Bài 2: PHÖÔNG TRÌNH ÑÖÔØNG THAÚNG

SOÁ TIEÁT: 4
I. MUÏC ÑÍCH YEÂU CAÀU
1.
Kieán thöùc cô baûn:
Hieåu vectô phaùp tuyeán, vectô chæ phöông cuûa
ñöôøng thaúng
Hieåu caùch vieát phöông trình toång quaùt, phöông trình
tham soá cuûa ñöôøng thaúng
Hieåu ñöôïc ñieàu kieän hai ñöôøng thaúng caét nhau,
song song, truøng nhau, vuoâng goùc nhau
Bieát coâng thöùc tính khoaûng caùch töø moät ñieåm
ñeán moät ñöôøng thaúng, goùc giöõa hai ñöôøng thaúng
2.
Kyõ naêng:
Vieát ñöôïc phöông trình toång quaùt, phöông trình tham
soá cuûa ñöôøng thaúng d ñi qua ñieåm M(x0;y0) vaø coù phöông
cho tröôùc hoaëc ñi qua hai ñieåm cho tröôùc
Tính ñöôïc toïa ñoä cuûa vectô phaùp tuyeán khi bieát toïa
ñoä cuûa vectô chæ phöông cuûa moät ñöôøng thaúng vaø
ngöôïc laïi
Bieát chuyeån ñoåi giöõa hai loaïi phöông trình
Söû duïng ñöôïc coâng thöùc tính khoaûng caùch töø moät
ñieåm ñeán moät ñöôøng thaúng
Tính ñöôïc soá ño cuûa goùc giöõa hai ñöôøng thaúng
3.
Troïng taâm: Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng thaúng, coâng thöùc
tính goùc, khoaûng caùch
II. PHÖÔNG PHAÙP:
III. TIEÁN TRÌNH:
1.
Kieåm tra baøi cuõ:
i. Haõy neâu moät daïng phöông trình ñöôøng thaúng maø em
bieát ?
ii. Haõy cho bieát heä soá goùc cuûa ñöôøng thaúng coù phöông
trình y = ax + b
iii. Ñöôøng thaúng naøo sau ñaây song song vôùi ñöôøng thaúng: y
= 2x + 3
1
a) y = -2x + 1
b) y = x + 1
c) 2x – y – 12 = 0 d) y
2
=3
2.
Giaûng baøi môùi:
HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 1
I. Vectô chæ phöông cuûa ñöôøng thaúng
1
Trong mp Oxy cho ñöôøng thaúng ∆ laø ñoà thò cuûa haøm soá: y = x
2
a)
Tìm tung ñoä cuûa 2 ñieåm M0, M naèm treân ∆ coù hoaønh ñoä
laàn löôït laø 2 vaø 6
uuuuuu
r
r
b)
Cho vectô u = (2;1). Haõy chöùng toû M 0 M cuøng phöông vôùi
r
u
GV: Treo hình 3.2 leân baûng, neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc
hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy
Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV
Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS
+ Ñeå tìm tung ñoä cuûa moät
Ta thay hoaønh ñoä vaøo

ñieåm khi bieát hoaønh ñoä vaø
phöông trình ñöôøng thaúng ñi
qua noù ta caàn laøm nhöõng gì ?
+ Haõy tìm tung ñoä cuûa M0 vaø
M
+ Hai vectô cuøng phöông khi
naøo ?

phöông trình cuûa ñöôøng
thaúng
1
1
.2 = 1, yM = .6 = 3
2
2
Hai vectô cuøng phöông khi
vectô naøy baèng t laàn vectô
kia
uuuuuu
r
r
M 0 M = (4;2) = 2.(2;1) = 2. u
t=2
yM 0 =

uuuuuu
r
r
+ Tìm t thoûa: M 0 M = t u
r
Ta noùi vectô u laø vtcp cuûa
ñöôøng thaúng ∆
Ñònh nghóa
r
Ñònh nghóa: Vectô u ñöôïc goïi laø vectô chæ phöông cuûa ñöôøng
r r
r
thaúng ∆ neáu u ≠ 0 vaø giaù cuûa u song song hoaëc truøng vôùi ∆
r
r
* Nhaän xeùt: + Neáu u laø moät vtcp cuûa ∆ thì k u (k # 0) cuõng laø vtcp
cuûa ∆ . Do ñoù
moät ñöôøng thaúng coù voâ soá vtcp
+ Moät ñöôøng thaúng hoaøn toaøn ñöôïc xaùc ñònh neáu bieát
moät ñieåm vaø moät
vtcp cuûa noù
HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 2
II. Phöông trình tham soá cuûa ñöôøng thaúng
Trong mp Oxy cho ñöôøng thaúng ∆ ñi qua ñieåm M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ) vaø coù vectô
r
chæ phöông u = ( u1 ; u2 ) . Tìm ñieàu kieän caàn vaø ñuû ñeå ñieåm M(x;y)
thuoäc ∆
GV: Treo hình 3.3 leân baûng, neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc
hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy
Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV
Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS
uuuuuu
r
+ Neâu nhaän xeùt veà phöông
M
M
Vectô
cuøng phöông vôùi
0
uuuuuu
r
r
r
cuûa vectô M 0 M vaø vectô u
vectô u
uuuuuu
r
+ ÑK ñeå M 0 M cuøng phöông
uuuuuu
r
r
r
M 0M = t u
vôùi u
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
r
r
M 0 M = (x – x0;y – y0), t u =
+ M 0M = ? ; t u = ?
+ ÑK ñeå hai vectô baèng nhau ? (tu1;tu2)
Hoaønh ñoä = hoaønh ñoä, tung
uuuuuu
r
r
 x − x0 = tu1
M 0M = t u ⇔ 
ñoä = tung ñoä
 y − y0 = tu2
 x = x0 + tu1
⇔ 
(*)
 y = y0 + tu2
Heä (*) goïi laø pt tham soá cuûa
ñt ∆
Ñònh nghóa

−2 ) . d2.3 = 0 r r vôùi u Suy ra n vuoâng goùc vôùi u r Vecô n nhö treân goïi laø vectô . 3 . ñöôøng thaúng ∆ ñi qua ñieåm M 0 ( x0 . Vectô phaùp tuyeán cuûa ñöôøng thaúng r  x = −5 + 2t Cho ñöôøng thaúng ∆ coù phöông trình:  vaø vectô n = ( 3.0 ( ) ( ) Ví duï 2: Vieát pt tham soá cuûa ñöôøng thaúng d ñi qua 2 ñieåm A(2. B(3. tìm ñieåm M thuoäc d sao cho MA = 2 2) Lieân heä giöõa vectô chæ phöông vaø heä soá goùc cuûa ñöôøng thaúng Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Cho ñt ∆ coù pt tham soá:  x = x0 + tu1 (*)   y = y0 + tu2 Vôùi u1 # 0. Haõy bieán ñoåi pt (*) veà daïng y = ax + b roài töø ñoù xaùc ñònh heä soá goùc Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS  x − x0 =t  x = x0 + tu1  ⇔  u1   y = y0 + tu2  y = y + tu 0 2  u2 ( x − x0 ) + y0 Suy ra y = u1 u2 Heä soá goùc laø k = u1 r Neáu ñöôøng thaúng ∆ coù vtcp u = ( u1 .2 + (-2). u2 = ( 0.1).1)Ñònh nghóa: Trong mp Oxy. u = 3. −2 ) .3) + Hai vectô vuoâng goùc nhau Khi tích voâ höôùng cuûa chuùng khi naøo ? r =0 r r + Chöùng toû n vuoâng goùc r n . Tính heä soá goùc cuûa d HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 3 III. u2 ) vôùi u1 # 0 thì ∆ coù heä soá u2 goùc k = u1 Ví duï 1: Tìm heä soá goùc cuûa caùc ñt d1. u2 ) laøm vtcp coù phöông trình tham soá laø:  x = x0 + tu1 . Haõy  y = 4 + 3t r chöùng toû n vuoâng goùc vôùi vtcp cuûa ∆ Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS r + Haõy xaùc ñònh vtcp cuûa ∆ u = ( 2. d3 coù vtcp laàn löôït laø ur uu r uu r u1 = −1. u3 = − 5.y0 + tu2).1). y0 ) r vaø nhaän vectô u = ( u1 . ÖÙng vôùi moãi giaù trò t ta ñöôïc moät ñieåm M thuoäc ∆  x = 5 − 6t Ví duï: Cho ñöôøng thaúng d coù pt tham soá:   y = 2 + 8t a) Tìm moät vtcp cuûa d b) Tìm 3 ñieåm thuoäc d c) Cho A(1. t ∈¡   y = y0 + tu2 * Chuù yù: Neáu ñieåm M thuoäc ∆ thì M coù toïa ñoä laø: M(x0 + tu1.3).

M 0M = 0 ⇔ ? y0 ) = 0 + Neáu ta ñaët c = – ax0 – by0 thì ⇔ ax +by – ax0 – by0 = 0 ta coù pt: ax + by + c = 0 vaø goïi laø pt toång quaùt cuûa ñöôøng thaúng Ñònh nghóa 1) Ñònh nghóa: Phöông trình ax + by + c = 0 vôùi a.6.a)  quaM 0 ( x0 . b ) quaùt laø: a(x – x0) + b(y – y0) = 0 Ví duï: Laäp pt toång quaùt cuûa ñöôøng thaúng d ñi qua 2 ñieåm A(2. y0 ) vaø coù vectô r phaùp tuyeán n = ( a.5 leân baûng.8. 3. b ) . Phöông trình toång quaùt cuûa ñöôøng thaúng Trong mp Oxy cho ñöôøng thaúng ∆ ñi qua ñieåm M 0 ( x0 .9 ñeå giôùi thieäu caùc tröôøng hôïp ñaëc bieät sau: 2) Caùc tröôøng hôïp ñaëc bieät . b ) r • Vectô chæ phöông laø: u = (-b.3) Ví duï: Tìm toïa ñoä vectô chæ phöông cuûa ñöôøng thaúng coù phöông trình:3x +4y +5 = 0 GV: Treo hình 3. 3. Do ñoù moät ñöôøng thaúng coù voâ soá vtpt + Moät ñöôøng thaúng hoaøn toaøn ñöôïc xaùc ñònh neáu bieát moät ñieåm vaø moät vtpt cuûa noù HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 4 IV.7.2). Tìm ñieàu kieän caàn vaø ñuû ñeå ñieåm M(x.phaùp tuyeán cuûa ñt ∆ Ñònh nghóa r Ñònh nghóa: Vectô n ñöôïc goïi laø vectô phaùp tuyeán cuûa ñöôøng r r r thaúng ∆ neáu n ≠ 0 vaø n vuoâng goùc vôùi vectô chæ phöông cuûa ∆ r r * Nhaän xeùt: + Neáu n laø moät vtpt cuûa ∆ thì k n (k # 0) cuõng laø vtpt cuûa ∆ . = 0 ⇔ a(x – x0) + b(y – n 0 r r uuuuuu + n .y – y0) 0 uuuuuu r + M 0M = ? Tích voâ höôùng cuûa chuùng = + Ñieàu kieän ñeå hai vectô 0 r r uuuuuu vuoâng goùc ? M M . 3. y0 ) r + Ñöôøng thaúng ∆ :  coù phöông trình toång VTPT : n = ( a. neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS + Neâu nhaän xeùt veà phöông uuuuuu r r cuûa vectô M M vuoâng goùc vôùi n 0 uuuuuu r r uuuuuu r n vaø vectô M 0 M M M = (x – x0. b khoâng cuøng baèng 0 ñöôïc goïi laø phöông trình toång quaùt cuûa ñöôøng thaúng * Nhaän xeùt: + Neáu ñöôøng thaúng ∆ coù phöông trình ax + by + c = 0 thì ∆ coù: r • Vectô phaùp tuyeán laø: n = ( a. B(4.y) thuoäc ∆ GV: Treo hình 3.

khi ñoù d1 caét d2 taïi ñieåm M(x0.13 leân baûng. Oy laàn löôït taïi A(a0. Khi ñoù d vuoâng goùc vôùi Oy taïi (0. Goùc giöõa hai ñöôøng thaúng Cho hình chöõ nhaät ABCD taâm I coù caùc caïnh AB = 1.Cho ñöôøng thaúng d coù phöông trình toång quaùt ax + by + c = 0 (1) a) Neáu a = 0 thì (1) trôû thaønh y = -c/b. Khi ñoù d ñi qua goác toïa ñoä O d) Neáu a.-c/b) b) Neáu b = 0 thì (1) trôû thaønh x = -c/a.b0) Ví duï: Veõ caùc ñöôøng thaúng coù phöông trình sau: x y d1:x = 2.0) c) Neáu c = 0 thì (1) trôû thaønh ax + by = 0. d4: + = 1 8 4 HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 5 V. neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Haõy tính ñoä daøi caïnh BD BD = AB 2 + AD 2 = 4 = 2 · Haõy tính cos ADB AD 3 cos ·ADB = = DB 2 ·ADB = ? ·ADB = 300 · Töø ñoù haõy tính ·AID vaø DIC ·AID = 1800 – (300 + 300) = 1200 · = 600 DIC Treo hình 3.y0).y0) 2) Heä (*) voâ nghieäm. Tính soá · ño caùc goùc ·AID vaø DIC GV: Veõ hình 3. khi ñoù d1 truøng vôùi d2 Ví duï: Xeùt vò trí töông ñoái cuûa ñöôøng thaúng ∆ : x – 2y + 1 = 0 vôùi moãi ñöôøng thaúng sau: d1: -3x + 6y – 3 = 0. b. d2: y = -2x. khi ñoù d1 song song vôùi d2 3) Heä (*) coù voâ soá nghieäm. d3: 2x + 5 = 4y HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 6 VI.14 leân baûng vaø höôùng daãn HS ñi ñeán coâng thöùc tính goùc Cho 2 ñöôøng thaúng: ∆1 : a1 x + b1 y + c1 = 0 ∆ 2 : a2 x + b2 y + c2 = 0 ur uu r coù vtpt laàn löôït laø n1 vaø n2 . Khi ñoù d vuoâng goùc vôùi Ox taïi (-c/a. c ñeàu khaùc 0 thì (1) luoân ñöa ñöôïc veà daïng: x y + = 1 vaø phöông trình naøy goïi laø phöông trình ñöôøng thaúng a0 b0 theo ñoaïn chaén . Ñöôøng thaúng naøy caét Ox.0). B(0. d3:y + 1 = 0. AD = 3 . d2:x – 2y = 0. Vò trí töông ñoái cuûa hai ñöôøng thaúng Cho hai ñöôøng thaúng: d1: a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 vaø d2: a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 Toïa ñoä giao ñieåm cuûa d1 vaø d2 laø nghieäm cuûa heä phöông trình: a1x + b1 y + c1 = 0 (*)  a 2 x + b 2 y + c2 = 0 Ta coù caùc tröôøng hôïp sau: 1) Heä (*) coù moät nghieäm (x0.

1) vaø O(0. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Khoaûng caùch töø ñieåm M0 ñeán ñöôøng thaúng ∆ kí hieäu d(M0. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. a22+ b22 2 1 Chuù yù: ur uu r • ∆1 ⊥ ∆ 2 ⇔ n1 ⊥ n2 ⇔ a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0 • Neáu ∆1 vaø ∆ 2 laàn löôït coù phöông trình y = k1x + m1 vaø y = k2x + m2 thì: ∆ ⊥ ⇔ − 1∆ 2 = 1 2 kk .-2) ñeán ñöôøng thaúng d DAËN DOØ: Laøm baøi taäp SGK trang 80. n2 a1a2 +bb 1 2 a +b12 .y0).n2 cos ϕ = ur uu r= n1 . 81 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………….0) ñeán ñöôøng thaúng d coù phöông trình 3x – 2y – 1 = 0 CUÛNG COÁ : Cho ñöôøng thaúng d coù phöông trình 3x + 4y + 1 = 0 a) Tìm moät vtpt vaø moät vtcp cuûa d b) Tìm moät ñieåm thuoäc d vaø vieát pt tham soá cuûa d c) Xeùt vò trí töông ñoái cuûa d vaø d': -2x + 3y + 3 = 0 d) Tính goùc giöõa d vaø d' e) Tính khoaûng caùch töø ñieåm A(1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. ∆) = ax 0 +by 0+ c a 2 +b 2 Ví duï: Tính khoaûng caùch töø ñieåm M(-2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Khoaûng caùch töø moät ñieåm ñeán moät ñöôøng thaúng Trong maët phaúng Oxy cho ñöôøng thaúng ∆ coù phöông trình ax + by + c = 0 vaø ñieåm M0(x0.Goïi ϕ laø goùc giöõa ∆1 vaø ∆ 2 thì ta coù: ur uu r n1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. ∆ ) ñöôïc tính bôûi coâng thöùc: d ( M 0. 1 HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 7 VII. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………….

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y0 ) vaø r coù vectô phaùp tuyeán n = ( a. Tìm ñieàu kieän caàn vaø ñuû ñeå ñieåm M(x. Giaûng baøi môùi: HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 1 I.y) thuoäc (C) GV treo hình 3. Kyõ naêng: Vieát ñöôïc phöông trình ñöôøng troøn khi bieát taâm vaø baùn kính Xaùc ñònh ñöôïc taâm vaø baùn kính ñöôøng troøn khi bieát phöông trình Vieát ñöôïc phöông trình tieáp tuyeán taïi moät ñieåm thuoäc ñöôøng troøn 3.16 leân baûng. Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng thaúng ∆ ñi qua ñieåm M 0 ( x0 .yA). …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Phöông trình ñöôøng troøn coù taâm vaø baùn kính cho tröôùc Trong maët phaúng Oxy cho ñöôøng troøn (C) coù taâm I(a. Troïng taâm: Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng troøn II.y) thuoäc (C) khi Khi IM = R 2 2 naøo ? IM = ( x − a ) + ( y − b ) IM = ? 2 2 IM = R ⇔ ? IM = R ⇔ ( x − a ) + ( y − b ) = R Pt (*) goïi laø phöông trình 2 2 2 ⇔ ( x − a ) + ( y − b ) = R (*) ñöôøng troøn taâm I(a. B(xB.yB) ii.………………………………………………………………. PHÖÔNG PHAÙP: III. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Coâng thöùc tính khoaûng caùch giöõa 2 ñieåm A(xA.b) baùn kính R Ñònh nghóa Ñònh nghóa: Trong mp Oxy ñöôøng troøn taâm I(a. MUÏC ÑÍCH YEÂU CAÀU 1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Bài 3: PHÖÔNG TRÌNH ÑÖÔØNG TROØN SOÁ TIEÁT: 2 I. neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Ñieåm M(x. baùn kính R. Kieåm tra baøi cuõ: i.b) baùn kính R coù phöông trình laø: (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = R2 * Chuù yù : Ñöôøng troøn taâm O baùn kính R coù phöông trình: x2 + y2 = R2 . …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………. Moät ñöôøng troøn ñöôïc xaùc ñònh khi bieát nhöõng yeáu toá naøo ? 2. TIEÁN TRÌNH: 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………….b). Kieán thöùc cô baûn: Hieåu caùch vieát phöông trình ñöôøng troøn 2. b ) iii.

neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Goïi HS nhaéc laïi coâng thöùc vieát a(x – x0) + b(y – y0) = 0 pt ñöôøng thaúng ñi qua moät ñieåm vaø coù vtpt cho tröôùc ∆ qua M 0 ( x0 . phöông trình naøo laø phöông trình cuûa ñöôøng troøn c) x2 + y2 – 2x – 6y + 20 a) 2x2 + y2 – 8x + 2y – 1 =0 =0 2 2 d) x + y + 6x + 2y + 10 b) x2 + y2 + 2x – 4y – 4 = =0 0 HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 2 II.4) thuoäc ñöôøng troøn(C):(x – 1)2 + (y – 2)2 = 8 CUÛNG COÁ: + HS nhaéc laïi 2 daïng cuûa phöông trình ñöôøng troøn.4). + Caùch vieát phöông trình tieáp tuyeán taïi moät ñieåm thuoäc ñöôøng troøn DAËN DOØ: Laøm BT trong SGK trang 83.84 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… . y0 ) vaø coù vtpt uuuu r Treân hình 3.b) vaø ñieåm M 0 ( x0 . Phöông trình tieáp tuyeán cuûa ñöôøng troøn GV treo hình 3. Tieáp tuyeán cuûa (C) taïi M0 coù phöông trình: (x0 – a)(x – x0) + (y0 – b)(y – y0) = 0 Ví duï:Vieát pt tieáp tuyeán taïi ñieåm M(3. Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng troøn (C) nhaän AB laøm ñöôøng kính Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Veõ ñöôøng troøn coù moät Taâm I laø trung ñieåm AB ñöôøng kính laø AB vaø chæ ra => I(0. y0 − b ) ñöôïc xaùc ñònh nhö theá naøo ? (x0 – a)(x – x0) + (y0 – b)(y – y0) Vieát pt ñöôøng thaúng ∆ ? =0 Cho ñöôøng troøn (C) coù taâm I(a.-4).b) vaø baùn kính R = a 2 + b 2 − c Ví duï: Trong caùc phöông trình sau. B(-3. y0 ) naèm treân (C).0) taâm I cuûa ñöôøng troøn Baùn kính R = AB/2 = 5/2 Haõy xaùc ñònh baùn kính => (C): x2 + y2 = 25/4 Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng troøn (C) * Nhaän xeùt: Phöông trình ñöôøng troøn (x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = R2 coù theå vieát döôùi daïng x2 + y2 – 2ax – 2by + c = 0 trong ñoù c = a2 + b2 – R2 Ngöôïc laïi phöông trình x2 + y2 – 2ax – 2by + c = 0 laø phöông trình cuûa moät ñöôøng troøn (C) khi vaø chæ khi a2 + b2 – c > 0.17 leân baûng. Khi ñoù (C) coù taâm I(a.Ví duï: Cho 2 ñieåm A(3.17 ñöôøng thaúng ∆ IM 0 = ( x0 − a.

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Tìm VD ñöôøng Ñöôøng vöøaveõ treân baûng elip ñaõ gaëp trong cuoäc soáng ñöôïc goïi laø ñöôøng elip haèng ngaøy Ñònh nghóa Cho hai ñieåm coá ñònh F1. Vieát phöông trình tieáp tuyeán cuûa (C) taïi ñieåm M(2. PHÖÔNG PHAÙP: III. Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng troøn (C) coù taâm I(1. Kieán thöùc cô baûn: Bieát ñònh nghóa elip. Kieåm tra baøi cuõ: i. Phöông trình chính taéc cuûa elip Cho elip (E) coù caùc tieâu ñieåm F1. Elip laø taäp hôïp caùc ñieåm M trong maët phaúng sao cho : F1M + F2M = 2a Caùc ñieåm F1. MUÏC ÑÍCH YEÂU CAÀU 1.-2). Ñoä daøi F1F2 = 2c goïi laø tieâu cöï cuûa elip HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 2 II. tieâu cöï. F2 vaø moät ñoä daøi khoâng ñoåi 2a lôùn hôn F1F2. toïa ñoä caùc tieâu ñieåm. TIEÁN TRÌNH: 1. Kyõ naêng: Töø phöông trình chính taéc cuûa elip xaùc ñònh ñöôïc ñoä daøi caùc truïc.-4) 2. baùn kính R= 5 ii. Ñieåm M thuoäc elip khi vaø chæ khiF1M+F2M = 2a . F2.19 leân baûng vaø Nghe ñeå hieåu caùch veõ giaûi thích caùch veõ cho HS Hình dung tröïc quan hình daïng nghe cuûa ñöôøng elip. Ñònh nghóa ñöôøng elip Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Veõ hình 3. giao ñieåm cuûa elip vôùi caùc truïc toïa ñoä 3. phöông trình chính taéc vaø hình daïng cuûa elip 2. F2 goïi laø caùc tieâu ñieåm cuûa elip. Giaûng baøi môùi: HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 1 I.…………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… Bài 4 : PHÖÔNG TRÌNH ÑÖÔØNG ELIP SOÁ TIEÁT : 2 I. Troïng taâm: Vieát phöông trình ñöôøng elip II.

y') .Choïn heä truïc toïa ñoä Oxy sao cho F1(-c. −b ) . F2(c. A2.0 ) . B2 goïi laø y = ±b . Haõy xaùc ñònh toïa ñoä caùc ñænh. suy ra (E) caét truïc toïa ñoä ? Ox taïi 2 ñieåm A1 ( −a.  2  IV. trong ñoù b2 = a2 – c2 a b Phöông trình (1) goïi laø phöông trình chính taéc cuûa elip * Chuù yù: Töø ñaúng thöùc b2 = a2 – c2 suy ra b < a HOAÏT ÑOÄNG 3 III.0 ) . Ñoaïn thaúng ñieåm B1 ( 0.y) thuoäc (C) ta xeùt ñieåm M'(x'. M2. c: b = a2 – c2 • Tieâu ñieåm: F1(-c. b ) • Ñoä daøi truïc lôùn: A1A2 = 2a • Ñoä daøi truïc nhoû: B1B2 = 2b • Tieâu cöï: F1F2 = 2c x2 y2 Ví duï 1: Cho elip (E): + = 1 . Hình daïng cuûa elip GV treo hình 3.0) vaø N  3. töùc laø truïc nhoû caøng gaàn baèng truïc lôùn. b ) A1A2 goïi laø truïc lôùn.0). Do ñoù (E) coù caùc truïc ñoái xöùng Ox. Thay x = 0 vaøo (1) ta ñöôïc Caùc ñieåm A1.0 ) . b. y ) ∈ ( E ) ⇔ 2 + 2 = 1 (1). B2 ( 0. B1 ( 0. tieâu cöï. M3 cuõng thuoäc (E). tieâu 9 1 ñieåm. −b ) . a > b a b 2 • Quan heä giöõa a. Luùc ñoù elip coù daïng gaàn nhö ñöôøng troøn b) Trong maët phaúng Oxy cho ñöôøng troøn (C) coù phöông trình: x2 + y2 = a2. F2(c. neâu caâu hoûi ñeå höôùng daãn HS thöïc hieän hoaït ñoäng naøy Hoaït ñoäng cuûa GV Hoaït ñoäng cuûa HS Ñieåm M thuoäc (E) thì caùc ñieåm M1.0) • Caùc ñænh: A1 ( − a.21 leân baûng. A2 ( a. Vôùi moãi ñieåm M(x. ñoä daøi caùc truïc vaø veõ (E) Ví duï 2: Laäp phöông trình chính taéc cuûa elip (E) trong caùc tröôøng hôïp sau: a) Ñoä daøi hai truïc laø 10 vaø 8 b) Ñoä daøi truïc lôùn baèng 12 tieâu cöï baèng 8 1  c) (E) ñi qua 2 ñieåm: M(2. Lieân heä giöõa ñöôøng troøn vaø ñöôøng elip a) Töø heä thöùc b2 = a2 – c2 ta thaáy neáu tieâu cöï cuûa elip caøng nhoû thì b caøng gaàn baèng a.0). B2 ( 0.0). Oy vaø coù taâm ñoái xöùng laø O Thay y = 0 vaøo phöông trình Tìm giao ñieåm cuûa (E) vôùi caùc (1) ta coù x = ± a . ñoaïn B1B2 goïi laø truïc nhoû cuûa elip Toùm taét: x2 y2 • Phöông trình chính taéc: 2 + 2 = 1.0 ) . B1. Vaäy (E) caét Oy taïi 2 caùc ñænh cuûa elip. A2 ( a. Khi ñoù ngöôøi ta chöùng minh ñöôïc : x2 y2 M ( x.

3.22) CUÛNG COÁ: HS caàn naém ñöôïc daïng pt chính taéc cuûa elip vaø neâu ñöôïc caùc yeáu toá lieân quan DAËN DOØ: Laøm baøi taäp SGK trang 88 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… . Khi ñoù ta a b noùi ñöôøng troøn (C) ñöôïc co thaønh elip (E) (h.x ' = x  sao cho:  b (0<b<a) thì taäp hôïp taát caû caùc ñieåm M' coù toïa  y ' = a y x '2 y '2 ñoä thoûa maõn phöông trình 2 + 2 = 1 laø moät elip (E).

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