Vuqng *v~ yS'u to hung trong Hung Vuong. Cacho gi~i thich Day sau d6 con duc;tc· ong truy~n giaIlg hol)c thong bao cho nhieu eli toa khacnhau, trong .do c6 ca HQi nghi IAn th(t~IV gitra cac mrdc xa h{ti chu nghia v~ cac ngon ngil phuong Bong hop t~i thanh pho }l6 Chi Minh nam 1986 (X. Tie'p ~nlich sit van hoa Vi~t Nam tu ... nga.~duang·J;lgon ngU, trong Nhang van d~ ngon. nga hoc v~ cdc ngon nga

phuang Bong, Hit NQi;1986,. tr.477-489), Sau day chung wi se 'phan tich xem each giai thich tren djy.cua 'I'ran

Qu~c Vugng co gia tr] nhu the. Il~O. ~'.

.t .. •. J ...

.' Trti.n Quae Vtlqng daxem khun. -Is mcSt tu chung (= cung goc va.la ho hang vdinhau) cuanhieu ngonngu thu~c ho Mon-KAmer va Tay-Tha]. Nhung ngtfai ~ ta khong the luon luen xem cacrtu:d6ng .nghra va dang am" ho~c cQ.n·am~trong.n·ht1ng· nge n ngtJ Ian can lit nhilng~tlf cung goc bdi chung.·-rat co .th@ chi IS. ;nhllng tit yay ~llq'n' cua nhauma ·thai. Nhieunha ngtJ hoc bac th§.y da nhac n·ba di~'u nay: L. Hjemslev da· .vilt:

"Hai ky, hieu co .th~ to ra tham .gidng nhau ma.,van kh6ng h:~ co vai nhau mQ.t-. mOi tuang quan phd h~ nao ca n, va "Ne'u .. ngliai .ta phai CaD' cu. van s1l gi6ng nhau ben ngoai thi. khong th€· phan bie t .dlic;tc nhtrng.tu ,vOn 13. yay muqn vai nhimg to von cirng ngudm goc vd'i nhau tLe langage, traduit du danois par 'Michel Olsen, Paris, 1969,,:p.112)~ N6i ve' vi~c. nhin vito hinh thirc ngU am cua cac tll ma dinh hQ hang nhuTran Quae Vurmg' dB. lam, J. ·Vendryes da. vi~t: "1)6 lao mot phirong phap nguy hi..!m·. Trong gidi til nhien, co nhilng nguni cung he hang gi6ng nhau d6n noi ngttdi nay .. bi nhan la ngttCsi kia, Nhung kho ng phai tat ca nhung ke giong h~t nhau d~u la ho hang cua nhau .. Trong ngU hQ-C

cling v~y,:,nhang s\! giong nhau thucng hay da nh lira" (Le langage, Paris, 1921, p~360).

A. Meillet cung tung viet: "Khi ngimi ta g~ P trong nhieu ngon ngU - co ho hang hay khong - nhO'ng' ·tit gi6ng nhau sat sao vita v~ hinh thuc vita v~. nghia, thi tntdc het ,n~ai ta phai t1/ hoi xem co phai Ia tat ca cac ngon J?gft con lai <la. yay muqn eua mQt trong nhung ngdn ngft ay haykhong" ilntroduction a l'etude com-

parative des langues indo-europeennes; Paris, 193~, p.378) .. M~illet da cho thi dl,l"~ danh til co ngh!Jll~ hmh phat, tien chuoc, v.v .. trong mQt 56 ngen nglt 4nAu:.ti~ng.Hy Lap paine, tieng La Tinh poena, tieng Ireland c6 dai pian, ti~ng Gallois poen, 'tiengThttqng Daec~ d~{pi';a (Dt1c hien d~i.pein), tie'ng Anh cd dai pitn (Anh hie n dai

pine'ARa~'f) va. chi ro ra rang d6 khong .phai IA mOt ~lt~ gpcAn Au eo_xtta ma cac ngonngu tren-day d~u cung bao t6n dllgc~ Lj do lit mOt p cua nhom Celtic. (rna dai

. _.. . '. '. ~

dien d day la tieng .Ireland co dai va tieng - Gallois)

khong bao giCt la mt)t p An Au; Cling v~y· d6i vdi p cua nhom ·Germanic (rna 'd?i dien d day 18. ti~tlg'·Bac va tie'ng Anh). Th1!C.te' a day 18 cac ngOn rtgft Ireland, Gallois, Due, Anh d~u dii mu'~l1l lJ ti~ng La Tinh poena con chmh cai tit nay cua' ti~ng La Tinh thl lai lit muon a phuong nglY Dorien cua ti~ng Hy Lap: d6 lit danh tu poina (X~ sdd, tr.378). '

N gay trong mqt ho ngon ngir rna con nhu the', hu6ng chi cac ngtmngtr rna Trdn· Quae Vl1qng da trung dAn, thuQc hai ho khac nhau, mOt· dAng 1& Mon-Khmer, mQt dAng 10. Tay-Thai, thi lam sao c6 th~ n6i rAng khun la m<}t tt;i chung cho cac ngon ngft cua ong duge? Thue ra, khun Iii mC}t tit rna cac ngon ngU Laha, Khang, Ksingmul va Khmu da tr\ic tiep ml1qn tit tieng Lao:

122

123

124

hoac gian tiep muon ciia tie'ng Lao thong qua ti6ng Thai Tay Bite, con chinh ti6ng Lao thi l~i ·m1itln to tieng Pali guru c6 nghia la ngttai th§y hoac ngui1i diroc sung kinh.

Trong tieng Lao, tu dang xe t khong pha i 18. mQt til eo thanh ngang; no c6 thanh thap di len rna chiing toj tarn ghi bang dAu nga. Biti ~he, d6 kh6ng phai lit khun rna 13. k!tiin (Trd xudng, tieng Lao duQ'c ghi am bAng chu quoc ngU nen gia tri phat am giong·.nhl1 trong tie'ng Vi~t. Rieng v~ thanh di~u thi se ghi theo Marc Reinhorn trong Dictionnaire laotien-franeais (Paris, 1970) nhtrng thanh thap di len (gravemontant) thi ghi bAng da.'u nga nhu dd n6i: nhung thanh "nay khong c6 gia 'tij. giong nhu trong t:ieng Vi~t~ Con' tien:g·· Pali thi dl1qc ghi bAng chu La Tinh theo quy udc thong dung. Nhilng ct11i~u tieng Lao la lay theo M. Reinhorn), Ti€ng Pali guru. cho ra tie'ng Lao kh.iin. lao mQt hi~n tuang hoan toci"n dung qui liuit.

I . . • I

Tr~ac het, Pali g > Lao~kh 18. lJlQt hien tuqng pho

bien, chitng han gaja > khdsa (con voi), gamma >.khdmma· (blnh thuong, thong tt}c),gini > khini (laa),gutti > khut, dang tdt va hluitti dang d&y ·du (su bao v~, 811 trong nom), geha > khe.ha (nha), nagara > tuikhon (thanh pho,

.~i d?)

Xu S , v~v ...

Thu den, cung lit binh thuong hien tl1Q'ng r cua Pali, sau nguyen am cua am tiet trudc, tro thanh n trong tieng Lao khi nao am tie't tiep theo cua tie'ng Pali do n6 khdi dAu bi tieng Lao luoc bo; ~I! ItlC1C hi) nay trong. nhieu tru<tog hop.da cho ra thanbthap di len trong tieng Lao. Thf du: sara. > son (nguyen ain),. sira > si~n (da.u, ngimi dung d·&u); uihiira > uihiin (tu vi~n,. chua

chien), ghora > k46n (quy, yeu rna), kesara > kayson (nhuy hoa) v.v ..

CAn n6i ro rang them ra.ng phu am da.u cua tit khu« trong tie'ng Lao Ie ra phai dt1c;1C ghi bAng chu kho E) 18 chtr thO ba trong bang chtt cai cua tao, v~n ditgc dung d~ phien am am v~·~~u tien ella nhflng ani ti~t·paJi bAt

dAu bAngg. Nh~g.O' day no Iai dugc ghi bangchu kho E lit. chu thu hai trong bang chir mi. Day la mi}t d).eu bat thuong, nhung di~u bAt thui1ng nay co th,§ giai thich duqc vi ".khl1n khong ~phai 18, tntCtng hop duy nh&t di chech khol quy tAc:' thlnh thoang ,ngttdi ta van biit g~p nhtrng tniCtng hop nhu th~, chang han Pali giddhi > Lao khithi (keo kiet; bun xin), Ph\1 am d§.u cua tit nay trong tie'ng Lao cling dliqc ghi bang' chil kh:o 18. chit tha hai trong bang chtr cai thay vi bAng chtr kho IS. chfi tht1 ba ..

V~y, khong con nghi ngl1 gi ntra, khan ciia tierig Lao - va ca cua tieng Xiem: ngfm ngU nay cling rmnrn iu Pali guru va phat am gi6ng nhu tleng 'Lao - 13. mQt tu goc Pali (*); tit nay dB. dtfQ'c cac ngfm ngtr Thai Tay Ba.c~ Laha, Khang, Ksingmul va Khmu muon lai .chu tuy~t nhien khcng phai lit mQt tu "ban ngil" trong cac thtt tieng naynhtr Tran Qu6c Vt.1q'ilg dB. ngQ nhan, '

" .

Trc1n Qu6c Vugng con eel. quyet rang til. hien nay

phat am 18. hung thi a khoang the ky V khong th~ co dang nhu hien nay rna phai co am d~u 18. mQt phu am Ittai sau nhtt kh, k, Rorang day IS. mQt·sl! kha.ng dinh vo

can ca. MQi ngtiC1i d~u bi@t rAng chit hung" la mot chfi

(*) VOi thanh di~u dii nai, khun chi co thl do Pali guru ma ra, chll khlJng thi do quan g eua titng Han.

125

thuQc thanh mall "hgp J! ,"mi}t thanh mau ma gia trj ngU am CJ the ky V da duQ'C phuc nguyen Iii y: (Vuong Lire, B~ Karlgen, H." Maspero, Dang B6ng"Hoa; v.v.i) hoac h (Dlil1ng 'I'ac Phien),: Cii hai am nay d~u la phu am hau thanh. Rieng Karlgren ve sau da phuc .nguyen l~i cho hung mOt phu "am ddJI khac "lA g (X"." Grammata Serica Recensa, Stockholm, 1957, pp. 236-237. series 88, l) nhimg day van lit mQ~ phu am h~ thanh, Con 1 nhihlg am_ rna Trc1~ Quae VU'lng-'dua ra (kh,"-' k) tt~u 18 .nhtrng phu Am" vo thanh trong khi_ d6 '6ng- Iai nhan la mmh da lam cong viec phuc nguyen'tlieo"k~t qua nghienciru cUa B.-~Karlgren "da dli<1~ dong dao cac nha"'ngon ngU hoc Trung Qu6c ctmgnhumnrc ngoai thira nhan"!

. . . , ( .. .

~ _ L -

." .

" Nhirng cai thieu s6t ro nhat cua Tran Q~Qc "Vuqng

la d "c~o trong khi ong phuc nguyen cho "tq hung cai phu am .. dAu k~ (hoac k) ella the ~y V thi~.6ng lai d~ nguyen, phu am ddu CU~ "khun (ho~c hun) trongtrang thai hien dai cua n6. MOt st! so sanh nhu tnt roo rang la mc}t 811 so sanh khap khieng= no khdng c6 giatri. Le ra 6ng cung phai phuc nguyen cho khun (hoac kun) cai phu am d;iu d th~ ky v. Con 'n~u qua la d·th~ kj V, phu am dau eua khun (hoac hun) vdn ia kh"(ho~c k)"thi di~u nay lai doi hoi mQt 81/ chang minh chat che va ranh machchir cling kh6ng th~ chi Iii k~t qui cua mi}t

stl kha.ng dinh sudng duC1C. " - ""-"" "

Trd len l~ y ki~p. ella mt)t s6 nha nghien c;({u •. DI1d'i day III y kie'n CIt nhan, Kh6ng dam di}og de'n truy~n thong va "tlnh"" cam dan tQc, chung wi cho rAng 8.i co mu6n gQi cac vi qudc t8 cua chung ta lA "Hung Vuong" thi xin cu gQi nhu the' cho dUf1c thoa nguyen, Khong co mQt dao luat DaD cam goi nhu the' ca~ Nhung nguoc l~i

cling khong c6 mQt dao luat nao cam cac sa gia gQi cac vi quae tala Lac Yuang khi day la mt}t sl/. that rna ho da chimg minh.

Chung t6i mao muoi muirng tugng rang neu cac dang tien nhan cua chung ta bi€t de'n cai l~p'lu~n cua ngtrci hien dai trong viec cfi gang duy tri danh hieu "Hung Vuong" thi han cac vi se nhan nhii vdi di due cua minh:

"Chung ta 18. con chau due Lac Long Quan, .thuQc noi giong Lac Vi~t, lai lam "vua" ciia Lac dan (= dan Lac) noi xu sa cua Lac di~n (= ruQng Lac) co cac Lac h&.u va Lac tlltJng trong coi rna bi gQi 18. "Hung Vuong' thi khong thu vi l;lm! Hay cho chung ta dtiqc v~ ngudn ma goi chung ta 18. Lac Yuang",

MQt thang trudc ngay Gi6 T6 nam 1992~ Dang la.n da.u tien tren

Kiln thuc ngay nay,

so 81, ngay 1-4-1992.

126

127

..... K .,. -r;I

NHA XUAT BAN TRE

& CONG TY VAN HOA pHUdNG NAM PHOI Hdp TRue HIEN

A • •

;.,'":11 ?

NHA XUAT BAN TRE 2004

HUE THIEN

..

NHUNG

,,< '"

TIENG TRONG

?

QUACUA

CACNHAsAM

(Nghien cuu, trao dli vi nga van va lich. su)

vn DANII HI~U ~ IIONG VUO'NG >,.

I,

TRONG hili phat hi~u (y Hc)i ngh] Bin thir 1 nghien ctru thai ky Hung VtrO'ng,

chung t~i dii neu len kh~ nang liep e4n van (t~ Hung Vuong tir nga <luang 11g611 ngil hoc, M<)l trong nhfrng s chlnh c~~, hili lit: c6 nhleu t~11 ciat, ten ngtroi, tCII cay co, cain thu, ... ena Vi~t Nam thiYi eli diroc qhi blillg chtt Han, nhung th~t r a lit phien din tfellg V;~l co. Ten «Van Laug s ehling han, thtr tich cll ghi In ~tl{f), khong lll~ giai nghia IA «chang ve mlnh s (mroc 'Tan Lang: e mroc cit a nhii-ng chang ve 111111h »(1». Theo tOI, Van Lang, M~ Linh, Gia Ninh .. ~ chi In phien dill tieng Vj~t c{J. a dang bling-blang, mlinh .: mlang, kIing-klang ... vil c6 th~ co nghia IA mot loal chim thjlu thoai, t6 tern clla bQ lac goc ClIU cac vua Hung.

110m nay xin khao ve chit Hung •.... C6 th~ co 11glriJi se bao: lai mile b~llh «kbao c himg J), lai ngup vao viing Illy cua cuoc tranh lU~ll phien toni va VQ ieh ve « Lac » bay « Hung s diroc neu len tir thai con rna rna chii nghia thirc dan ttr ban Phap vA con keo dai cho den nay a vting tam hi chiern nli~n Narn rna Vi~n trlrang Vj~n I{hao c~ hoc dli phe phan trong ban bao cao cbung. Theo chung loi hi~u, Vi~n lrllc1ng Vi~n Khao cb hoc chong e benh s khao chung clnr khong coi nhe co ng lac I{hao chirng, -plurong phap khAo clnrng, Trong tlnh hlnh khoa hoc ciia ta, CaD di sau nghien ciru, tim them chirng ctr, nghia 10 phlli « khao clnrng them D, mi~n IA dirng ngt.lp vao chi ,tiet khong thoat ra duoc, kh~ng nhln n~i nhtrng van de Ian nfra Ina thoi, Trong bao cao chung, Vi~11 trtro-ng '7i~11 I{hao c~ hoc efing n6i « ta biet di vito nhfrllg chi tiel tt n11 chi Ii khi elll thiel ~. Phan biet Lac - Hung, nell chi d~ ket IU;)11 ten lit the nay the kla tho! - va to au lam vi~c theo lo ai 06 ca thl d6 mol la e benh khao chirng ». Chung toi se co gang d~ khoi hi lily benh nay.

I I

* **

Con IIollg chan Lac, Lac Long QUaD, Lac tU&llg, Lac hall. Lac dan, I~f!.C dieD Nhirng ten ay vAn thong dung trong nhau dan vA giai Ii phu Vi~t Nam thlla trtroc

(1) Le 'I'hanh Khot : Viet Nam, llct: .ll I'd lIan minh (chit Philp), Pn .. r'I, 1955.

2311V3

IIONG VUONG Ilt)NG NU(J~ (III)

Nhirng 1.J~c Vuong thl kh~ng I Nhnt djnh In Ilung Vuong. VU8 Ilung, Ben Hung, Nha Ilung, Nui Hung, ... I{y fret ky nlem ciia nhnn dun - trong trtrong ho-p C~l th~ 1180 (t6 c6 th~ sui - song n6i chung lit dieu Ina nha khoa hoc phai l(lU tr ong. (;811 nhtic. ~rh~1l trong, 1\I<)t «tty lubt cua lnnI Iy hoc In cui gl ciin (IU en till tin quen roi, cai gl truyen thuyet dan ginn con nho, thl d6 lit kj niem snu Sltc.

Ttr Ma-xpe-ro (1) d~n Dao Duy AIIh<i) va mot so ngtro i tiep sau (lrong do c6 chung t6i) tlnrong l~p 111~II: cbii· « Hung J) Nt VEl chfl « IJ~c ".' it! dang gifing nhau, d~ viet 1(,11 chir 119 ra chfr kin. Mol sach c~Trung Qutic viet nhjim, d~ di hoa cho 11lO'i sau, ChI c6 Lac, khong c6 Ilung.

1)6 cling In In<)t y can hru ,. Nhirng c6 Ie 9\1' vi~c khong qua gilln don nhtr vo.y. Truyen thuyet dan gian (tir uai Triln) bao ton daub hj~u «IIitng Vuong J) rat chijt chf va do do ciing rat nen lu·u y.

Cac vua mroc SlY cling c6 danh hieu Hung 1m: Hung Dich, Hung Cir , ... S(j In quo chi ~ u . II it ng It h 0 n g p lIn i ) it t ~ n h <), v 1 ea e v 11 a Sa h Q «l\li 1) .!f.. v it xi 11 c h ti Y : Sa IA (t'Matl Dl l), khong phlti goc Han,

~ .

O' v j ~ t N a m, hAll « Hit n g » c ii 11 g k lio ng ph t. i I a I ~ n h Q : B~i Vi ~ i s if Iiro C v it 11 h ii, n g

ngudn sir en bao : dfly lit l~n tt! xirng etta con trai trlfo'ng Lac - Au. ,7 a 18 d{ji cha lruyen con n()i d~u l" xl~'ng nlnr vOy. Cung nlnr «diYi uiYi cha truyjln con II()!

gQi lit ph \l dao ,. I

HOAng th] Chnu dii c6 m<)t y ki~n dOllS chu S' ve til « phu dao s. e Phu dao ~ l{hOng co llghin: e Theo COIl dtrcJng ciia ella" rna I it tir chi chirc vu lhtl Iin h dan ((jet nrong l" ptuo, btao, mluo, Iao, dao ;, vitng cac dan tOc mien lllii Vi¢l Narn

(l~-d~, ~rhai, Mirong}, · '

Ilhlli chang « Hung» bt(t cling lit cit ir phieu Ant mOt tir Vi~t ell chi InQt clnrc ~\1lhu linh, « 11gU'()·j Canl dall » dan tOe? - Con trai vua lit « lang J) (qua n lang, phu dao}; COIl glli vun In «nang), « fne nang., (my nuong). Vilng Muong trtroc each maug c6 lang, co nang. Lang co lang dao, lang CUlt (CUll - kunv: Dao (con truo-ng llgitnh tlnr nha lang) cai quan mQt X611), cun (COIl lrlrlrng nganh tru'ung nha lang) cai quan nlQt muong. Thtrong tlnrong cac dao phu Ihuoc "RO lang cun. Noi cun (y hoijc (tung han xom hoijc m~t 80 ,x6m 11lm dtrai quysn thong tr] va b6c iQt Irtrc tic) cua cun, gQi lit clzieng (lang Chi~ng).· Cun lit con irlf(),llg nganh tru'i1ng nha lang. Hung cling la con trai truo'ng ciia nganh Au Lac. Ngoai til CUll, b ta COil co tir khun : K hun Ie. tieng chl clnrc vi nglloj Cttnl dliu ( = tit trtri'rng) va cling In tieng chl cac quy tOc 116i chung, nguo i duoc ton kfnh o' cac dan toc thuoc Ilgfr h~ Mon - Kho-me va Thai nhir La-ha, Khang, Xinh-mun, Khmu. Thrii "fny llnc, I.JRo, ... Viti vi du : Khun 130-rol11: ngtrot til trtfang ni'l'n huyen thoai, ruin Iich str cfia nglriYi Lito, 11gttt)'i da dent b<) t()c elta mluh xu(Sng dfit LAO hi~tl nay. i(Il111l QUtlng, I(Iz1111 Mun, Khun ru», ... Itt nhfrng tu tru'o'ng cua ngU'('yj J_.In·· ha va I(iulng, dem dan chong Iai I~~ng ChlfQ'Jlg - ngtrb'j til tflro'og rrhrii - khi

(t) II. ~In.xpe-ro (II. Maspero) : l'rrung qlloc fall iJang (chfl Pha p) - 1'q.p san Trrrung l';~11 dong bac c(i, lIlt NOt, 1918, t~p X VIIl, tr. 7.

(2) 9lto Duy Anh .. cb Sir l';~1 Nam, Hit NQi, 1955.

v~ I)ANII IIIJ~U «1-IONG VUO'N(~»

3f)5

I..I~I)g (~hlrgl1g (tern dan "fhoi tai vung S(1Jl La, Lsi Chllu hi~n nay. Khun I-Ai,

~ .

nang Ua (chang I. .. u, nang Ua): nhan v;)t tro ng truyen ell tlch ciiu llgtrai Khang

b vung Thuan Chau.

Khuu COOllY: nguai cam dau, chl huy vi~e lam chiec trting mo i trong Ie ell truyen nnrng thang lr~ll cua Anita 'fhfii Thuan Chau trtroc CaCl1 mang thang Turn.

Ngtro i Mun-da - ve lieng n6i, sinh hoat •.. e6 uhieu Del luang tu ngtro i Vie], nlnr h98 si Nguyen B6 Cung dii phat hieu - ciing e6 lu' ({ khunzt »(0, 1110t clurc vi xii hoi chi « ngiroi Canl "in» gia lQc (t~ ti~n) bay cam dliu cac Hnh vtrc dO'i song, to n giao, .•. trong lang. Lang co 2:- 3 clurc khunzt : khunzt munda (nlnr Iy trll"bng), k hungt l)a hall (V! Ie tu), khunzt mahto, khunzt leua r, Cae clnrc khunzt tro ng 111<)t ISllg dell In con chan nganh 118m eun m<)t dong ho duy nhlit, Khunzt Itallidal· lit con chau dong nam cua mot nguaj thuoc ho nhfrng ong tll Mun-da dii sang l~p ra mot lang. Ng\lO'j nay co tll~ dol quyen chiern hun nhitng dill hoang, (IUYCl) phat rirng vA vAo b trong lang ... HQa si Nguyen B6 Cung con eho hiet, ngay truce a Soon 'ftly, lre con cbtii nhau c6 cau «ti~ll su aug Klutiin nha may I ». I(hU811, coi nhu· ()ng lli, nguo i cam dati nlQt gia lQc, nlnr khunzt clla n guo·j 1\1 ull-da.

\ Ve ngii' anI hoc ljch Sll, cac phu am dau k, kh, h (l~ dang ChUY~II hou Jail nhau, Nhfrng qua trlnh Day co th~ nhan tbay. di~ll ra troug ljch sir eua rat nhieu ngou ngit. Sb di nhir v'Oy lit vi a day ta c6 nhfmg phu am cling v] trI call Anl (ngnc sau hay IU'&i suu), ChilDg chl khac nhau ve plnrong tlnrc cau an1 (k In 0111 lac, k' In Am h6t hoi, kh Iii an) sat). Ili~ng Am «11» thl tuy khong phlti lit am )llO'i sau 1,18 lit am thanh hall. Nhimg ve. vi lrJ thl cling nlnr cac Anl tren - 116 duoc phat nnl (y nlc)l v] trl Sl\U ve phia trong va do d6 c6 th~ tharn gin lout chuy~n onl nay, Phu Aln rna trong tieng HaD Vi~t phat AnI lit 11 thl nlnr mo i ngu'CYi deu biet - von tirong IllIg vai Inc)t am « h » hay « kh » trong cac phtroug UgO)l ti~ng Han hieu dai. Theo Sl! phuc nguyen cua B. Cac-gre11(t) dii diroc d~ng dao cac nha ngon ng(r hoc Trung Quac cfing nhtr nuoc ngoai thira nh;)n(3) thl trong cl!, aln Han ngii· cac phu Am dau cua nhfrng til kien.fl, khe .' h.i~u (kh) ~, hap Ii (g) V, IIt18 (Xj) ~ (duoc phat am nlnr tren) den diroc eoi la cung vi trl va deu diroc goi lil « nha am », tire am IU'ai san theo tbuat ngil hien dai, 'ftf hien nay phat.am lit « Hung s thl lJ khoang the ky thir Ii khong th~ c6 dang nhtr hien 118Y Ina phai co mot phu am dau lucri sau [nhtr kh, k).

\' i).y phlti chang « 1-1 ung » 1J# ciing la mc)t chfi' phien dIn mot til' Vi ~t cli, til ny ttrong l~ ve ngir AnI vA ngir nghia v&i cac tir kiln, khunzt.i. chl nY'fo'; canl

dclu dan IQc Vi~t thua xa xtra ? Nell qua vJ)y, (hi: .

1. I .. ~i 111c)( Jail Dlr8 ta thfiy tien" Vi~l eli 1& bit con gao giii etla nhfi'ng 11gOlI ngCr NUll) At Thai, .• 4t nhfrng ngon JIgii- plnrong Nurn n6i chung.

~. Vi~c nghien CUll ciiu true xii hOi eli truyen cua cac dan toe l\llri1ng, Thai, Xa, ... ae gop IJhun phuc sinh cau true xii bc)i Vi~t Nam thci VUlt Hung dl.lllg mroc.

. ~. . ~

. .

(1) BQc nlnr Khun-do'-cho. Xem TIl di~1l Alllndari - AlIh eua Bo-hn.du-rt (Bhndurl).

(2) B. Cac.gren (0. KarIgr-en}: N ghiell cit" lIgn- dill hpe Truntt QlIae (chfr Philp).

(3) Xel11 Vuo-ng Luc : N gil din lu)c tronq tiellg Han (chil Tr ung Qu6(~), ll~c Ktuh, 1957, tr , 2(J3 - 20·'.

TIro 'rIM NGU()N GOC ~G(r NGIIIA eVA Ttl 'I~O ~~ L~C»

NGUY~N r{'~1 'rIIAN va VU'O'NG LOC

/

,

1'1' hill nay, nu)l cun hoi inn nnh cluing lui: ngnon g6c ngir nghia ciln ur 10 « lac »

Irong Ilhii'ng Lil' Lac dien, Lac deUI, J.I"C ,TlIO'ng, Lac han, I...,Qc lll'O'ng, I .ac Vi~t I it g l ? I) hi. i c hall g «I ~ C » 1:\ « chi 111 I" c " 'I V I sa 0 I ~ i g Q i I it « ru Q ng J.I fJ C » (I ..,~l c die n ) ? Chung l6i co gang dun vito nhirngthanh ttru ella van 1\1' hoc, CUll danh xtl'ng hoc (onomastiquc), dijc hi~t In ella tOc danh 11QC (ethnonymie), cua ngii' anl hoc Iich sir ... va nhil ng thanh ttru cua cac nganh khao e~ hoc, sir IIQC, kinh ,~ hoc ... gan day d~ Llm hi~ll vlln dcn~\y. Trlnh bay nhflng suy Ilghi trong hili nay, chting toi chl co JllQL mong muon lit gQ'i ra 1l1Qt S() Y d~' cac ban <Ilion tanl den d811h xtl'n~ hoc, dijc hi~l. lil l<)c danh hoc, gillp them y kicn d~ chung In cling nhau lam song to I1IQl so vall de ve buoi blnh minh ella Iich Sil' diit 1Il1'(Ye •

Gia tlti~t I:

« L~C» LA TV T() VI(t'f

Nlur 111Qi ngll'()'i dii ro, trong cac tiii Iieu hien con, Tlll;Y /<;1,11 clut ella Lich JJ~o NgUJCII (diiu the ky thir 6) lit lui lleu C() nhfit c6 dAn mot doan trong Gino Cluu: nqoai lJlJ.'C /(!i (such chil Han viet vao khoang the kj tlnr 4 - lhti 5) nlnr sau:

« Xtrn, khi Giao Chi chtra co qu(tn 11Uy~Jl, rUQl1g dat co lac elicn, rUQng ay theo nmrc Lrien Ien xufing. DAn klilill ruong fiy Ina an, vi the gQi lit lac dan. IJQ_t lac VU'O'Jlg, luc han lam chu cac quan huyen. (j IIUY~ll, phiin nhieu lit lac t,tl'(Jng.

Lac tu'{Yng (co) iin dOllg, dni X811h ,,(1). . .

Tir dO(l.11 van tren, d~ dang tllay rAng Iac diell, lac 'dan, lac vtrong, lac hun, lac lU'<'Yng lit tlhfrng ltl' ghep. Theo quy Iuatchung ciia tieng Han cung 11hl1' cfia hilt Ity ticng nao tren the gi6'i, til' ghcp lit nh fl'ng t Ii' « co Iy do » {motive), hrc lit nhii ng til' rna y nghin co th~ diro'c gilti thlch Irtrc tiep bAng hlnh tlurc, bang ket ciln, bang l.hanh to ciin chung. Trong llhii'ng tit- tren, nhii ng tit' to dien, dan, "U'O"Jlg,

----

(J) Ljch fh,1o Ng"y(~n: TIII;!1 kinli rIll;, n~c kinh, 1958, fJtlY~11 :17. tr. 62,

t.36

, hi~u th] thai (tc) khinh 111i¢l dun h)c (d~n nay, In ':~n con 11(')i «'hftll Ir:'lIi ngt.rn» d~ chi s ... · kh~ nhuc), vu c6 Ie cac C1.1 cho rung chlnh ehil' Lac C(~ I)() « lrili ) nuri lit chir chi mOt giong 11gtl'i1i.

ehii· s lac » co phai lit ~~ khoug ? N III nhii cho hicl chfr nay chi 2 llgh In : - chim «0 bao ) (tnQt loai chim 11t1"O'C, doc lit « lnc ))); - eft voIrloc lit « lac » ho~e ([ each »).' Cili nghla va cal urn tlur nhfit ttt'o'ng chirng nlur <Iii 1110- nut cho chung lui nlurng s ... · thOt vAn khong giili quyel duoc "an de: 1l1()t lil, vi chitl1g tui clura lhay chii nay xuill hi¢ll.O' (tllU d~ chi ve ngll'(')'i LQC '7i~t; hni Iii, clura c(·) gl cht.c chan d~ noi rling hlnh COIl chim tren lrollg dung Ngoc Lfl, lrcn lhap u()ng IJf,o Thjnh chtnh lil chim « 0 han » vi Iren hai y(lt d6, C(') nhii1u hlnh chim khnc nhnu) va c{illg chtra co gl chile chlln t1~ noi rling chilli «0 huo » lit to-tern cilu ngl1'()'i IJ~c Vi¢t lllb"i cll.

I)hni chong « lac s lil dnnh lil" ril'l1~ chi t('.n g9i to Iien chilJ1g tn lh('J'i ('(J, do d6 kh()ng'lh~ gia.i nghia drro'c ? Tarn thui chan irinh hoy y kien ct." f:lll'lng 16i ve von de nay, cluing lui chi XiII hru y ri}ng: lIeU li'll thanh (1'1:111 (liern nny lhl lfil phni di den )(ct Iuan : e lac J) lit InQl lfr to Vi~l, kh61lg phlti lit til' to I lan.

Tom lai, dtra vito tieltg Hall va chfr l lun khong lh~ nao dtra lO'i mo! ~tr gini . thich hop Iy ve IlgnO)l goc ngrr nghia cua til' tf) « lac ». Chlnh dieu ()(') khif;n cho c hun g to i .t in r li n g s l IJ C J) I it t if 10 Vi ~ t va cll c C h fit I I it II d ii d it n g d ~ g h i lit' l () 11 it Y chl lit nhii'ng chir dung d~ phien Am.

Gia thi~t 21

I

«L~C» LA TU T6 CO NGIIIA TII!T

Thco 111C)t (]ny 11l~1. ngon ngfr kha 'phlJ hie)l, lell 1~1' xlrng Cll3 cac t.<)c IlglI'C)'i cf n; nht r ten Jllll lcjc ngtr(')'i nuy ditllg d~ gQi cac lOe khac, thtl'('),l1g e(') (h(~ dtrrrc giii i thlch ve 1I:~lI(ln g()C ngii· nghia. l"vc danh h9C ~ho chitng In hiet rling '~n g(,)i elu\ ,·nt u'riiiu l:)c ngll'(}'i c{, nghin III « ngll'O'j J) • O· nuoc ln, dong hao' l\Jtril'ng

, t~r xtl"ng lil e Mol », dung hao l\leo l~l' xtrng In « I-In16ng », dong hao Tny -- Ni1ng, Thai tt! xirng lil «l"ay»; nglrlJ'i Dtrc tt! Xll'JIg lit « (Jot-sO'» (Deutsch), .ngtl'()·i {:6- mi ( (y J~ieII Xu) tt! xirng lit « Mua J) (Murt), Itgu'i1i Evxkl-mo (o. [Jell X() t ~" xtrng lit « I-nu-It» hay «U'-ghlt», llgtri,.i flo-len-tot (lay num chnu Phi) t~· Xll'l1glil « Coi-co-in », 11gtro'i Ca-ron o· l\IicI1 Bi¢tl l .... xung lit e Po-ga-no », ... ; liit cn n hii'ng lell ttr XU'Ilg ay d~ll co nghin lit « ngmri », «lOc ngll'(J'i » •. Nhfrng len tl;1' xirng ci'1a ngtt'o"i Bay-ac e ngtr()'i (y can ) (dao Ca-li-man-Iun), CilR ngu"o·i rfh(}-nhi-I{y« Tuyec », .•. cung co ngudn g(Sc figfr nghla nlnr tren, Nhi~u tOe 11gtro-i t\l' xtmg 1:\ e chung In »;

,.r . A

vi du Xec-bo, Xlao V()11 (10 seb, sob (lit' CUlt All-Au, c6 nghia In « 1111l1h ») mil ru,

,Chung in cling thtri11Ig tl! ,xlrng lit e ta s, nhir trtroc dAy, tn lhll'oollg phan hi¢l e llnh ta » e llnh loy"; v,v, Ten gQi hay len (\I' xtrng CUR llhieu t<)c ngtr()'i c6 khi

I

trung viYi l~ll to-tern, vi du : (y l\liell Bi¢n, 11guc)"i Na-ga lay tetl riltl nu-ga d~ t~·

xirng, cac btj lac Be-su-an tr Nam Phi mung cac lell nht r CIt silu, kh] •... ; c{) kh! tCII ay co quan h~ 'viYi nhfing dijc di~nl ve sinh hoat kinh (r;, vi du : fen gQi

".,

ngu"O'i Bhil (All I)(» V().1l e6 nghin 1;'\ «ngtriYi hUll lell », I.cn gol ngtr6'i Mn-o-kcu

V Thai Lan V()J\ co Ilghia til c lijll hi~n J., .. ; co khi co (Juan h¢ vO'i nhii'IlR di}c

.. 137

di~nl YC (tia dienl elf trli hoac dieu kicn ell tru, vi du : (ngll't'l'i) Kinh = lil' kinh d6 L6'i, (~ong hao) 'l'lurong = «( 0' tren CRO J; trong :\ len 1t .. ' xu'ng cuu ngtJ'(')'i Dao, co 1 ten lil «I{ieln l\lien» ,ngl1in lil « llgU'u'i ()' l"il'ng », tell g9i ngu·()·j Gin-rui vtin co nghiu lit « ngnoll, thac », ten gQi' 11gll"i1i Itu-glui VOII e6 nghia 1:\' « 11gtriri (0') rfl'ng », Len g9i IlgU'()'i San Chi, ngllO·i.I)110ng VillI c6 nghin lil «ngu'()'i (0') III'li », ella ngll'O'i Ll-crcn VOI1: co nghlu lil « ngu'()'i (0') bien gi6'i »; co khi lCII gQi co (IUUll h¢ voi ten Inc)t con song, 111<)t ngon nui, .hay motd]a dient 1130 do, vi du : nglr(')'i Vun I{iell (Hru) 0' lling Vnn [{iell, ngll'()'i Itc (y. hen song He ; ta gQi chung ngu'o'j

..

cluiu 1\11 lil « Tay » v:v, Ten gl}i c6 khi theo qnan h¢ xii hoi, vi du : xtru, La gQi

IJ on I{ ii~lI I it « khuch », dong hilo Th lrQ'ng g9i ngu'{)'i Vi~t In fi io-an, t ti' nay cit ng

J\

co nghiH 1:\ « khnch », I nglri)'i Gin-rut g(}i ngl~'i)'i I~-dc I{, (( He » Jlghin lil ({ rtgtr6'j

moi dell», len gQi Ilgtl'i)'i Mun-te-phlch (A-rilp) co nghin In « lien minh », len gQi ngu'il'i Du-co-Ia (~Jy) VOll co nghin In « ngLrb'i .Cilng huy, ». Co khi tCII 'gQi co quaIl h'; v6'i len cua Lil lrn'<l'ng, vi du : ICII It.r xrrng CtUl ngll'l,.i Ba-na o· mnrc Iu, cun ngll'i>'i U-do'-bech (Iliy len mot ong Vila lr the I{y .tLI), hay co quun h¢ vo i ten g(.,i ciia (riell dni, vi do: 11gU'(',.i l lan, Jlgll'()'i Qllilng 1)6ng ngilY trtroc 1.1.1' xtl'ng lit

, . ,

( 'fho6ng N h ~ 11» - « Ngli'il'i I )11'()'l1g» v. v.< I). 'rilt nh icn, .h ieu nny con co nh "'ng

len gQi Ina cue nlu\ toe dnnh IH)C chula gilti ·lhich drro'c, hOQc gini Ihlch theo nlaicu each khuc nhau ; nhtrng, nhii'ng tl"ll"('Yl1g h9'11 nay ){hong nhicn Hilll vit trong

llro'ng lai, ch5c co thl! giai lhlch dt,l'<)·C.· I

Ta lui trot v~ ifr to e lac D. Nell cho rAng lti' lo ay lit len ricng 1:'u11 Ihnnh nl()t til' doc I(lp (( va Iy do D (iuuuolive), thl chung lai e rang nghi .nlur Vl)Y l:'l dii hien dai hoa each lli~u 116 va each ghcp nhfrng III lac (lien, 1~IC dan, v . v. Vii. lai, ta c6 th~ I~oi: vi sao 11gU'iYi ghi Giao CIll;U 1l90~li tnrc k!i lui pilhi ghi rung: « (0') Gino (:hL .. ru<)ng dat c6 rnong (ciia lQc ngu'u'i) Lac (I ... ac dicn)>> '/ Viet nlur the co kh11C gi viet: « a Trung Quoc xtra, c6 ru~)ng (<;\IU toe ngll'(J'i) IJ~ »?

Vi vi)y, xllaL phut tt'l' hoan cnnh Crill VUlt, chu Y di~n (IllY IlUjl kha phll hien ve lIije di~nlngrr llghin cuucac l<)c danh, chung L()i nghi rallg « I:Jc» In lir to co I he iJ u'(_re gi iii lhlch ve OIO l 11gii' ngh Ia.

G i a ,1. i ~ t 3 :

« IA A C» CO NG III A J .. A «NU(rC»

f:hling tbi eli d(~n' gin It.'jet nil}' lrt"Nl~ hel. Ii .. vi' c~n et'r vno hoan cnnh xufil hi~~11 l~i'Ul Ltl' « I~,~c dicn l\. 1)0(,111 viin dfin tren dii n6i ro: « IllH)ng ditto co lac (lien, rlH)ng fly then runrc lricn len Xll<>ng» (2). (~hling (oi cho rang tli' ghcp « ru()ng dill» vu \Ie lhlr 2 [« l~llQllg it)' theo nuoc trieli Ien xuong») co lac dung giiii thlch them lilt « lac dicIl».

(J) Vc ngu(;n g6e ella rnQl so tOe danh lr mroc ngoai d~n trong (lonn nhy, chung loi Ihum khan T~h~ danli (c hii' Nga), AfH-XC()~-\'a. 1970.

,

(:!) Xin elll'l y Iii dfill phi'iy (y lilly vii uhung .Iau chilli. troug rloan viI u d:tl1 l"cl) la do

rht'II'H ~(;i (ht'nJ vito \'~ (,"oug !ifH~Jl eei yit;, h:il,g r.~lrr Han khoug (~6 dilt' cAUl

138

IIONG VtJaNG 1)t)NG NUflc (IV)

Tlm I rong t ieng (1!3 plurong o· 111Ql so vltng Plni TIIQ cii "3 ()' 111Ql sf) nrri l{hac, chung lui lhay C() til' to « J"(lC » (nlur Ilrro'c riic, fQn r(lc, ... ) Ilghin lil (mroc) xnong,

(mnrcj Iui. "rir nay dii lhay trong cac ttl, dj~It ella I>. Ctln, cua Gie-ni-hre n, ClHl G.

Hue, cua Khai tri tiell dire va ea trong Ti: (lielt lieng v i{~l mo'i day do Vall Tan CIIU ])iCII.

Ai cling bieL rrtllg nhirng ruong dua vao Dl1'6'c trieu len xl10ng chl c6 th~ cay cay vao dip mroc xllollg. Loc (Iten, vi the, raL co th~ 1:\ « rlH)ng (1:\111 dtro'c khi co nmrc) rac », Va rat co t11~ lit 11gtrc)"i ghi Gino Cluiu llgo~'i "'-"C k!; do tao rn lll()t tif ghep g01t1 co 11IQl lilt lo Vi~t (ri1c) vO'i Blot lil' to Han (dicn) xcp d~t lheo trul It! cu phap CU:l fieng Han (<< rijc dietl ») vil ken) t.heo IO'i gilti thlch ve nQi dung tft' do.

CaCl1 ghep tll nay, tlioat nghe, lU·O·IIg chfrng nlur vung "c nlnrng I~i rat t., nhien k hi 111Qt ngmri hall ngii' mutin (lijt mot 1.1'1' 1l10'i d~ hi~n til, 1l1~)l khai niem t116'i rna li r viin co trong ball IIgfr kl10ng l)i~u lh] day dil. Ngll·()·i rrrttng Quoc lltU·Cl·ng gQi rU(HIg mroc 'do COIl ngll'()'i tuoi lat la «lllilY die'l» (I>. (~h~e rling f.hn&t ngn· nay l{h6ng phnn anh dung «ruQng rijc J) Clta tn, cho IICI1 tilC gilt ctUl Giao Cluui ll!l(}~li tnrc I(!; <.lit dl)t rn l11Qt til moi. Cach dijt til' mo'i, gllnl co 111<)t tit- t5 Ilun vn l1)()l til' L() ngoui lui,' xira nay VAll thlr()'ng thay trong l.icng 11:111. ,Tf du : da Lh1.1 (Vi¢t + Han) fi~ fit = cay dun ; bo dao thu (Phan -1- Han) lfjj ~ ~. = cAy nho ;« phi» ti'I'U (Anh + Han) '* ii!j = rtro'u bin, v.v. Chung tol diro'c hiet (y Phu Tho CU, co 110'i dong h:\o vAn COIl gQi nllu'llg thi'ra ruong chanl 1:1 «rtH)ng rije» (chung lui clura co dip lhltln tra IG\i). Nell qua lit c6 each gQi d6 thl d:ly lil nu)l clurng co' quy gin V{) cling.

. Ilien nay, o· nhieu vnng trung du, c6 1119l loai ru¢ng (y giii'o nhii'ng ngQJI (till Ihiip, gQi In « ruong roc » Nhfing ru<)ng nay, khi nell nong llghi¢p ciia In C.61l dun nhieu vao l~r 1111ien, chi co lh~- lam diro'c khi nmrc xl1ong. Chitng t.6i cho rttng d:ly ciing la Illt)t bnllg clurng dung quy (l~ lhiiy IIIOi lien h¢ voi « rtH)ng r~c » noi Iren,

« lli;c» (xun kin, c6 lh~ lit « rac »), « roc », Iheo Sl! suy nghi hmrc dr." Cllf'

chung lui, la nhil ng lilt cling goc (hoijc cung ho) va J)ut ngudn til' « rae ») lit lir chung ella hai tlur tic n~ Vi¢l - ~llr()'ng, co nghla lit « mnrc ».

Ta co lh~ Lhay <I tty I u~l Jlicil d lJi a -> It'D':

- Qua lii~l1g dja plurong Uac llQ va buc Trung 13<) mro'c La ;

- Qua hi~ll tuo'ng song song ve ngu· aliI ciia JlIQl so Lu' trong lieng noi

., ,

en mro'c ;

- Qua S~1' so sanh 2 Ilur lieng Vi~t va l\lll'il·ng.

0) "ricng diu pluro ng IJitc Bc): mroc ; IIU'()'ng; ngt"rn; n~tI'8.

rricng diu pluro ng hfic Trung Dc): nac r nang ; ngo.; nga.

1» dung = duo'ng : dang = dU'i1ng; chang = chuong ; eung === CU'(J'ng (gn ng). c) Vi¢t: rirou ; mroc : Ill'iYi; dtrong sa:

1\1 mrng : rao ; rae; lai ; lang kha,

-----

(I) \'~n (1~ ni,y cnn tltfQ'C lblilu tra I,i a~ xem v~o th~ ky IV tht1~t n~fI' (l thii~ dl~nl11 (Iii C() l"ol1~ tii;"g flan chua.

run 'I')I\JN G IJ 0 N r. 6c N G o N GIl T A

139

ell lhl! lhiiy mol vai hnng chti'ng vc str bien dlli gifi'n n vil ii, va tt'l' II snng 6 trong lic ng La:

II = ii: hang (ngay) = hling (ngny), ham 1110t = hiim Inol, dang (nay) = dang (nay).

giac = cac (ll1<)t hao ; tiCllg dia phll'o'ng NUIl1 IJ(l).

u = d : (gay) roc - <gay) roc ; ngat = 11gQt; IU.lL = hot : nam = norn ; nam = n0111; 11~p == 11<)}), mai = mfii,

(Juy lu(ll hien aln clla tieng Han eiing c6 hien tu'gng ttrong hr. Theo Vlro'ng Lire, lac tho'i tluro-ng c~ e6 van [iik], thi1i trung ell moi co Vall [ak] (I>.

(}uy lulll bien dbi phu alll dUll trong ticng Vi¢t va quy l\1ot doi ti'llg ngii' am gin'a licllg Vi¢l. va tieng l\Ill'O'ng cho phep chung toi till rallg DIrac VOll c6 hinh Ilurc ngii' am III rae, nrc In n 0(- r. So sanh :

~t- Ilnnl : niim (so 5), rco: neo ;

+ '7· "l ?? ~ it'

, re : 110, ]10', ne, na ng, co 11 11 , ruroc ...

l\llri),llg: ro, ro', rc , rang, con ret, rae. (2) ,

Tr ong h~ thong aliI vi t.ieng Ilan, hr Irtrcc (ten gicr, khong he c6 am runglr], X. r a nay, de phien i\lll nhfing 1t'r ngo~i Iai c6 nlll [r], 11gtl'o'i Han den lhay the aln

n y h ~ n g [I J. v j d u : '

Phan : Bruhman ~ Han : ba-Ia-mon,

Phap : Paris -+ Ilun : Ba-le, v,v,

~hfnh vi tile, dung Iuc d~ ghi rae (rnroc) lit dien rat hop qlly luat,

(~hft· Han lil tlur chii: ghi y; v~y tai sao dung chii' « lac » d~' bi~u th] « rnroc I rna lai l{h6ug co hQ IhIIY? C6 111<)1 clnrng eo khj~II cluing ~oi till rlin~ chu' Joe, tuy khong co a chfim lhtlY Vall dtlng d~ ghi rae In mro'c : do la' dcri 11311, c6 I~ <fling chfr .. d~ lhay chfr is. B!a Iy chi trong lltu: tlur viet: « IJe)'i IIt111 thinh h08, ky thiiy, do (t6 ho (he» thl',)' (y (chtr) VI- rna them (h<» dny» (3). QUlill!} lJ(in cling viet: (i~) dl)'i Han viet la tifi, Chinlt I~l' Ihduu dO'i l\Iinh (~fing chep nlur vl)y <.a>.

Tom lui, gin lhiet cua chung toi lit: « Lac dicll» lil 111<)t tt'r gll(~Jl, gOll1 2 tir to, 1 It't' to "i¢l ruc : mroc, 1 tIl to Han (~ien, dung d~ hi~u lh] « ruong ri_ic ), « ruong roc » hoac « ru()ng 11U'O'C » (dijc biet) ciia t1> lien la Lho'i cll.

Khi d6, co Ilhni cluing La chi co Ioai rUQng fly kh6ng, do la van de ngll·(Yi· ghi chep c6 diiy dl' Unh khach qUUIl hay khong. Van de ay ru ngoni pham vi ban IU611 cua hili nay,

" **

(I) Vuo-ng Lirc : Pluic lJllio llcl) SI;' liellY T,.llng Quae (c hfr 'I'rung Quc;c) B~c Kinh, 1057. l~p 1, truug 8:J.

(2) C)' IllQt so vllng ~·hro·ng. [11] Vi~t t mrng .irng v6'i [d J l.lll(Yng. Ngfi· dnl hoc Iich st r li~l1g ~hl'(Yllg eho phep liet lUQn rang ;\In r tiJ va tit ea cac flln keu (l(~lt III :lln nUl'j phal trif~n gall di\y.

(3) Ttc lui;, lr. 1.·'10.

(4) K/llIllg JIll I~r di~n, TJllrvng IIAI, t9,.~. t~Jl rrurlf 'rung, tr, 171.

140

ItfING VUONG D~r~(; NU(JC (lY)

Nell «1(lC» In rae nrc In «l1u'6'C» th 1 se giiii Ihlch nguon gf)c ngu' nghls ella til' « IJ~'c dan » (nglfO'illlr6'c), va cll Clift nhirng ll~l' « lac vtrong », «II).C hall), «lac lU'o'ng » (VU3, quan, tll'Ollg ciia «)lgll'~i ruroc J» nhir the nR o?

Hien nay, chung lot clura co clurng c{J d~ xac minh rAtig «ligl1'O'i ntt·o,c» (Iac dan) lit lCII t~' xlrng cua ta hay lit tell ilIa ngu'o-i Han hoac cac tOc 1lgU'o·i khat dung (l~ gQi t~ tien ta, Nhtrng du lhe nao ch,al1g nira thl vAil co th~ fhMY n1t).i quan h¢ ngtr nghin gin'a e lac » va « dAII», vAn co th~ thny nhieu chirng c{J n6i len rang loc 0' day ViII lit « nuoc ». ' \

Nhiell tili lieu dii clnrng minh raIlS' ban dao B6ng Duong lit que hrrrrng ciia lua 111fl Inn lit l oai cay trong, ira mroc, Vi v~Yt doi vai cac loe ngu'b-i ell hi~t lrong luu, Vall de dnt VA 11U·O·C lit yan de s6nR con v~ Jnijt kinh tell Sorn biet trong 1(13, lo ti(~11 elu'lng ta <Iii di cu· theo nhtrng lrien song, lQ'i dung moi IlgUOIl ruroc d~ cay cii y, due k~l kinh nghiern lrang lila cua mlnh qua cAu tuc ngti': «Nhal nutrc, J1 hip h «til, a •• ».

~hic1J titi Iieu Cd cho l)iet rlng t~ tien cluing tn con s(lng ,·e «~()ng ntroc s, ~i()i I1ghl~ (li hien. Truyen lhuyet Lac Long QUAIl lit giong "(ll1g (XiII chti y rnng « Long QlItin J) hAY « Long Vu·o·ng J) deu c6 ng\tin lit v] vun tilting Ir! 1l1icI1 ntroc) vit tl'uycn lhuyet 50 nglr6'i COIl theo me len nui, 50 ngu'o'i con theo cha xu6ng hi~tl, dii noi len viec Ion sung 1Itl'c1C, 8" phan b6a gifi'n mot b«) lac sOllg ve rirng Jltii va Ill<)t hO lac sOllg ve mroc. Ton giao nguyen thuy ciia ill (<< tam phu») eiing phan anh ha yen to lhi!!)l nhien c6 quart ll~ den (tiyi Stillg con ngtr6tj thai do la troi, rirng nui va niroc ,(lh,',), cung hay «tllOai» cung). Vi~c coi trong dill Yft ntrrrc ella It; Ill~l1 chung tn eon dtro'c phan anh trong nghi lhtrc III clurc I~ ha dicn ng:i)' trtnrc. 1)(;11 I{h{,i fli~nl (t' 'ro qUOC» ClU. ta lhl lit' hao do·i 11ny tin gttn IiCII vai dilt va mroc, nhfit Itt nuoc :

(( Nlli;" (licll IJllIi. lay qi« gll'o·ng,'

l\i gu·(j-i' trotu; lil~)l /lU·O'C /J/u;; llurouq nhau citnq»,

Nlur d:1 ! rinh hby b· diel11 3, lih1 gQ.i etla 111()L t(}C ngt1'i,.i eel the co qunn h~ vo'i dijc di~111 vc sinh hoat kinh t.e etta lQc ngtrci ny. Vo·i dQc di~nl kinh Ie S()l1g vc rUQllg mnrc, sf)ug ve song bi~~ nlur dn 110i (l· Iren, III li~n ehlin~ ta ll,r xirng hay diroc gQi lit «11g1ro·i (solig v~) l1U'6·c », 'dieu d6 Iii hoan '.OaI1 d~ hi~u. Vi. lai, nlur Cht'IJl~ In dii lIIOY, c6 toc 'danh «llglfo-j nui »,

.« ngtro'i ril'l1g» thl-rfit co th~ co lQc ~anh «)Jgtrb'i 1111'C),C ». Ilieu do hoan l()~\II hop \'o'i (I tty J u:jt g<)i len ella cite lQc ngu·o·i tren dill nuoc Ia va tren the gilYj: "10"11 11U'O, dOQ It van (lft.1 rn (y lren «Dall khlin rlH)ng i\y mn an, vi the gQi I:", lac <1:)11» tin noi len r ilt rii (IU011 h~ nhan ((tiil gift'a hal lell, g~)i «rIH)ng nrrre » vi. (t n~lI·()'i nlrl)'(~,. Vit nhll' fh~ lhl «Jj~C Vi¢t J) co nghin la' he>

1~1

phon IIAch Vj~t «siSng v~ nuoc »(1). Uil gQi «nglrai n(rae» thl nglri1i ghi chep i!'.)i u vua clul IlgU·ui. llU'aC », (t (Jllll)l ella nglri)'i llU'OC ». «ill·ang ellu ngu'b'i JIu·lIC) ciing In di~u rat ll.r nhien (VIIU, (I uu 11 , llrallg uong tho'j nay l~hi\c (Ohlin I(h()ng giollg vua (JUDIl CUll 'l'rung QUQc th/Ji do; ,'all d~ ity khollg thuoc pham vi Jlghicn cuu cua hili nay), Illii 'Ina 1l111Y nghln 118n1 lich ~ii' - r fil C(~ t h~ hAng \,J)1l niim llgiliu eua llr «I: 10e» lil (I. llU'OC» dii hj queu ttl vA lll' chung tly tlii trf,. thanh duuh tl'r rieng, nlur trong «COil Iiong chau Lac n1ft ltr huo di)'j llUY. 11lOi khi noi d e n, Clu'lllg tu r li l d 6i ~ I)· hao J

..

,

-----

, I

(1) NhAn dfi.Y~ clu\ng t6i xln hru "1 h911 IIQc y~ 111'Y t"c danh trong BAcIa Vi~l: t(\c da nh An Vi()t co 'luau~ 'h~ v(rl ,'en ti6,1" , A,~ (v.)U" 'J',·j~l (jiaug), t(\c dauh Allan Vi~t cO quun h~ v6-i tall ~(\Il~ AI,ill (\,l)pg Pluic I{i~n), la}C duuh 'fay ,Vj~' C(~ 'luau ht} "{)'j t~n song 'l'fty lit ulllllth slu_l: Ly -- 'l'u:u't1g. (:hiiy lit n~i~u dtlng huy~u JIU'l1~ An (QuAng 'J'uy). sung lalala lily, qua

Ou £! Ltun. '

Ell

'-

TIM

....t

DAU

A

VET

\

HUNG- VUO'NG

Jien-von jQC t9f trv so Qu6c-H¢.j r,nan ng6y Gto T6 t 5-4- J 964

I

I

I

Twcng-truyen Hung ~ Vu-o-ng th{f nhat tr] vi each day han 4000 cam. Rieng con so Ian lao d6 cung dti gc'i cho nhtmg ngtro'i di tin nhat trong chung ta m¢-t niem nghi .. hoac . Nhfrng vua to cua dan Vi~t qua thirc eta c6 ln~t trong Hch-str hay chi Ii san-pham eua ttr&ng tugng?

Vi tho'i-gian ngan each, muon ghli dap phjin nao cho niem nghi hoac d'6 chung 'ta chi con 1TI9t each 13. thau thap nhfrng dtiu vet eua Hung - Vu-o-ng roi tir nhfrng dau vet nay suy ra Sl}' thwc - hfru hay khong thtrc - hfru eua Hung - V tro ng .. Dau vet ella Hung . V tro-ng c6 the khao-tarn trong 4 lanh vtrc : da - sir, chinh - Strj co - thir Trung quae va di - tich ljch - sU- ..

DAu V~T HUNG-\'UaNG TRONG DA-SU

Cac vua Vi~t dau tien de dau vet nhieu nh~h tron_~ nhfrng truy~n th3n-tho~i rruyen khau tir d&i nay qua deri khac. Nhfrng than .. thoai ay tuy co tinh each hoang - dtro'ng, khong phai 1a nhfrng chanly Iich - sir theo dung nghia khoa ... hoc, nhu-ng day y nghia tu-o-ng trtrng va dam trong m¢t bau khcng khi ky ~ ao, tho- mong ciing nhtr tat ca moi thien anh - hung - ca eua thai tien-str. Ve sau nhirng thanthoai ay du o c ghi chep trong 2 cucn da-str rat dlf9'C truyen tung, soan trong the ky XlVI khoang cuoi deri Tran :

- Vi~t - c1i~n, u -linh t~p eua Ly - te - Xuyen

- Linh -'Nam chich - quai cua ~fran - the - Phip

va m(n pho than ~ tich it ngiro i biet t&i1 nhan de Ia Hung- V rro'ng sir-rich ngoc ~ pha co - truyen, kh6ng ro ai soan v a soan tir dai nao.

Theo than- thoai, vua De r Minh la chau 3 dai vua Than - Nang ben Tau, sinh fa con tru-o ng ten 13 De. Nghi roi eli tuan-du phiro'ng Nam den nui Ngfi . linh g~p nang V1:1 - Tien, sinh ra Loc - T\1c .. LQcT 1:lC thong - minh luan .. ttl, De - Minh muon truyen ng6i cho, nhu·ng L9c - T uc xin nhtr o ng cho anh Ia Be - Nghi. Be - Minh ben l~p DeNghi lam vua phu-o ng Bac, phong LQc .. T\1c lam vua phirong Nam ..

98

LOc- T\tC d,t ten DU'ac la Xfch - Q~y, lay hi~u la Kinh - Dirong .

Vuctng ii. ff; -..1.. ttre L1;1-c .. Duong- VtrO'ng r_t ~ .1..t mer diu ho HongBang va 13 vi vua tha nhat eua d£a-t¢c Vi~t. BCt c5i Xich .. QuY Tat r¢ng Ian: blc giap ho DQug-dinh, Nam giap Ho-Ton (Chiem-Thanh), Tfiy giap Ba - Thuc (Tfr ~ xuyen)~ Dang giap bi!n Nam - hal., nghia 1; gom mien Hac Trung -·Viet, toan bQ B~c - Vi~t va cac tinh Quang - dong, Quang-dy, H~-nam va Quy-chau ngay nay, Kinh-DU'O'ng-VltO"ng lay Long-Nfe, con gai vua ho DQng-dinh, xay cung· di~n tren nul Nghia. linh cho nang a, sau sinh dtr9'c mQt con trai tea gQi Suog .. Lam ttrC Lac-Long .. Quan, Kinh .. D trcrng. V U"O'ttg truyen ngol cho Lac-Long-Quan, khai-nguyen che-d¢ chi. truyen con ·noi gQi 1ft phu-dao,

L~c .. Long-Quan ;~ fit .-e lay hieu 1ft Hung-Hien-Vt.rcrng J.~ \~ _l.. d6ng dO Ct Phong-chau (huyen Bach-hac, tinh Vmh-yen), nhirng thuang hay di ve Thuy-phu 13 no'i que me, Dan chiing c6 vi~c can to-i chi keu: (lB6 .oi l Bo di d~ng nao khcng ve cuu chung con ? J), Lac Long-Quae ~p tite den ngay, linh-trng va cung .. Ngrr&i Vl~t goi cha bang b5 bat dau tit d6. L~c-Long-Quan lay' oil Au-CO' hi co n giH Ele-

'-

Lai (I), sinh ra m?tt. bee 100 tTu-ng nCr thanh mOt tram con trai .. Khi

cac con khon Ion, Lac ... Long-Quan hQP quan than de ban vi~c phong ttr6-c nhttng quan than deu chiu kh6ng bitt lam the nao vi IOO ngu-b'i deu giong nhau nhtr due ve strc-hrc cilng nhtr v~ d(fc-h~nh. Sau phai dung phtrong-phap nit tharn. Ngtro-i rut trung tharn dau tH~n ten Ia Hung-Lang tit ~~ (2) duQ'c nh~ Ia con trtrbng. Ngtr&i rut Dha~ so trot ten la Thanh.Lang.

I

Lac-Long-Quan " ngoi 400 nalnt c6 nhieu cong kien - quae: nao diet tru- nhfrng loal ye.u~quai nhir Ngtr-tinh \) a Ho-tinh de cho dan dtr\yc _ aD .. Ctr Ittc-nghi?p,· nao d?y dan each In m~c ctlng nhfrng m6i quan .. h~ gifra cha cou, chong vg, vua toi, Xa .. h¢i 'Ti~t .. Nam bat dau cp tr~t ... tv", c6 luan- thtrerng tir d6.. M9t hom ·L~c-Long .. Quan bao .Au.CO" rang:

(1) linh·Nem etl kh quai cnep AUrea J. V'l DirL.!Si. (2) N99C- phi cnep J, Hdflg.lln.

- 99

K T a 13 loai rang sinh trU'o-ng a thuy-tQc, nang Ii giong tien sinh trtrcrng trin mii, thuy hoa khac nhau kh6 rna a CUDg nhau trtt(mg .... cau. V~y phil Iy-bi~t, ta dem ~o trai v~ dU'O'i Thiiy ... phu, 50 trai theo nang len rnii, nhtrng ~u len nt'ii xuong DU'Ctc co vi~c vin cung ngbe,. khong dU'{Yc bo nhau.s

Au-c<Y ngbe 1M, ben chia con rna di .. Rilng ngtrci con trtrang ltru lai Phong-chau, n.oi ngoi tr] mro'c, hieu 13 Hung ... Quoc- V U"O'Ili t1t ~ _f. r d~i ti;n .nuac 13 Van-Lang va chia ra tam 1 5 bQ: Giao-chl, Vi~tthu o'ng, Vfi-ninh .. Ninh .... hai, Van-lang, L\J.c-haiJ Hoai-hoan, Ciruchan, Nh~t-Damj Chu-dien, Phuc-loc, Dtrcng-tuyen, Chan-dinh, Quelam, T trQ"ng-qu~n. Htmg-Qufi c, Vu-ong truy~n ng6i ·cho con trtremg 13:

Hung-Hoa-Yircng i~ ~ £~ Hung-Hoa-Virong truyen cho Hung ... HyVlfO'ng 4 flK.!." Hung-Hy-Vu ong truyen cho Hung-l!uy-Vucyng. tft _, .l..1' Ben deri HUlJg-Huy- VU'O"ng 1a vua thir 6, co gi~c An xam pham bO"

col, tinh the nguy ng~p. Vua phai sai sUo d~ kh~p' ntt&c rao tim ngU'Cri tai fa dep gi~c. Tnroc d6 ba nam, Ct tang Phu-dongjl qu~n. Vi1-ninh tinh Bac~ninb, c6 mQt c~p vg chong gia hon 60 tuei mm sinh dtr~c dira con trai, O·ng ba rat mtrc yeu quy, nhirng du-a tre jertt ·]!n chi

n~m cho khong biet ogoi, cling khong biet noi (I). G3P khi su--gia den lang, dua tre hot nhien ngoi d~YI cat tie~g n6i xin sw\;.gia ve tau vua. danh cho mot con ngg3 sat, .m¢t thanh kiem va tnQt chiec mu s~t cho no di pha gi~c. Dieu thinh-cau dU'Q"c H ung- V trong chap thusn, f)ua

~ , ..

tre du6i chan d1i'ng d~y, minh cao ho'n mU'ai trtrgng, tuot gU'am noi

lo'n : ~ Ta la thien-tu·cng day}} roi dQi rna sat, nhay len ngva. sat. phi nhtr bay, m ua kiem xong vao dam gi~Ct di den dau gi~c tan _va ~en d6. Bt'ra tre duoi giet den l?--ui Soc-san (2)t em 30 sit de l~i, ctr&i ng\l"3 sat bay l~n 1reri, dau. chan ngVaT sat con ltru Iii tren <fa .. Hung-HayVU'O'ng cam cong ciru qUDe, ton gQi 13 ?hu-B~ng thien-vuO'Dg, l~p den thO- tren Den nha cii Ct lang Phil-dong. L~i x~y Cau-trang-d.ai va di~n Kinh-thien tren nui Nghi"a-llnh, vua thtrerng tai d6 dang htr01lg cam t~ tral dat sai Phu-f)o·ng thien-vU'o-ng xuol1g giup ntrac duoi ngo~i-xam+

(1) Theo Ch. Patrrs trang Essai d"histoire d'Annllm .. ·dU-.a trr~ ten I, Thiet.lung.

. (2) N u i Soc sO' n elmg 99~ J8- nu j V~-linhi nay a !~ ng ve .. 1 i nh .. h u~ en Dil ~ Jl h li { .. t l nn Ph uc ~1l11 ..

- 100-

- 101

Hung-Huy-VU"O"ng c6 22 con erai, Lo vi~c truyen ngoi, vua hop cac con l~i baD r1ng :.:

«Tit nay tal cuoi nam, dii'a nan kiem dtrge thtrc an ngon nhatJl qui nh~t. d! dang cung .tien-vtro ng cho tro n dao hH~~u thlta se truyen ngoi cho.s

Cac con ngU'Cri d:i S3!:l ban, ke thi chai 1 U' &i hoac d6n m ua 0- cho bua, dua nhau tim kiem ella nson v~t 41. Rieng ngU'Cri con thtr chin ten Ii Lang-Lieu, me chet 1~ it cl-hfru, phanAv~n suy-tlnh Ulai khong biet chon thir gi. Mt}t dem me' (hay than ... nhan day rang:

"T rong trb'i da t kh6ng c6 gi qu y bang g~o v i gao . dung de; n uoi dan, ngtreri ta a~ mai kheng chan. Neu lay g~o nep g6i thanh hinh tron d~ tU'gng trai,. ho~c g6i rhanh hinh VUOEg de tiro-ng d~t.. 0- trong lam nhan th~t ngon ngu ."1 trai dat bao .. ham van .. v~t thi ·vua cha chac se

Hung- T ao- V v=s Hang-Ngbj- VU'Qlng

Trang khoang theri-gian til' Hung-Qucc-Vwong wi Hung- NghiVtro ng - khong biet dich-xac dtrrri deri vua nao - c6 hal anh em sinh d6i ten Ii Cao - Tan va Cao - Lang giong nhau nhir hai giot mroc, inc ·cOi cha me, chung song va thiro-ng yeu .nhau rat mire. Sau Cao-Tan lay VCJ, Cao - Lang gi~n anh doi Xlr c6 phjin lanh nhat han xira, be t;lha ra di .. Gip mot con song lCtn~ ,khong c6 thuyen de sang agang, Cao-Lang ngoi kh6c roi chet, h6a thanh mQt cay cao vut. Cao- Tao th.ay m·at em, di tim khap no-i khong g~p; den ben goe cay gieo rninh t1!~nt hoa thanh m()t cl ng da~ flen ltrgt ngtrai vg di tim chong, tha y chong cia chet cling d~p Qau chet thee, h6a thanh mgt sgi day leo quan tren tang da. Dan lang hay tin, thuong camJ l~p den 0 d6 d~ tho ba ngtro'i,

,

vira long.» ~

Lang-Lieu y theo, lam banh tron gQi la banh day, banh vuong gQi J..a banh chtrng ; t&i ky hen, qua nhien dll"Q'C cha cham nhat. Lang-Lieu l~n noi ngoi, hi~u 13. Hung-Chien- vU'O"~. tjt ~a £.

MQt hom Hung-Vtro-ng tuan-du qua d~nt ghe vao nghi chae. Vua hoi bi€:t S\t" tinh, meri sai quan hau hai trai cay va hi day leo, lay hra nung da lam vOir roi hop ca ba thUt rna an thi thay mui vi thorn ngon moi mep tham do .. Vua truyen pho-bH~n men qua rno-i nay ·trong dangian: tuc an trau eua dan ta kho-i-thuy til' do. (I) ..

Den vua Hung-VU'O'Dg thu- 18J hj~u ,13 Hting~Tuyen-Vtrcrng jft

~ ..E (2) kh6ng c6 co n trai, chi' sinh dU'Q"c hai con g3.i., tr~Crng la

My-niro-ng (3) Tien-Dung (4), thir la My-mro'ng NgQc-Hoa.

"
Sau Hung-Chieu- V tro-ng, dan Vi~t con htr&ng thai-blah ~ .
tral 10
dOi vua ke tiep la:
Hun g- Vi- V iro-ng ;tit ~t j..
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j
HUDg-£)!Dh- V U'O'ng -ijt ~- _j_ r
ft_ j
Hung-Uy .. Vu-o-ng (1) ij! .~ _!. f
,
,
Hung- Tri nh-Vir o-ng tit ~ .... _1..
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,H ung- Vii- V iro-n g ~ j_\ 3f_
Hung- Viet- V irong ilt ~ .l-
H ting -Anh- V tro-ng i.f! ,1 " ~
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Hung- Tr:eu- V trong tit· ~f.l ~
~-----~__.. ~-~-~--- ~-.---

(1) Ngoc phi cnep Hung~ VuO'ng thLi- 10 III Hung-U v ~ VtrO"ng. An-Narn t~Ong 'S~ eua Nham .. Too ThAnh-Doan va E.ssaj d"histoire d ""Annam eva Ch. Pairis chip Hil{lg~

Vt.rO'ng thu- 10 l~ H~ng-H)',VU"O"ng tit ,,~ _l. i V3v ~heo An-Nam thOng-sLi vli Essei -d'hjstoire . d'Anllilm, Huog",VlIanl th6- 5 vi thu- 10 aeu hi~u 18 Hung .. H.,... VU"'O"ng~ nhtfng hai chLJo Hy vi't khac nhau.

( ]) T heo HOI ng~tr<;)Og- M j ao iron 9 Vi~ t-Nem van-hQ-c toi n-t hu, tru)'fn trau cau Kay r 8 \Ie ao-i Ht1ng~VU"rrng th6- 4~

(~) Cling dQc JA Hung .. Du, .. VU'ung

(3) 1" ZlC C!C ob-i V{u Hung VQi con trai vua fa Quao-lanq, con gei vue f~ M~ ... nlJQ'ng. V~y My.-mrO'n. kh8ng phaj f~ ten hay ho. rna l~ mQt aann-tlr -chung chi con g8~ nna Qu~~t"c~ Bjin-'&m cua M~ .. n[J'C1ng J. mf' .. fllngJ tv d6 co nhtrng I.eng me, nang .. n1.rO-n91 deu dung de en i din hi! con ga. ntlting ·Oh6 q uy~n q uy.

T ruyfn Hoe~blnh Quan .. fang cua Qua,h~Dieu chep : Quan ... lang khb- t4th~y hI Qed Hung~ VU'crng J1 nb&ng con thir, cheu th(r cee. vua Hung.. dvQ'c chi. phOflg vA cho ho ~. Di oh/ Quach.. B,ch, H~, Xa va Ceo. Sau hQ fl~Y dem con trili" con gel v~ ng lora- r nh8 vlo ch~ thung.lung rna meog ru()ng nlJO'ng, I,p ap, v~ sau con chau moi ngay m{H dang mai I,p r& tong; X8J tha.n. HQ nil. Lang dUI truyen con n5j, d.eu xU'n~ 18

. Quan.feog. Con Rai QQi " N~ng .. T r~n doi vai \lUi!I 1& nnh c~a COn", dU'ai dO. \Iv. din 18 ngnr, t6- thay" tlnh nghi.a yAu men nhau rit lhlm thiet.

(4) N gQc~pha chep Tten.Dung Jil con H Iln 9- Vu-O'og th.r 18. linh- Nam chich.quai (hep nen~Dung , .. con Hi:lng~ VlIO' ng thli- 5.

..,.--,_"._ ,-- _.-._-, _. . ,

102 :--

, '

My ... mrong Ti~n-Dung 18 tuoi vin chira chju lay chong, chi thiclr ngao-du san.thuy .. Bay gier b lang Chir-xa (I) C9 Chfr ... yy-Van tfnltt h~nh hi~n-hba nhtrng ngheo co cec, sinh dt.r~c I con trai gQi Ii Ch& ...

"II

dong ... Tit .. GfP iuc chay nha, chi con' I' cai kho, cha con ra vao thay d~i.

nhau rna m~c .. Chfr-vy~Vln chef., £)ong- Tir v5n ngtl'cfi hieu tl130, Iiy kho chon cha con tv minh khong cO gi che th~n, vira d6i vita ret, phii di cau cl, h~ tMy Utuyen huon di qua thi 19i ~uong dung gifra giong niroc xin an. Mot hom dang caUt doaD thuy!n cua Ti!n-Dung xich den, Bong-Tlr thay nghi-trtrgng co-xi, s~ hai an than trong bai lau s~Y .. (lao ca.t thanh yung, n1m van d:6 roi lay cat dap len minh. !{hong nger Tlen-Dung l~i ghe thuyen vao bai dao cho-l rai truyen thi ... t)r" vay man d~ ~m.' Tien-Dung dQi ntro-c, cat troi di, than hinh Chirdong_. T if d2n dan 19 ra, Ti~n-Dung hoi ro ttgtto a can, cho Ii duyeu treri ,djnh mal 15y lam cho.ng~

Hung-VU'cyng, biet trnyen, ca gi,n, h~ l~nh tir coli. Tien .. Dung kh6ng dam tra ve Phong-chau : vg chong din nhau di, treri t5i kh6ng c6 noi tr9,t phai dirng chin gifra dtro-ngt cam g~y xu5ng dat roi tip, n6n len Q~ 4lm trti .. Nita dew thanh-quach lau ... aai moe len san-sat, du ca man trtro'ng, chiu ngoc, qu1n hau. Din' chung quanh do thay the

'lay lam kinh.d], tranh nhau dem l1trO"ng hoa, ngoc tht;c den dang hien.,

Hilng-VU'(Yng nghe tin, t1.tlrng con lam loan ben sal quan qua.n di, danh_, trai dong each Tien-Dung m¢t con s~ng Ion. Canh hal' song gi6 n~i l!n am ~m, thanh.quach lau-aai cUa Tien-Dung trong choe hit nho bay l!n ,!rait d3:t cho d6 sup xuong thanh mOt cal dam la-n, ngtrM sau goi ta dam ~hat-d? thang-thien (2) hay, van ut lil dam, Nh~t-d~r hi~n con di-tfch a vung H u-ng-yen (3)~

(1) N.y tA l.ng £la-hoB, phu' Khoai .. chaut tinh Htrng~ yAn. (2) MOt d~m bay I'n tn7i.

(3) BOnl NhJt~de.. sau da.i 99i t. dim D4' ... tr~ch, chu .. vi hA~ vlli chue d~m~ cllv ~5i:, urn-turn, lau s$y chl~chH, J,i co nhilu mubi dOc \11 tjn rei '81\ flap trang cle hang h6", Gitra d~m co nhtrng khoing Glt cso co th~ tim nhe o't" nhung b5n m~t bun ray", ng ltcri vii ngv. khlJng th. d. dlrQ"c. MuSn vii a trong de n:l ph &'1 du nil' thu} en d"c .. , mc)c d)y h,6-t trflin mIt nU'a~ neu \16 y .. nqs xu5ng- tat bi ran d_(k cin chit ngev. Nlm 548 hrung c~a VUI Tiln lY .. Nam-D;' f. Tdeu~Quang.PhlJcJ ~O't.d~ng J'ia .. the, h i ~m..,eu cu. dam D.o. tr,c~-, alt l.an .. do8nh a do, d LlnG ch;en-fhutt tlu~kk h Jehong vui quan nhA luang ... nhb- th. rna sau 1"'01 JU'vc quan llrcrng, Jan ng8i VlJa hi~u' Ii: Tri.uVt't~VU'un8'

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Tien-Dung da' l~y Chfr-dong-Tu, con l~i My-ntrO'ng Ngoc-Hoa, :xinh dt;P tuyet voi, vua nwoc Thuc Cr lang .. di~ng hoi 13m Vfl nhirng "kh6ng ung thu~n. Sau co hai ngcroo cung t&i hoi, Hung- TuyenVuong d!u irng y" la Sou-Tinh, than nul Tan-vien (I) va Thiry'Tinh, "tHan he, E>Qng-dinh. Be giai .. quyet tinh-trang kh6 khan

Nhllng co m9t nang rna hoi r~

Vua cho rang the cOng." 1. hot nhleu (2)

Vua U'Ctc hen ai n~p do sinb-l~ tr iro c se ga Ngoc-Hoa chao Son ... 'Tinh t&i trtroc, dU'gc v"Q"J dU"a ve b mii Tan ... vien, tlnh San-tay. "Thtry- Tinb t6"i Chi-m, Doi ghen, lien dang DU'QoC va xua esc loai 'thuy.quai duct' danh d~ doat ngU'oi dttp. Son .. Tinh dung ltroi sat

, , '

chan ngang song de chan quan eua Thuy.TInh, l@.i hOO phep lam cho

nui Tan-vi@-n w theo rmrc mroc dang rna cao dan~ Thuy- Tinh that b~i nhirag tit d6 sinh ra thu-oan, nam nao ciing dang ntr&c dauh .SO'n .. Tinh, gay ra tham-hQa h}.t ... 19i cho nhan- di n.

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Cau truy~n tinh dep nhu tho cua My-nU"O'ng Ngoc Hoa ,va San-

'Ttnh kbong nhfrng eta gay ra l\lt-lQi rna con la nguyen-nhan di~t-vang 'cUa ho Hong-Bang. Th~t v~y, vua Th~c hoi Ngoc-Hoa kboog duoc , cam. gijn, khi sap cbet d~n con chau phai bao thu, Chau la Thuc, Phan c6 sue manh l~i nhieu mtru ltr'ic, dem quan sang danh ntr&c Vao.-Lang~ Hung- Tuyen-Vtt'o-ng 'tbua)~ tho ra huy'et roi gieo rninh -xuong gieng chet .. Thuc-Phan chiem ntr&c Vall-Lang, d<>i te~ 13 AuLac, t\f l~p lam 'vua hieu 13. An-DU'O'ng- Vu-o-ng, d6ng da 0- Phong.khe.

Tit Kinh ... Dwong-Vtro-ng len ngoi nam nharn-tuat, dong thai v&i E>e-Nghi ben Trung.quoc (nam 2880 trtro'c T~y .. lich ky-nguyen) <ten Hung- Tuye.n.VuO"ng mat nam quy-mao Qeri Chu Noan .. VU'O"ng ·(nam 258 trtt'o-c TaY .. lieb), ho Hong-Bang truyen d ll'gc 18 deri v ua (3)

:(1) The') f8n-"i8n~thln !u/,tlch, San·linh t@n th4l IA Nguyen~c(jr.g~ T uan, quS a t15ng ling-xl1O'ng, huy~n Th8nh~thuy.. tlnh Phu-th9 .. not. ngheo p'hiii d. kjem CUI nu6i me- .. m¢'t hOm tinh ca cu-u s5051 con trai LongrV'Lrcrng c,. Nam .. hai, dllQ'c longVt100g tra ern ting tho m(St quyen $~ch vtrc, 'J&c g1 dU'q'c nay. T lr d6 thanh tntin, I~n nui Tan .. vi@n tu.luv,n, cfqc sach. Nay c tinh SO'n.-tiv khap ncd deu co dIn thO-.

1(2) ThO'" Nguylm .. nhU'Q'c .. Phap.

{3) Co ngU'O-i 'ch~ rang hQ Hong·B~ng co 20 deri vua: 18 dui Ht.ng~ VU'O'ng

+ ltc,long.Quan + Kinh ... DU'O'ng-VU'O'ng. 1 htt r. dli (.6 18 dOi, k3 c:i L,~Long-Quan VI KIM- DL1ung~ V..,O' Rg.

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CQog 2622 namt Tinh trung-binh m&i vua tr] ... vi 145 nam: dieu d6 khong the; dung ~\f th~t~', Cae vua Hung d~y dan phep dIn thuy nh~p di~n d:~ tr~ng-tr9tt dung dao cufic de cay bira, cat t6c- ng~n. d~ ti~n vao rung nui, xim cac hinh thuy-quai len than minh d~ khi xu6ng nU'tYc giao-long (thut;ng-luong) tt.r&ng Ia d'Ong .. Ioai rna kh6ng lim hal. Ve nQi-tri thi phAn~dinh ttrcyc-vj : quan van goi la L~c-hau,. quan vo gQi la Lac-nrc-rig, quaa nho gQi 13. Bo ... chinh, con trai vua gC?i 13. Quan-lang, con gal.. vua g9i 13 My.n1.tO"ng.. Ve ngo~i-giaothl hai lan tim each thong~hi~u ·v&i Trung .. quoc. Lan thfr nhat, dtrCri dM E>e-NghiSu, Hang-Vtro-ng sai sir sang c-oog I con rua than .. Lan thir hai, dU'eri deri Chu Thanb-Vu-ong, ~i sai sir sang tien m~t con bach-tri, nhtrng ngon-ngfr bat-dong, phai qua hai Ian thongdjch mai hi~u. T! ... ttr&ng Chu-cong-Dan trong thtrang str-gi3; 4i ban

cho xe chi-nam (1) d~ bi~t dtro-ng ve nU'&c~

T om l~i cac vua Hung khong nhfrng co. cong 1~p-q4 oc va

!

khai-hoa nhan-dan ma con c6 cong thH~t-~p nhifng dinh-che chinh-

tr], kinh .. te, xa-hQi can-ban n6 phin-bi~t van-h6a Vi~t .. tQc v&i vanhoa Han-toe.

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DAU. V.ET HUNG.VUa·NG TRONG

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CHINH- SU

Chung ta aa biet, theo than".tbo?i, ho HOng-Bang bat dau ttr the-ky tbt'r XX_IX va mat V30. tbe-kY. thtr III tnro-c Tay-Ilch k-y-nguyen. The rna phai cho den t~n th~-ky ·thir· XII I .sau Taylich chtmg ta mo-i c6 duQ'c cuon chinh-str dau ti en: d:6 1a cuou B~i- V i~t sir ... kY do Le- va n- H iru . soan nam fl- 272 deti T ran- ThanhTong, Mot ngan ,nam tram nam d3: troi qua, trong d6 co gan mQt ngan nam do - hQ eua. Trung - quae vo'i bao cu¢c chien.tranh. xa~"lang va chong xam-l.ang.. Cae v·ua; H ling da tan vao b6ng t6i

,

cua thCri-giao va c6 Ie khong cOn hy-vQng tim thily nhfrng bang .. chung

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(1) Xe c~t nam : xe cO die~bbn de ch C phlf"ong Nam.

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C\I.the, xac.;,th11c v! dbi Hong-Bang nii'a. Ch~c chao vi th~ ·rna f)~i"'Vi~t - sit .. kY cua Le60van-HU1l chi chep tit _dirj Trieu .. fJa (208 trrrac Tiy-ljchl ve sau.

Sang tAe~ky XIV xuat--hi~n cucn Vi~t .. sU- .. 1trQ'c rna tac-gia chua biet li ai, va cuan An-Nam chi .... ltrgc do Le-Tac, mQt phan-than aai Tran, soan trong khi bOn-dao sang Trung ... quoc. Theo thu- tl! nien-kY, Vi~t .. slr-ltr9'c dli'ng sau D~ .. Vi~t sir-ky cua Le-van-Hiru nhtrng lai -ia cuon sir Viet -{fau ti!n c6 ghi chip ve hQ Hong-Bang. Theo sach nay, dja-giCri l1uac ta buOi dau gom 15 bQ: Giao-chi, Vi~t-th~CrngJ V ii-ninh, Ninh-hai, Va~-l;ang; Luc-hai, Hoai-hoan, C iru. chan, Nh~t~nam, Qu~u-ninhJ' Gia.ninh, Thang ... tuyen, Tan .. .xtrong, Binh ... van, Ciru .... d&c~ Den Thanh ... v tro'ng nha . Chu (r024- Io05 trtr&c Tay-ijch) Vi~t- Thirong sai su- sang (ien m9t con bach ...

tri, £len deri Trang .. V\fO'ng (69~682 trtrCrc Tay .. llch) b bQ Gia-ninh co ngtrCrl dung_ ao-tbu~t khuynh-phuc d"trQ"c 'cac bQ"'~c, _ tv xirng 1a Hung- V \rang, d:6~ do it Van-lang, d~t ten nacre III Van-Lang, truyen dU"Q"c 18 dai deu gQi la Hi1ng- V U'01lg~ Cuoi deri Chu, Hilng- Virong thti- ~.8 bi Thuc-Phan di~t. Nhir viY, theo Vi~t-siriU'QrCJ tru&c th~~ky .thu VII trtro'c Tay-lich chi' c6 nhfrng b~ lac sang

.. tan mac. Bat dau tit the.kY VII tnroc Tay-Iich, cdc b~-l~c ay tneri t~p~ hop tbanh quoc-gia dU'&i 311 -lanh .. dao cua Hung- VU'O"ng.. Va tinh tit nam aau df1i Chu. Trang- VU'o:ng den nam Thuc-Phan chiern ntt&c Van-Lang;f 18 d&i Hung-Virong da tri-vl 434 nam, trung.binh mill· vua 24 nam, Con so nay ho-p It han con so 145 nam ciia da-sir~

~

An-Narn chi-luge chi lay tai-li~u 0- thtr-tich Trung.qu6c nen phan danh cho thiro-ng ... co th(Yi ... d~ qua tr so- .. sal. Can-elf tren sach Str-ky, Le. Tac xac-I,h~n s\f.kien Vi~t- Thtreng cong Chu Thanh> VU'O'ng mQt con chim trY trang, va din sach Giao .. chau ngoai .. virc-ky i

. .

<Giao-Chl khi x~a chira chia thanh qu4n huy~n thi rU9ng thea nzr«c_

t.Juiy.trieu lin xuong rna cay cay gt)i III Lqc .. dfen. Khai-khlin rupng dy liz Lqc ... dan. Tri ddn co Lac - Vzro-ng, gizip LtJ.C - VU'crng liz Lqc ~ hCiu, Lq.c - t ll'ung D..

Bau thl .. kY xv, Nguytn- Trai viet trong Dtr-dia ... chi:

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« Vua Li~Thai-T(j hoi: Danh .. hi~u quffc-([t) xira nay thay dbi ciing nUi song, phong-tuc, nhan-vij1; lien .. sinh tun ke Zan Iwp-t, chip ro rang d! trdm the« cdc d.t€a dii theo, rla viet~

Nguyen-Trai. tau; Kinh-Dirong-Virtmg dirng nll'iYc g{Ji 10. Xich-Quy, do 0- Phong ... chdu .. Thuc g9i nzrtrc liz Au-L4c., dd ,y Phong-klu: Trih: g{Jt nU'O'c lb. Nam.Vi?t" do q Phiin .. ngung .. Trtrng g9i nU'cYc La. Hilng-Lgc,.. ti6 lr Me-linh)} ..

Ben nam 1479, deri ·Le Tbanh-Tongt Ng8-si-Lien SO~ bQ £>~iVi~t slr.kY tcan-thu chep ty-my han ve deri Hong-Bang. Trong bai t\fa, ong cho bi~t· da I.5y tai .. H~u 0- cac sach da-sUo nhtr Vi~t-di~n u-linh t~p va Lfnh-nam chich-quai .. Bo-i Ie d6, vo i tfnh th~n.tr9ng· dang ca .. tung (y mQt su--gia" eng xep d?ri Hong-Bang vao mgt phan rieng m~nb-danh 13 ngo~i-kY. Va 'cung b&i Ie d6 phan ngo~i-ky cua £)~i. Viet Slr-ky toan-thir nro-ng.tu ,nhtr truyen.thuyet, Riel1g ve dia gi&i Van-Lang, B~i. Vi~t str-ky t~an-thU' chep ten I5 b¢ c6 ho-i khac so veri Linh .. nam chich-quai va Vi~t-Slr .hro-c :

Bang so.sanh trln cho ta thay trong ~ten cua 15 bQ, c6 9 be) ~,hrvc ca ba sach chip gi6ng nhau, I bQ dtrgc Linh-Nam chich-quai va Vi~t-str-ltrc;;YC chip giong nhau, 2 bg dtrvc Linh-Nam chich quai; ·va fl;# .. ·Vi~t str-ky toan-thtr chep giong nhau, va 3 bQ dU'Q'c Vi~t-sU- ..

hrgc va B;fi ... Vi~t str·-kY toan .. thU". chep giong nhau. SI1 trung-hop d6 chac-chan khong phai lao ng~u-nhienJ' cling kh8ng phii Ii ket-qua . cia 511 11,3 chon theo y rieng eua mdi tac-gia nht.r Henri Maspero da: dequytt .trong bai khao ctru ve Nam-sir cHing tren t~p kY~yeu etta trtro-ng

Vitn .. E)ong bac-co so XVIII nam 1918•

Ve sau sach Kham-dinh Vi~t.sU- th6ug-giam circ-ng-muc chep leri chua ciia Nguy~n-thien- Tung trong Dtr-dia-chi eua Nguytn~Tr~i, dlnh'~i 15 by c~a £>~i .. Vi~[ str-ky toan-thtr nhir sau:

!~~~~~~~~~~~~~==~~~-~-~~ .. ~~~*~-~-~~-~-~~~~-~--~- .. ~.-~,~-~=-~

LlNH-NAM cHicH-QUAI I

_____________________ ~I --

Giao-chi Vj~t-tbu:&og Vii .... niuu Ninh-hai Vao-Jsog Luc-hjii Hoai-hoan Cfm-chan DuO' ng- t u yen Nhat-nam Chn-dten Pbucwl¢c Chao-4joh Qu~lim Tuoug-qu ~n

• ------... liliiii •

(1) tu-c DU"O"og" tu)'en.

(2) ble rln. httng.

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VreT. S u. L orrc

Giao-chi .. Ha-nqi, Nam .. dinh, Hu-ng-yen, Ninh .. bluh.

Vi~t-thtr(yng Quang-tri .. m¢t phan Quang-nam.
'" va

Vu ... ninh ... Bac-ninh
..
I. Ninh-hai * Quang-yen
~
~ Van-lang • Vinh-yen
~
l
Luc .. hai Lang-son


Hoai-hoall · . Nzhe-an
~ o •
CU-u ... chan · Thanh.hoa
~
DU'(Yng~ tuyen r Hai-dulYng

, \'ii-dinh Thai-nguyen, Cao ... bang.
r
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I ....
i
j Chu- dien m9t phan S(YD40tay
j
I Ph-uc-1Qc ~ rnQt plUn Son-ray

j Tan-hung . Hung-hoa, Tuyerr.quang
~
I
-Binh-van ~ chwa biet a dau
..
Ctfu~du-c <t Ha ... tinh.
<t B~l-VleT SU-K"'.i~ TOAN·THll

Giao-cb i Giao-chi
Vi~t-thtrCrDg Vi~t-tb nuog
Vu-ninh Vfi-ninh
Ninh ... hai Nioh-bai
Vao ... laog Van-lang
Luc-hjii Luc-hjii
Hoai-hoan Hpai-hoan
Cu.'u-chin Cirn-chan
ThaDg-tuyeo 11) . ..... r
!)uo'ng-tUjcD I
I
! :
Nh~t-Dam Vii-ajnh
I ~
Qu,n-ninh, Chu-d ien
Gta-ninh . Phuc-Id c
Tari ... xuaog (2) -( Tau-hU'Dg
Btnh-vau Blnh-van
,
Cau-liue Cuu-due t.
f
51 ; ; ;=N""" iiL da--;;iz 108

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DAU VET eVA HUNG-VUONG

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TRONG CO-THU l~RUNG-QUOC

Trtro-c bet.t ,Je truy~n Hung-VU"O'og sai sUo c6ng rua than cho E>eNghieu, si~ CU'crng-ffi\1C tien-bien eua Kim .... ly- TU"o-og chep :

« Niim mdu-tluin. thir tuim diri- f)zrirng-NghiiUr Vi~t-thzriYng-thi sang'

chiiu, ddng con rua th'dn ».. ..

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Danh xtrng Hung-Vu-o'ng dU'Q'c chip trong Nam-Viet-ch] cua Thkrnho~d-Vi~n dcd Bac .. Nguy (thE ky thir V). Sach Thai- binh hoan.vu-ky cua Nhac-Sir d&i Tong cling din lai nhir v~y.

Ve cac chir c L~c-hau, Lac-ttro-ng, sach Giao .. chau ngoai-vtrc ky (the ky thir IV) chip: «Xrra alit Giao-Chl chtra chia thimh quljn huy?n thi liinh-zh1J g~m nhifng cdnh d'ling gpi Ia Lac .. dfen thea tunrc thuy-trteu lin xudng rna cay bira. Khai-khhn Lac .. aien la Lac-dan, Cai-tri cdc qu(in huyen. co Lqc-Vtrtmg, Lac-bd» .. Cr cdc huytn co LQc .. tlr&ng .. » Sach Thuy ... kinh-chu cling d~n' ~i nhir v~y. ·Sach Quang .. chau kYo chep : {{ fJ6t Giao-Chl co Tu~ng L(1.c .. di~n, trtmg nho: niEtrc !huy-tri'lu len xuting rna cay cay. Ngiriri drr(rc hll'tYng ru~ng ay gpi lil Lac-hiiu, cae huy~n thi t{r xirng liz Lac-ttrong» ..

Vi~c ho Hong-Bang truyen dlf~C 18 do-i, An- N am-chi cu.a Cao ... hung-Tru ng, c6 Ie can-ce' tren Giao-chau ngoai-vu-c ky, chep : ({ Giao-Chl khi xira chua chia thanh. qu(in huy~n, co ruong Lac thea nzro'c trieu len xuong rna trong-trpt. Khai-khlin rit9ng ely i'a Lac-dan. Tri dan c6 Lac- VLrlYng, giu.p L~-VIr(Jng la Lac-urtmg, Truyen. au'!'c I8 airi».

Ve quoc-hi~u Van~Lang va thu..phu Phong .. chau, cac sach Th6ngdien ella B6-H\1'u deri Blrang, Thai.blnh ngtr-Iam va Tnat-binh -hoanvu ky deu chip: a. Phong.chdu xtra Iii nU'&c Viin-Lang~,~

Ben canh sUo sach Vi~t-Nam chung ta con tha:y dau vet HungVtrcrng r3i rae trong mgt so co-thtr Trung ... quOc rna nhieu h9c-gi3 cho rang c6 gia trj - chan-xac ho'n, neu khong phai la nguon~goc eua sir sac4 .·Vi~t-Nam., Tuy nhien cac tai-li~u nay rat ngheo-nan vi ve do-i Hong-. Bat;lg, Han-toe con quanh ... quan & ltru .. v1!c sang Hoang-ha va song Duo-ng .... tu-, ,lam sao c6 the hi~u biet trtrc .. tiep va sau f9ng ve ljch .. ,stXdan-tee ta,

~

Sach Thong-chi cua Trinh-Tieu cling xac-nhsn :

• V~ dirt £)ao-fhrerng, phsro-ng Nam c6· Vi?t-Thrremg.-thi qlla hai Ian sir-dicl: sang chitu, dang con rita th"tln ».

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Ve truy~n Hung .. VtrO"ng sai su- dang Chu Thanh-Vu-O'ug met con bach-trt .. Sir-ky chip :

. «Ndm tan-mao thu: sau diri Chu Thanh-Ytro-ng, phfa nam bp Giao-Cht co Vi,t -, Thtrimg ~ thi qua hai liin srr-dtch sang dang chim tri trang. Chu-csng noi :

- Dil:c .. tracli chu:a thiim khiip phtrtrng xa, nglt'iYi qudn-tu. kh6ng nhdn do Ii ra Inat; chfnhwl~nh dura ban ra uri, ngirir! qudrl-tti: khong bat kekhcu:. lha.n-phfJ.C•

S & gid thea liri than g-dicti ddp ;

B61 CHl~U DA-SU,. CHINH-Slr VI~r

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NAM V~~

CO- THU TRUNG-QUOC

-. Trong nu-o-c Chl1.ng tai tit' ba nam nay triri kh6ng mira dam, gi6 16'n,. bi!n kheng d{5ng song, nghi rang Trung-quoc co thanh-rduin cho nen. sang chdu.

Chu- ctmg aem le-v(it tung dang ton-mie·u. S&- gid khong thu9C .iflrirng l)e, Chu.cong ban cho ni1m co xe chl-nam. S ir-gid dung xe fiy thea ueti bifn

,_"

Phii .. Nam va Ldm-_4p ili uira nl}1t ndm moi ve den Vi?I-ThU'CrnglJ.

Sau khi tbau-th~p nhfrng dau vet cu.a HUIlg- V trO"ng trong cia-sir r chinh-sjr Vi~t-N·am va oo-thU' Trung-qufic, bay giCt chting ta can doichieu ba nguon sU- ... lieu d6 d~ tim hi~u xem tI'ieu-d~i Hong-Bang cO the qua aa: thirc co trong Ijch-str Vi~t~Nam hay chi Ia mQt truy~n-thuyet hoang-dirc'ng.

I

NhU' tren da; noi cac vua Hung trj-vi tLr the-ky thir XXIX den the.kV th<r III trlt&c Tay -lich. The ma mai t&i sau cUQc do-h9 cua nha Han" "thtr .. tjch Trung ... quoc mo'i thay n6i den cac V! vua dau tien eua dan-tQc ta. Con da-su- va chinh-sfr Vi~t-Nam, muon mang han, chi bat

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'·it

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dau ghi chip ve Hung- V Irang ke tit" thE ky thtr XIV. Sir '$. ;f-

r"t J'"" ~ hi 'l' • • Vl"C ~a qua

~. .a~:, ta~ n ~~n S(,f-gia Trung-quoc cling· nhu- s~-gia Viet-Nam chi

c?n btet :an-elf V30 nhfrng dieu dtr\yc dan-gian tru yen-tung~ Vay th!

'Ca 3 nguon .. I" - ~ H" . '" ."

, Stf .. l~U Vt; ung - V IrO' ng deu xu at ... phat tit mat a ~

ch~ng.: ~6 Iii nhirng truy~ . kh~u'-truy~n. NhtrDg den k&.i ghi chep "';: t~1 sal-~l~~ nhau, Ngtriri Trung-Hoa chep serosal, thii~u-s6t. f)i~u d6 'cu~g de hl!U vi, doi v&i he, chang tao chi la mot dan~t6c man .. di mol-

Chlnh-stt V· A -N ...... _." A ; ~ 1 rr:;t ..

l~t am Vi th~n-ttQng nen da loai-bo nhU'- ng chi t~ltIt kh ....

h'" I' h - . 1 ... Ie ong

~ a.n;.ac, .o~c. c6 ghi chep thl ciing giu- y nghi-ngo- nhtr tl"U"Cmg-hcrp

h ~I- * ~tr-ky toan-thu-, Dil-su- tuy phqng-phu nhtrng Iai c6 tinh d~h -o-oa=.-~trcr~g: n6 thea-man ttl ttrO-ng-tu.gng rei.rao c~a con ngtrGi

0'1 d~1 hoang-sc- nhtrng khong thoa-man 6c ph~ bi h t

.. + P- 'I • c; .. In cua· con

.ngU:O'l 0' thCYl.di-i khoa-hQc.

. . !uy-nhien, x~t cho ky, ba ngu<>n su..li~u d6 th~t ra ti~u..di rna --~i-; Id~l .. dong. Da-s& cling nhir chinh-slr va co-thtr T

~h3n bon d]'e~m rung-quoc deu xac.

~ chinh- yeu :

,

Dan-t¢c ta c6 m¢.t giong vua dau tien, truyen dtrcYC 18 dO-it

rna ta g9i 13 Hung-Vtrcrng. ..

Dtr&i d&i nhfrng vua d6, cac quan cai-tri ·

L - gQl la Lac .. ha u,

fc-ttr&ng.

}j- Hung-VU"O'og thir 18 bj ho Thuc diet.

. .

V~n-h?a Viet---tQc . dtrcYi tho-i . Hung- V ttO'ng khac han van .. h6a

Han rec . cb' t':" J

d.... - ~ ~.'. - un,.g a cat t6c ngan trong khi ngltCri Trung-qu6c

e = da1,. chung ta c6 nhii-ng t\lc-l~ rna ngU'Cri Trung-qu6c

khong co, nhu- xam minh () 'OJ ..... ..

c ' _ ··.N ;: , I 1 an trau va nhu§m rang den;

h~ng ta· da b1e~ dan ... thuy nh~p ... dien nghia I.a lo-i d ·

ntrO'c son 1'" ~ ~ • v-ng m trC

... g en xuong de; khoi nU'ac vao rUQng mot tien-bo'" ve"'"

nong h+.... • t" .

r -n~ l~p _rna. - theo, Henri-Maspero - ngU"ai Trung .. quoc

t~~ ~h~J:.1. ~a h_:c l~i ~ua chUng ta; d~ tron~-trQt chung ta S~l dat VO"l nhtrng cuoc lam bang aa mai ma cae nha khio co die oU'Q'c nhi~u di - tich b cae vilng H?i _ dong S~-+~

Vinh'" Ba · T , vu J.4Yt

b~ -y~n, ~ c~gt.angl trong khi ng\t01 T.rung-hoa cay bira

ang cay va trau.

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(1) T \Ie IIlm mfnh miii d~" aai Tr;n A"Il. rOn II (1293-1314) i"'i hoi boo

- III -

Ngay cac than .. thoai cling khong nen nhat-thiet lo~ b6. Lich .. str dan-t¢c nao cG.ng bat dau bang nhfrng truyen hoang ... dtrang khong it thi nhieu. C6 dieu dtl 12 than-tho~ cfing phai lay' can .. ban ta cuQc song hien-thvc1 roi chung quanh cai can-ban de trl ttr(mg-ttrgng cu.a ng tfai ta m &i th!u ... d~t, ve-veri them. Cho nen neu cat xen nhirng chi tiet huyen-ho~c eli, cac than-thoai v~n phan .. anh d:trgc phan-: nao th1J:'C- 4-1. Truyen Lac ... Long-Quart hay di ve T~uy-phu th~t ra ~6 ngbia Ii theri d6 dan ta coo. & trong tr~ng thai sinh ... hoat du-rnuc. Vi du-muc, nay day mai d6, l~i chua c6 kien-th&c chinh-xac ve do-hro-ng va dia-ly ·nen tU'ang rang la:nh-th~ cua minh rQng Ian den dQ Bac giap ho :ElQng-dinh.r Nam giap Ho-Ton, Nhtrng khi Hang-Quoc-Ve'o-ng len ngoi, d6ng dO. (y Phong-chau thi chung ta cia tieri den trang-thai dinb-ce, canh nong. Vi v~y dia .. gi&i Van-Lang thu hep den dQ c6 th~ chap nh~n dU'qc: 15 ·bg cua nU'ttc Van-Lang thea Linh-Nam chich-quai bao gom mien Bac-Vi~tt Bac Trung~Viet va Quang-dong, Quang-uy,. con theo Viet ... ~U:-hrClc va D~i ... Vi~t Str~ky toan-thtr thi khong Vtrtlt qua mien Bac- Vi~t ~Ja B~c T rung- Vi¢t ngay nay Den nhtr Phu .. £)~ng thien-vtro-ng; neu bo tinh , each than-thanh di, chi con 13. mqt vi anh ... hung ce-u quae ma thb"i nao ciing co th~ C69 Truy~n Chfr-dong- Tu- va truy~n trau cau tU'9'tlg-

<,

trirng cho long hieu .. thao va tinh vo chong. Truyen SO'n- TU1h, Thuy-

T inh 13. dien-hinh ciia tinh y~u .si-m e va S1F chong chci ben hi v&i thien-nhien. Truyen Au ... Co sinh 100 con trai giai-thlch eli tinh-than doan-ket va th6ng-nhat ella Vi~t .. tQc rna Ch.Patris trong euon Essai d/hfstoire d' Annarn phai c5ng ... nh~n .'13 rat manh. Tinh- than doan~k~t do la. hrc-hro-ng chinh eua d.1n-tQc ta, nha n6 ma sau nay chllng ta khang B~~t binh Namt tral baa nhH~u Ian hi Han-t~c . dB-h¢ mao vin khong hi dong-h6a. Truy~n L~c-Long .... Quan va Au-Ccr chia con, 50 con theo m~ len nul, 50 con thee cha xuong bi~nt giai-thich stf-kien dan Vi~t gem 2 khei chinh: ngtreri Kinh sinh s6ng l:t dong bang va ngtfCri Thtr)fng sinh sOng (y rirng nui. Truy~n banh day, banh chtrn'g bi~u~ dtrO"ng cal tinh ... than th1/c~d\1ng cua dan. tQc ta, quy trQttg cam g~o han nhfrng thti xa-ho~, phu-phiem"

l

_-:. ..

--112-

T6-i day, c6 ngU"&i se hoi: nhtrng con van-de niln-kj? H9 HongB~ Mt dau tit nam nham-tu~t dCri £ll-Nghi (2880 trlt'6-e Tay-Lieh) thea nhtr truy~n-thuyet hay chi bitdlu til' dOi Chu Trang-Vtr~g (6g2 • 682 triro-c Tily-Ijeh). theo nhir Vi~t-str-ltrQ"c? Trung binh mai vua Hung tr] vi 145 nam hay chi c6 24 nam ? Pham-vi bM :.3y kh6ng nhlm truy-ceu nii!n-ky de,.j Hong~Bang rna dt'1 co. muon truy-c~u eung khong th~ nao Jam n~i. Co. di~u ch~e·ch1n 13 hi~n chira co. gi chiing to rang Vi~t-Str-lU'gc chep dung Sf1 tht)'c ngoai trir tinh each hop lY cua con sO 24 nam, trong khi con 86 145 narn cia truyl!n-thuyet l;ci khong phu-hQ"p veri nMng djnh-lu3t ella 81}' s6ng. Vi v~y, thea Ch.Patris trong Essai d'histOi:re d'Annam, nhieu ngtro-i muon· bienrninh cho truyen-thuyet aa: cho rang chfr. the» trong • th~p bat tM II khong phai 13. the-kY· gom 100 nam cia aM sau d,t ra rna chi co. 30 narn. Do dO. thoi - gian trj-vl eua he Hong.Bang rut l~i

o ~ b . h~ 2622 X 30

c n co a mtro-i p an tram nghia la _ 766 nam, trung-binh

100

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f

;:

0-

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,

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I

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mOL vua tri vi 43 nam,

Tom l~i, chi suy-lu~ tren esc dfr-ki?n cUa da-su., chinh-sir Vi~tRam = cO-thU'Trung-Quoe chung ta cung c6 th~ tin dU'qc tang qua th:}t Vi~t-tQC 've doi thU'Q'ng-cll co mQt. giong vua truyen dtro-c 18 dO; ·rna chung ta gQi 13. Hung- V tro'ng, Huong chi ~~i con nhii'ng di-tich

lich-su- c6 the lam tang chem ·njem ti l' d6

In .. ttrO'ng ..

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DI- TICH LI€N .. QUAN BEN HUNG-VUaNG

Hi~n nay, chung ta con [hay Ct mien Bac Vj~t-Naln it nhit!U ditfch lich.su. lien:quan den Hung-VtrO'ng nbir lang Kinh-Du-o'ng-VU'O'ng, den Hung, den tho PhU.f)5ng-thi~n-vtrO'ng, d~n tho 'Chfr-dong- Tir va

My.-ntto-og Tim-Dung. .

Lang K.inh-Dtrang-Vtrang ~ lang A-Iii', phil Thu~n-thanh,. tinb Rae-ninh, ben chan de me be,. sOng Thi~n-dLi'c. ,TnrlYe lang e6 tam bia Iii Urn d~ 4 chii' «Kinh-DtrO'ng-VtrO'ng BlDg ii ~ .£ e». ben

- \13 -

canh l~ c6 8 Gha- nho han: 'Minh-Menh nh] th~p nhat nifn sac Iden

ail iji- ~ + - -Sf- $t ~ ~ (I>. Theo cac be-lao trong lang thi lang c6 ttr daI tht1'~ng-c~, trai bao cu~c chien.-tranh thanh ra hoang-phe, ·den nam Minh-M~nh iliu 2I m&i trung-tu v·a d.,ng bia, Lang nay

-dtr'lc gQi la ton-lang va ghi vic dien-tIch tho- t1I~ -,

Trong lang lai c6 den tho Klnh-Du ong-Veong lam thea 10i COt :gam c6 hai tea, tuang .gach boc quanh, dy ooi urn-tum, Trang den la .. li~t hoanh .. phi cau doi n6i ve s\f-nghi~p, ceng .. dU-c roa Kinh.Dircrng.

V tro'ng, c6 nhieu cau doi chfr viet :rat co. Lich-trleu hang rom phai -quan Kham .rnang v~ tam 1~ quC;c-te,· l~i mi~n phu-dai, ~p-dich cho ~an lang A .. lfr -de quit don ton-lang va. ph\1ng-s\f d~n thO- •.

Ben H~ng dirng tren nul Nghia-linh, thuoc then Co-tich, lang 'Hi-c\.rcyng (2) huy~n San-vi, phu Larn-thao, tinh Phu .. tho .. N~ Nghia .. linh, cfing goi la Hang-son, 13 ngon mii cao nhat mien Phu-tho, ttro'ng ·truyen p.gay xiraKtuh-Dtrcng-Vtrong xay cung-dietl ?:t d6.

£)~n chis lim ba phan .. DU'o-i chan nui 13. den h~,. ther hai ba ·My-ntrong Tien-Dung va NgQC-Hoat con g2i Hung .. Vtrang tha 18. Truoc ·den c6 mach ntr&c chay trong sufit, dong lai thanh gie.ng, nen cung gQi .la

_ -

·den Gi-eng.·

T it" den GHfng thea stro-n nui eli Ian den trung, tho- cac danh ' -nhan dcYi Hong-Bang nhir Phu .. £)ong thi!n-vtrang, Ch-fr-dong- Tti-, than Tan- Vient va cac vi Lac-hau, Lac-nro'ng, Trtroc den ~b nhieu tam bia dA ghi c&ng due 18 . vua Hung nhtrng vi qua lau dCri net chii' aa men

:gan bet.

Qua den trung tCri .den thtro-ng 0- tren dinh nui 13 no-i tho' cac vua Hung, Tit den Gieng t&i den th1fQ"ng phai tree 296 b~c di .. Theo Ngoc.pha, "Thv.c ... Pnan sau khi chiern nu-&c Van~Lang cho dung den .Dao-dai tren ntH Nghia-llnh tho- cac vua Hung. L~i tim mqt ngU"o-i trong tong-phii Hung- V trong l~p lam hIlCrng .. trtr?-ng lang Trung-nghia -de trong nom ph1)ng-tl1 va ban· cho ~Qt khu rut}ng htro'ng-hca d! Hiy hca 19i dung v 30 vi~c den htfang trong den.

-( 1) Nlm Minh~M&nh th~ 21 sat cho dvng bla. (2) Xlr8 goi 'it lang Trung .. nghia.

114 -

Trong db thll'Q'ng c6 bu-c boanh-phi viet bon chrr • Nam-bang

tbuy ... tO 1n J~ ~~ .;~ () BJt b·' '"

... 'LU-. I.. II::D .P all' mot bee hoanh viet: (( .. Am

ha ttr nguyen it ~if UJ... ~~1ft () BA

"..:... #.T-» 2. en tr~iiJ mQt birc khac viet:

«Nhan ban ho to -; ..It .-it.. .i(:! ()

.,..... -j '[A.» 3· Giii'a ban thO- bay bat-vi 18,

vua Hung de· 15 chfr :

9qt ng9t co 0 san, Co. ~ Viet Hung-thi. th9P bat the thanh -
.
~ ,11£ li7 JJ -J; ~. i~ K -to .... , -1!t ifr
VLJong chi v j t (4)
1- z ./~
.... Chung quanh treo -Hung-" If.O"ng~ Cau doi

Thren-dio

nhieu. cau d6i ke sv-tich va cong-nghi~p cua, chfr nhtr :

~ ~~

Tinh - than

;fk ~ ;ff

trLJong ton, (Joe von nien do truyen qu6c~tO

*- .1}- t:t Jb _,. 1t '* @;J i&.

bat hu, thgp b~t the

~ :J., + ~\. .ut

gial hi~u Hung ... VtJong

~l:. ~ if! 1:.

djch-nghta ;

TT9'i dal con mdi, UC Van ndm COn truyen fa quoc-ta Tinh-thiin khong mu-di~t, I8 11M d~u Uiy hi?u la Himg-VIJ'O'ng

. cau d5i nom nhtr ;

90 vLJong tranh bo, thoi k8 chi. vgt do; sao ro! .. b6n ngon nom nvoc bj'ec non xonh, be coi Ot goy be cal do?

Vein to tbm tong, noy con nh6 king xuo m·ieu cO hoi 10m tr j~u con Hbng chou l cc, coj conn aau chOng c9i conh day?

Cau .(loi nom ella Tan-da Nguytn-khac-Hieu viet VaG ttro ng v5i :

Co. to co Hen, tien ta co -

,

Con non con nlJO. C, nuoc 0' ~

n n con.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

(jog to. dau ti@n C~B m.rac Nam .. Uong RLrac song phi, nh&· nguon. Goc c us n'QlTo-i Ja ang ta~

Nu;~cao chat vot,. 'Ht.oe CO.ViAt Ln Hu"nt'r, bl..· 18.1

V"y .' aI-vi oo--i th lin h .. v I.f'(f"n 9 .

- It5 -

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Ben ngohl.; den la Bing, c6 bia di kh3c 5 chii. "Quae-to. Hung-VU'O'ng Bing ~ =iii ~ j__ rl}) (1)~ Gan d6 c6 nhii"ng bia da khac ·van th~ d~ ... vinh cUa cac tao-nhin m~c~khach. £lu-ng trln den thU'c;rng nhln 'sang phia Bong la ·day nui Tam-dao (thuQc tInh 'Vinh .. yen), phia nam :1a rnii Tan ... vlan (thuQc tinh Son-tay) quanh nam. bao phu may tang may kh6L Xa hon nita, ben ttai c6 d~y nui ·yen-tul ben phai c6 diy

nui Hoaah-scn deu chau ve. Hai dong sang· La va song Bo nhir hai ~,

. tam l-ga rnenh mong bat ngat, nU'ac cuon cugn cha y ve nga ba BIil~hac rOl do ra .song Nhi-ha, Cac nha phong-thiiy ban v! dia .. lY mien' Nghia .. Iinh, cho r~ng nw Tam-dao 1ft tay long, nui Tan .... vien 130 tay he, sang Bach-hac Ii nQi-minh-d"1tCrng (2}7 bien Narn-ha] 1;\ ngcai ...

'" .

.minh-du-o'ng, nen con chau ke tiep huCtng .phuc muon dai. Lttcyng-Ho

Nguy~o~truog-Khuyen c6 bai tho vinh den Hung;

NU(TC thorn song Thoo, nUl Tan xc,

I

Von .. lang muOn thuCr nuoc non nho.

Mieu tang n~n cD huang con ducrn. MLJa nang blo xua net chuc nhoo,

Bat b6n ngan nom cong-q(rc to, Nguoi hoi rnvot tri~u gi6ng-no\ to .

-,

Nay noi nguon g6c chung ·nheu do,

Nh6 loy o i oj keo nee mo ...

l'

I

Lich-tribu deu mi~n SLiu-thue, tap-dich cho dan lang. Hi-ciro ng ·<Ie phung-ttr de·n Hung. Hang nam'vic d!p gi6 'Tts .. nh~m .ngay mong 10 thing 3 am",:1ich, dan lang Hi .. cwong mtY hQi suot trong 12 ng~y) ltr mong I , den 12 thang 3 .. M6i ngay 2 Ian te 1f, lai tl;, .chtrc nhfrng -tro vui co..truyen?:t den ha nhtr danh crt hOi, danh du, hat cheo, hat hro'n, . d.auh con, t~-tom difEm. Tir d~ Tl1-f)u-c tro ve trtro'c, giB To dttgc dtrge li~t vao ~ang quOc ... te: err t6·i ~ay mong 10 thang ·3, trH~u ... dlnh cir qu~n Kham-mang hay quan Tuan-phii' sCr ~i den te

Thai-lao, dang ciing < tam-sinh (1) va huang, hoa, tttu; qua. Khi Trung

,(1)
(2)
r: I 5(1)
.'
'*-.
r· Ling qu5c .. to Hung ... Vtrang.

Minh-d..,cflg : cob chu.a morae tnro-c ohi. T e-m .. s;nn : trlu, be.l tvn ..

..

116 -

v~ Bic ... vi~t bi ngtrai Phap db .. hQ, It quoc-te Cr cac den deu m~c-

. nbien dlnh-chi, Mai den nam 1928 ·l~ qu6c-te den Hung mai phuc hoi uher cong vin.d:Qng eua mQt so quan-Iai tinh Phu.tho rna tham- l. j 13 muon d3.nh thtrc tinh-thln dan·tQ~

flen thO- Phu-£)~ng thien- virong, tuc g9i 1a du-c Thanh Giong,

. 0- lang Phu~dllng, huy~n Tien-du, tlnh B~c.ninh" nrong ·truyf!n .do Hung-Vtro-ng thrr 6 l~p ngay tren nen nha eii ciia ·Phil-Dong thien ... v trcrng , nhirng trai qua cac trieu-d~i da: dU'Q'c tu su.a nhje-u Ian. DU'O-i. chan nui V~-1inh cfing c6 den tho', cac trieu deu phong 13. Xungthien than-vU"O"ng~ Hang nam den ngay mong 9 thang 4 -den mOo h9i,. xu-a co quaD: Khdrn.mang v~ lam 1€ quoc ... tet Iai c6 nhieu tro vui, dan, cac noi no mrc keo ve xem gQi la hQi Gi6ng. Trang ·den c6 cau doi cua Tien-si Trinh .. hoa-Dtrcng :

Th iet rna kh6a van cunq, -ruQ n nboc chung on n th ien c6 nglfong

ilX ,~ J~ ~ 1: Jt_ l!k. .~~ JA- + ~ ~f

Thoch tong trieu thuy eric, sung hi vy vonq (fc nien kh6ml h a ~ ~ M ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Djch nghia :

Ngl/-'a sat lin cung Inay, nzii cao chung due btrc anh-himg ngan diYi ngao-ng-v9ng,

Rang da chltu thUy-cac, den thir uy-linli muon niim con tan kink ..

Lai co clu doi cu.a Hoang-giap Pham-quy- Thich :

Thuqng ky he· nh3n phi thl~,t me,

~ ~ -{if ~ -41t Mt Jr.]

T liang truy~n thlr dlo gio i nhung y

1m f~ J!G ~~ jf ~ i-

Dlch nghia :

Con nhcr niim nao ngiIi ctriri ngl!a sat bay len triri, Ttrtrng truyen chon nay ngiii. _c&i do gidp de lai,

f)&i vua Le Thuan- Tong (1732-1735) quan Ngt;-slr Ngo-chi .. Lan yet den". de bid tho r

,

/ \

I

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Ve-linh ... thv bcchr van nhon,
xuon
~
i~ f ~ ~ fa ~of- fr1'
-.t:t
Von tlr thisn hbng diem the gian;
... J.. ~ 1- # -, ~ -l!t Itt]
"t~
toi thien, danh tQ1 "9
Thiet rna SUI
jft ,~ Al .~ _g ~ «.
UV-nnh ~am lam man - giong san ..
~ r;t J~ ~ ~ ~ Jt
.....,_ Djch nghia :

Nui V ~-linh cay· coi tiuri t6t may tr6ng lo: lim gl

Muan tia ngim htJng caTih d~p the-gian;

Ng1!Q sat len troi, danh con lim szr stich,

Uy -ii nh lam-liet khap giang" san.

Ben thO- Chfr-dong- T u- va My-nU'O'ng Tien" Dung & lang fla .. hoa,. tong Mi-sCr, phd Khoai."chau, tlnh Htrng-yen- Ben tr~ng ra song~ ngoai nha d~i-b;ii c6 tea gac hai tang. Tren gac treo blZc •• hoa~h-p~l

.~ h"'" Thi .... e· n .:f-13 chinh kbi _;z 1~ jf_ a}) (I) va dOl cau

Vi et 4 C 11" ({ 1 U1 .

d5i cua Tham-hoa Vii-ph\im-Ham:

Coc t.rung de ~ tLr ki m he rei ~l ~ rt 1- 4- W Ji-

Giang thvQng. Hen - 6ng khc bat hoi. (2)

~ J: 1~ ii J;- ::r:: \Z]

I

I

I

I

Dich nghia :

Con vua trong gac nay 0- ddu? (3) Tien .sng tren song ra di k hong ve+ (4)

Ben noi tieng' Ilnh-irng- Ngay xu-a, nhfrng khi co b~nh d!.ch-]~, nhan-dan dell l~ . ca~ dao rat don~ ; g~p nam c.19i-b~nt cac quan ve d6

- 118 -

:lam l~ clao-vii thiro'ng dtrvc mira zuong cho dan c~y cty.. . Ttrong - trt1y~n Dam m~u-tuat (I4i8) Nguy~n- Trai t&i It den cau mQng, muon

tim~ chan chua d~ ra ciru dan giup ntrO-c,. dtrQ-c Chir ... d(jog- Tif bdo --mOng bao den oat "Lam .. san, tinh Thanh-hoa se to~i-nguyen~ Nguy~n~ . Trai tim den Lam ... son, qua nhien g~p Le .. Lo-i, sau tro- thanh khai- quoc cong-rhan deri Lt.

. HUNG-VUONG HAY LAC·VUaNG?

Viy thi dan-t¢c Vi~t-Nam qua ~h~t da co 18 dbi vua TO. rna qU3: -cac trieu-d~i Binh, Le, Ly, Tran cho t&i t?O dau the k):· xx chiing ta v1n goi la Hung-VuO'ng .. B6ng nhien narn 1918.. trong bai «Khao ... cUu . ve Nam "·Str» dang tn!D ~p K Y - yeu ciia trtrong Vien -dong bac-co s6 18, _san 4i trich dang tren tap ... chi ·Dan Vi~t ... Nam s6 I nam I948, dtro-i nhan-de UNtr6"c Van-Lang».t ong. Henri ·Maspero, mQt . bQc-gia -·ngU"oi Phap, n!u l!n mf?-t nghi-van: phai goi la Lac- V trcyng m.&i dung.

H .. Maspero viet: «Chit Hung .. Vuong ma ngu(yi Vi~~Nam truyen-tvng Ja sai, phai be, d:i. ·Khong bao giG c6 Hung .. V tro-ng rna chi c6 LacV tro-ng thoi». Tit d6 c~c sir"gia va hQc~gia Vi~t~Nam chia lam hal phai ·tranh-lu~n ~oi DOi. MQt ben 1a cac cng Le .. Du-, Vii-ngQc~Phan chu. trirong duy ... tri chir Hung- V trcrng, MQt ben la cac ong Ngu-y~n-van - To E>ao-duy _Anh btnh-v1fc chit Lac- V u ong ...

Nghi cung dang buon cho nganh su--hQc Viet-Nam, Chung ta

, .

thuo-ng t\f nh~n co 4.000 nam van-bien, v&i bac nhieu the.h~ hoc-

. gia va sU-pgiaj ihe rna phai nho c6 mQt nha khao -CtTU ngoai-qufic chl . dln cho, chung t.a m&i n·h~n thay rang ·'th~t ra chung ta chira biet chac chan ten To 12 gi m~c diu trong bO'D mQt ngan nam chung t3 tirng Kay m9 TC>1 dvng bia ghi 'cong-dt'rc Tl>, l~p den, th~ To, khac bai-v! To va dQc van tl To.

flang buon han n'fra III den ~n nay, gan nrra the-ky sau ngay an hanh ba~ khlo-cUu CU~ Henri ·Maspero; cugc tranh41~n 3'1 yin chua ket .. thuc~ aen nay· tuy phan dong cae sach giao-khoa dllng chit Hting- V U'O'Dg IlhU'Dg mQt vai tic-gia vln cho rlng n~·n dung chii' LiC- V trO'Dg,

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khi~n cho ngU'iri hQC s4" ng&-ngaog nhir dang tn.rO-C nga, ~a, kho~g b'''t phai 4i ..tang nac. Cho nbl nhii'ng ngtrCri quan-tam t~l nen SU'-

ie _",Am t&i van-de d~y. sir trong cac trU'ang trung-

hoc Vi~t-Nam1 quan W h" ~ ." +

... b'* · h c tat cam thay co bon-ph~n cap-bach p ai glat--

hoc cung n U' ~~1'" Q , h L V U'ong hau q~yet du-t-khoat \ cu~c tranh-lu~n Hung-VU'O'ng ay ~c- .

minh .. dinh ten cac vi vua da.n titn etta dan-t~c •

V 2 B'· vi tbtr--

Tai sao co nghi-van Hung-VU'O'og bay Lac- U'O'ng '." 0'1 • chi

. h 1.1.. "" • cu" a Viat Nam va Trung-qu6c khong tb6ng ... nhat khi p-

t1C co - u:il1 ~ '7'

d~nh-hi~u cac v.ua do-i Hong-Bang .

N " vua diu tien cila ta, thee thir-tv-

Co-thtr Trung-quoc n6i to-i cac

thCri-gian~ gem c6 !

he k" thu- IV; hien nay

Go ct. a'" u ns oaf- vue ky: s~~n trong t - Y ~ "A

I -- laO~ iJ f:i. ~ - Gi h'" Oal

#00 h d ere cuon Thuy;-kinh-cbti dan If,L ao-c au ng · ..

khong con, n trng tr. h ,.. h ... thi

k .. h'·· XU'3 dat Giao-Chi chu a chia than quan uyt;n 1

v\tC Y c ep. « .A' -"- "" " oi 13 Lac-dien ...

" th U'~c thuy .... trieu len xuong ma cay cay g. ·

ruong eo n v . G· ~ Lac

. kh.... ,., '" 13 Lac-dan Tr] dan c6 Lac- V iro-ng. lUP ..-

Khai- an ruong av . . , 0 b'"

V uO'ng 12 L~c'_hau, Lac ttr&ng.lI Chii' ~c vie~ lIIQt ~ben cac, In. t en

~ ON hOo Hung viet mot ben htrUt .mot ben chuy ~.

chuy ~, ~at glong cU". ~

. . N -Viet chi: do Tham-hoai- Vi~n SO~n trong dzyi H~u-NgfJ.:·

2- am · A ~ ~n Thai-binb boan~vu

(h--- k ~ th{r V) - hi~ nay khong con va dugc cuo .

t ~ e ~ y l' N V · ... t ch i chep : «E>at Giao-Chi xu-a rat 13 hung-dung,

ky dan at, am- 1~ .& ... ~ r Hung

• 1..... A • la' Huna-dien dan goi ta Hung ... dan, quan gQl a ...

Vl tIle rU"Ing gQl D I •

hau, HUDg-ttrerng ; vua· gqi 130 Hung-Vlt"O'ng»"

... d'· B~ Nguy (the ky rhtr V),

3- Thuy-kinh chu : ella Lich-d~o .. Nguyenl crt. ac- ......"' ..

~ k ~ h " p~ L V u ong va vIet chtr Lac .

d~ 11 sach Giao-chau ngoar .. V1fC Y t c ep ii C}c- •

gHSng nhtr Glao-chau ngo@.i-v\fc kY.

... Nh S' d' ~ Tong - (the ky tb{r X),

_ Thai-hinh hoan-vii ky :: cua ~c- 1.t, 0"1 • .

:~n sach Nam-Vi~t-chi, cMp Ii Hu.ng.vuO'ng gion$ nhtr Nam-Vl~t-chi.

Co-si'r etta ta gem c6;

1- Vi~t ttien u.linh t~p: t1}c truyen do LyAf-Xuyen, d:o-i Tran, S 0\1 ft,o_

(the-ttY XIV). Sich nay chep 11 Hung-VU'O'ng.

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2-· Ae-Nam chfMhrg~: do Le ... T~c soan trong the ky tbti" XIV sau khi dau hang nIta Nguyen v.a thea ve Tau. Sach Day d~n Giao-chau ngo~-v\l"c· ky : QX~a dat Giao.Chl chtra chla thanh qu~ hlly~n thi rUQng theo nu-oc thuy-trieu len xu5ng rna cay cay gQi la Lac ... d.i'en.

. ,

Lam rUQng I.a L~c-dan; tr] dan la L~c-VtrO"ng; giup L\lc-VU"O"ng, C6

L~c·hau, Lac - ttr&ng.» Chii- L~c vi~t m¢-t ben cac, m{lt ben chuy ift gi6ng Db 11 Glao-chau ngoai- virc kY.

3- Vi~t-su-lU'9'c: SO~ trong the kY XIV. Sach n~y chip la Hung- Vu-ong. 4- Linh-Nam chich-quai: SO~ khoang cuoi dcYi Tran (the-kY XIV). Sach nay chep la Hiing-VuO'ng.

5 - :E)~- Viet su-ky toan-thu , do Ng6-si-Lien SO:J.D dM Le- Thanh- T &ng (the ky XV). Sach nay chep 1a Hung- V U'O'llg, L;tc-M.u, L;tc-tU'&ng va din-eU- !ren Vi~t-di~n u-linh ~p va Linh-nam chich-quai. Ngo-

si-Lien phe-phan: d.:J.c-tu&ng h~u ngoa vi Hung tU'&ng" nghia Ia: 4c-tu-.6ng nhtrng ngU'o-i sau Jam thanh Hung.tU'Ong. V~y chep Hunghau, Hung-tuo-ng 1a sai, ph:H chip L"c-tU'o-ng m&i dung.

Tom lai, trong 4 cu6n sach Tauc6 2 cu6n chep Ia Hung-VU'o-ng, :a cu6n chep II Lac- Vtrong, Va· trong 5 cuon sach ta, c6 4 cuon chep 103. Hung ... V trong (I)" m9t cuan chep 103 L~c- V trong,

V?y chfio nao dung?

L~p-lu~n, eua nhfrng ngtr&i thee thuyft L~c-Vtrctng co the, torntat trong 4 lu@n"clr :

- 121 -

loai chfio

b) Ngoai hal cueln Thai-binh hoan-vfi ky va ThuY-ki~h-ch~ cOD mBt cu6"n sach cc; thir b~ iii Quang.chiu try.. Sach nay viet chtr Lac

m¢t be~ rna, m~t b!n- cac ~~ khong the lin v&i chfr H;ung dUQ"c.

c) Vua cha 12 Lac .. Long-Quan tbl de con phai la Lac-Vtro ng mai dung ~ Noi giong 13 Lac- Vi~tt rtlQng 13 L~c-di~n, dan 13 Lac-dan, quan 13 Ltlc-hau, tU"~ng ·12 L~c-ttr6ng thi vua phai la L~c-VU"O'ng m&i dung ..

d) Chfr Lac th~~. thuQc loal _ch tr ttrQ'llg-hinh.. Ch fr H ling th uQc chii' hQi .. Y. E>M thU'~ng-co chi .co chii' tU"gng ... hinh cho chtra c6

hgi-y ~ V~y ph3.i &Qi la L?c- V trong mo'i dung.

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a) Chii' L~c.VU'dng chep !tong Giao-ch:iu ngo~i-v1!c-ky c6 tnro-c -ch& Hung-V'tCrog chep trong Nam-Vi~t,chi gan m{l,t tht; kYo Chii' Lac nay viet mQt ben cac, m¢t ben chuy ifi. rat gi5ng chit Hung viet mQ-t ben hitu, m¢t ben chuy iii. Neu mQt n~t phal mer, hay rich,

hay bi dan nharn 111 co the dQC Jain chfr no ra ch& kia, Vi v ~y ngu&i

.sau lam Lac- V trong thanh Hung- V ITcyng. Ch..ru g c6- La Ngo.si- Lien . bao : «L~C-tU'&ng. hiu ngoa vi Hung~tU"&ngD.

,

i .

Lip-Iu~n nay bi nhifng ngtreri theo thuyet Hung-Vu-ong da phi b~ng 6 lu~n eli' ;

a) Viec DU"(yC nao ngtro-i ntrac ~y ghi chip mo'i ·th~t dung. Tat ca sir sach eua ta d!u chep 13. Hang-Vtrong, ugoai trit' LS ... Tac. Ml Le- Tile chep 1a Lac. V iro-ng ciing kb5ng c6 gi l~ vi khi b T rung-q uo c Le- Tac bat buoc phii difDg tren quan .. diem rna Trung-qufic, phai ca n eli" vao tai .... li~~ Trung-qufic, chit khong c6 tid-lieu Vi~t-Nam de tractru, Chrr-ng CO' 13 U ... Tac chi din l~i Glao-chau ngoai-virc ky va con gQi Trtrng; V U'LYng Ii pban-lo~n_

, b) Theo Khang-Hi t\l"-dfen dinh-chinh, c6 tat ci 3 chfr Lac ..

Nhirng chit Lac thu~c b¢ chuy ;ft viet ID¢t ben cac, IDQt ben ch uy, cO th~ Him vCr! chfr Hung, l~i khBng phai la ch& Lac thtrerng dung d~ chi nci giong Viet~ _ Chit Lac nay la ten song Lac-thuy * 1j<.. 6- tinh Thi!;m - tay ~ Con chii' Lac thuiYng· dung d! chi noi giong Vi~t thi khong th~ lam'v&i chii' Hung d.ltQ'c~ MQt la chii' Lac thuQc b~ n13 .~ viet ffiqt ben rna, m{)t ben cac rna Tir-ma ... Thien da: chep troog Sir.kY. Hai 13 ch~ :L?c thuQc be;, sai ~~, viet mi)t ben :s~i, mQt ben cac, nhir co-stJt cua ta .v~n dung ..

c) Sach Quang-c:hau ky chep : ~f)at Glao-Chl c6 rUQng L~c-dient tr6ng hne,. ntr6'c thuy-trieu len xuong rna cay cay .. NgtrCri dtrgc huang ru¢ng ay gQi 13 L';lc-hau, cae huy~n tbi xu-ng hi L~c ... ttt'&ng1) (I)~ V~y

(1) 51} cii cua te khi chep H ilng, Y Iran!! phi" .. hi"u viet chfr Hung .. i1ft m(lt bell f.fru ;t;.r m(Jt ben -c~uy 1t. Nay thea cae tV'-di~n cua· TilJ n~lT Tl'r. nguy8n ... TU-.ha1.. Khol!og"

+H oeu .. let "f,fr Hung i.ft melt ben 'l ulil'lg ~ mOt b~n <huy 1! .

( 1) Ng u'fen~\I!in: Gi80~ch i hii u Ltc. die n.. ngltong t~uy ... tr'. u thuVng Ttu~. N han th lie ky dien d.nh \Ii L~c.h8UI' chlt huvin ttl xtlng \Ii L"c .. t""ang:

!

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Quang-chiu kY. ciing nhe SIir ... kY va Han-thir, tuy dUng chit Lac nhtrng chi. nci ve. daD L~c/. rUOng. Lac ho~c quan Lac ch& khong ban t6i vua Lac,

d) Bao fang dOi thtr\Yng.co chua c6 chfr hQi-y ma chi c6 chir ttr<;yng-hinh, dieu d6 dung nhtrng chi dung v6i Han-tQc. BOi vi thai-

. .

<4.i Hung-VtrO'ng ch3m-dti1: trtr(rc khi chung ta du-nhsp chit Han va

trong thCri-d~ d6 chung ta khong c6 ca chfr .hQi-y l~n chfr tlr~ng-

._-oj- .

hinh. Th3t ra chii' viet d~ v~y· l.~i con tieng noi. a bat cir nu-QoC

DaD treD the ... gi&i, ngon-ngfr ciing c6 trtr&c van ... tv rat lau. Tit bao nhieu dlYi trll"Crc khi c6 chit viet, d~n ta da hru-truyen cho nhau hai tieng Hung - V trong, D6 13. m¢t nguoD str-li~u dang tin c~y.

e) Ngtrai Tau gQi vua L~c.Vi~t la Lac-Vtro ng cling nhir goi vua Han 13 Han- V u ong, vua SO- 13 S&- V tro'ng, vua An- Nam la AnNam quoc-vtrO"ng. Ben "canh ten Lac, V \fang do nglt"Cri Tau gan cho, cac vua diri. HOng .... Bang vin co the lay danh-hieu rieng d~ xirng v6i than-dan trong ntro-c, va cac vua sau '\tin co the d~t cho cac vua trU'cYC nhfrng th~y-hi~u rieng. Danh-hieu d6, th9-y-hi~u d6 1a Hung- VUCYDg. ;Ciing nhtr Dlnh-bo-Linh, ngtrb-i Tau goi La Giao-Chl qu~n-vtrQ>ngl ta gQi 13 Dinh Tien-Hoang; NgUytn-Anh, ng1.fCri Tau goi la An-Nam ·quoc-vu-crng ta gQi til Gia-Long bay The~ To Cao .. hoang-de~

i

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.;

g) Su--gia ella ta deu hi nhfrng ngtrbi tb5ng-th~o chir Han, llhfrng bic dai-khca, nen khcug the c6 truy~n chir tac aQc ra chfr tQ, chir

. . .

Lac lam thanh chfr Hung .. Ng5-si-Lien bao : «Lac-nrong h~u ngca vi

Hung-ttronge, nhirng khong he bac: ~L~c-VtrO'ng hiu ngoa vi Hung. V trD"og». Chinh phan ngo~i~ky trong £)~~vi~t sir ... kY toan-the cUa Ngo-

si-Lien ciing v~n chip 13 Hang-Vtrong.

+

SUY·llg~m nl9t each ·vo-ttr ve nhfrng l~p .. lu~n doi-l;p- cUa.hai thuyet,

chung ta phii thanb-thtrc nhin. fang thuyet Hung, V trong hqp ly

. .

han, vfrng chac hem. Cbo neD chung ta chi bo danh hi~u Hung- V trrrng

-. .

kbi oao c6 nhfrng bang-c& xac-thirc, kheng th~. dl phi dU'gc, chirng

to. rang chung ta a[ lam suot trong baa nhieu the-kY.

1m:

Thay phan ket-lu~ cho c1u truy4n d.3. qua dail xin mtrgn

N. C" Th"" Quynh giing SU" trt.rang flai-hoc Van .. khoa

van ... te cua C\1 U' am. J,....,.. • - •

Saigon, d!: bay . to long tU'Crng nha chung ... eua ch ling ta khi sua soan

gi6 T~ tai mien Nam ~tr6-c Viet:

NLroC u6ng giU'o dong·"ph6ng-IQng, van ghi '6ng tLi cho phct-

. nguyen,

"" o: uom ho. t thcnh coy co-thv ~ Qua on tr~n ngQn ruom rc.

T rI nho dinh-ninh, .

Tin h rieng kh6j-m¢.

Khom duy qu6c~to ! 9rnh phgn thlen-thv,

Gay nan quon-chu,

DVng n110C Vo~-Lang,

...

a mien Phu~ThQJ

Bern ie .. nghia diu dot dan den" Ban on-trQch '-'6 VB con do

Van l.cc-heu, vo. LQc-tLTong, th(r tv tr_ieu-bon ..

Trci Quan ... lonp, g61 M¥-nU'on.9, thea dong qudn-phl)~ o QY dan ve thuY-CJua i, tranh non gloo-Iong, Kho.-hocng d6t 19c-ctiE~n, rna mcng nong-ph6.

NgVa sat d6nh tan .An-tQc, tr6 to·j co Phu ... ebng thien-vtJong,

Rua than cong hten Blfong-Nghieu, ket hieu tci Blnh ... dlJong

thu ... pnu.

Hong-Bang dong quy-t9.C .. muoi tam dai n6i 9'0' quan-quyen~ Phonq-cheu noi c6-do, mvai 10m b9 phon chic !onh-fho.

- ... ...

Non nvoc ngoy rev,

Cong on thuo no.

Nh6n ngay tho nh hoc, giai chiit do n-thcnh,

Kinh':'dong Ie tnuang, dou tuen XUQ n-m¢. ~

Le ky-niem .co huonq, tram, hoc, qUQI hat _ do tOn-sung,

Kh( anh-iinh· 0 ho, hi"en, nu i~ song, ru lon·g kho-h9~

T om con met trang vai cha ng kip. s6ng sOng Tha.~ dU'oi ngQn gso due,

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Trgnh ben long tLTang nho nco quen.t may.nui f-iung truce san

Cui xin :

On thcnh uOng .. ham, Bf~n tran te-do,

• A . 1..

rnreu co.

TAl LI~U THAM KHAC> V~ HUNG-VlfO'NG

Con ch~u hen _.ha i lOrn trj~ui n6i do.; tien-r5ng, NlTOC nh6 ngoQi. bon ngon ncm, th6m on vo-Ie

.. ..

Van billn nho ngoyqu6c teE tick vi may Ton-lrnh (I) ngong trci,

Trvoc den ro cu6n Slr xo nh, k@ chi truy~n TJch-6-6m (2) quen to ..

Thvqng hvongr

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Han .. van

An ... Nam thong-sir ella Nham-Ton Thanh-Doan, ban Han-van cua Htra.van- Tieu.

Dtr-dta-cht cua Ngl:1ytn .. TraL

£)~i- Vi~t srr-ky toan .. thtr eua Ngo-si-Lien. Hung-Vwong s\!, .. tich ngQc ... pha co-truy~n .. Kham-df_nh Vi~t .. srr thong-giam ctro'ng-muc,

, J

Linh-Nam chich-quai eUa Tran-the-Phap.

Vi~t-di~n u-linh t?P etta Ly .. te-Xuyen .

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Qu6c:.-ngll"

Aa-Nam chi-ltro-e eua Le-Tac, ban dich cua Vi~n ~i-hQC Hue HQi d~n Hung eua Dinh ... gia-Thuyet,

Nam-phong tap chi so 197 (1934).

Nguon goe dan-tQc Vi~t-Nam eua Elao~duy-Anh. T~p-san Kbai-i:r.i tien-duc so '5 va 6 (1942). T~-tang co.dia eua Tran .. nguyen-Soan.

Tri ... :tan tap-chi so 9 (194I).

Viet~slr hl'qc, san djch ella T ran-quoc~ V trgng ..

. .

Ph6p ... v6n

Bulletin de If Ecole francaise d'Extrerne-Orient so 18 (1918) Essai d"histoire d'Annam ella Ch. Patris ..

(1) ThO' cua Han- DUI ~ o-i f)L1U ne : "VAn Loa" n h T':!: J" h h

1 JII .g U .en .. rn gia .a t9i" nghia 18: Mtt",

\flllt ng.ang olii Tan ... lrnh" kh3ng hiet nht. ta b diu.. E

(~~ !'ci 7 Xu.An .. Th'!; neh .. flam, ngtro-i nllac Tan.... sing sUo nhi Chu, Vue Chu vo-i v~o hor v~ Stf nl16'c T an, nch~ Ditm khang ira Uri dtlQ"c. Ngllo-i Chu cU'c' It hrnl. j.l. ngLto-r Quan t(j.. I iC v.m •

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«£Ji tim duu vet Himg« v irong» tIling Jan dCiu tren tWAckf Btich-khoa so I78 va I79, ndm 1964. Niim san cung treti Bach-khoa, ang NguyEn ....

Phtrong b€nh V{l'C thDyet Lqc- Vaung trong bai khao .. cuu vl Lich-str Lac- Vj~t, chuong ~ Tir Ru.ng- VuO"ng ra L~- V irong» (so I97)t va 6ng Triin- Vien phi .. bac lq.p-.lurjn eua sng Ngr.Jyin .. Phutmg trong bai • Trtr lai v~n-de Hung. VtrO'ng hay LQc- VlrO'ng~ (55 205 va 206).

fJb d(ic. git! c6 them tai-lie~ ki~cU-UI chung loi xin phiP Tea-soan:

Bach-kho a triclt in ~ .day hai bai ella ong Nguyln-Phl1'O'ng va Triin- Vien ..

I

~ ~

LJCH-SU' LAC-V!ET

. ..

TV HUNG-VUONG RA l~C .. VUONG

.. ~. Ngbien-ceu lith. sir Vi~t-N~m khong 31 rna khcng khoi thac Dlac ve trieu-d~i Hung- Virong, va ttl hoi S410 chfr- 4C;" VU'cyng lii b] thay the. 511 thay the nay ,.c9 th~ la mQt· S1! sal Hhn vo-y nay Ia m¢t Str3 chua hiiu- y de cho danh .. tir mang mQt y nghia, va cau chuyen dugm ve oai hung? f)e ~dap l~i nhfrng cau hoi nhtr th~, can· phai giai gcY dan dan.

Mf}t thoy d~i hiiu-y.

-

. T ren kia co Ian chung toi da: d~c-bi~t ltru y den sV'-kj~n dan

Lac ... Vi~t kh8n.g he· t\f chep lay ljch-s& cua ho, rna viec d6 l~i do nguiri Trung-qudc lam, nen cac danh-tir rie1l! tra thanh v6-nghia _ trong H an-lJgfr.. Nbfrcg danh-nr rieng d6 chi 13 nhfrng danh-tir phien ami vi the he chii' Han nao c6 cilng am deu c6 th~ ~em dung. Nguo i

-.

ta se. khong la gi thay· Lac, m¢i: tieng phren- ami iJa dugc chep b~ng

nhi eu ch fr dong-am khac nhau .. .o, ..

~ 6 ~ Nhtrng kh6ng phal ai ciing hieu rang chit Lac ch i 13 rnot tieng phien-am, neB c6 ke kh!: doc den ·cae chir L~c-dien, Lac

- 130-

dan, 4c-VU'crng v .. v : se cho 13 vo-nghta, kh6 bleut ho tim each de hieu, de thoat ch6 bt, Ma kh6ng phii Ii kh6ng c6 lei thoat doi vCri: hge Ve each viet chi%' Lac cia Su--ky (hay cua T'oan-thrr], lei thoat tb~t kh6 thay, nhtrng v6'i ch ir Lac cua Quang-chau-kY lam gl lna khong tim dU'gc mot each giai .. thich hop lY. Khong pha.i chit Lac • Tat giang chfr Hung' <16 sao? Ma chfr Hung d~t len trtr&c cac ti~ng dan, v iro'ng , chlng han, tbi y nghia t6t dep viet dtrerng nao, keu biet bao! Ly-luaa vira phac chac ch3n da la ly .... lu~n eua Tham ... hoai- Vitn, tac .. gia eua Nam .. Vi~t-chi (the ky V) vi ong da thay chfr Hung vao ch6, chfr Lac khi l~p' l~i hau nhir nguyen-van doan van cua Giao-chau ngoai-vtrc k,Y noi ve dan Lac- Vi~t. Nhu ng d! d~D chfr Hung vao. can phai c6 nheng 1",1 dU"a dtrang,. nt ~l tac ghl tao ra mc}t doan van' dai ho-n, Th~m-hoJi- Vitn noi ~ «Bat Giao .. Chi rat

. .

mau ma, ngtrCti ta di dan den a, chinh ho la ke dau tH:n khai-khan

dat nay. Dat .den va x<=>iJl ho-i dat xong len mui nung, Vi v~Y ngtro i ta gQi rUQog d6 la Hung-dienJ din _ d6 la Hung-dan. Co quan U.ferng gQi l~ Hung. VU'O'ng j vU'(Yng c6 ke giup g9i la Hung-h~u .. Bar- thi chia

cho cac Hung-nro'ng>

Co ·gang roa- Tham-hoai-Vi!n de gcy td khan ra khoi ng5 bi d6, xem ra may man, nhtrng l;.ti kh8ng dtrQ'c mol ngttai ch~p-nh~n hoan roan. VI n6 trii veri can-tt.'r lich ... str mQt each qua ro r~~ Nhuag cfmg co ke ch~ng nhfrng 13. hoan-nghenh ma con di tuqt sang thai-ct!c ben kia, nci r~ng chinh chfr Hung 130 can~ban roi sau rnoi hi cac str-gia viet lam ra chfr Lac, N6i nhtr the thiet-ttr&ng kh6ng gt sal Iac cho bang.

_,

Ctr uhin vao Stl' sacn, nguCri ta thay fang tieng LC}c- Vi~t da duQ'c n6i den tfr lau tnroc, tit the-kY I tt:"trac K.N. (vci S&..-kY) roi nhtrng tieng L~c- V:t.rO"ag, L~c ... hau, L,c-t1l'6-ng cling da xuat-hien til" the ky III, IV; dang hie nhitng ti~ng 'Hung- VU"ang, Hung ... hlu! Hu.ng-ttrO-ng, den the J;ry V-' mai· ra diyi ma l~i chi 13 mqt caaQ giai-thich (khong

dung ehb) chci mQt doan van c6 trU'Crc.

. .

Yinh-dv eua mgt sci IQc~

Trong nhCrng ke (rat it) <Ii cbap~nb~n hoan toan dv~n van cua.

Tham-hoai-Vi~n c6 tac-gia eua Tbai-binb boan-vii-ky, ln9t ~p sach

- 131 -

xuat ... hi~n vic the-ky tbu- 10 ~ T~p do d:t hai Ian l~p l~i l(ri ella NamVi~t-~hi (q. I20; ga, loa).

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Sir-gia Viet-Nam khong trich din mQt each me quaog doi v&i dean van;· c-il3 Tham-boai- Vi~n. U; .. van .. Htru khong n6i gl den van-de Lac- Vi~t nfn kh~ng c6 thai dQ nao. Le- Tac thi thee t~p truyen Giaoch .... au ngoai-virc kY, chi n6i den L3C- V trong, ' Lac- tttbDg (trang 39). £)en Ly-te-Xtiy~n, trong Vi~t-dien u-linh ~p (132g-) m&i thay dung:

·den truyen Hung-VuO'ng, nhtrng' di betl canh danh-tir do, ngU'Cri ta Iai tlUy ngay nroc hi~u Lac-hau. Tac-gia Vi~t,.str-ltr<?'c (chep 16i I377) chl noi den Hung-Vu-o-ng, khoIlg d9ng ... c~p den Lac-Vtro-ng hay L?:-~au, rna I;~i giai nghia tieng do khong giong nhtr Tham ... hoaiVit~n da: lam. Bay Uri Vi~t-str"'lU'gc: «Gia-ninh bQ htru di-nhan, yen nang di huyen-thujt phuc chtr b9-1~c, tl1 xtrng Hung-Vuong, do tr Van-Lang, hi~u Van-Lang quae" di thuan-th1}c chat t1}C, ket thang vi chinh, truy~n th~p hat the, giai xtrng Hung-Vtrong> "{q. 'I, ter rb) (B9 Gia-ninh c6 ngU'bi khac thtfCrngf c6 tai dung huye~-thu~t. b~t· cac b¢-l'i\c phai khac-ph\1c, t\f xu-ng la Hung~Vtr011gJ' dong da Cr· Van-Lang, goi nU'Crc Ia Van-Lang, phong-tuc chat phac, dung J(51 ket day de cai-trj, truyen dirge IS ~(yi, deu gol la Hung-vU'o'ngL (y day, vua Van ... Lang sO- di gQi 1a Hung - VU'O'ng, kh6ng pbad vi cai-tr] dan Hung, rna. chinh 1a b&i vua c6 phong-do mQt can ngU'ai hung, c6 tiJj dung huyen ... thu~t. C6 Ie Viet~sir-hrgc dern ra mot lei giai-thich khac vi sach d6 thea mot t~p.;.truyen khac v6'i etta Nam-Vitt chi,

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Nhfrng y~u.-t6 etta str di-biet tha""'y -'*trn-c;!'" h:::' r h d6 6·

...... _ y u y 'V C 0 sac n 1

Giao-Chi c6 15 b9.1 Or ch5 Hung-Vrro-ng i~p rnQt mro'c Van-Lang .. rna nhat la b ch d Hung, V trong truyen, ke 1 BaaL Cac yeu- t6 d6 1a nhfrng sang .. t~o do m¢t gt3C rna vi .. dai ket l~i boi t(jti tac .. gia 4a QQc nhieu sach; sir~ky" c6; tieu~ thuyet co .. · Nhtrng nen muon biet - chuy?n nao .. da anh-hLrCrng nbieu hO'n ca tren dau 6c c~a tac- gia Vi~t-str-ltrQ'c n~U'o:~ ta khong phai 13. khong ~6 hU'Crn g. de tim. C.aj hU'o-ug phai nhin. vaG da d~9'c chi ro trong cau ke thea do~n vtrd. trich Cau d6 n6i:« Viet Cau- Ti~n thtl'<rng khien Stf lai dV, Hung .. VuO'ng C1! cbi})~ C1u ·Ti~n l~a m{lt· nhan v~t Itch-su, dtrQ'c n6i den & Sir-ky cua Tu--ma- Thien c,. chtrO'ng 41 va, truCrc chuy~n Cau- Titn_, dQ~-gia da g~p dU9"c chuy~Q.

132 -

,

131

nU'oc S~.,·..lch1.rcrng ~O) va ntro-c Sa c6 Hung .. VttO'ng~· £)Qc vao Sir-ky va roi d(t= V30 Vi~t-sir-ltr~c, ai cling co the thay thrf. Hung ~ .. a sach trU"cYc _khong giong -, chfr Hung .it.b sach sau .. Dau sao, hai ben cfing 1a Hung va [leU St1 dung chfi" dong .. am khac nhau de ghi li}i mot danhti'r rieng J.a ~h~ng pnai la m¢t Slf it thay (xem chfr Lac) no-i cac hoc gia· nghiem-nghj, thl chung' ta se kh6ng la gi khi thay, hi~n-ttrO'Dg d6 (y m¢t tac-gia day 6c roo he. nhir tac gia Vi~t-slr~ltr9'C. Va Hung- Vtro'ng rurrrc Sir co 18 deri!

. chet~ Coil la HUD$ .. Chl (877) ke-vi .. Hung-Chi bi ngU'Cri· em giet chet rna len thay, 8Qi HI Hilng-Dien t876 ... S48) ..

Hung-Dien sinh Hung-Dung (847~838) ..

Nam thil sau cua Hung.Dfing, ngU'Crj nu-CYc Chu lam loan diinh duoi L~-VU'O'ng chay fa dat ·rr~. Hung-Dung dtroc 10 nam {hi mat, d~t em len 1a Hung-Nghiern (837-828)., Hung-Nghiern oU'<'C 10 nam thi mat, co bon con t~ai: con dau U.. Ba-Siro'ng, con thu hal 13 Trong- Tuy et, con t~U' ba 13 Thuc-Kham, con sau hel Ii Quy- Tuan. Khi Hung-Nghiern mat, d6 l~ Hung-Siro-ng (827-823" Narn dau cua

. :Hung-Su-O'ng, Tuyen- V iro-ng nh a Chu ct1ng m&i len ngoi \827-78"2). .Hung- Stro-ng den nam thtr sau thi mat, ba em ong tranh nhau dia V!. Trcng; Tuyet chet, Thuc-Kham b6 di ti. nan (y d3:t Bfic, em ut 1 i Quy-Tuan len goi l!l Hung-Tujin (821~8oo) Nam Hung- Tuaa thir 16, "Trjnh Hcan-Cong ~806 77 I) dU"Q'C phong Ct oat Trinh. Nam thir ~2} Hung ... Tuan cher, eon lA Hung.Ngac (199-791) thay, Diro-c chin nam , Hung-Ngac m.a~, . con 13. Hung-Nghi len tllet 06 la Nhuoc .... Ngao (790- 764). Nntrgc-Ng.::lo trj-vi du-gc 20 narn . chi Ucvtro-ng (78I-77I). nha Cnu bi bQD Khuyen Nhung giet. Nha Cbu do'i ·do. ve £)8ngJ va Ttro-ng .. Ccng nha Tan (777~765) bar 01U· diro-c ke vao s6 chir-hau ...

Hung-Dich sinh Hung-Ngh~ Hung-Ngh~ sinh Hung-Ban Hung-Ban sinh Hung- Thang

Hung .. Thang lay em ia Hung .. Drro ng noi vi Hung Dup-ng sinh H1Jng .. Cir

1078 - 1°53 .. 1052 • 100.2.

IOOI - 947.

946 .. 888~ 887 - 878 ..

,.

Bo;n Sir-ky noi ve Hung .. VU"O'ng nhu sau :

« ••• Hung-Dich song dtro-i cieri Chu Thanh-vircngH t t 5-1079). Bay gia vua tien Clf. con cai· ella quan van va co congo veri nha Chu, nen phong cho Hung-Dich lam chii vung man-di dat S&. Khi phong, vua dung Hro-c tUt ttr&c nam, lay ten dat rna phong .. Con Hoa-thl (hQ Hoa, he cai tr] Trung-quoc) thi ?::t Dan-duong. TU'tYC tit dat s& ta Hung Dich (11 22-1079) cung vo-i ttt&c (,eng mro:c L6 130 Ba-Carn (11 15-·) 06 Z), Khang ... thuc .. Tir nlu-iYc V~ Ii Mau (1115.-1 079L Tan la Nbiep (] 102), ·Thai .. Cong-Tir nu-&c Te 13 Xa-Cap-Hau (1122-1079) aeu lam quan dU'ai deri Thanh-vtrong.

Hung-Cit sinh ba con trai, Bay gjO' Di~vU"O'ng (894-879) nna Cb u suy-vi, troag sO chtr-hau co ke khong trieu...-cOng l~i con dem quan aanh nhau. Hi1ng-Cir gift dU'9"c vung Giang-Han ra:t yen on, ben cat quan danh Dung.. Khi den dat Ngac; Hung-CU.' n6i: « Ta 1a ngU'Cri mau-di khong dang xwng hi~u-th\lY nhir (y Tru1g-quoc» .. Ong ben l~p con cl 13. Khang Hun Cau~E>an-VtrO"ngt con thir l~ Hong lam Ng~c-Vtrangt con ut 1A Ch3:p ... Ti lam Vj~t-ChU'(Yng-VtrO"ng. Cae dat d6 deu & d9C song. [huge dat So-man ... Ben thai L~- V iro'ng nha Chu (878 .. 84'2), vua bao ngiroc .. Hung-Cit sq- vua danh So., ben bo ke ke .. vi va

. .

d~t H,ung.M~u .. Knang~ Nmmg M~u~Khang chet so-rn va Hung .... Cir cling

Narn 27, Nhiroc ... Ngao mat, con 1a Hung-Khan len, Ii Tieu-Ngao (703-758). f) ~gc sau nam. T'ieu-Ngao matt con 13. Hung- Tuan len, d6 la. Phan._M~o (757-741). Pban-M~o nam thir I31 _ nha Tan bit dau Jam loan' Liy viec ~tic._6c lam Iy do. Phan .... Mao ,dtrQ'C 17 narn thi

nl~tl· em 12 Hung-Thong giet con ella Phan ... M~o roi len thay, d6 13 V5- Vu-o-ng mro-c Sa (740-690). »

f)o~n sit nay cho cho biet ~ t 56- beD canh Viet
rang niroc ruroc

I ,. CaU1"- Titn (496-465) co
-cua IS d6i 'vua 1
I .. Hung .. Dich I122 7· HUl1g-M~u~Khang 877
2 .. Hung-Nghe 1078 8. Hung-Chi 877
..., Hung-Ban r052 9~ Hung .. Dien 876
:>"
·4 .. Hung-Thang 1001 10. Hung-Dung 847
'5. Hung ... DU'O'ng 946 I I~ Himg-Nghiem 837
~ Hung-Cis
,-t., 887 H ung-Su"O'D g 827
.~ . I 2 .. 1 j

13. Hung-Tuan I4~ Hung-N g~c ~ 15· Hung-Nghi

8~I· . 797" 790

16. Hung-Khan 17~ Hung-Tuan 18.. Hung-Thong

- 135-

- 134-

Ngtreri ta co the tbac-mac t~ sao tac-gia .Vi~t.Str.ltr~C lai c6 the

. .

. lien-ket- .cbuy~n Hung- Vtro'ng, het tit nam 690 truoJc K .. N.. v&i

.. chuy?n Cau- TiSn mQt . ngU-&i chi ba t dau lam vua ntro-c Vi~t . nam 496

. trtroc K .. N._ ? Thiet-ttrerng thac-mac nay khong can neu ra, vi S11'

v~t quay-cubng IAn lQn giac me vi-dai cua tac-giaJ va nh lr v~y r ten tu~i~ di~-diem, tho i-glan c6 the lien-ket vc-i nhau . mQt each va·, rung tir-do ..

s;

qua mo-i hoa ra mOt chang rrai tre my-Ie .... - Au-CO' tr Sng thaYf long

"Cling xieu thee. Long.Quan ben rU"Qtc nang v~ nw Long rrang .... .Au Co- an a v&i L9C-Long Quan oU'Q"c mQc narn sinh ra met boc trtrng,

cho 1a die~ khong hay dew bo ra ngoai dong Dqi. I-IO'u bay ngay, -trong b9C nb ra 100 trirng, m6i tnr og Hl mot ngO"Cri C03. trai, nang

-dern ~e nuoi nang, khong phai cho an cho ~jU gi rna chuue co tu" nhien

.Io n ten, tr1 dung song toan, ai ciing uy ... phuc,

Nhtrng mot minh Narn-Viet-chi cling chua phai 13 nguon-goceua Hung- V U"O'"og trong Vi~t-sir 1 rna mgt rninh Vi~t-su-h.rQ"c cilng: chua phai. Tham .... bac ca hai . t~p-truyen d6· 1~ mQt each tharn ... thiet, lam dU"Q'c cho H ung- V tro-ng do Lac- V trctng rna ra ciing r.a Hung- V ttO"ng" do mroc Sa rna ra, db m&i 14\ cong vi~c cac hQc-gia Viet-Nam co gang: lam. Con ngiro'i da bat dau cong viec to tat d6 co Ie 13 tac-gia eua

,

Liuh-Narn chich-quai vao thiro-ng ban the-ky thir 15 .. 0'" day st)" viec se:

dlJ'gc chap noi mgt each t1! .. do va quai-d] I

Din diu rnot IOi1i nhfrng chuyen ({trau rna ran than)) 13. chuy~n he.

Hong-Bang tire 13 chuy~n trong d6 co n6i ve Hung- V trong. Thir doc. ·qua cau chuyen :

J Chill ba db'i Viem-ae ho Than-Nong, ten HI De-Minh, sinh: ra Be-Nghi; roi di Narn-tuan d~n Ngfi.Hnh g~p V u-rien. ofr, sinh long y~u men,.- cU'&i ve tim vg sinh ra Loc- T~C, dung-mao do"It chinh va rat thong-rninh .. f)e-Minb lay lam la, cho nei ngoi, nhe-ng L9c- T uc ,nhtrerng cho anh, De-Min:h lai l~p Be. Nghi lam vua cai- tri: phu-o ng Bac cho Lee- Tuc lam Klnh-Duo'ng- VuO"ng cai-tr] phU'O'ng:

Nam, ~~t ten nu o'c Ii Xich-QuL

0: Klnh-Diro-ngVwo-ng xuong thuy-phu c.lrQ-i con gaiC"vua ho DQng-. dinh 1~ Long.mr, ·sinh ra Sung-Lam, tu-c til Lac Lo ng-Quan. LacLong-'Quan thay cha tr] ·ntrO-c, con Kinh-Dtro-ng- VU'O'og khong biet. ~. -*~

'1..:1 u3U •••

tl_~ • + Au-CO'" cung v&i 50 ngtro'i con trai & tai Phong-chau (bay ~giC.Y la huy~n Bach.hac) t\f suy-ton ngU'61 hung .. trtrO-llg len lam VU3, ~Qi la Hung- V trO'og, lay ten ntrcrc la Van-Lang.... d~t cac em lam tU'"&ng v5, ttrCtng van, ur&ng van gol Ii Lac-hsu, ttro'ng vo ggi Ia. Lac tU"o-ng ..•

. « 'Tram ngtrai con trai [3 thuy~ to cua Bach ... Vi~t v~Y» .

Tr orig chuy~n nay, khong can phai cmi y lam, chung ta cfing nh~n -2dtrgc nhfrng yeu~to 4p-truyen ella Vi~t .... ?ir-h.rQ"c ve Hung-Vtro'ng va ·.t~p~truyen cua Giao ... chau ngoai-virc ... kY ve Lac-han, Lac.nrong.

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Tinh each tU'Crng-tU'Q'"ng eua cau chuyen th~t 1a ro r~t.. Ngoai ra "n6 con m lUg ca tinh each doi ... phong bai .. t\1c nu·a. N6i cho th~t, 've cac nhan .. 'J~t Kinh-Dtro'ng- V tro ng, Lac .... long. Quan, khong phai tac ~giii cua Llnn-Nam chich-quai aa tv bja d?t ra nhu ng aa lay a

(huy~n Li~u-Ngh! eua· Ly-trieu-Uy deri f)t,rO-ng. Chap 1l0i tat ca nh tt'ng th tr d6 lai & day, tac-gLi c6 It! chi nh~ m V30 cau ket-luc}n {:uoi cang, tli"c 13. giai-thich mQc each hai hlrerc t.ieng BAch- Vi~t.,

~(L~c-Long-Quan" ." thay Dang Au-Co- (ai-the etta Be-Lai.r cng:·nay la. CO~ eua De .... Nghi) (y m¢-t minh, dung-m~o tuy~t d~p, nen yea.

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Nhwng kh6ng phal nho t~p Linh-Narn chich-quai rna ' t~p-truyen .Hung-Viro-ng . cia: diro-c bat-hu-h6a trong trl 6c cgtrOi V]~t. Tic "pham da lam vi~c d6 chinh la b9 f}~i-Vi~t sir-ky toan-thtr eua Ngosf-Lien. Trong Toan-thu, cng khorlg c6 cong sang-tal: cau cnuyen, .nhirng sang-kifn ella ong Iai khong ai hi kip .. rna co 1e cilng" kh6ng .ai muon canh-tranh veri eng b ch6 d6.£)6 Ia lay chuyen quai-d] lam ·chuyen su. .. Qua the, hQ sir cua ong rna dau v&i J:hi~n Hong-Bang th! ... l~y gam cae db-i Kinh-DU'O"ng-VU'O"ng, 4c.Long .. Quan, Hung~Vtr(yng .. \r e Kinh ... DtfCfng- V trang Bog long ~trQng gi6"i -thi~u : I huy L9C- T \le .. Than-Nong thj chi h~u di».

- 136-

- 137-

.~ .. Cae chi-tiet khac ve Kinh .. Dirong .. Vtrang. va ci cuoc dM. ella Lac-Long-Qum da dtrQ"c Ng6-si-Lifn hroc l~i cua Linh .. Nam. chich-quai. Ri~ng ve chuyen Hung- V ucyng ong kb.8ng lay Cf chuy~n.. Hong-Bang ma thoi: rna con dung nhieu chuyen khac nfra, nhtr Phu-· Bong thien-virong, bach-tri, Tan~ Vien. Dng cho tat ca d6 Ii nhii'ng sir' lieu t6tJ' chi nghl-ngo' dBi chut ve So-n- TInh, Thuy- Tinh.

~ .. Bay lu~-di~u ella ong !

aTrong thai Treri Bat ffiai khai sinh; c'6 nbfrng giong do khl hoa rna .th~nh, nhtr hQ Ban-ell chang han. C6 gi6ng do khi hoa, roi m6i cogi6ng· do hinh boa, MUng giong nao rna khong bOi hai khi am dirong. Kinh Dich chep : Tro'i dat ap ·ii, v~n v~t hoa thanh, trai gai chung tlnh, van v~t hoa sinh. BCri d6 c6 chong, co vg rol m&i c6 cha, c6 con; c6 cha, c6 con roi m&i co vua, c6 teL. Nhtrng thanh-hien sinh. ra tat khac v6i ngU"o-i thtro'ng .. ' Vi the, do m&nh trcti nett mot

. ~ . ~

tn.rng en rna sinh ra nha ThU'Q"Ogf d~p vso dau chan ngtreri kh~ng-lo."

rna sinh ra nha ChU9· B6 d:eu HI. chep s1! thvc . ca. ..

Dong-dol ho Than-Nong ~a :De-Minh g~p dU'~c V1!·tien ... nii' rna. sinh .ra Kinh-Duong-Vucng, d~ J.a thuy ... tc eua Bach .. Vi~t .. Vua lay COIl: gai Be .... Lai rna sinh.due co diem tanh tram trai, vi the 111a c6 the gay·· du-ng cO'-d"o DU"&C Vi~t ta», (q.r, zab),

·biet rang ong 13 IDQt ngU'cYi hoc T¢ng va c3n ... tb~n, chi mc}t dieu Ia kb6ng biet pban-bi~t chuyen th~t ·va chuyen bia nen lung-tung. Cr ··ch fr L~c-[U'&ng· ch~ng han ong da: chu-thich : «h~u thac vi Hunguro ng » (ve sau lam ra Hang-nrong). Hoi sao ong phe-binh Hung

·tU'Crng la «thacl> IDa ve Hung- V U'O'ng cng l~i kh8ng n6i gi? £)6 I.a vi Hung- V ltO'cg v ira· co trong N am- Vi~t-chl, vita, c6 trong Vi~t ... s.&-lu'9'C, lai vira c6 trong su- mro'c So. .. Th~t v~y, ·Ngo-si .. LH~n aa can-en- vao sir ntroc Sb (trong Sir-ky cO-a T1f-M~-,Thi!n) d~ sua chua nhung sai lam

·eua Linh-Nam cl1ich-quii.· Sa~h nay, a ChUY~l1 f)ong-thien-v1rO'ngt n6i

~ .

rang ngU'O'i 1~ xuat-hi~n C:t lang Phu .... d~ng d!: daDh bai quan nha An

1a vao oCr! Hung ... V iro'ng th fr ba, Ng~-si-Lien thay kh6ng· hop v6'i ehuyen Hung- V t1O'~g ntf.<Yc S&,. vi b ntro'c So., dell dCri Hung-eir, tu-c 11 Hung-Viro'ng thir 6· m&i c6 loan nen trong Toan-th~ tngo@i-ky q.z, 3b) ong, eta chep : <Hung-Vtro'ng luc thet Vfi-ninh bOt Phu dtng htr9'ng hfru phti-gia ong sinh nhi v.v, ~ ~l) S\r su-a chua nay clang him chtrug ro r~t cbuy~n Hung-Vtro'ng val 18 ddri vua trong sir Vi~tNam la da b~t nguon til: sir Tau, & thien n6i ve nuoc So.

Eo-i Ngo-sl-Lien eta lith-sir hoa c~uy?n Hung- Vu-ong, nen til' ..a6 ngtro-i Vi~t~ Nam Cia k~ chuyen d6 nhtr la mQt chuyen th~t ....

Trick Bcich-khoa so 197 ngay 15 .. 3-I96s

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. V&i nhirng ly-lu~n nhtr the, Ngo-si-Lien kh6ng the kbong tin, ch~c vao chuyen Hu.og~Vtr(Yng, vi the B·ng aa nghiem.nghj cnep :

"Hung .... Vtro-ng 13 con Lac.Long-Quan dong do & Phong-chau., Khi Hung- V tro-ng len ng8i d~t quae hi~u la Van-Lang., chla ntrCrc· lam 15 b¢ Ia Giao-chi, Chau-nhai, Vil-ninh, Phuc-Iec, Vi~L-thU'(yng,. ·Ninh-hai, Dtrong-tuyen, Luc-hai, V5 ... d.inh, Hoai ... hoan, Ctru-chan, Binh.van, Tan-htrng, Ciru-du-c1 giao cho than f:_hu{}c, con bQ Vilnlang thl dung lam kinh-do. Vua l*p quan van la L~c~aut. quan vo lao Lac-nrong, con trai vua la Quan-lang, con gai 13 My'-nU"an"g, ngtrCri giup vi';c la Phu-chinh, CU' deri dOi cha truyen con noi.1 13. phu dao .. Cac d&i vua deu gel l.a Hung .. Vucrng» .. (q .. r, 32) •

..

Khi chip nhtr V~Yl khong phii ong chi lay lai ella Linh-

Nam chich-quai mao ong con stra chua. ho~c giai ... thich them, cho-

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Thien khao·clru ve qch-m L~c-Vi~ eua 6ng Nguyin-PhU"&ng

dang tren Bach ... khoa so 196 va cac 56 k! tiep d'a: gay ra phan. irng ciia cac ong Nguytn- Toai trong bar Ban ve Hang-Vtro-ng (I) va Bui hfru-Sung trong bai Di .. tich Lac ... Vi~c troog xi hoi Vi~[ ... Nam (2.)6 Th~t 1-3.. m~t hi~n-tU'Q"a~ dang mirng cho ~en . Y~.tl~.h9C,Vi~t~Nam hi~n-.d~i dang pbang· ... ~~ng nhu m:~~ ntr6'c ao tu~ N6 eheng to rang m~c dau ban-tinh. ngtrai Vi~t von ban-dung, .dt hoa vi quy», nhtrng vin thiet ... t1l3 vCri chan-It cho n@n khong den n6i d trDg-d1,Z"ng trtro'c canh vo tron bop meo chan ... lY, nhat" la nhfrng chan-ly lien-quan den qu6c~sir. en.. 'g trong tinh-th~n ay chung toi thtiy can phai tr& I~i v~n de Hung ... Vu·&og hay L~c-VU'O'ng~

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CUQC tranh-luan teri nay chea giai-quyet duo-c vaij-de. N6 chl cho -phep chung ta ket.lu~n r~ng Lac .. Vtro'ng v~n con 13 mQt gia-thuyet. khong non khong kern. Ay the .rna trong bai Web-sUo LC}c- Vi~t, doan III,

,·i(Tir Hung- V 1,ftYng ra L~c-V trang », 6ng· Nguy~n .. Phirong ~i trinh-bay "thuyet Lac-Vtro'ng nhtr m9't chan-Iy l!ch-slr; trinh-bay van-ae Hung'Vu-o-ng hay Lac-Vtrong nhir da: giai ... quyet dirt khoit hay .- dung -hO'n·_ nhir chu a bao giG dtr~c dua ra ban cli. Ong au-ng haD. ve phia thuyct Lac- VtrO'ng nhtrng kh6ng he da dQrig teri cae ly~le da-phi tua pbe d5i~1?p~ Trong tanh vtrc co-sir ciing nbtr trong cac Ianh-v¥,c .khac, St! khao-ctru khong rnai mai d{rng im mOt ehb ma tientrien khong ngirng, nhLi'ng thu-d~c cia ngU'lri. trU'~c neu kh6ng la diem tu-a cho ngtreri sau tien len thi cung lao chinh-de de ngu-o-i sau xay d\f.ng phan-de. Nhat 1~ khi g~p nhfrng ughi-vfin ljch-sir ~ y-kien cU3 nhfrng ngtrai dOi-ijP. C2Dg can dtrgc dem ra ki~m-soatt phe-phan de bien-minh cho y-kHEn cita chinh minh, Say swa trinh-bay ·gia-thuyet Lac- V U'@g cUa Maspero 23 nam sau bai «Hung- V ~O'ng 13. Hung- V tro'ng» rat n&i tieng eua Le-DU" IDa kh6ng he nhac to-i mQ-t lu~n ... chtrng nao cua bai nay, thai-o~ cila ong Nguyin-Phtl'O"ng c6 th~ n6i la thieu ·ngay thang tinh-than neu kh6ng phai 1a thieu khoa-hoc.

11

iRO L~1 VAN-E1E HUNG-VUONG

HAY lAC-VUONG

Ai cfing bjet rang van-de Day 13. mQt van-de eu rlch, do H~ Maspero neu ra tir nam 1918 vc'i bai «Kbao ecru ve Nam-sir b dang[tong ky-yeu ella tr1)'o-ng Vi~n .. Bong bsc ... co (B.E.F.E.O_) s(} XVIIL Ong cho ~ang khcng c6 Hung .. V U'ang; ch] c6 Ll-c- VU'·O'ng, phai gel la. Lac-Vtro-ag moi dung. 1f .. kien &6 chi ·13. m{)t gia~thuyer va trong khoang gan m¢t mra the-ky ttrng dt.TQ'c hoan-nghenh nOng .. h~u·· cung nhutung bj da- kich kich-li~t .. Troog so nhtrng tac-ghi di ban \'e van-deHung-Vu<Yt!g hay L~<:-Vtro"Dg, c6 th~ ke ong fJao-duy-Anh (3L bng Le-.

De (4). cng Nguy~-van-T6 t5r, ong Vil-ngQc~·Phan (6) va gan daY' ong P ham -hoan-Mi (7) J 6ng f)6-tTQiJg-Hue is r,

Chac ong Nguy~n-Pht.rO'ng se tra lCri ·la co, cng co nhac t&i . bai ..~ Hung- \l11'O'ng 13 I-Iung .... V iro'ng » ella Le .. Du ~ Trong Lich-str Lac- Vi~t

. dO?I1 III, ong vret: «Co gang Ctia Tham-hoa1- Vi~n de gO- tri h:hon ra :~hoi ng5 bi d6 xern ra may m3n nlurng Iai kh6ng d:U'g'c moi ngtro i chap ... oh~n hoan toan vi no trai v&i can .... cfr Iich-str mgt each qua TO r~t~ Nhirng ciing .:6 ke chang nhfrng 1a hoan-nghenh rna con d"i tuot sang that-ewe ben kia, noi rang chinh chfr Hung lei can-ban 1'01 sau !TICrf 01· cac s&-gia viet lam ra chfr L?Cn~ Nhimg neu qua th~t

doan van nay am-chi I. .. e-DU' thi ong r'1"guy~n .. Plnro ng da xuyen-tac

Le-DU' m(>t each .... qua r6 r~t! Le .... DtI' chu-trtrong neu dng H. Maspero ·n6i chit Lac :ft ay (I) v&i chit H1)ng ·~fl giong nhau, dt viet lam; thi chi c6 chit Hung lim thanh chir Lac ay thi co, cho baa Lac

t

(1) Bach khc 8 so J (1 i .

(2) Bach-k,h08 so 2l.1_, 207~ 205, 204 (3) vi~t-Nam vln-hoe StI-ctTung

(4) Khai~trt tien .. dU-c t.p-san 55 5 'II. s':' 6; 19J2 (5; fri .. Un t,p"chr so 9, 194.1

( 6) 1 iA u - t f-t UYflt lh,jo bay so 4 67 r 19 41

. (7) BaCh+khof!!: so 49; 52, 54" 551 195'1 (8) Bich~khoa so. 1791 1964

.( 1) (her LOG mQt ben cae mot bin cfluv cnap trong Thuyrkinh cr.u.

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,~\.. nay (I) lam v&i chfr Hung sao dU"gc !~) (2) T~f sao ? Beri vi Kchir Hung da: c6 chep ro fang (rong bao nhieu quyea sach ta va Tau kia mall·· (3). Va cling vi I tir dOi C~Ut dOi Chien-quoc cho den diYi H~u-Han deu da: n6i den hai ·chfr L~c .~, f~ Ii nU'(Yc ta .. The rna 3ng Maspero khong biet va ong ~i tin lam VaG chfr Lac mgt ben cac mot hen chuy ~ tao chfr Lac ella ngiro-i Tau viet lam chii' Hung ra chfr.. Lac», _(4). Chung ta thay Le-Dtr khong he hoan-nghenh cii ma 6ng Nguyen.PhtrO"ng gQi la «co ga.ng cua Tham-hoai- Vien d~ gfr ttl khan ra khoi ng5 bi», vi mQt fe gian .. di la cai co gang d6 khong co trcng; oc .Le .. DU"" ciing chang co trong 6c Th~m-hoai-Vi~c, rna chi c6 trong, tU'O-ng .. tU"Q"ng ella ong Nguy~n-PhU'.O'ng ..

m(?t gi.Lthuyet can dang trong vbngtranh-lu~n - d~ Ilghi~p. ho mang . kien-thu-c ay truyen-bi cho hoc-sinh U ong 50 nam nih k~t-qua se tai-hai den the nao ?

~. d'"' ..... - A ;"n de Hung .. VU'O'cg hay

Nh tr lrin da n6i, ngU-O'l aU rien neu va

Lac.VU'O"ng ·la H. Maspero• Dng Nguy~n-PhU'O'ng chi . lam cong vi~~

khai-tri~n _ nom na goi la tan r~ng -'- thuyet cua H. Maspero. Vl vay muCin nb~ll-dinh gi1l-tzi cua «Lich-su. Lac- Vi~t' do~n «Tir Hun~V1,rO'llg ra 4c-Vtrangb, trU"Q-c het phii kiem-die~ w I~p-l~n cua Maspero- sau d6 se xet t&i ~p-Iu~n cua ong Nguyen-Phtrang.

roi sau khi tOt trung .. hQc thi

.,

cuo

H. Maspero .

:hieu ngay th~ng· trt-thirc trong· each. trinh-bay van-de, eng NguyenPhirong con co mot d~c-diem toi ky doi vai cae nha khao .. ciru khoa-hoc : ang chu.qu-ia den d¢ tr~ ~·th.anh dqc-doan, tin.di~u .. £lQc doan « Tir Hung Vuo-ng ra Lac-Vtrong » trong Lf_ch-su- L~cvViet, ng1YiYi ta c6 C31n-ttrOng nhtr ngoi trong mQt l&p hoe : nhirng . led giang. deu 1a nhfr.ng chan-l-y ta[-yeu~ Con gi kh6 ch!u· he-n khi g~p trong nlQt'bal kbao-ctru Ijch-slr mang n~~g hlnh-thtrc khoa-hoc nhirng tieu-dernuc nhir iM¢t tha y doi hfru~ y~), l( Vinh-dtr ella mQt sal-lacs, ho~c nhfrng. cau nhir r Kch dng ta se khong Iii' gi khi tha'y hi~n-tU'9'ng d6 zy mQt tac gLi day 6c mo'-hb nh It' tdC gia Vi~t-sir ... hrgc», a Trang Toan- Thir, ongNgo-si-Lien kh6ng co C6D~. s4ng-tac cau chuyen ahtr.ng sang-rae eua ong l~i; khorg ai bi . kip - rna c6 ·le cdng khong ai muon canh tranh vo-i eng l:I chd d6 - d6 Ia H1y· chuyen quai-dj lam (huy~n str », 'Titih each t1r&n~-tlfQ"ng Ct1a cau chuyen th~r 13 to r?t Ngoai ra n6 con tnangca dnh each dOi-phong bai ·1\1C. nita». _ C6 Ie eng Nguy€n-PhU"O"ngda hai lan uJneo me nghe.nghi~p» nen quen rang dgcgia ctaa ongkhong phai toan la ho ... ro ella ong. Nghe dal:! cng 13 giang-vien sir-h9c tal B~i-hQc Hue. Cia thlr Bag dung ocLfcb-su· L~c:-Vi~J) de giang day va cac sinh-vien cua eng tharn.nhuan cai ti nh-thiin chu-quan .. d:~c-doan,.. tJ.n-die1.1 cua thay,. en- tm-tu-o ng rang L~c-VtrO'ng la tn~t chln .. lY Itch - sUo kh6ng th~ nghi -nger dU'9'c -- ch& kh6ng phai chi h\.

Can cit tren 3 t3i-li~u cl)-su- Tf11ng-qu5c: ThUy-kinh~chU, Thai.binh hoan-vii-ky va Quang-chau-ky, Maspero ali diln-dich fa gU-thuyet LacV u-ong Mer mQt tam-do~D-lu~n t6m ti~ nhtr sau :

Tien-de

_ Thai-binh hoan-vu-kY d~n sach Nam- Vi~t· chi, chep la HungV irong ; Thuy-kinh-chu d~n sach GiOio-chau ogo~i-v\l'C kY. chip :3 L<).C- V iro-ng. Chii' Lac Ct day \I iet mQt ben cac mQt ben chuy *" rat

d~ lam v6i chfr hung ~

NhU'ng Quang~ch3u-ky chip la L~c-h:au, L~c-tU"&ng. Chir Lac

& day "i(~t rnot ben rna m(lt ben cac ¥l .. khac han chii' Hung.

\ l j Chrr L(,c m¢'t ben mi, m9t b~n C&C., c.hep hO~·lQ QUilOg~ch!u.ky·-

(2; _31 4) Khaj· td lien .. d'Crc tfp~$an so 5 v,!\ 6, tr. 5. ~ ...

V~y L~_~-VU'ang dung"

Tam-do,,-n-lu~n nay c6 gia.l.! gi 1 Theo Maspero, Quang-cb:lu.kY

chep giong nhtt Giao-chau ngoai-vvc ky, tuy van tat han ~~~nh :a kho hi!u han. Va gai-ph;ip ODg dem ra ap .. dung ta g.al pbap

da-so : hai (G.C.N.V.K.j-Q.C.K) pbai dung hon mot (N V.C.)

Dau chap nh~n quan-diem clla Maspero cho ran: Q~ang~hau:~? chip giong GiOio-chliu ngo~i+vt1c.kY, ta ding k~ong the cha~-nh~~g~alphip a:a-so ella bng. B&i vi vh-de d~t ra a van-d! chaD-Iy chO' khong

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6 hai th~ng lnoV de ket-Iu~n

. . fn- tic da s . ~ al a. II

Sau khi ap. d\1og nguy .. b". "'t tr& Dg.?-i 16'n .. lao ~ tat

.... ' Maspero vap p ai rno .

ra I1g Lac - V irong uungl · f.-.i\'f" An-Nam chi-ltrQ'C

he r Hung-VtrO"Ilg ngo~l " .....

ca sir sach Vi~t deu cpa .. a O-le d ve v3u ... h63 -~~

'" Nh LI. TSc - Vllt.glan v n .. , d:

cua Le- T ac, U'ng. -, · ~ A Nam chi .. hrO'e chi an

j;i rheo h~n quan-dlern cUa ngU"Oi. T!~ v~. ~:g ut d. Slr· sach V~~t l~i Giao.Chau· ngoQi .. v\tc kY .. V~y c6 . e IiOl r ~. t.Joac da so tat nhien

~ N.... a dun.g nguy~n- u ,

deu chep 130 Hung- VU'O'ng. eu ~ . V sai MasF-ero ben dU"a

V d ' rna thuyet Lac- trO"ng. ..

thuyet Hung- U'O'ng ung£. d· .... «sao cheps (I) nguyen-thtr

h~.... a tr Cf13 Vl~t .. Nam eu /1/

ra ITlQt din -ae : C C S ·b" .......' hung nguyen-ThU" ay.

M h...... ca nhfrng sal lam eua n ... ~

Trung-Quoc va sao c '"'Y . ...t' h.A.... ita Maspero khong dung

Ch,·;1 At dieu 13. em ... ne c

That la gian-di! 1 t1ec me .... ~, h _., T ~ sao '1 Vi ngay sau

. .. b cl dinh de toan- o· .... ~ ~1 ..

mQt each hi!n .. nhten n tr C .: Ii J"'h: g co th~ bitt mpt each TO

h ~ h~n· 11 TIte T ng I. on d-

do chinh Maspero t u-n . · " / c stf~gia Vi¢t - Nam a

. .. h Trund-Boa naG rna ca w

rang nhiing nguyen t l.t b... 1 . -6 the kblng-dinh rang

... b·;j - nguyen.o.thtr, sao ~l L , . .

xrr ... dung» (2) .. Da khong let ro b' ? Kh4>at,-g ... dinh nhU' v~y pha1 gQl

h• ·1" bung an saos .,

., sach Vj~t..nam c 1 . an·

S:. ". khong 13. khang ... dinh va bang ~

la gr neu .b 16-· 1..... quan

...." .... m nh\t Masperc l~i mac 1 am

Do dau mot bQc-g1a ueng ta ..' ~ hich La DO"U'Cri Tay-

. ~ kha c6 .... hi kho gtat-t I.. 0

trong n.1y? Tl;1iet-ttrO'ng ng... khb the khong kinh

. kh' " HI n hoc" Maspero flg ~+, •

Phtrdng chuyln ao-cU"U a...,. ~ Nhtrng dot VO'l

. ~ - eua Trung·quuc ..

Phuc nen v3!l-hoa ky .. Cl1U, f\fc .. rO" . . h ~ h cai nhi~m-Y1J. khai-

. ..... b' • .. ng ttl' gan c 0 nun

d.... Vip·t eng va dong- ao eua o. ~ ., "no Cho nin

an or , 'I.... V~"'t bang con mat re ru b~

h6a tat nhH~n,\.Ong nhln van-h6a + 1~ h" h\t.n sai lam ve sir sach

1· .a, ~ . TY. khac bl~t nhau t 1 P a ~ ....

neu sir sach Vlyt va au .. ~ . V· ~ t da chi lam cong Vl~C

.., • ~~ • K nhi31J tht SU'· g13 1~ h

Viet, ma neti hal uang glong '",. <t .... 0 luon dung, troog k i

h ~ ., a Tau Str th~t c6 phal Stf Tau lu n

sao c ep cu ..

Anh A baa La ch it cong ~ Anh B bia Il, chii' x6ng. Anb C bao la chfr song ..

V~y phii 13. s~ng loci dung.

phai van-of:_ chinh-tri hay xa.-h';'i.. Trong lanh-vl;c chinh ... t~i. ha y xi·hgi, sV" dong-y eua. da-s6 c6 the giai-quyet dttvc nhieu vi~c. Trong lanhV\Fc chan-Iy thi khac han. M¢t sai laln nhan li!n mgt tri~u an thanh ra DlQt ~rj~u sai lam cho khBng thanh ra ·m¢t chut cha.n-lY nao,

HO"D. nfra· Quang-chau-ky qua th~t c6 chep giong nhU' Giao-chau .ngoai-vtrc-ky khong ? Hay doc Giao-chau ngoai-vtrcky (do Thiry-kinhchu d~p. l~i vi G. C .. N. V. K •. da that l?c): ({ f)iri xu-a khi tunrc Gino-chi chira chia ra thanl: qtuin va huy~.n thi lanh·thlJ chia ra thanh: nhfi:ng cdnh. dong g9i III Lq,c-die.n, trong nhimg canh dong do nU"O'c len xuong theo thziy-trieu~ D sn -cJ.r . cay bira nhiing i:U9ng do de sinh-nhai ch 0 nin ngU"iYi ta gpi nhi1:ng dan do ia dan Lqc, C6 L9c~VzrCYtlg va Lac.hiu: caitri cae quQn, va huyen, & cae huy~n co Lac-ttrtrng » (I)~ 'Ta day Ii Quang .. chau-ky : «£Jat Giao-chl cd ruong Lac, trong nh« nrrcYc thu.y .. trieu len xuiing rna cay cay. Nguir! d.~J7C hl1(&ng rl1~ng·ay Eil Lac-hau ; cae huy~n t(!: xtmg ia Lq.:-tu'tYng .. Sau con uua rilta-c Thuc dem qudn dank Loc-hau, :ctrng fa An-Dinrng. Vzrcrng» (2). So-sinh hai doan van tren chung ta thay

11ai di~m di-bi~t rat quan-trcng : .

I .. Thee Giao-chau ngo~i-v1.Jc-ky, co Lac .. \T liang nhirng thee Quang .. chau.ky khcng c6 Lac .. Vt.roong rna cbi c6 Lac-hau, Lac .. tU'&ng~ Khong th~ oao rang Quang-chau-ky chep van t£t qua nen chl gift lai Lie-hatt .. Lac-tiro-ng. i)oi veri cac sir.gia thcd phong .. kien vua chua la chinh ... ye11:, tan"). sao c6' th~ bo sot dtrQ'c? Hucng chi Quang-chau-kY chep ro rang la ngtt&i lanh .. a~o tho dan Giao .. chi bl .~~-DU'o·ng6VU'O'ng danh bai 1; Lac.hau cho khong pha i Lac.Vtro-ng ..

Ti'e.n - de :

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:4. Chfr L~c ~ cua Giao-cbau ngo~i .... V1fc .. kY khac han chii' L~(: .~ -cua Quang ... chau-kY.. Neu Quang-chau .. kY va Giao-chau ngo?i-v~c-ky ·c6 chung mqt nguon g5cp t~i sao !thong chep chfr Lq_c gi5ng nhau?

Tom l~i Giao-chau ngo;ti-vllc-ky khong giong Quang-chau-1cy 'Va -neu v~'y tam-do~n-lu~n cUa Ivlaspero sai lam ngay ti_ ttong tien-de .. ·Tam-do~n-lu~ll ay c6 kh1ic gi tam ... do?n~lu~n sa.u day,;

-~~_____'~:-' _._"

(1) B~m. dlch C~'H) trllCrA9 yjen~ Dong b~e-co... tQ-P ch r D~n Vi~t~N8m.. 55 1/ 1948" iJ han ti eng Vi~t Lr. 8-

(2) Ngu~~ n "'an! Giao ch i hc!"u L,)c .. dien np.ra-ng tri~u thuy thjJQ"ng h{l'. N han thvc ky cljt;(l danh vi l~c~h8Uf· chlr huy~n t~r Xlrng vi l,c~hr&-ng. H3u ThVc ..... ucrng tl.hrO'flQ binh thao LljIt"·h~u .. tv' rarng vi An .. DU'rrog~Vl!O'ng.

, ) Ch' h & I. copier~ . d t·.rer de 11t des nottons precises (,1· In· -'Ii nUn'" est malheureU5ement P'S pos.stble, e .~ s (Etu4e!i d"'h;stc.ire

(2) Ch1n1 h ... vin : "e$ . chinoises utilisees ",ar les hJstonens ann.nu II: •

sur eS sour~ I c3)

d/A B C F E 0 tome XVii, n

nJlE:ffi, ~ •.

J

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sir Vi~t luan Iuon sai lam khong? 96 phai sir Vi~t luon 140n Ia ban sao ella Slr- Tau khong 'r Khang~ cnac chan· kh6ng. Trang bai ((Hung . ::trO"ng Ii Hung VtrcrngXl., Le-Du- da d~n mQt bang-chu'ng· hung hon. Ong viet: ¢6ng Maspero noi sir ta chep thea sit Tau nin lam~ nhirng toi chi thay Tau chep thee 13 rna lam thQi. f)~ Ioai nhir sach Tau chep cll-tIch thanh Co~Loa rna chep rang: Vi~t-Vtr(Yng thanh t~i Nghe-an phti, Dong-ng~ huy~n.t huu danh Loa-thanh, di kY khuat khiic nhU' loaf Han thai ·An-Dll"crng-V'lrO'Dg sb truc~- Trong mQt doan nay c6 3 ch-d lam._ Cl) .. Loa kh6ng phii goi Ui Vi~t-VU"O"ng-thatth; Co-Loa khong phai lam tai Ngh?-an phu , An-Dtr(Y~g .. V trO"llg dap thanh ay khong phai & obi Han. Sach Tau chep vi~c n1.tCtc ta nhir v~y con gi la . ·dting dLrQ"c 1-» (I)., Ta c6 .th~ k~ nhieu thi-du khac, Nguyen ... thir nao

eua Tau chep q~6c ... hi~u eua ta . dU'Cri deti Dinh Tien-Hcang la B~i-Co ... Vi~t? Nguy~n-tht.r nao cua Tau goi Le .. Hoan la Le f)~i-Hanh'/ Hai sfI-ki?n nay xay ra ve ·dOi Tong -, nghia lA theri ky ~gtr(rj Tau da hieu biet nhieu v'e d~n Vi~t· sau 1000 nam oo-ho, _ rna. Stc Tau con

- ~

ghi chep thieu S9t, huong chi nhfrng .. S1I-ki~n xay ra· tit dM. H UDg-

Vtrcrng - nghla 1.1 thai ky ngU'Oi Tau chtra dat chan leu dat

Giao .. ChL . ~

Vf}y thi. su., Vi~t . chep chir Lac '. ~ ~~ (trong .danh-tir kip. Lachau, L?c-t~&ng) dung v6i- chinh-ta ciia Khang.Hi i\t' .. di!n va chfr Lac ,d6 kllong th~ Him. ra chfr Hung, trong khi chlnh su Tau (Giao-~b~~ ngp~J-v1:tc-kYt __ Thuy-kinh-cbu) lai viet chfr Lac tft sai chinh-ta va .chi rieng .. ch~ Lac nay rno i c6 the lam ra chfr· Hung QLrQ'c (I-) ..

Sach sir Tau do Ol1g Maspere din chirng chia lam hai phe doi·l*"p.

MQt ben gam Giao-chau ngoai-virc ky va ThUy-kinh ... chu cnep la LacVu-o-ng, Lac-hau, L~c..tU'&ng v&i chfr Lac viet sat M~t b!n gam Nam Viet-ch! va Thai-binh hoan-vil-ky chep la Hung-Vtrong, Hung-hau,

. ,

-H 11ng-tll&ng. - Giira . hal C1fc-do~n d6j1 sir V i~t c6 tich each trung-dung

, 1..c 1'" H V L h~ Lac-tire Ta c6 th! t6m tit trong

VI C rep dung.. tro-ng, ac- au, ac- tro ng,

'm9t ba1'__g so sanh :-

NhtrQ"c-di~m thli: ba trong l~p-lu~n CU~ Maspiro 13 each viet chfr L~c .. Theo Maspero, chinh th~t la Lac .. VU'O'ng nhtrng ngtrOi ta chep lam ra HUng .. V irong vi chfr Lac ~ va cbir Hung -il viet. Tat gi6ng nhau, Nhtrng d thea Khang-Hl tt;-di~n dlnh-chinh es tat ca 3 chfr L~c. Va chii' Lac • thuQ,c be) chuy c6 th~ larn v&i chfr Hung lai khBng phii la chfr L~c thlt"o-ng dung de chi noi giong Vi~t. Chir Lac

_nay. Ul tt~n con song L~c-thuy Ct tI~h Thi!m ... tay. Con hai chii' Lac thtrirng dung d~ chi ubi gi5ng Vi~t till lq.i khong the lam v&i chouHung dtrg"c» (z). £>6 Ia:

it CHfNH-1.~.i
~ QUAN TOONG L~C, HUNC)"
SA~H VUA

G.C~N .. V.K, L~c- V uong Lac-hau Lac.ttrong ~
, T~K.C.
N4V.C. Hung- V iro-ng Hung-hau Hung-neong :ti ~
T .. B.H.V~IC. ,. ~
-- - ......... ~
st'r Viet Hun g- V irong Lac-hau L~c-tU"&ng i&-- I ~ I
t
~ ..
-- I. Chfr Lac -~~ thucc b9 rna viet mQt ben rna mQt

ben cac, chep trong Quang .. chau .. kYt Sir .. ltj, Han-thtr ..

t.

2. Chtr L,£Jc i~ thuQe bQ s~i viet InQt ben· s~i mot ben cac,

'chip trong Chu ... l~;t M~nh-tU· va sir sach Vi~t .. Na~ {~}.

f)~n day fa thay fO rang s·u. Vi~t khong «sao chip» ngt.;y€;n-thtr cua Tau. Bni vi neu. «sao chip» thi Str Vi~t ho~c phai chip la LacV trO"ng, Lac-hau, Lac-ttro-ng v&i chfr. Lac viet sai, chfr Lac th1l:Qc bQ chuy, ho~c phai chip la Hung-Vwong, HUng-haul . Hung-nro-ng. f) aog nay sa- Vi~t lai chep Iff H ung- V trang, L~c-hau, Lac. ttro-ng

veri chfr· L~,? viet dUng,. chit .Lac thuoc b¢ sai. Chang nhfrng kh6ng

«sao chep» sach Tau, khong «sao chep» nhii'ng sai lam cua sach Tau, Slr-gi:i . Vi~t ~Oil. bi~t dinh.chanh d nh frag sai lam cua sach Tall nfra .. Ngo .. sf-Lien ;phe: aL~c-tU"(yng h~u ngQa vi Hung ... ttr&ng» chinh 13 y c:t6.

( 1) 630 h v lie M asp.era.. N.g ut~n .. van~ r (; Ji co gang ch tr-ng ~m ioh r~ng ch li' L(tc thll" C b¢ chuy cuog thang~dl}ng nhtt ch·U- If;'ilc thu~c ~ rna vi c·h" L,c thu(}c bO s~i. NhLTng ch8n-Jy khang bat bu¢-c phJ.i ti ca1 th8ng..-dvng~ Niu th6ng .. d~ng It. dung tnt thL1¥et :Huhg-Vu-ung von dii thong""d'lng rt)i., hi tat phai dijt ra thuyet Lilc~ Vtrung-

(1) Khai- tr. ti'n~du-c t8p .. san; so 5 \18 6, tr 7.

{2) f)o~trQng~Hol, -OJ tim eMu \lit H~ng~ Vu-ang, B.K. so 1791 tr 18.

146 ..-.

- 147 -

Khai-crikn thuyet eua Maspero, _ong Nguy~n-PhrrO"ng co gang lim! each che ng-rninu rang Tharn-boai~Vj~nt tac~gil Narn-Viet .. chi (me-ky V) va tac-gia khuy~t~danh ella Vj~t~su--hrQ"c' (the-ky XIV) deu da, co tin"h·. tam chfr L~c ra chii' Hung.. Nhlt'Dg l~p-lu*n eua ong khong dV3:', tren m¢t bang-ch&ng xac th\Fc nao ma chi dv-a tren nhfrng trc-doan

th uan co tinh cae. h lam .. If. <.

D6i voi Tn:am-hoai-Vi~a 13. ngU'Cri Tau, ong Nguy~n.PhU'O'Dg: chU .. tru·O'ng: Tham-hoai ... Vi~n khong biet fa:lg L~c chi la m9t- danh-tir phi!n-am, dQc nhfrng chfr Li-c-dien, L~c.d.an, LiC- Vu'O'ug._ thay vb nghia', kilo hi~u, ben «tim each d~ hieut ae thoat ch6 bin .. Thoit the nao ~ u.Ve each viet chu- L~c eua Str~ky loi thoit 'th~t kho.

I

I

j

I

!

!

r ~

~

~ ,

f

~

! J, l

f

~

j,

'thay, nhtrng _ vo-i chfr Lac cua Qua~g-chau-ky lam gi m,il _ khong tim ,dU"g'c m~t each' giai ... thich hop 1y- Khong phii chfr ; ~~c • rat gio~g ·chiI' Hung d6 sao? Ma c~fr Hung d~t ,l~n trtf&c cac tH6ng dan, vtro'ng chang han thi y nghia -to~, dep bie~ dtro'ug nao, keu biet bao t~" Nhirng de din clJfr Hung vao, ca'n ph~li c5 ,nhfrng 101 dU'3 dU'o-ng nen rac-gia tao ra m¢t dean van dai hO'ID).

Thoat tien caung r.a kh6 long chap-nh~n chrgc r~ng 'Tharn-hoai-

¥ '~

'Vie-o - hay bat 'cfr mot su-~gia Tau nao khac - d~ ,cam but chep su

rna l~i khong bUh rang chfr L£lC chi 1a met chir phien-a~t' Ma du co non.not, ngay-thzy oen do ay chang nfra, Tham-hoai-Vi~n vi_n c6 the 'gL2i-thich nhfrng danh.tre Lac-dfen, Lac-dan, Lac-Vtro-ng mQl each gian-di va h9"P Iy gap tram Ian each giai~thich rna ong Nguy~n .. Phiro'ng gan cho Tham-hoai ... Vi~n .. That the, chfr Lac '* thuQc bQ chuy, viet

..

giClng chli' Hung, t\f n6 c6 nghia la con ng'l!a den berm trang'" Ong

Nguy~n ... Phu-o-ng neu kh6ng tin xin tra ctru lai Khang-Hi ttt .. dien dinhchinh trang 3.099. Tham-hoai-Vi~n 13. nha van Tau, lam sao kh6ng biet ngbia d6 ? Do do Lac-dien, Lac-dan, Lac ... VU'O"ng kh6ng den ndi kb6, hieu nhtr cng Ngu y~n- Phtro-ng tir ang ma c6 nghta 13 rUQng, dan, vua -cua mQt ntroc co nhieu _ ngtra de n berm trangt cang nbir nU'CtC Ba la

ntr&c co nhi!u, ran; nu&c Thuc la mroc c6 nhieu tamt' Nhtrng ong .i~guytn-PhU'&ng khong cho phep Tham-hoai-Vit~ hieu m9t each do-n ... gian nhu the. Ong bat Tham':'hoai-Vi~~ phil doi chii' Lac thanh

,chit Hang cho co nghia «tot d<;pb, cho l{keu)), va phai bja luon ra ca mQt

d?~n van ,',d~ ({ dtra dtrCtng}) cho chii:' HUI.,lg .. Chung ta t\f hoi danh-hieu 'eua ~gtr(yi tanh-d~o dan-tQc ta t.ot, dep hay X3U xa, keu hay khong keu, doi vo'i Tham-hoai-Vitn 130 ngu-ai Tau C-J chi h~-trQng den nOi {Jug phiH dOl chfr, bia van d~ bop rneo ci S\t th~t ~ Cho nell, theo lfC-doan ella bog NgUYtll-~htto'ngr Tham hoai- Vi~n vita ngay-thCY non- 116't, vita phtfc-t~p, nhieu-y,._he. Oi kh6 hieu thay 1a tarn-ly sir-giat nhat la cae su--gia song each oay I 5 the~ ky !

S,au nfra gii .. tti l~p-lu~n eua ong r~guy~n~PhtrO'ng se rut l~i vira bang con so khong neu chung ta chiu kh6 kiem-soat cae cli li~u do 7chinh eng d~nt- Dog qua-quyet Quang~chau-ky chep chii' 4c * mUQc bQ chuy rat giong chii' Hung n~ti tir d6 Tham-hohl- Vj~n rum dt)i' L9C ra Hung.. Han ong ch U'a dQc Quang- chau-kj'r? Nh U"ng can chi phai d9c chfnh-ban Quang-chiu-ky m6"i biet sach nay clJep .

V&i ba khuyc.t-dl~m chioh k~ tren, gii thuyet Lac ... VU"<yng eua Mas . pero chang cOn bao nhieu gia - tr], Ch 0 nen neu chi cia; Ctr trin cae tal-lieu mi Maspero di din ra, thiet-ttrCrng gii-thu~et Hang-Vtrong cOD vfrng "ch£c ho n, hgp it hon. Tac..-gi3 Giao-chau. ng~h-vt}'C-kY biet chung ta La din Lac, c6 quan gQi la L~c...bau. tIZQoOg, gQi la Lac .. tU'ang. Suy-lu~n bang phiro-ng .. phap lo?i-su~, eng ben gQi vua ta la Lac-Vuong cfillg nhU- co S&-d~n, S&-tuemg, thi co SaV trO'ng. Lac- V 1J"00ng (y dAy, kbong phai la. vU'o-ng .. hieu rna chi co nghia. hi vua eua dan Lac, Va vi quen voi mit Lf.C thuQc bQ chuy cua ten, song Lac-thuy nen eng da phien-arn sal chfr LCJc dich-thuc dung d~: chi noi gi~ng chung ta. Ngft,,!c l~i, tac-gia Nam-Viet-chl bH£t vua chung ta gQi h1. Hung .... Vtrong. Cling suy-lu~n bang phU'crng-phap Ioai-suy ; ong ben goi quan ta Ii Hung ... h au, tU'o-ng -ta la Hitng-tU' o-n g,- dan 'ta. la Hung .. d~nJ ciir-g nhtr c6 Sa-Vtrcrng thi c6 S&-tt:r&ng, Sc,.-dan. Chi ri!~g sir .. gia Vi~t [n&i hiet rlng tuy dan minh tbu¢c gi5ng 4C, ttrCrn g minh '13 Lac-ureng. quan Minh 13. Lac-hau, nhtrng vua mlnh vin co. m¢l vU'O'ng ... hr~u rieng d~ xung veri than-dan: vuong .hi~u ay 13 HungV trO'og.. 'Gia .. thuyet nay ly-giai dU'<?,c t~i Sao Han-thU', Si'r .. kY, Quang -chau kY chi n6i den Lac-dan Lac.hau, Lac-nro ng rna khong de-c~ P' to-i vua eua giong Lac, Tac-gia nhirng sach 5y to ra than-t rong h on. khoa-hoc hon, ngay t.."'t1ng hcrn vi chi ghi chip nhfrng dieu ho bH"!t chae chan ch& khong suy-doan v¢i vang va khang .. dinh vo-bang de dtra ng iro'i sau vao con QU'Crng tam l~c.

I ,~

t9P-lu9n eua ong Nguy~n-PnU"ong

y .

!

- 146

- 1.9 ----.

oh fr Lac khac hlll Urj ong noi. H~ _ Maspero nh~n xet nh U' sau ve - c; em viet chfr· Lac eua Quang .. chlu-kY:( May thay c6 Qua-ng-ehau-ky, cuon. sacn c~ tbir, hal gi6p ta giii quyet vao .. de d6. Sach ay chep chit Lie .. ~mi?c each khong the lam l~n d1l"9"C"- (1). V~y chfr Lac cua Quangcnau-ky lA chii Lac thUQC bQ rna .!~~ khac han chfr HUng; cho khong: phai chfr Lac thuQc be> -chuy • rat giong chfr Hung. Chac ong Nguy~n .... Phu-o-ng kh6ng nghi-ngo S\1" hi~u biet ve Han-ttr cua ngiro'i khai-sinh ra gia ... thuyet L~c~Vtrang rna ong dang co-vo va khai-trien. Neu co· nghi ... ngCr, mQt ian -nfra xin mO-I ong rer lai Khang-Hi t\f-dien dinh-. chinh: not trang 3259. sach nay erich d~n· mQt doan Ct13 Qua:ng-chau-. kyo va chep ro rang ia chii' Lac thu~c b~ rna .i}.1--.

Dei vo'i tac-gia Vi~t-slr-hr9"c ia nglfCri Vi~t, cng Nguy~n-PhU'O'ng: chu.tru ong ~ tac-gia Vi~t-si'r-lU'Q'c lam. Lac-Vtrong ra Hung~VU'ctng: vi di lien-ket chuyen nu-o-c t~ v&i IS (icy! Hung-\'uO'ng eua ntro-c S6-,. va vi lam lin nhU' v~)' 13 m9t .vinh-d\l».

Nhirng DlrOC Sa qua tb~t co 18 do-i vua 8Qi la : Hung ... V trO'Dg~ khong '? Ong Nguyen-Phtro-ng din chirng Str..,kY va dem ti:r HungDich den Hung-Thong vira dung 18 dei. That la hung hon! Chi. tiec mQt dieu la Stf-l~y khong chep day du chuyen mro'c Sa va 6ng; Nguyen ... Phirong lai khong biet- nhir v~y. Cac vua ntroc Sb tuy thu¢c hQ Hung nhtrng khong at xirng 13. Hung .... V u o'ng rna cung chang c6 sacb, nao gQi ho la Hung-Vwo-ng .. C6 Hung-Dicn, Hung-Nghe, Hung-Dan, Hung- Thang, nmrng khong he c6 Hung-Vu-o-ng. C6 S&· Vii ... VtfO'ng,. SO- Viti .. VU'O'ng, S& Trang-Vu-o-ng, SO- CUll~> VU'O'ng nhirng cung khong, bao gier c6 SlY Hung .. V tro'ng. Eli khong co Hung ... V iroug, giong vua

. So- 3.y cling khong gom 18 d(Yi. Th~t ra ong Nguyen-Phtrong khong. bier dich ,xac c6 bao nhieu deri vua S& • Trang bai ·.(Phlfang-phap SLr cua. Le-van-HU'U v.a N·ga-si .. Li~n» ong mo mam theo A.lhert Tscbepe1 cho r~ng vua Sa c6 15 deri. Nhung neu chi co 15 dOi,· lam sao tit do, l~i thanh ra 18 deri ;Hung-Vtrang eua su- Vj~t? Qug Nguy~n.Phtr(Yng. giii-thfch: leY gifra c6 mQt ch6 tranh dAnh, chap noi, n€n c6 Ie vi d6. ma tic-gil d9C vao oem ra 18 do-il) (2). Nghia la, theo cng Nguyin-

(1) Chinh~ ..... an = Un trofsEeme ouvrage ar'lcien, (& Kouan9" T c:::heou~i/nous doone ~etJreo .. sement fa sofut~on du, probJeme e.n ecrivant Ie caraciere ,lk'- (!fC) qui f.e prUe pas a.

confusion (B,E F.E&O tome x.VU!. NO 3) .

(2) O.i·hoc I,p.tchr s5 3-0 trano 90J.

Phirong, .sit-gta Vi~t chang nhirng d6t chfr Han den nAi dQc chii' Lac ra chfr Hung, ma lsi con -dot roan den n6i dem 1·5 thanh J8! T&i nay doc Si'r-ky, ong trjnh-trong kharn pha ra rang Huag-veong Dlf&CSO- c6 18 dail giong van cUa ang tra nen khiDg~d!nh bo-n, say .. stra han: tac-gia Vi~t,,_sirA hrQ"c ({day 6c rna ho», da d:~ cho ctS1! v~t quaycuong l~n l~n trong mQt giac rno' vi-d~i'!

Nhtrng ong se nghi the nao neu biet rang vua Sa gam co nhirng: 42 Qai nhie ong Nguy~n ... TO?i da trlnh-bay trong bai «Ban've Hung V ttO'"ng" (I)? C6 le cng se suy-lu~n ID_9t each khac d~ tiep-tl}c chtrng rninh r~ng Hung- Vuo-ng ella ta b~t nguon tit cac vua Sa. Suy-Iujn. nhir v~y trong .~u'n_~Y-hgc g~i 1a suy-lusn caru-tinb,,_ Ket ... lu~n.,' dU'gc d~t ra tnro-c va c6 tinh each bat-clio dich, ngirci ta thay dOl tie.n-dt. de bi~n~mi~4 eho ket-lu~n· ~Cri bat c,r gia nao .. Tuy nhien, du c6 thay doi tien-de den VQ cung vo t3nt suy-luan carn-tinh rut C\1C vin khong, phai la thir suy-luan dtra ngtreri ta den chan-ly. MQt nhU"9"c-ctiem khac . trong l~p.lu~n cu.a ong Ngu-ytn-Phtrang: lam sao tic-gia Vi~t.su ... hro-c l~i co ~e lii:n-ket nhfrng s\r-ki~n each-bier nhau rat nhieu v! khonggia n cling nhir v~ tho i-gian ? Ong Nguy~t'l-Phtr(Yng di den .. dean thac mac nay cua dQc-gii.. Hay nghe ong giai-thich: ,Thiet-tt.rO-ng thac mite-.

. -

nay khong can neu ra vi 51; v~t quay cuoog l~n l~n trong gHlC mo' vi:"d~L

cua tac-gia>, Lo-i glai-thich tuy ngan gQn, ti~n 19i nhtmg khong thoa-man tY-L~i chung ta vi n6 khon.g giai-thlch dU'Q'c gi het~ N up sau giac mo ella m(}t nguai da chet tit' 6 the-ky c6 khac gi ntrp sau ong 1 raj .. Tai sao l~i the 1 Tai vi treri sinh fa the .. Tai sao ong ta c6 the viet nhir the? T ~i vi cng ta natn mo' ,hay the. B6 lit nhfrng gia;-ph3p-. d~ dai, lU'O·i bieng rna tirih-than khoa-hoc kh6ng the nao chap nhin .

. --- •. ----~~

(1) «l neo Nguyen .. Ptutangl" 18 deY! vua Sa tii tu- Hung .. Djch Jen Hung- Thetng tlr(;_ 1. Vn .. VtTung, ·d?cu nay dung. NhU'llg SIU HUIlG' Th6ng, con c:neu con k~ Uep 'am \lua nc.r&c Sir cho ,Jiil vua Pht;~Sa bi· hferog nhi Tin ·I~ Ytrcrng. lieo diet vito "'m 222 .. Cae VUlt Sb sau Vu- VtrO'ng grJm. co ~ Van- Y·lr.O'ng~ T r8nD~.Ng8o .. lhanh- VLlcrng,. Mvc-VU'ung, r rang .. V(fO"n~ .. CUjlg- vue ng~ Kbeng~Vtr(tog, _ Giap-Ngao .. liT10- Vlfong~ Binh ... VlIang, Chi@u .. V U'crog~ Hue .. V {lung, Gi1U1 ~ Vtrang, Th~nh .. V t..rti"ng, Oi~n ... V lfO'ng;T u!: .. VlJ"crnq; r uyln· VI.! O'IlQ, Uy- Vtlcrr.q, Ho~j Vttcyog, Kho3_nh-- T uung· VU'ung; Khio-lit-t· VU'o-nt, U,VLrO'ng .. Ai .. V..,ung.l Ph\! ~S(j.

V~y donQ vu. SO- con ton-t~i 5&U Vu'" V U"crng (Hung .. Th.ang), dUJ- kh8ng <J"'ng. j"i l:r Hung~Th6ng mi balJ r5ng HUng .. VU'o-n-Q mr&c Sa gam 1S hlY 18 dU-i.

Han nfro! con ch'u Hung- Th6ng kii Uep lam \fl.. Sa, - tin &'1 \Ian co chfr· Hung nhv Thinh .. Vttong t~n (~ MUflg·Uan. Th.nh tiur neu gQi cae vue Sa 't. Hung .. Vlfang thl I?hii ke Hung"Vl!O"ng gorn 42 d6-i chu- dau Ie; chi co 15 na'1 18 dai. ).. N9uyert~ T O'~I ·Bi"- ve Hunjf ~Vlrang... Bach .. khoa s6 201 tr .. 34.

150 -

Sau het c6 gi ii (( vi~d,~i D. c6 gi la {~vinh-dv_}') trong sv la~ lin -ti:r vua So. ra vua Lac- Vi~t '? Dtro-i con mat kieu-h~nh eua Han-toe, .ng~(Yl so. cung nhir .ngLfCri Vi~t deu la. nhirng giong man-di, moi ro, Str khinh-man eua. Han-toe da khien cho cac vua S& co ~c-cam-'

.. .. .. .

tv-ty aen nBi chin h Hung-Cit phai bao: «Ta 1a ngU'Cti man-di

khong dang xirng . h~¢u-th\1Y nhu & .Trung-quoc ))" Ong Nguytn-Pbu-O'ng bi~[ dieu nay, Ie nao cac su--gia Viet thua xira khong biet ~ V~y thi « vi-dal 11 b d~ur ({ vinh-d1;f»· Cr d:au khi b;tt chiroc - nhfrog ke man-di day' ttr-ti m~c-cam? Neu. qua tinh sir-gia Vi~t muon di tim ({ vi-dai }) va [t vinh-dtr JI thi Han .. slr thieu gi nhirng trang ve vang, oai hung" .ha tat phai Ioay-hoay of tim trong Slr ntro c se.

Torn l~i ghi: .. thuyet Lac-Vtro-ng eua H. Maspero t(l no von aa: lung lay Vat bj~n-minh cho gia-thuyet aYt ong Nguyen-Phuong chi neu ra d:trQ'c nhfrng u-c-d"oin v~ ~m-iy sir-gta rar. rna hOI be-tac va .va can-err, Nhtrng neu ong· Nguyen-Phtro-. ~ to ra kha gilu ttro-ng ttrong khi trc-doan tatn-ly Tha~-hoai- Vi~n va tac .. gia Vi~t ... sir-ltr9'Cf co bao gia ong nghi· t&i gil .. thuyet sau day:. 1:tU'o-ng Vi~n .. f)6ng bac .. c{) rat c6 the ,.ta hoat-dong vai mQt h?u-)' ~inh .. tr] thirc-dan C1)ng giong nhtr trtriYng .... ho-p Nam-phong tap-chi. 1\ - nham thu hut 'nhan-tai Vi~t-Nam vao nhfrng cong cUQc khao-cfru CO .. b.·' va dep bat

nhfrng suy-tir ve hi~n-tr~iU~g no-l~ .etta dat nu-&c - nh, -ig suy-nr .kh&i dau cho c ich-mang cir u qUClC. V &i h~u-y chfnh .. tl < ay l' H. Maspero da dtra ra thuyet Lac .... VtrO'ng d~ cia-phi truyen .. t.huyet Hung- Vuong, ·mQt truyen-thuyet ttr~ng-trU"ng cho . tinh doan ... kt- va long yeu rnro-c thirong noi cua dan t9c Vi~t.. Chung ta khong t ·,it nh~n gii-tr! ella ubfrng cong-trinh siru ... khao etta tru'o ng Vi~n .. Ban~ bic-c~ cfing : nhir chting ta kh6ng phu-nhan gii tr] van-hoc cl!a Nam-phong tap-chi. Nhirng chinh ... tr] co th~ l<!i-d\lng bat elf lanh V\fC nao. V~y neu gi3-thuyet .neu tren dtrgc chirng-minh tbi phu-hoa theo Maspero b~ng nhfrng trc-doan mo hOt VD cau-cir, tuyen-truycn cho thuyet Lac-Vtrong ·v&i met gi9ng dgc-joa~r tin.dieu den de rnia mai. mat-sat ca tien-nhan nhtr ono NClu,tr~n-PhU'o'ng· aa lam doi

.. . a c J

vo'i Ngo-sl-Lien - hanh-·dQIlg ay d6i v&i dan-tee la Y .. thtrc hay vo

·y-th Ltc? d6i ~&i q uoc-gia la c6 ceng hay c6 t9i?

Ttich Bcich-khoa so 205

ngay I5-7-I96s va so 206 ngay r-8-I965

YUOr"JG T?A ci·~.J.\, a6-TRQNG. ri U~ niA no THJ.~H-DEL TRf~H BAY. nUA LL"-' Xl'A1.'-ll:\Kt IN L~\N TH1;' )\HXT TAl ~HA l~ VAN-lillO.-'l.. S0 1H~ );GI;YE~-BIEC SAIGOl:'\, :;GOAl

~ . ,

3000 BAN Ttl UO'NG CON is TUIDf

lOU SA>; QP-':- D.\~ll nlf:~G C!T(~

BEe 1L-\.SG cl-H} liY y _A_ TIU1~~ sox CL'A TAc-Gli.

GiZy pht.p ",0· 628 BTTJNTj!>lHK/ lJN. ngay /2/4! 1968 eua e, TT tTi~n.J hq.n flgl£g 19 i '2/ ! 968

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DO~T]E\tONG=H-UE

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