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MAKING MODERN LIVING POSSIBLE

Automatic Controls
for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

REFRIGERATION &
AIR CONDITIONING DIVISION Application Handbook
Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Contents Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Compressor Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1Compressor Capacity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Discharge TemperatureControl with Liquid Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3 Crankcase Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.4 Reverse Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3. Condenser Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1 Air Cooled Condensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.2 Evaporative Condensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.3 Water Cooled Condensers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.5 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4. Liquid Level Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1 High Pressure Liquid Level Control System (HP LLRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2 Low Pressure Liquid Level Control System (LPLLRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.4 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5. Evaporator Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.1 Direct Expansion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.2 Pumped Liquid Circulation Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5.3 Hot Gas Defrost for DX Air Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.4 Hot Gas Defrost for Pumped Liquid Circulation Air Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.5 Multi Temperature Changeover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.6 Media Temperature Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.8 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6. Oil Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.1 Oil cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
6.2 Oil Differential Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.3 Oil Recovery System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.5 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7. Safety systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.1 Pressure Relief Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.2 Pressure and Temperature Limiting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.3 Liquid Level Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.5 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8. Refrigerant Pump Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.1 Pump Protection with Differential Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8.2 Pump Bypass Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
8.3 Pump Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
8.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
8.5 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
9. Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9.1 Filter Driers in Fluorinated Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
9.2 Filter Driers in CO2 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
9.3 Water Removal for Ammonia Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
9.4 Air purging systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9.5 Heat Recovery System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
9.6 Reference Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
10. Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.1 Typical Refrigeration Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
10.2 ON/OFF and modulating controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Reference Literature - Alphabetical overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Foreword This Danfoss application guide is designed In this application guide, the pilot-operated servo
to be used as a reference document by all valve ICS is recommended as a pressure and
those involved in the workings of industrial temperature regulator. Please note that the well
refrigeration systems. established PM valve could also be applied where
ICS is used.
This guide aims to provide answers to the various
questions relating to industrial refrigeration For the final design of the installation it is
system control: - Why a type of control method necessary to use other tools, such as the
is necessary for the refrigeration system? Why manufacturer’s catalogues and calculation
should it be designed in this way? What type of software (e.g. Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration
components can be used? How to select control catalogue and DIRcalc software).
methods for different refrigeration systems? In
answering these questions, the principles of the DIRcalc is the software for calculation and
different control methods are introduce followed selection of Danfoss Industrial Refrigeration
by same control examples, comprising Danfoss valves. DIRcalc is delivered free of charge.
Industrial Refrigeration products. Please contact your local Danfoss sales company.

The main technical data of the components is Please do not hesitate to contact Danfoss, if
also provided. Finally, comparisons between you have questions about control methods,
different solutions for each control method are application and controls described in this
made, so that the reader should know how to application guide.
select a solution.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

1. Introduction Refrigeration System with Pump Circulation

Tapp_0015_02
1 3

Danfoss

04-2006
Compressor

Oil
separator

Condenser
Oil cooler
2

Receiver

Expansion valve 1
4
Liquid separator

Refrigerant pump

6
Evaporator
5

HP vapour refrigerant LP vapour refrigerant


HP liquid refrigerant LP liquid refrigerant
liquid/vapour mixture of refrigerant Oil

➀ Compressor Control ➁ Oil control


Why? Why?
– Primary: to control the suction pressure; – Keep optimal oil temperature and pressure
– Secondary: reliable compressor operation in order to guarantee reliable compressor
(start/stop, etc.) operation.

How? How?
– Control the compressor capacity according – Pressure: maintain and control the pressure
to the refrigeration load by means of differential across the compressor for oil
bypassing hot gas from the HP side back into circulation, maintain the crankcase pressure
the LP side, compressor ON/OFF step control or (only for piston compressors);
controling the rotating speed of the
– Temperature: bypass some oil around the oil
compressor;
cooler; control the cooling air or water to the
– Install check valve on the discharge line in oil cooler;
order to prevent reverse flow of the refrigerant
– Level: return the oil in ammonia systems and
to the compressor;
low temperature fluorinated systems.
– Keep pressures and temperatures on the inlet
and outlet of the compressor within the
working range.

 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

1. Introduction
(continued) ➂ Condenser Control ➅ Evaporating System Control
Why? Why?
– Maintain the condensing pressure above the – Primary: maintain a constant media
minimum acceptable value in order to temperature;
guarantee sufficient flow through the
– Secondary: optimise operation of the
expansion devices;
evaporators;
– Ensure the right distribution of the refrigerant
– For direct expansion systems: guarantee
in the system.
that no liquid refrigerant from the evaporators
How? enters the suction line of the compressor.

– On/off operation or control the speed of the How?


condenser fans, control the flow of the cooling
water, flood the condensers with liquid – Change the flow rate of the refrigerant into
refrigerant. evaporators according to the demand;
– Defrost evaporators.

➃ Liquid Level Control ➆ Safety Systems


Why? Why?
– Provide the correct flow of liquid refrigerant – Avoid unintended pressure of the vessels;
from the high pressure side to the low pressure
– Protect the compressor from being damaged
side according to the actual demand;
by liquid hammering, overloading, oil shortage
– Ensure safe and reliable operation of the and high temperature, etc;
expansion devices.
– Protect the pump from being damaged by
cavitation.
How?
– Control the opening degree of the expansion How?
device according to the change of the liquid – Install safety relief valve on vessels and other
level. necessary places;
– Shut off the compressor and pump if the
inlet/outlet pressure or differential is out of
permissible range;
➄ Refrigerant Pump Control – Shut off the system of part of the system when
Why? the level in the liquid separator or the receiver
exceeds the permissible level.
– Maintain the pump running in trouble free
mode by maintaining the flow through the
pump within the permissible operating range;
– Maintain a constant differential pressure across
the pump in some systems.

How?
– Design a bypass loop so that the flow can be
maintained above the minimum permissible
flow;
– Shut off the pump if it fails to build up enough
differential pressure.
– Install a pressure regulating valve.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2. Compressor Controls The compressor is the “heart” of the refrigeration If the compressor capacity is bigger than
system. It has two basic functions: the demand, the evaporating pressure and
1. Maintain the pressure in the evaporator so temperature will be lower than that required, and
that the liquid refrigerant can evaporate at the vice versa.
required temperature;
2. Compress the refrigerant so that it can be Additionally, the compressor should not be
condensed at a normal temperature. allowed to operate outside of the acceptable
temperature and pressure range, in order to
The basic function of compressor control, optimise its running conditions.
therefore, is to adjust the capacity of the
compressor to the actual demand of the
refrigeration system so that the required
evaporating temperature can be maintained.

2.1 The compressor in a refrigeration system is 3. Variable speed control.


Compressor Capacity Control normally selected to be able to satisfy the highest Variable speed regulation. This solution is
possible cooling load. However, the cooling load applicable to all kinds of compressors, and
during normal operation is usually lower than the is efficient. A two-speed electric motor or a
design cooling load. This means that it is always frequency converter can be used to vary the
necessary to control the compressor capacity so speed of the compressor. The two-speed electric
that it matches the actual heat load. There are motor regulates the compressor capacity by
several common ways to control the compressor running at the high speed when the heat load is
capacity: high (e.g. cooling down period) and at the low
speed when the heat load is low (e.g. storage
1. Step control. period). The frequency converter can vary the
This means to unload cylinders in a multi-cylinder rotation speed continuously to satisfy the actual
compressor, to open and close the suction ports demand. The frequency converter observes
of a screw compressor, or to start and stop some limits for min. and max. speed, temperature and
compressors in a multi-compressor system. This pressure control, protection of compressor motor
system is simple and convenient. Furthermore, as well as current and torque limits. Frequency
efficiency decreases very little during part-load. converters offer a low start up current.
It is especially applicable to systems with several
multi-cylinder reciprocating compressors. 4. Hot gas bypass.
This solution is applicable to compressors with
2. Slide valve control. fixed capacities and more typical for commercial
The most common device used to control the refrigeration. In order to control the refrigeration
capacity of a screw compressor is the slide valve. capacity, part of the hot gas flow on the
The action of the oil-driven slide valve allows discharge line is bypassed into the low pressure
part of the suction gas to avoid from being circuit. This helps to decrease the refrigeration
compressed. The slide valve permits a smooth capacity in two ways: by diminishing the supply
and continuous modulation of capacity from of liquid refrigerant and releasing some heat into
100% down to 10%, but the efficiency drops at the low pressure circuit.
part load.

 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.1.1:


Step control of compressor
capacity
� AKS 33 SCA
SVA
From liquid FIA
separator/ To
evaporator condenser

Oil
seperator

� EKC 331

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil
M
SVA
Danfoss EVRAT+FA
➀ Step Controller Tapp_0016_02
04-2006 Piston compressor
➁ Pressure Transmitter
Step control solution for compressor capacity can occur as the measure pressure deviates away
be achieved by using a step controller EKC 331 ➀. from the neutral zone settings.
EKC 331 is a four-step controller with up to four
relay outputs. It controls the loading/unloading If control takes place outside the hatched area
of the compressors/pistons or the electric motor (named ++zone and --zone), changes of the cut-
of the compressor according to the suction in capacity will occur somewhat faster than if it
pressure signal from the pressure transmitter AKS were in the hatched area.
33 ➁ or AKS 32R. Based on a neutral zone control,
EKC 331 can control a pack system with up to four For more details, please refer to the manual of
equally sized compressor steps or alternatively EKC 331(T) from Danfoss.
two capacity controlled compressors (each
having one unload valve).

EKC 331T version can accept a signal from a


PT 1000 temperature sensor, which may be
necessary for secondary systems.

Neutral Zone Control


A neutral zone is set around the reference value,
in which no loading/unloading occurs.
Outside the neutral zone (in the hatched areas
“+zone” and “- zone”) loading/unloading will

Technical data Pressure transmitter-AKS 33 Pressure transmitter-AKS 32R


Refrigerants All refrigerant including R717
Operating range [bar] –1 up to 34 –1 up to 34
Max. working pressure PB [bar] Up to 55 >33
Operating temp. range [°C] –40 to 85
Compensated temp. range [°C] LP: –30 to +40 / HP: 0 to +80
Rated output signal 4 to 20 mA 10 to 90% of V supply

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.1.2:

Tapp_0017_02
Compressor capacity control
by hot gas bypass Compressor SCA

Danfoss

04-2006
To
FIA condenser
CVC
Oil
seperator

ICS SVA
CVC
SVA EVM
� SVA EVRAT+FA
SVA

� ICS � SVA
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant
Oil

➀ Stop valve SVA SVA From receiver


➁ Capacity regulator Evaporator
TEA
EVRAT+FA
➂ Stop valve
Hot gas bypass can be used to control the controlled pilot valve, which opens the ICS and
refrigeration capacity for compressors with fixed increases the flow of hot gas when the suction
capacity. The pilot-operated servo valve ICS pressure is below the set value. In this way, the
➁ with a CVC pilot valve is used to control the suction pressure ahead of the compressor is kept
hot gas bypass flow according to the pressure constant, therefore the refrigeration capacity
on the suction line. The CVC is a back pressure satisfies the actual cooling load.

Technical data Pilot-operated servo valve - ICS


Material Body: low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to +120
Max. working pressure [bar} 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80

Pilot valve - CVC


Material Body: stainless steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] High pressure side: 28
Low pressure side: 17
Pressure range [bar] –0.45 to 7
Kv value [m3/h] 0.2

 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.1.3:


Compressor variable speed
� AKD 5000

Tapp_0139_02
capacity control

Danfoss

08-2006
M
� AK2
� AKS 33
SVA
From liquid FIA
separator/
evaporator SVA To oil separator

� VLT 5000
PLC/OEM
controller
M
HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
� AKS 33
SVA
From liquid FIA
separator/
evaporator SVA
➀ Frequency converter To oil separator
➁ Controller
➂ Pressure transducer
Frequency converter control offer the following
advantages:
Energy savings
Improved control and product quality
Noise reduction
Longer lifetime
Simplified installation
Easy to use complete control of the system

Technical data Frequency converter AKD2800 Frequency converter AKD5000


Enclosure IP 20 IP 20 or IP 54
Ambient temperature
KW size 0.37kW to 18.5kW 0.75kW to 55kW
Voltage 200-240V or 380-480V 200-240V or 380-500V

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2.2 Compressor manufacturers generally There are several ways to reduce the discharge
Discharge Temperature recommend limiting the discharge temperature temperature. One way is to install water cooled
Control with Liquid Injection below a certain value to prevent overheating of heads in reciprocating compressors, another
values, prolonging their life and preventing the method is liquid injection, by which liquid
breakdown of oil at high temperatures. refrigerant from the outlet of the condenser
or receiver is injected into the suction line, the
From the log p-h diagram, it can be seen that the intermediate cooler, or the side port of the screw
discharge temperature may be high when: compressor.
the compressor runs with high pressure
differential.
the compressor receives highly superheated
suction vapour.
the compressor runs with capacity control by
hot gas bypass.

Application example 2.2.1:


Liquid injection with � RT 107
thermostatic injection valve
Compressor
RT 1A
RT 5A

FIA

HP vapour refrigerant To oil


From liquid separator
HP liquid refrigerant separator/
LP vapour refrigerant evaporator
LP liquid refrigerant SVA
Oil
From oil � TEAT
➀ Stop valve cooler
� SVA
➁ Solenoid valve
➂ Thermostatic injection valve Danfoss
➃ Stop valve Tapp_0018_02 � SVA
04-2006 � EVRA+FA From receiver
➄ Thermostat
When the discharge temperature rises above The thermostatic injection valve TEAT ➂
the set value of the thermostat RT 107 ➄, RT 107 controls the injected liquid flow according to
will energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➁ which the discharge temperature, which prevents the
will start liquid injection into the side port of the discharge temperature from rising further.
screw compressor.

Technical data Thermostat - RT


Refrigerants R717 and fluorinated refrigerants
Enclosure IP 66/54
Max. bulb temp. [°C] 65 to 300
Ambient temp. [°C] –50 to 70
Regulating range [°C] –60 to 150
Differential Δt [°C] 1.0 to 25.0

Thermostatic injection valve -


TEAT
Refrigerants R717 and fluorinated refrigerants
Regulating range [°C] Max. bulb temp. 150P band: 20
Max. working pressure [bar] 20
Rated Capacity* [kW] 3.3 to 274
* Conditions: Te = +5°C, Δp = 8 bar, ΔTsub = 4°C

10 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.2.2:


Liquid injection with motor Compressor
valve

FIA

� AKS 21 To oil
HP vapour refrigerant
From liquid separator
HP liquid refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant separator/ � EKC 361
evaporator
LP liquid refrigerant SVA
Oil
ICAD
From oil � SVA
➀ Stop valve cooler
➁ Solenoid valve
� SVA � ICM
➂ Motor valve � EVRA+FA
➃ Stop valve Danfoss
Tapp_0019_02 From
➄ Controller 04-2006 receiver
➅ Temperature sensor
An electronic solution for liquid injection control EKC 361 ➄. If the temperature reaches the set
can be achieved with the motorised valve value, the EKC 361 sends a control signal to the
ICM ➂. An AKS 21 PT 1000 temperature sensor ➅ actuator ICAD which will adjust the opening
will register the discharge temperature and degree of the motor valve ICM so that the
transmit the signal to the temperature controller discharge temperature is limited.

Technical data Motor valve - ICM


Material Body: Low temperature steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants including R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52 bar
DN [mm] 20 to 65
Nominal Capacity* [kW] 224 to 14000
* Conditions: Te = –10°C, Δp = 8.0 bar, ΔTsub = 4K

Actuator - ICAD
Material Housing: aluminium
Media temp. range [°C] –30 to 50 (ambient)
Control input signal 0/4-10mA, or 0/2-10
Open-close time 3 to 13 seconds depending on valve size

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 11


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.2.3:


A compact solution for liquid Compressor
injection with ICF

HP vapour refrigerant To oil


From liquid separator
HP liquid refrigerant separator/
LP vapour refrigerant evaporator � AKS 21
LP liquid refrigerant SVA
Oil � EKC 361
FIA

➀ Valve station with:


M

From oil
cooler ICM ICFE ICFS
Stop valve
Filter
Solenoid valve
Manual opener
Motor valve ICFS ICFF
Stop valve Danfoss
ICFM

➁ Controller Tapp_0020_02
04-2006
� ICF From
receiver
➂ Temperature sensor
For liquid injection, Danfoss can supply a very
compact control solution ICF ➀. Up to six
different modules can be assembled into the
same housing. This solution works in the same
way as example 2.2.2, and is very compact and
easy to install.

Technical data ICF control solution


Material Body: Low temperature steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants including R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52 bar
DN [mm] 20 to 40

12 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2.3 During start-up or after defrost, the suction part of the pistons for multi-piston
Crankcase Pressure Control pressure has to be controled, otherwise it can reciprocating compressors, or bypass some
be too high, and the compressor motor will be suction gas for screw compressors with slide
overloaded. valves, etc.

The electric motor for the compressor may be 2. Control the crankcase pressure for
damaged by this overloading. reciprocating compressors. By installing a
back pressure controlled regulating valve in
There are two ways to overcome this problem: the suction line, which will not open until
1. Start the compressor at part load. The the pressure in the suction line drops below
capacity control methods can be used to the set value, suction pressure can be kept
start compressor at part load, e.g. unload under a certain level.

Application example 2.3.1:


Crankcase pressure control with
ICS and CVC Compressor
SCA
CVC To
condenser

From Oil
� ICS separator
evaporator � SVA

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil

Danfoss
SVA
➀ Crankcase pressure regulator Tapp_0021_02
04-2006 EVRAT+FA
➁ Stop valve
In order to control the crankcase pressure during the downstream suction pressure falls below
start-up, after defrost, or in others cases when the set value of the pilot valve CVC. In this way,
the suction pressure may run too high, the the high pressure vapour in the suction line
pilot-operated servo valve ICS ➀ with the back can be released into the crankcase gradually,
pressure controlled pilot valve CVC is installed which ensures a manageable capacity for the
in the suction line. The ICS will not open until compressor.

Technical data Pilot-operated servo valve - ICS


Material Body: low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to +120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80
Capacity* [kW] 11.4 to 470
* Conditions: Te = –10°C, Tl = 30°C, Δp = 0.2 bar, ΔTsub = 8K

Pilot valve - CVC


Material Body: low temperature steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] High pressure side: 28
Low pressure side: 17
Pressure range [bar] –0.45 to 7
Kv value [m3/h] 0.2

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 13


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 2.3.2:


Crankcase pressure control with
ICS and CVP - (P > 17 bar) � REG � CVP(HP)
� REG Compressor
SCA
CVH To condenser

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil
Oil From separator
evaporator � ICS � SVA
➀ Pilot-operated servo valve
➁ Hand regulating valve
➂ Hand regulating valve
➃ Constant pressure Danfoss
Tapp_0022_02
SVA
pilot valve 04-2006 EVRAT+FA
➄ Stop valve
For refrigeration systems with a suction pressure After operating for some time, the compressor
above 17 bar (e.g. CO2 system), the pilot valve will pull so much vapour from the evaporator
CVC can not be used. Crankcase pressure control that the evaporating pressure drops below the
can be achieved using the constant pressure pilot pressure set on CVP. When this has happened,
valve CVP instead. CVP will close, and the main valve ICS will open.
During normal operation the ICS valve will be
The maximum suction pressure required is set on completely open. The manual regulating valves
the pilot valve CVP ➃. When the suction pressure REG ➁ and ➂ shown are set for an opening which
reaches the set value, CVP ➃ opens. Hence the results in a suitable opening and closing time on
high pressure vapour on the servo piston of the the main valve.
main valve ICS ➀ is released into the suction line,
the pressure over the servo piston drops, and Note: The CVH for the pilot CVP should be
the valve begins to close. This will prevent the installed against the main flow direction, as
suction pressure from rising above the set value. shown in the diagram.

Technical data Constant pressure pilot valve - CVP


Material CVP (LP) Body: steel
Base: steel
CVP (HP) Body: cast iron
Base: stainless steel
CVP (XP) Body: steel
Base: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] CVP (LP): 17
CVP (HP): 28
CVP (XP): 52
Pressure range [bar] CVP (LP): –0.66 to 28
CVP (HP): –0.66 to 28
CVP (XP): 25 to 52
Kv value [m3/h] CVP (LP): 0.4
CVP (HP): 0.4
CVP (XP): 0.45

14 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2.4 Reverse flow and condensation of refrigerant Furthermore, migration of refrigeration into the
Reverse Flow Control from the condenser to the oil separator and oil separator and further into the compressor at
the compressor should be avoided at all time. standstill should be avoided. To avoid this reverse
For piston compressors, reverse flow can result flow, it is necessary to install a check valve on the
in liquid hammering. For screw compressors, outlet of the oil separator.
reverse flow can cause reversed rotation
and damage to the compressor bearings.

Application example 2.4.1:


Reverse flow control � SCA
Compressor

To condenser

Oil
From separator
evaporator SVA

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil Danfoss SVA
Tapp_0023_02
04-2006 EVRAT+FA
➀ Stop check valve
The stop check valve SCA ➀ can function as a 2. Consider both the nominal and part load
check valve when the system is running, and working conditions. The velocity in the
can also shut off the discharge line for service nominal condition should be near to the
as a stop valve. This combined stop/check valve recommended value, at the same time
solution is easier to install and has lower flow the velocity in the part load condition should
resistance compared to a normal stop valve plus be higher than the minimum recommended
check valve installation. velocity.

When selecting a stop check valve, it is important For details on how to select valves, please refer to
to note: the product catalogue.
1. Select a valve according to the capacity and
not the pipe size.

Technical data Stop check valve - SCA


Material Housing: special cold resistant steel approved for low temperature operation.
Spindle: polished stainless steel
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, incl. R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 150
Opening differential pressure [bar] 0.04
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 15 to 125

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 15


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2.5
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations


Compressor Capacity Control
Step control of compressor Applicable to multi- Simple. The control is not
capacity with EKC 331 and cylinder compressor, screw Almost as efficient at part continuous, especially when
AKS 32/33 compressor with multiple load as at full load. there are only few steps.
suction ports, and systems Fluctuations in the suction
with several compressors pressure.
running in parallel.

Compressor capacity control Applicable to compressors Effective to control the Not efficient at part load.
with hot gas bypass using with fixed capacities. capacity continuously Energy consuming.
ICS and CVC PC according to the actual
heat load.The hot gas can
help the oil return from the
evaporator.

Compressor variable speed Applicable to all Low start up current AKD2800 cannot be used
capacity control M compressors with the ability Energy savings for piston compressor
to run at reduced speed. Lower noise applications.
Longer lifetime Compressor must be suited
Simplified installation for reduced speed operation.

Discharge Temperature Control with Liquid Injection


Mechanical solution for Applicable to systems where Simple and effective. Injection of liquid refrigerant
liquid injection with TEAT, the discharge temperatures may be dangerous to the
EVRA(T) and RT may run too high. compressor. Not as efficient
TSHL as intermediate cooler.
TC

Electronic solution for liquid Applicable to systems where Flexible and compact. Not applicable to flammable
injection control with EKC the discharge temperatures Possible to monitor and refrigerants. Injection of
361 and ICM may run too high. control remotely. liquid refrigerant may
Electronic solution for liquid be dangerous to the
injection control with EKC TC compressor. Not as efficient
361 and ICF as intermediate cooler.
M

Crankcase Pressure Control


Crankcase pressure control PC Applicable to reciprocating Simple and reliable. Effective Gives constant pressure
with ICS and CVC compressors, normally in protecting reciprocating drop in the suction line.
used for small and medium compressors at start-up or
systems. after hot gas defrost.

Crankcase pressure control PC

with ICS and CVP

Reverse Flow Control


Reverse flow control with Applicable to all Simple. Gives constant pressure
SCA refrigeration plants. Easy to install. drop in the discharge line.
Low flow resistance.

16 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

2.6 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
AKD RB.8D.B ICF PD.FT0.A AKD 2800 EI.R1.H ICF PI.FT0.A
For an alphabetical overview of AKS 21 ED.SA0.A ICM PD.HT0.A AKD 5000 EI.R1.R ICM PI.HT0.A
all reference literature please go
AKS 32R RD.5G.J ICS PD.HS0.A AKS 21 RI.14.D ICS PI.HS0.A
to page 101
AKS 33 RD.5G.H REG PD.KM0.A AKS 32R PI.SB0.A REG PI.KM0.A
CVC PD.HN0.A SCA RD.7E.C AKS 33 PI.SB0.A SCA PI.FL0.A
CVP PD.HN0.A SVA PD.KD0.A CVC RI.4X.L SVA PI.KD0.B
EKC 331 RS.8A.G TEAT RD.1F.A CVP RI.4X.D TEAT PI.AU0.A
EKC 361 RS.8A.E EKC 331 RI.8B.E
EVRA(T) RD.3C.B EKC 361 RI.8B.F
EVRA(T) RI.3D.A

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 17


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

3. Condenser Controls In areas where there are large variations in This condensing capacity control is achieved
ambient air temperatures and/or load conditions, either by regulating the flow of circulating air or
it is necessary to control the condensing water through the condenser, or by reducing the
pressure to avoid it from falling too low. Too effective heat exchange surface area.
low condensing pressures results in there being
Different solutions can be designed for different
insufficient pressure differential across the
types of condensers:
expansion device and the evaporator is supplied
3.1 Air cooled condensers
with insufficient refrigerant. It means that
3.2 Evaporative condensers
condenser capacity control is mainly used in the
3.3 Water cooled condensers
temperate climate zones and to a lesser degree in
subtropical and tropical zones.
The basic idea of control is to control the
condenser capacity when the ambient
temperature is low, so that the condensing
pressure is maintained above the minimum
acceptable level.

3.1 An air cooled condenser is a condenser cooled by Condensing pressure control for air cooled
Air Cooled Condensers ambient air drawn from bottom to the top across condensers can be achieved in the following
the heat exchange surface (tubes with fins) by ways:
axial or centrifugal fans.

3.1.1 - Step Control of Air Cooled Condensers


The first method was using the required number However this system reacted too fast and timers
of pressure controls in the form the Danfoss RT-5 were used for delaying the cut-in and cut-out of
and adjusting them to different set cut-in and the fans.
cut-out pressures.
The Third method is today’s step controller the
The second method of controlling the fans was Danfoss EKC-331.
by using a neutral zone pressure controller in the
form of the Danfoss type RT-L. Initially it was used
together with a step controller with the required
number of contacts for the number of fans.

3.1.2 - Fan speed control of air cooled condensers


This method of condenser fan control is mainly
used whenever a reduction in noise level is
desired due to environmental concerns.
For this type of installation Danfoss frequency
converter AKD can be used.

3.1.3 - Area control of air cooled condensers


For area or capacity control of air cooled
condensers a receiver is required. This receiver
must have sufficient volume to be able to
accommodate the variations in the amount of
refrigerant in the condenser.

Two ways this condenser area control can be


done:
1. Main valve ICS or PM combined with the 2. Main valve ICS combined with the constant
constant pressure pilot CVP(HP) mounted in pressure pilot CVP(HP) mounted in the pipe
the hot gas line on the inlet side to the between the condenser and the receiver and
condenser and ICV combined with a a ICS combined with a differential pressure
differential pressure pilot CVPP(HP) mounted pilot CVPP(HP) mounted in the pipe between
in the pipe between the hot gas line and the the hot gas line and the receiver. This method
receiver. In the pipe between the condenser is mainly used in commercial refrigeration.
and the receiver a check valve NRVA is
mounted to prevent liquid migration from the
receiver to the condenser.

18 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 3.1.1:


Step control of fans with step
controller EKC 331 � EKC 331

� AKS 33
From
discharge line � SVA Condenser

� SVA � SVA
SFA SFA

SNV
DSV
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
Receiver
LLG
➀ Step controller
➁ Pressure transmitter
➂ Stop valve Danfoss
SNV

➃ Stop valve Tapp_0031_02 SVA To expansion


04-2006 device
➄ Stop valve
EKC 331 ➀ is a four-step controller with up to In some installations, EKC 331T is used. In this
four relay outputs. It controls the switching of the case the input signal could be from a PT 1000
fans according to the condensing pressure signal temperature sensor, e.g. AKS 21. The temperature
from a pressure transmitter AKS 33 ➁ or AKS 32R. sensor is usually installed in the outlet of the
Based on neutral zone control, EKC 331 ➀ condenser.
can control the condensing capacity so that the
condensing pressure is maintained above the Please note: This solution is not as accurate as
required minimum level. the solution with pressure transmitter, because
the outlet temperature may not correctly reflect
For more information on neutral zone control, the condensing pressure because of subcooling.
please refer to section 2.1. If the subcooling is too small flash gas may occur
when fans are starting up.
The bypass pipe where SVA ➄ is installed is
an equalizing pipe, which helps balance the
pressure in the receiver with the inlet pressure of
the condenser so that the liquid refrigerant in the
condenser can be drained into the receiver.

Technical data Pressure transmitter - AKS 33 Pressure transmitter - AKS 32R


Refrigerants All refrigerant including R717
Operating range [bar] –1 up to 34 –1 up to 34
Max. working pressure [bar] Up to 55 >33
Operating temp. range [°C] –40 to 85
Compensated temp. range [°C] LP: –30 to +40 / HP: 0 to +80
Rated output signal 4 to 20 mA 10 to 90% of V supply

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 19


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 3.1.2:


Fan speed control of air cooled
condensers
� AKD

From � AKS 33
discharge
line � SVA Condenser

� SVA
SFV SFV

DSV SVA

LLG Receiver

SNV To expansion
Danfoss
HP vapour refrigerant Tapp_0141_02 SVA device
HP liquid refrigerant 08-2006

➀ Frequency converter
➁ Pressure transducer
Frequency converter control offer the following
advantages:
Energy savings
Improved control and product quality
Noise reduction
Longer lifetime
Simplified installation
Easy to use complete control of the system

Technical data Frequency converter AKD2800 Frequency converter AKD5000


Enclosure IP 20 IP 20 or IP 54
KW size* 0.37kW to 18.5kW 0.75kW to 55kW
Voltage 200-240V or 380-480V 200-240V or 380-500V
* Larger kW sizes on request

20 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Technical data Constant pressure pilot valve - CVP (HP/XP)


(continued) Material CVP (HP) Body: cast iron
Base: stainless steel
CVP (XP) Body: steel
Base: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] CVP (HP): 28
CVP (XP): 52
Pressure range [bar] CVP (HP): –0.66 to 28
CVP (XP): 25 to 52
Kv value [m3/h] CVP (HP): 0.4
CVP (XP): 0.45

Overflow valve - OFV


Material Body: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 20/25
Opening differential pressure range [bar] 2 to 8

3.2 An evaporative condenser is a condenser cooled air stream. In this way the building up of calcium
Evaporative Condensers by ambient air combined with water sprayed scales on the surface of the main heat exchanger
through orifices and air baffles in counter flow pipes is greatly reduced.
with the air. The water evaporates and the
evaporation effect of the water drops adds much This type reduces the water consumption
to the condenser capacity considerably compared to a normal water cooled
condenser. Capacity control of an evaporative
Today’s evaporative condensers are enclosed in a condenser can be achieved by either two speed
steel or plastic enclosure with axial or centrifugal fan or variable speed control of the fan and
fans at the bottom or at the top of the condenser. at very low ambient temperature conditions
switching off the water circulation pump.
The heat exchanger surface in the wet air stream
consists of steel pipes.
Above the water spray orifices (in the dry air) it is
common to have a de-super heater made of steel
pipes with fins to reduce the hot gas temperature
before it reaches the heat exchanger in the wet

3.2.1 - Control of Evaporative Condensers


Controlling the evaporative condensers
condensing pressure or the condenser capacity
can be achieved in different ways:
1. RT or KP pressure controls for fan and water
pump control (as it was earlier).
2. RT-L neutral zone pressure control for fan and
water pump control.
3. Step controller for controlling two speed fans
and the water pump.
4. Frequency converters for fan speed control
and water pump control.
5. Saginomiya flow-switch for alarm if water
circulation fails.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 21


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 3.2.1:


Step control of evaporative
condenser with pressure
controller RT � RT 5A
SCA � RT 5A

� SVA
Water
pump
Suction
line Condenser
Compressor
� SVA
� SVA
SFA SFA

SNV DSV
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant Receiver
Oil LLG

➀ Pressure controller
➁ Pressure controller SVA SNV
➂ Stop valve Danfoss
To expansion
To oil device
➃ Stop valve Tapp_0033_02
04-2006 cooler
➄ Stop valve
This solution maintains the condensing In extremely low ambient temperature, when the
pressure, as well as the pressure in the receiver condensing pressure drops below the setting of
at a sufficiently high level in low ambient RT 5A ➀ after all the fans have been switched off,
temperature. RT 5A ➀ will stop the water pump.

When the inlet pressure of the condenser drops When the pump is stopped, the condenser and
below the setting of the pressure controller RT the water pipes should be drained to avoid
5A ➁, the controller will switch off the fan, to scaling and freezing.
decrease the condensing capacity.

Technical data HP pressure control - RT 5A


Refrigerants R717 and fluorinated refrigerants
Enclosure IP 66/54
Ambient temp. [°C] –50 to 70
Regulating range [bar] RT 5A: 4 to 17
Max. working pressure [bar] 22
Max. test pressure [bar] 25

22 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 3.2.2:


step control of evaporative
condenser with step controller
EKC331 � EKC 331
SCA
� AKS 33
� SVA
Water
pump
Suction
line Condenser
Compressor
� SVA � SVA
SFA SFA

SNV
DSV
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant Receiver
Oil LLG

➀ Step controller
➁ Pressure transmitter SVA SNV
➂ Stop valve Danfoss
To expansion
device
➃ Stop valve Tapp_0034_02
04-2006
To oil
cooler
➄ Stop valve
This solution works in the same way as example If control takes place outside the hatched area
3.2.1, but operated via step controller EKC 331 ➀. (named ++zone and --zone), changes of the cut-
For more information on EKC 331, please refer to in capacity will occur somewhat faster than if it
page 7. were in the hatched area.
Step control solution for compressor capacity can For more details, please refer to the manual of
be achieved by using a step controller EKC 331 ➀. EKC 331(T) from Danfoss.
EKC 331 is a four-step controller with up to four
relay outputs. It controls the loading/unloading
of the compressors/pistons or the electric motor
of the compressor according to the suction
pressure signal from the pressure transmitter AKS
33 ➁ or AKS 32R. Based on a neutral zone control,
EKC 331 can control a pack system with up to four
equally sized compressor steps or alternatively
two capacity controlled compressors (each
having one unload valve).
EKC 331T version can accept a signal from a
PT 1000 temperature sensor, which may be
necessary for secondary systems.
Neutral Zone Control
A neutral zone is set around the reference value,
in which no loading/unloading occurs.
Outside the neutral zone (in the hatched areas
“+zone” and “- zone”) loading/unloading will
occur as the measure pressure deviates away
from the neutral zone settings.

Technical data Pressure transmitter-AKS 33 Pressure transmitter-AKS 32R


Refrigerants All refrigerant including R717
Operating range [bar] –1 up to 34 –1 up to 34
Max. working pressure PB [bar] Up to 55 >33
Operating temp. range [°C] –40 to 85
Compensated temp. range [°C] LP: –30 to +40 / HP: 0 to +80
Rated output signal 4 to 20 mA 10 to 90% of V supply

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 23


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

3.3 The water cooled condenser was originally a shell Today water cooled condensers are popular
Water Cooled Condensers and tube heat exchanger, but today it is very in chillers, with the cooling water cooled by a
often a plate heat exchanger of modern design cooling tower and re-circulated. It can also be
(for ammonia made of stainless steel). used as a heat recovery condenser to supply hot
water.
Water cooled condensers are not commonly
used, because in many places it is not allowed The control of the condensing pressure can be
to use the large amount of water these types achieved by a pressure controlled water valve,
consume (water shortage and/or high prices for or a motorised water valve controlled by an
water). electronic controller to control the flow of the
cooling water according to the condensing
pressure.

Application example 3.3.1:


Water flow control of water
cooled condensers with a water
valve SCA � SVA

SFA SFA
SNV
Cooling
Suction DSV water out
line

Compressor � WVS
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
Condenser Cooling
Oil water in
SNV
� SVA
➀ Stop valve Danfoss
➁ Stop valve Tapp_0035_02
04-2006
To expansion
device
➂ Water valve
This solution maintains the condensing pressure
at a constant level. The refrigerant condensing
pressure is directed through a capillary tube to
the top of the water valve WVS ➂, and adjusts the
opening of WVS ➂ accordingly. The water valve
WVS is a P-regulator.

Technical data Water valve - WVS


Materials Valve body: cast iron
Bellows: aluminium and corrosion-proofed steel
Refrigerants R717, CFC, HCFC, HFC
Media Fresh water, neutral brine
Media temp. range [°C] –25 to 90
Adjustable closing pressure [bar] 2.2 to 19
Max. working pressure on refrigerant side [bar] 26.4
Max. working pressure on liquid side [bar] 10
DN [mm] 32 to 100

24 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 3.3.2:


Water flow control of water � Controller
cooled condensers with a
motor-valve

SCA � � SVA
AKS 33

SFA
AMV 20
SFA
SNV
Cooling
Suction DSV water in
HP vapour refrigerant line
HP liquid refrigerant
Oil Compressor � VM2

Condenser Cooling
➀ Pressure transmitter water out
➁ Controller SNV
� SVA
➂ Motor-valve Danfoss
➃ Stop valve Tapp_0036_02
04-2006
To expansion
device
➄ Stop valve
The controller ➁ receives the condensing In this solution, PI or PID control can be
pressure signal from the pressure transmitter AKS configured in the controller.
33 ➀, and sends out a corresponding modulating
signal to actuator AMV 20 of the motor valve VM 2 and VFG 2 are motor-valves designed for
VM 2 ➂. In this way, the flow of cooling water is district heating, and can also be used for water
adjusted and the condensing pressure is kept flow control in refrigeration plants.
constant.

Technical data Motor valve - VM 2


Material Body: red bronze
Media Circulation water/ glycolic water up to 30%
Media temp. range [°C] 2 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 25
DN [mm] 15 to 50

Motor valve - VFG 2


Material Body: cast iron/ductile iron/cast steel
Media Circulation water/ glycolic water up to 30%
Media temp. range [°C] 2 to 200
Max. working pressure [bar] 16/25/40
DN [mm] 15 to 250

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 25


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

3.4
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations


Air Cooled Condenser Control
Step control of fans with Used mainly in industrial Control of air volume in Very low ambient
step controller EKC331 refrigeration in hot climates steps or with variable fan temperatures; Fan step
PT
and to a much lesser degree speed control; Energy control can be noisy.
Condenser in colder climates saving;
Receiver No use of water.

Fan speed control of air Applicable to all condensers Low start up current Very low ambient
cooled condensers with the ability to run at Energy savings temperatures;
PT reduced speed. Lower noise
Condenser
Longer lifetime
Simplified installation
Receiver

Evaporative Condenser Control


Step control of evaporative Industrial refrigeration Large reduction in water Not applicable in countries
condenser with pressure PS PS
with very large capacity consumption compared to with high relative humidity;
controller RT requirement water cooled condensers In cold climates special
From and relatively easy to precaution has to be taken
discharge line
capacity control; Energy so the water pipe is drained
Condenser saving. for water during water pump
off periods.
Receiver

Step control of evaporative Industrial refrigeration Large reduction in water Not applicable in countries
condenser with step with very large capacity consumption compared to with high relative humidity;
controller EKC331 PT requirement water cooled condensers In cold climates special
and relatively easy to precaution has to be taken
From
discharge
line Water
capacity control; Possible so the water pipe is drained
pump
Condenser
to control remotely. Energy for water during water pump
saving. off periods.
Receiver

Water Cooled Condenser Control


Liquid flow control with a Cooling
PC water in
Chillers, heat recovery It is easy to capacity control Not applicable when water
water valve condensers availability is a problem.
Compressor
Condenser Cooling
water out

Liquid flow control with a PC Chillers, heat recovery It is easy to capacity control This type of installation
motor valve PT
Cooling
condensers the condenser and the heat is more expensive than
M water in
recovery; Possible to control a normal set up; Not
Compressor
Condenser Cooling
remotely. applicable when water
water out
availability is a problem.

3.5 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
AKD RB.8D.B ICS PD.HS0.A AKD 2800 EI.R1.H ICS PI.HS0.A
For an alphabetical overview of AKS 21 ED.SA0.A NRVA RD.6H.A AKD 5000 EI.R1.R NRVA RI.6H.B
all reference literature please go
AKS 32R RD.5G.J RT 5A RD.5B.A AKS 21 RI.14.D RT 5A RI.5B.C
to page 101
AKS 33 RD.5G.H SVA PD.KD0.A AKS 32R PI.SB0.A SVA PI.KD0.B
AMV 20 ED.95.N VM 2 ED.97.K AKS 33 PI.SB0.A VM 2 VI.HB.C
CVPP PD.HN0.A WVS RD.4C.A AMV 20 EI.96.A WVS RI.4C.B
CVP PD.HN0.A CVPP RI.4X.D
CVP RI.4X.D

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

26 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

4. Liquid Level Control Liquid level control is an important element in Low pressure systems are typically
the designing of industrial refrigeration systems. characterized by:
It controls the liquid injection to maintain a 1. Focus on the liquid level on the evaporating
constant liquid level. side of the system
2. Receiver is usually big
Two main different principles may be used when 3. Large (enough) charge of refrigerant
designing a liquid level control system: 4. Mainly applied to de-centralized systems
High pressure liquid level control system (HP
LLRS) Both principles can be achieved, using
mechanical and electronic components
Low pressure liquid level control system (LP
LLRS)

High pressure liquid level control systems are


typically characterised by:
1. Focus on the liquid level on the condensing
side of the system
2. Critical refrigerant charge
3. Small receiver or even no receiver
4. Applies mainly to chiller units and other
systems with small refrigerant charge (for
example, small freezers)

4.1 When designing a HP LLRS, the following points hammering). If the system is undercharged the
High Pressure Liquid Level have to be taken into consideration: evaporator will be starved. The size of the low
Control System (HP LLRS) pressure vessel (liquid separator/ shell-tube
As soon as liquid is “formed” in the condenser the evaporator) must be carefully designed so
liquid is fed to the evaporator (low pressure side). that it can accommodate the refrigerant in all
conditions without causing liquid hammering.
The liquid leaving the condenser will have little
or no sub-cooling. This is important to consider Because of the above reasons, HP LLRS are
when the liquid flows to the low pressure side. especially suitable for systems requiring small
If there is pressure loss in the piping or the refrigerant charge, like chiller units, or small
components, flash-gas may occur and cause the freezers. Chiller units usually do not need
flow capacity to be reduced. receivers. Even if a receiver is necessary in order
to install pilots and provide feed refrigerant to an
The refrigerant charge must be precisely oil cooler, the receiver could be small.
calculated in order to ensure that there
is adequate refrigerant in the system. An
overcharge increases the risk of flooding the
evaporator or the liquid separator causing
liquid carry over into the compressor (liquid

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 27


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.1.1:


From condenser

Tapp_0044_02
Mechanical solution for HP
liquid level control

Danfoss

04-2006
From SVA
discharge
line SVA SFA SFA
� SVA
SNV
DSV
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant � SV1
Receiver
LLG

➀ Stop valve
➁ Filter
➂ Servo-operated main valve EVM
SVA
➃ Stop valve SNV � SVA
To seperator
➄ Float valve To oil
cooler
➅ Stop valve � SVA
� FIA � PMFH � SVA
➆ Stop valve
On large HP LLRS the SV1 ➄ or SV3 float valve is
used as a pilot valve for a PMFH ➂ main valve.
As illustrated above, when the liquid level in the
receiver rises above the set level, the SV1 ➄ float
valve provides a signal to the PMFH main valve
to open.

Technical data PMFH 80 - 1 to 500


Material Low temp. spherical cast iron
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and CFC
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to + 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Max test pressure [bar] 42
Rated capacity* [kW] 139-13900
* Conditions: R717, +5/32°C, Tl = 28°C

Float valve - SV 1 and SV3


Material Housing: steel
Cover: low temperature cast iron
Float: stainless steel
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and CFC
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to + 65
P-band [mm] 35
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Max test pressure [bar] 36
Kv value [m3/h] 0.06 for SV 1
0.14 for SV 3
Rated capacity* [kW] SV1: 25
SV3: 64

* Conditions: R717, +5/32°C, Tl = 28°C

28 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.1.2:


Purge pipe (option 1)
Mechanical solution for HP
liquid level control with HFI From
compressor

Cooling water out

� HFI
Cooling water in

HP vapour refrigerant Plate type condenser


HP liquid refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Purge pipe
Oil Danfoss
To liquid (option 2)
Tapp_0045_02
08-2006 seperator
➀ HP float valve
If the condenser is a plate heat exchanger, the In certain cases it may be necessary to connect
mechanical float valve HFI ➀ can be used to the purge pipe to the HP/LP (option 1/option 2)
control the liquid level. side, as indicated on the drawing. This solution
enables reaching the required capacity when HFI
The HFI is a direct acting high pressure float is placed remotely from the condenser.
valve; therefore no differential pressure is
required to activate the valve

Technical data HFI


Material Special steel approved for low temperature application
Refrigerants R717 and other non-flammable refrigerant. For the refrigerants with density greater than 700kg/m3,
please consult Danfoss.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 80
Max. working pressure [bar] 25 bar
Max test pressure [bar] 50 bar (without float)
Rated capacity* [kW] 400 to 2400
* Conditions: R717, –10/35°C

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 29


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.1.3:


Electronic solution for HP liquid From condenser

Tapp_0046_02
level control

Danfoss

04-2006
From SVA
discharge � AKS 41
line SFA SFA � SVA
HP vapour refrigerant SVA SNV
HP liquid refrigerant DSV
LP liquid refrigerant

Receiver
➀ Stop valve LLG
➁ Filter � EKC 347
➂ Motor valve
➃ Stop valve ICAD
➄ Controller SVA SNV � SVA
➅ Level transmitter To seperator
To oil
➆ Stop valve cooler � SVA � ICM � SVA
� FIA
➇ Stop valve
When designing an electronic LLRS solution the With a regulating valve REG acting as an
liquid level signal can be given either by an AKS expansion valve and an EVRA solenoid valve
38 which is a level switch (ON/OFF) or an AKS 41 to implement ON/OFF control.
which is a level transmitter (4-20 mA). The system illustrated is an AKS 41 ➅ level
transmitter which sends a level signal to an
The electronic signal is sent to an EKC 347 EKC 347 ➄ liquid level controller. The ICM ➂
electronic controller which controls the injection motor valve acts as an expansion valve.
valve.

The liquid injection can be controled in several


different ways:
With a modulating motor valve type ICM with
an ICAD actuator.
With a pulse-width-modulating expansion
valve type AKVA. The AKVA valve should be
used only where the pulsation from the valve
is acceptable.

Technical data Motor valve - ICM


Material Body: Low temperature steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants including R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80
Nominal capacity* [kW] 224 to 14000
* Conditions: R717, Te = –10°C, Δp = 8.0 bar, ΔTsub = 4K;

Level transmitter - AKS 41


Material Thread and pipe: stainless steel
Top part: cast aluminium
Refrigerants R717, R22, R404a, R134a, R718, R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 100
Max. working pressure [bar] 60
Measuring range [mm] 207 to 2927

30 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

4.2 When designing a LP LLRS, the following points As a result of the above, LP LLRS are especially
Low Pressure Liquid have to be taken into consideration: suitable for de-centralised systems in which
Level Control System (LP there are many evaporators, and the refrigerant
LLRS) The liquid level in the low pressure vessel (liquid charge is large, like cold stores. With LP LLRS,
separator/ shell-tube evaporator) is maintained at these systems could run safely even though the
a constant level. This is safe to the system, since refrigerant charge is impossible to be precisely
a too high liquid level in the liquid separator calculated.
may cause liquid hammering to the compressor,
and a too low level may lead to cavitation of the In conclusion, HP LLRS are suitable for compact
refrigerant pumps in a pump circulation system. systems like chillers; the advantage is the reduced
cost (small receiver or no receiver). While LP LLRS
The receiver must be big enough to accumulate are very suitable for de-centralised systems with
the liquid refrigerant coming from the many evaporators and long piping, like a large
evaporators when the content of refrigerant in cold storage; the advantage being the higher
some evaporators vary with the cooling load, safety and reliability.
some evaporators are shut off for service, or part
of the evaporators are drained for defrosting.

Application example 4.2.1:


Mechanical solution for LP SVA
From evaporator
liquid level control To
compressor SVA
suction line
SFA SFA
SVA
SNV � SVA
HP liquid refrigerant DSV
Liquid/vapour mixture EVM
of refrigerant From
Liquid receiver
LP vapour refrigerant Separator AKS 38
LP liquid refrigerant LLG
� SV4 � ICS1 � SVA
� FIA
AKS 38
➀ Stop valve � SVA
➁ Filter SVA
➂ Solenoid valve SNV SVA
➃ LP float valve SVA
➄ Stop valve Danfoss
QDV Tapp_0047_02
➅ Stop valve To evaporator 04-2006

SV float valves “monitor” the liquid level in low


pressure vessels. If the capacity is small the SV ➃
valves can directly act as an expansion valve in
the low pressure vessel as shown.

Technical data SV 4-6


Material Housing: steel
Cover: low temperature cast iron(spherical)
Float: stainless steel
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and CFC
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +120
P-band [mm] 35
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Max test pressure [bar] 42
Kv value [m3/h] 0.23 for SV 4
0.31 for SV 5
0.43 for SV 6
Rated capacity* [kW] SV4: 102
SV5: 138
SV6: 186

* Conditions: R717, +5/32°C, ΔTsub = 4K.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 31


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.2.2:


Mechanical solution for LP From
SVA evaporator
liquid level control EVM
To
compressor SVA � SVA From
suction line receiver
SFA SFA
SVA
SNV � SVA
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture DSV � PMFL � FIA
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Liquid AKS 38 � SVA
LLG Separator
� SV4
➀ Stop valve AKS 38 � SVA
➁ Filter
➂ Servo-operated main valve SVA
➃ Stop valve SNV SVA
➄ LP float valve SVA
➅ Stop valve To evaporator QDV
Danfoss
Tapp_0048_02

➆ Stop valve 04-2006

If the capacity is large, the float valve SV ➄ is


used as a pilot valve for the PMFL main valve.
As illustrated above, when the liquid level in the
receiver falls below the set level, the float valve
SV ➄ provides a signal to the PMFL value to open.

Technical data PMFL 80 - 1 to 500


Material Low temp. spherical cast iron
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and CFC
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to +120
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Max test pressure [bar] 42
Rated capacity* [kW] 139-13,900

* Conditions: R717, +5/32°C, ΔTsub = 4K.

Application example 4.2.3:


Electronic solution for LP liquid
level control To
compressor � EKC 347
suction line � AKS 41
SFA SFA
HP liquid refrigerant SVA SNV
Liquid/vapour mixture SVA
DSV
of refrigerant EVM
ICAD
From
LP vapour refrigerant receiver
LP liquid refrigerant Liquid
LLG Separator � AKS 38 � SVA � ICM � ICS � FIA � SVA
➀ Stop valve
➁ Filter
➂ Solenoid valve SVA From evaporator
➃ Motor valve SNV SVA SVA
➄ Stop valve
SVA
➅ Controller To evaporator QDV
Danfoss
Tapp_0049_02
➆ Level transmitter 04-2006

➇ Level switch
The level transmitter AKS 41 ➆, monitors the The liquid level controller EKC 347 ➅ also
liquid level in the separator and sends a level provides relay outputs for upper and lower limits
signal to the liquid level controller EKC 347 ➅, and for alarm level. However, it is recommended
which sends a modulating signal to the actuator that a level switch AKS 38 ➇ is fitted as a high
of the motor valve ICM ➃. The ICM motor valve level cut out.
acts as an expansion valve.

32 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.2.4:


Electronic solution for LP liquid To
level control compressor � AKS 41
suction line
SFA SFA
HP liquid refrigerant SVA � EKC 347
SNV
Liquid/vapour mixture SVA
DSV
of refrigerant EVM
� SVA From
LP vapour refrigerant � FIA receiver
LP liquid refrigerant Liquid
AKS 38 � SVA
LLG Separator � AKVA� ICS1
➀ Stop valve
➁ Filter
➂ Solenoid valve From evaporator
SVA
➃ Electronically operated SNV SVA SVA
expansion valve
➄ Stop valve SVA
Danfoss
➅ Controller To evaporator QDV Tapp_0050_02
04-2006

➆ Level transmitter
This solution is similar to solution 4.2.3. However, The liquid level controller EKC 347 ➅ also
with this example the motor valve ICM is provides relay outputs for upper and lower limits
replaced by a pulse width electronically operated and for alarm level. However, it is recommended
expansion valve AKVA. The servo valve ICS ➂ is that a level switch AKS 38 is fitted as a high level
being used as an additional solenoid valve to cut out.
ensure 100% closure during “off” cycles.

Technical data AKVA


Material AKVA 10: stainless steel
AKVA 15: cast iron
AKVA 20: cast iron
Refrigerants R717
Media temp. range [°C] AKVA 10: –50 to +60
AKVA 15/20: –40 to +60
Max. working pressure [bar] 42
DN [mm] 10 to 50
Nominal capacity* [kW] 4 to 3150
* Conditions: R717, +5/32°C, ΔTsub = 4K.

Application example 4.2.5:


Electronic solution for LP liquid To � EKC 347
level control compressor � AKS 41
suction line
SFA SFA
SVA
HP liquid refrigerant SNV
Liquid/vapour mixture SVA
DSV
of refrigerant ICM ICFE ICFS
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Liquid From receiver
LLG AKS 38
Separator ICFF
➀ ICF valve station including: ICFS ICFM

M
� ICF

From evaporator
Stop valve SVA
SNV SVA SVA
Filter
Solenoid valve
Manual opener SVA
Danfoss
Motor valve To evaporator QDV Tapp_0051_02
04-2006
Stop valve
➁ Controller
Danfoss can supply a very compact valve The module ICM acts as an expansion valve and
➂ Level transmitter solution ICF ➀. Up to six different modules can be the module ICFE is a solenoid valve.
assembled into the same housing, which is easy This solution works in an identical manner to
to install. example 4.2.3. ICF solution similar to example
4.2.4 is also available. Please refer to ICF literature
for further information.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 33


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 4.2.6:


Electronic solution for LP liquid
To
level control compressor
suction line
SFA SFA
SVA
SNV
SVA
DSV
� REG From
AKS 38 receiver
HP liquid refrigerant � AKS 38
Liquid/vapour mixture LLG Liquid � SVA � SVA
of refrigerant Separator � EVRA+FA
AKS 38
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant
SVA From evaporator
➀ Stop valve SNV SVA SVA
➁ Solenoid valve
➂ Hand regulating valve SVA
Danfoss
To evaporator
➃ Stop valve QDV Tapp_0052_02
04-2006

➄ Level switch
This solution controls the liquid injection using
on/off control. The level switch AKS 38 ➄, controls
the switching of the solenoid valve EVRA ➁, in
accordance with liquid level in the separator.
The hand regulating valve REG ➂ acts as the
expansion valve.

Technical data AKS 38


Material Housing: zinc chromate cast iron
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +65
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Measuring range [mm] 12.5 to 50

REG
Material Special cold resistant steel approved for low temperature operation
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 80
Leakage test: 40
Kv value [m3/h] 0.17 to 81.4 for fully open valves

EVRA
Refrigerants R717, R22, R134a, R404a, R410a, R744, R502
Media temp. range [°C] –40 to +105
Max. working pressure [bar] 42
Rated capacity* [kW] 21.8 to 2368
Kv value [m3/h] 0.23 to 25.0

* Conditions: R717, –10/+25°C, Δp = 0.15 bar

34 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

4.3
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations


High pressure mechanical Applicable to systems with Pure mechanical. Unable to control remotely,
solution: Receiver small refrigerant charges, Wide capacity range. the distance between SV
SV1/3 + PMFH like chillers. and PMFH is limited to
several meters.
A little bit slow in response.
High pressure mechanical Applicable to systems Pure mechanical. Unable to provide
solution: with small refrigerant Simple solution. thermosyphon oil cooling.
HFI Plate type charges and with plate type Especially suitable for plate
condenser
condensers only. heat exchanger

High pressure electronic LT Applicable to systems with Flexible and compact. Not allowed for flammable
solution: LC
small refrigerant charges, Possible to monitor and refrigerant.
AKS 41+EKC 347 + ICM Receiver like chillers. control remotely.
Covers a wide range of
M
capacity.
Low pressure mechanical Applicable to small systems. Pure mechanical. Limited capacity.
solution: Liquid separator
Simple, low cost solution.
SV4-6

Low pressure mechanical Particularly applicable to Pure mechanical. Unable to control remotely,
solution: de-central systems, like cold Wide capacity range. the distance between SV
SV 4-6 + PMFL stores. and PMFL is limited to
Liquid separator several meters.
A little bit slow in response.
Low pressure electronic Particularly applicable to Flexible and compact. Not allowed for flammable
M LC
solution: de-central systems, like cold Possible to monitor and refrigerant.
LT
AKS 41 + EKC 347 + ICM stores. control remotely.
Covers a wide range of
capacities.
Liquid separator

Low pressure electronic Particularly applicable to Flexible and compact. Not allowed for flammable
AKVA LC
solution: LT
de-central systems, like cold Possible to monitor and refrigerant.
AKS 41 + EKC 347 + AKVA stores. control remotely. The system needs to allow
Wide capacity range. for pulsations.
Liquid separator
Faster than motor valve.
Fail safe valve (NC).

Low pressure electronic Particularly applicable to Flexible and compact. Not allowed for flammable
LC
solution: M
de-central systems, like cold Possible to monitor and refrigerant.
LT
AKS 41 + EKC 347 + ICF stores. control remotely.
Covers a wide range of
capacities.
Liquid separator
Easy to install.

Low pressure electronic Particularly applicable to Simple. Just 40 mm for level


solution: de-central systems, like cold In-expensive. adjustment.
AKS 38 + EVRA + REG stores. Very dependant on the
Liquid separator adjustment of the REG valve.
Not suitable for systems with
big capacity fluctuations.

4.4 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
AKS 38 RD.5M.A PMFH/L RD.2C.B AKS 38 RI.5M.A PMFH/L RI.2C.F PI.GE0.A
For an alphabetical overview of AKS 41 PD.SC0.A ICF PD.FT0.A AKS 41 PI.SC0.A ICF PI.FT0.A
all reference literature please go
AKVA PD.VA1.B REG PD.KM0.A AKVA PI.VA1.C PI.VA1.B REG PI.KM0.A
to page 101
EKC 347 RS.8A.X SV 1-3 RD.2C.B EKC 347 RI.8B.Y SV 1-3 RI.2B.F
EVRA(T) RD.3C.B SV 4-6 RD.2C.B EVRA(T) RI.3D.A SV 4-6 RI.2B.B
ICM PD.HT0.A ICM PI.HT0.A

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 35


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5. Evaporator Controls The evaporator is the part of the refrigeration Multi-temperature changeover (Section
system where the effective heat is transferred 5.5) for evaporators that need to operate at
from the media you want to cool down (e.g. air, different temperature levels.
brine, or the product directly) to the refrigerant. Media temperature control (Section 5.6)
when the media temperature is required to
Therefore, the primary function of evaporator be maintained at a constant level with high
control system is to achieve the desired media accuracy.
temperature. Furthermore, the control system
should also keep the evaporator in efficient and When introducing media temperature control
trouble-free operation at all times. and defrost, direct expansion (DX) evaporators
and pumped liquid circulation evaporators are
Specifically, the following control methods may discussed separately, because there are some
be necessary for evaporators: differences in the control systems.
Liquid supply control Section 5.1 and 5.2
describes two different types of liquid supply-
direct expansion (DX) and pumped liquid
circulation.
Defrost (Section 5.3 and 5.4), which is
necessary for air coolers operating at
temperatures below 0°C.

5.1 To design liquid supply for direct expansion The liquid injection is controled by a superheat-
Direct Expansion Control evaporators, the following requirements should controlled expansion valve, which maintains the
be satisfied: superheat at the outlet of the evaporator within a
The liquid refrigerant supplied to the desired range. This expansion valve can be either
evaporator is completely evaporated. This is a thermostatic expansion valve, or an electronic
necessary to protect the compressor against expansion valve.
liquid hammer.
The temperature control is normally achieved by
The media “off” temperature from the ON/OFF control, which starts and stops the liquid
evaporator is maintained within the desired supply to the evaporator according to the media
range. temperature.

36 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.1.1:


DX evaporator, thermostatic Danfoss To suction line
Tapp_0062_02
expansion 04-2006

HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture
� SVA
� EKC 202
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
� AKS 21
➀ Stop valve liquid inlet
➁ Filter
➂ Solenoid valve
➃ Thermostatic expansion valve � TEA
From
➄ Stop valve evaporator inlet receiver
➅ Stop valve suction line
� SVA � SVA
➆ Evaporator � FA +
➇ Digital thermostat � EVRA � Evaporator
➈ Temperature sensor
Application example 5.1.1 shows a typical This solution can also be applied to DX
installation for a DX evaporator without hot gas evaporators with natural or electric defrost.
defrosting.
Natural defrost is achieved by stopping the
The liquid injection is controled by the refrigerant flow to the evaporator, and keeping
thermostatic expansion valve TEA ➃, which the fan running. Electric defrost is achieved by
maintains the refrigerant superheat at the stopping the refrigerant flow to the evaporator
outlet of the evaporator at a constant level. TEA and the fan and at the same time switching on an
is designed for ammonia. Danfoss also supply electric heater inside the evaporator fin block.
thermostatic expansion valves for fluorinated
refrigerants. Evaporator Controller EKC 202
The digital thermostat will control all functions of
The media temperature is controlled by the the evaporator including thermostat, fan, defrost
digital thermostat EKC 202 ➇, which controls the and alarms.
on/off switching of the solenoid valve EVRA ➂
according to the media temperature signal from For more details, please refer to the manual of
the PT 1000 temperature sensor AKS 21 ➈. EKC 202 from Danfoss.

Technical data Thermostatic expansion valve - TEA


Refrigerants R717
Evaporating temp. range [°C] –50 to 30
Max. bulb temp. [°C] 100
Max. working pressure [bar] 19
Rated Capacity* [kW] 3.5 to 295
* Conditions: –15°C/+32°C, ΔTsub = 4°C

Solenoid valve - EVRA(T)


Refrigerants R717, R22, R134a, R404a, R410a, R744, R502
Media temp. range [°C] –40 to +105
Max. working pressure [bar] 42
Rated capacity* [kW] 21.8 to 2368
Kv value [m3/h] 0.23 to 25.0
* Conditions: R717, –10/+25°C, Δp = 0.15 bar

Strainer - FA
Refrigerants Ammonia and fluorinated refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +140
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
DN [mm] 15/20
Filter insert 150μ stainless steel weave
Kv value [m3/h] 3.3/7.0

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 37


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.1.2:


DX evaporator, electronic
Danfoss
expansion � EKC 315A Tapp_0063_02
04-2006

HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture � SVA
of refrigerant AKS 33
LP vapour refrigerant To suction line � AKS 21
AKS 21
➀ Stop valve liquid inlet
➁ Filter
➂ Solenoid valve
➃ Electronic expansion valve ICAD
➄ Stop valve evaporator inlet
➅ Stop valve suction line From receiver
➆ Evaporator
➇ Controller � SVA � ICM � SVA
➈ Temperature sensor � FA + � Evaporator
� EVRA
Pressure transmitter
Temperature sensor

Application example 5.1.2 shows a typical Compared with the solution 5.1.1, this solution
installation for an electronically controlled DX will operate the evaporator at an optimised
evaporator without hot gas defrost. superheat and constantly adapt the opening
degree of the injection valve to ensure maximum
The liquid injection is controled by the motor- capacity and efficiency. The surface area of the
valve ICM ➃ controlled by the evaporator evaporator will be fully utilised. Furthermore,
controller type EKC 315A ➇. The EKC 315A this solution offers a high accuracy of media
controller will measure the superheat by means temperature control.
of the pressure transmitter AKS 33 and the
temperature sensor AKS 21 ➈ on the outlet of Evaporator Controller EKC 315A
the evaporator, and controlling the opening of The Digital controller will control all functions of
the ICM in order to maintain the superheat at the the evaporator including thermostat, expansion
optimum level. and alarms.

At the same time, the controller EKC 315A For more details, please refer to the manual of
operates as a digital thermostat, which will EKC 315A from Danfoss.
control the on/off switching of the solenoid valve
EVRA ➂ depending on the media temperature
signal from the temperature sensor AKS 21 .

Technical data Motor valve - ICM


Material Body: Low temperature steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants including R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 65
Nominal capacity* [kW] 224 to 14000
* Conditions: R717, Te = –10°C, Δp = 8.0 bar, ΔTsub = 4K;

Pressure transmitter - AKS 33


Refrigerants All refrigerant
Operating range [bar] 1 up to 34
Max. working pressure [bar] Up to 55
Operating temp. range [°C] –40 to 85
Compensated temp. range LP: –30 to +40
[°C] HP: 0 to +80
Rated output signal 4 to 20 mA

38 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.1.3:


Danfoss
DX Evaporator, Electronic Tapp_0064_02
expansion with ICF control � EKC 315A 04-2006
solution

HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture � AKS 33
of refrigerant To suction line
LP vapour refrigerant
� AKS 21
� AKS 21
� SVA
➀ ICF control solution with:
M

ICM
Stop valve liquid inlet ICFS
ICFE
Filter
Solenoid valve
Manual opening From receiver � ICF
ICM electronic exp. valve
Stop valve evaporator inlet
➁ Stop valve suction line
➂ Evaporator ICFF ICFM � Evaporator
ICFS
➃ Controller
➄ Temperature sensor
➅ Pressure transmitter Application example 5.1.3 shows the new ICF Similar to the example 5.1.2, this solution
➆ Temperature sensor control solution for an electronically controlled will operate the evaporator at an optimised
DX evaporator without hot has defrost similar to superheat, and constantly adapt the opening
the example 5.1.2. degree of the injection valve to ensure maximum
capacity and efficiency. The surface area of the
The ICF will accommodate up to six different evaporator will be fully utilised. Furthermore,
modules assembled in the same housing offering this solution offers a high accuracy of media
a compact, easy to install control solution. temperature control.

The liquid injection is controled by the motor- Evaporator Controller EKC 315A
valve ICM which is controlled by the evaporator The Digital controller will control all functions of
controller type EKC 315A ➃. The EKC 315A the evaporator including thermostat, expansion
controller will measure the superheat by means and alarms.
of the pressure transmitter AKS 33 ➅ and the
temperature sensor AKS 21 ➄ on the outlet of the For more details, please refer to the manual of
evaporator, and control the opening of the ICM EKC 315A from Danfoss.
valve in order to maintain the superheat at the
optimum level.

At the same time, the controller EKC 315A


operates as a digital thermostat, which will
control the on/off switching of the solenoid valve
ICFE depending on the media temperature signal
from the temperature sensor AKS 21 ➆.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 39


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.2 To control the liquid supply for pumped liquid Therefore circulated evaporators only need
Pumped Liquid circulation evaporators is simpler than for DX an ON/OFF control to achieve the right media
Circulation Control evaporators, because there is no need to avoid temperature control.
liquid hammering to the compressor.

The liquid separator will ensure that only dry


suction gas will return to the compressor.

Application example 5.2.1:


Pumped liquid circulation
evaporator, without hot gas
defrost

� EKC 202 � AKS 21 Danfoss


Tapp_0065_02
04-2006

Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant
From liquid To liquid
separator separator
➀ Stop valve liquid inlet
➁ Filter � SVA � REG � SVA � SVA
➂ Solenoid valve � FA + � Evaporator
➃ Hand expansion valve � EVRA
➄ Stop valve evaporator inlet
➅ Stop valve suction line
➆ Evaporator
➇ Digital thermostat
➈ Temperature sensor
Application example 5.2.1 shows a typical Too high an opening degree will lead to frequent
installation for a pumped liquid circulation operation of the solenoid valve with resultant
evaporator without hot has defrost, and can wear. Too low an opening degree will starve the
also be applied to pumped liquid circulation evaporator of liquid refrigerant.
evaporators with natural or electric defrost.
Evaporator Controller EKC 202
The media temperature is maintained at the The Digital thermostat will control all functions of
desired level by the digital thermostat EKC 202 the evaporator including thermostat, fan, defrost
➇, which controls the on/off switching of the and alarms.
solenoid valve EVRA ➂ according to the media
temperature signal from the PT 1000 temperature For more details, please refer to the manual of
sensor AKS 21 ➈. EKC 202 from Danfoss.

The amount of liquid injected into the evaporator


is controled by the opening of the hand
regulating valve REG ➃. It is important to set this
regulating valve at the right opening degree.

Technical data Regulating valve - REG


Material Special cold resistant steel approved for low temperature operation
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 80
Leakage test: 40
Kv value [m3/h] 0.17 to 81.4 for fully open valves

40 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.2.2:


Pumped liquid circulation
evaporator, ICF control solution,
without hot gas defrost

� EKC 202 � AKS 21


Danfoss
Tapp_0066_02
04-2006
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant

➀ ICF control solution with:


ICFS ICFR
ICFE
From liquid To liquid
Stop valve liquid inlet separator � ICF separator
Filter
Solenoid valve � SVA
Manual opening
ICFF ICFM
Hand expansion valve ICFS � Evaporator
Stop valve evaporator inlet
➁ Stop valve suction line
➂ Evaporator
➃ Digital thermostat
➄ Temperature sensor
Application example 5.2.2 includes for the regulating valve ICFR. It is important to set this
new ICF control solution operating identically regulating valve at the right opening degree.
to example 5.2.1 and can also be applied to Too high an opening degree will lead to frequent
pumped liquid circulation evaporators with operation of the solenoid valve with resultant
natural or electric defrost. wear. Too low an opening degree will starve the
The ICF will accommodate up to six different evaporator of liquid refrigerant.
modules assembled in the same housing offering
a compact, easy to install control solution. Evaporator Controller EKC 202
The digital thermostat will control all functions of
The media temperature is maintained at the the evaporator including thermostat, fan, defrost
desired level by the digital thermostat EKC 202 ➃, and alarms.
which controls the on/off switching of the
solenoid valve ICFE in the ICF according to the For more details, please refer to the manual of
media temperature signal from the PT 1000 EKC 202 from Danfoss.
temperature sensor AKS 21 ➄.

The amount of liquid injected into the evaporator


is controlled by the opening of the hand

5.3 In applications where the air cooler operates Electric defrost is achieved by stopping the fan
Hot Gas Defrost at evaporating temperatures below 0°C, frost and the refrigerant flow to the evaporator and
for DX Air Coolers will form on the heat exchange surface, with its at the same time switching on an electric heater
thickness increasing with time. The frost build up inside the evaporator fin block. With a timer
leads to a drop in performance of the evaporator function and/or a defrost termination thermostat,
by reducing the heat transfer coefficient and the defrosting can be terminated when the heat
blocking the air circulation at the same time. exchange surface is completely free of ice. Whilst
Therefore, these air coolers should be defrosted this solution is easy to install and low in initial
periodically to keep their performance at a investment, the operating costs (electricity) are
desired level. considerably higher than for other solutions.
Different types of defrost commonly used in
For hot gas defrost systems, hot gas will be
industrial refrigeration are:
injected into the evaporator to defrost the
Natural defrost surface. This solution requires more automatic
Electric defrost controls than other systems, but has the lowest
Hot gas defrost operating cost over time. A positive effect of
hot gas injection into the evaporator is the
Natural defrost is achieved by stopping the removal and return of oil. To ensure enough hot
refrigerant flow to the evaporator and keeping gas capacity, this solution must only be used
the fan running. This can only be used for room in refrigeration systems with three or more
temperatures above 0°C. The resulting defrosting evaporators. Only a third of the total evaporator
time is long. capacity can be under defrost at a given time.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 41


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.3.1:


DX evaporator, with hot gas
17 Controller
defrost system
CVPP
To receiver EVM 15 SCA
HP vapour refrigerant � GPLX
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture To condenser
of refrigerant
16 ICS � 18 AKS 21
LP vapour refrigerant � SVA SVA
From other
Compressor evaporators 21
Liquid Line To other NRVA
evaporators
➀ Stop valve liquid inlet EVM
➁ Filter � AKVA 20 AKS 21

➂ Solenoid valve
➃ Check valve � SVA � ICS � NRVA � SVA
� FIA 19 AKS 21
➄ Expansion valve
➅ Stop valve evaporator inlet From receiver
14 NRVA Evaporator
EVM
Suction Line
➆ Stop valve evaporator inlet Danfoss
➇ Two step solenoid valve Tapp_0067_02
08-2006
SVA
FIA
12 ICS 13 SVA
➈ Stop valve suction line
Hot gas line The application example illustrated above is a DX ICS then creates a differential pressure Δp
evaporator system with hot gas defrost. Whilst between hot gas pressure and the receiver
Stop valve this method of defrosting is not common it is pressure. This pressure drop ensures that the
Filter even less so for ammonia DX evaporator systems liquid which is condensed during defrosting is
Solenoid valve and more applicable to fluorinated systems. forced out into the liquid line through check
valve NRVA .
Stop valve Refrigeration Cycle
Check valve The servo valve ICS ➂ in the liquid line is kept When the temperature in the evaporator
open by its solenoid valve pilot EVM. The liquid (measured by AKS 21 ) reaches the set value,
Discharge line injection is controled by the electronic expansion defrost is terminated, the solenoid valve ICS
Stop check valve valve AKVA ➄. is closed, the solenoid valve EVM for ICS
on the discharge line is opened and the solenoid valve GPLX ➇ is
The solenoid valve GPLX ➇ in the suction line is opened.
Differential pressure
kept open, and the defrosting solenoid valve ICS
regulator
is kept closed by its solenoid valve pilot EVM. Because of the high differential pressure
Controller The check valve NRVA prevents ice formation between the evaporator and the suction line,
Temperature sensors in the drain pan. it is necessary to use a two step solenoid valve
Temperature sensors like the Danfoss GPLX or PMLX. GPLX/PMLX will
The servo valve ICS is kept open by its solenoid have a capacity of only 10 % at high differential
Temperature sensors valve pilot EVM. pressure, allowing the pressure to be equalized
Check valve before opening fully to ensure smooth operation
Defrost Cycle and avoid liquid slugging in the suction line.
After initiation of the defrost cycle, the liquid
supply solenoid valve ICS ➂ is closed. The fan is After the GPLX fully opens, ICS ➂ is opened to
kept running for 120 to 600 seconds depending restart the refrigeration cycle. The fan is started
on the evaporator size in order to pump down after a delay in order to freeze remaining liquid
the evaporator of liquid. droplets on the surface of the evaporator.

The fans are stopped and the GPLX closed. It


takes 45 to 700 seconds to close the gas powered
solenoid valve GPLX ➇ depending on the valve
size, refrigerant and evaporating temperature. A
further delay of 10 to 20 seconds is required for
the liquid in the evaporator to settle down in the
bottom without vapour bubbles. The solenoid
valve ICS is then opened by its solenoid valve
pilot EVM and supplies hot gas to the evaporator.

During the defrost cycle the solenoid valve pilot


EVM for the servo valve ICS is closed so that
ICS is controlled by the differential pressure
pilot CVPP.

42 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Technical data Pilot operated servo valve - ICS


Material Body: low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80
Nominal capacity* [kW] On hot gas line: 20.9 to 864
On liquid line without phase change: 55 to 2248
* Conditions: R717, Tliq = 30°C, Pdisch. = 12bar, ΔP = 0.2bar, Tdisch. = 80°C, Te = –10°C, Recirculation Ratio = 4

Gas powered stop valve - GPLX Two step on/off solenoid valve - PMLX
Material Body: low temp. steel Body: low temp. cast iron
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, incl. All common non-flammable refrigerants, incl.
R717. R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 150 –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 40 28
DN [mm] 80 to 150 32 to 150
Nominal capacity* [kW] On dry suction line: 442 to 1910 On dry suction line: 76 to 1299
On wet suction line: 279 to 1205 On wet suction line: 48 to 820
* Conditions R717, ΔP = 0.05 bar, Te = –10°C, Tliq = 30°C, Recirculation Ratio = 4

Check valve - NRVA


Material Body: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 140
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 15 to 65
Nominal capacity* [kW] On liquid line without phase change: 160.7 to 2411
* Conditions: R717, ΔP = 0.2 bar, Te = –10°C, Recirculation Ratio = 4

Filter - FIA
Material Body: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 15 to 200
Filter insert 100/150/250/500μ stainless steel weave

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 43


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.3.2:


DX evaporator, hot gas defrost Controller
system with ICF control solution
EKC 315A
CVPP
To receiver � SCA
HP vapour refrigerant
EVM
� GPLX � SVA
16 12
HP liquid refrigerant AKS 33 AKS 21
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant To condenser � ICS 13 AKS 21
LP vapour refrigerant � SVA
Compressor From other
➀ Liquid Line ICF with: evaporators ICM

ICFS ICFE

M
To other NRVA
15 AKS 21
evaporators
Stop valve liquid inlet � ICF
Filter ICFF ICFM ICFS 14 AKS 21
Solenoid valve
Manual opening � NRVA Evaporator
ICM expansion valve From receiver ICFS ICFE
Stop valve evaporator inlet
➁ Stop valve evaporator outlet Danfoss � ICF
➂ Two step solenoid valve Tapp_0068_02
04-2006
ICFF ICFS

➃ Stop valve suction line


➄ Hot gas line ICF with: Application example 5.3.2 shows an installation This pressure drop ensures that the liquid which
for DX evaporators with hot gas defrost using the is condensed during defrosting is forced out into
new ICF control solution. the liquid line through check valve NRVA ➆.
Stop Valve
Filter The ICF will accommodate up to six different When the temperature in the evaporator
Solenoid valve modules assembled in the same housing offering (measured by AKS 21 ) reaches the set value,
Stop valve a compact, easy to install control solution defrost is terminated, the solenoid valve ICFE in
ICF ➄ is closed, the solenoid valve EVM pilot for
➅ Check valve Refrigeration Cycle ICS ➈ is opened and the solenoid valve GPLX ➂
➆ Check valve The solenoid valve ICFE in the ICF ➀ in the liquid is opened.
➇ Stop check valve on the line is kept open. The liquid injection is controled
by the motor-valve ICM in the ICF ➀. Because of the high differential pressure
discharge line
between the evaporator and the suction line, it
➈ Differential pressure The solenoid valve GPLX ➂ on the suction line is is necessary to use a two step solenoid valve like
regulator kept open, and the defrosting solenoid valve ICFE the Danfoss GPLX ➂ or PMLX. GPLX ➂/PMLX will
Controller in ICF ➄ is kept closed. have a capacity of only 10 % at high differential
Superheat controller pressure, allowing the pressure to be equalized
The servo valve ICS ➈ is kept open by its solenoid before opening fully to ensure smooth operation
Temperature sensors valve pilot EVM. and avoid liquid slugging in the suction line.
Temperature sensors
Temperature sensors Defrost Cycle After the GPLX ➂ fully opens, the liquid supply
After initiation of the defrost cycle, the liquid solenoid valve ICFE in ICF ➀ is opened to start the
Temperature sensors
supply solenoid ICFE in ICF ➀ is closed. The fan is refrigeration cycle. The fan is started after a delay
Pressure transmitter kept running for 120 to 600 seconds depending in order to freeze remaining liquid droplets on
on the evaporator size in order to pump down the surface of the evaporator.
the evaporator of liquid.

The fans are stopped and the GPLX closed. It


takes 45 to 700 seconds to close the gas powered
solenoid valve GPLX ➂ depending on the valve
size, refrigerant and evaporating temperature. A
further delay of 10 to 20 seconds is required for
the liquid in the evaporator to settle down in the
bottom without vapour bubbles. The solenoid
valve ICFE in ICF ➄ is then opened and supplies
hot gas to the evaporator.

During the defrost cycle the solenoid valve pilot


EVM for the servo valve ICS ➈ is closed so that
ICS ➈ is controlled by the differential pressure
pilot CVPP. ICS ➈ then creates a differential
pressure Δp between hot gas pressure and the
receiver pressure.

44 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.4 Danfoss
Hot Gas Defrost for Pumped 16 Controller Tapp_0069_02
04-2006
Liquid Circulation Air
Coolers

Application example 5.4.1:


Pumped liquid circulation � SVA
evaporator, with hot gas defrost � SVA
system To liquid separator
17 AKS 21
� GPLX
HP vapour refrigerant 15
HP liquid refrigerant OFV
Liquid/vapour mixture 14

of refrigerant NRVA
EVM
LP liquid refrigerant
From liquid AKS 21
separator � NRVA 19
Liquid Line
➀ Stop valve liquid inlet � SVA � ICS � REG � SVA
➁ Filter � FIA 18 AKS 21
➂ Solenoid valve EVM Evaporator
➃ Check valve From discharge line
➄ Hand expansion valve ICS 13 SVA
SVA 12
➅ Stop valve evaporator inlet FIA

Suction Line
Application example 5.4.1 shows a typical During the defrost cycle, the overflow valve
➆ Stop valve evaporator outlet installation for a pumped liquid circulation OFV opens automatically subject to the
➇ Two step solenoid valve evaporator with hot gas defrost. differential pressure. The overflow valve allows
➈ Stop valve suction line the condensed hot gas from the evaporator to
Refrigeration Cycle be released into the wet suction line. The OFV
Hot gas line The solenoid valve ICS ➂ on the liquid line is kept could also be replaced with a pressure regulator
open. The liquid injection is controled by the ICS+CVP depending on the capacity, or a high
Stop valve hand regulating valve REG ➄. pressure float valve SV1/3 which only drains
Filter liquid to the low pressure side.
Solenoid valve The solenoid valve GPLX ➇ in the suction line is
kept open, and the defrosting solenoid valve When the temperature in the evaporator
Stop valve ICS is kept closed. (measured by AKS 21 ) reaches the set value,
Check valve defrost is terminated, the solenoid valve ICS is
Defrost Cycle closed, and the two-step solenoid valve GPLX ➇
Overflow line After initiation of the defrost cycle, the liquid is opened.
Overflow valve supply solenoid ICS ➂ is closed. The fan is kept
running for 120 to 600 seconds depending on After the GPLX fully opens, the liquid supply
Controls the evaporator size in order to pump down the solenoid valve ICS ➂ is opened to start the
evaporator of liquid. refrigeration cycle. The fan is started after a delay
Controller
in order to freeze remaining liquid droplets on
Controller The fans are stopped and the GPLX closed. It the surface of the evaporator.
Controller takes 45 to 700 seconds to close the gas powered
Controller solenoid valve GPLX ➇ depending on the valve
size, refrigerant and evaporating temperature. A
further delay of 10 to 20 seconds is required for
the liquid in the evaporator to settle down in the
bottom without vapour bubbles. The solenoid
valve ICS is then opened and supplies hot gas
to the evaporator.

Technical data Overflow valve - OFV


Material Body: steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 20/25
Opening differential pressure range [bar] 2 to 8

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 45


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.4.2:


Pump circulated evaporator, � Controller Danfoss
Tapp_0070_02
with hot gas defrost system 04-2006

using ICF valve station and SV


1/3 float valve
� GPLX
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture � SVA
of refrigerant To liquid
separator � AKS 21
LP liquid refrigerant � SVA
� SV 1
➀ Liquid Line ICF with:

NRVA
Stop valve liquid inlet
Filter ICFS
ICFE
ICFR
Solenoid valve AKS 21
From liquid separator
Check valve
Hand expansion valve
Stop valve evaporator inlet
ICFF ICFC ICFS
➁ Stop valve evaporator outlet ICFS
ICFE � ICF AKS 21
➂ Two step solenoid valve From discharge line
➃ Stop valve suction line Evaporator
➄ Hot gas line ICF with: ICFF
� ICF

ICFS

Stop Valve
Filter Application example 5.4.2 shows an installation During the defrost cycle, the condensed hot
Solenoid valve for pumped liquid circulation evaporators gas from the evaporator is injected into the
Stop valve with hot gas defrost using the new ICF control low pressure side. The injection is controlled
solution and SV 1/3 float valve. by the high pressure float valve SV 1 or 3 ➆
➅ Check valve complete with special internal kit. Compared to
➆ Float valve The ICF will accommodate up to six different the overflow valve OFV in the solution 5.4.1, this
➇ Controller modules assembled in the same housing offering float valve controls the overflow according to the
a compact, easy to install control solution. liquid level in the float chamber.
➈ Temperature sensors
Temperature sensors Refrigeration Cycle The use of a float valve ensures that only liquid
Temperature sensors The solenoid valve ICFE in ICF ➀ in the liquid line returns into the wet suction line, with a resulting
is kept open. The liquid injection is controled by increase in overall efficiency. Furthermore, the
the hand regulating valve ICFR in ICF ➀. float valve is specifically designed for modulating
control, resulting in a very stable control.
The solenoid valve GPLX ➂ in the suction line is
kept open, and the defrosting solenoid valve ICFE When the temperature in the evaporator
in ICF ➄ is kept closed. (measured by AKS 21 ) reaches the set value,
defrost is terminated, the solenoid valve ICFE
Defrost Cycle in ICF ➄ is closed, and after a small delay the
After initiation of the defrost cycle, the liquid solenoid valve GPLX ➂ is opened.
supply solenoid module ICFE of the ICF ➀ is
closed. The fan is kept running for 120 to 600 After the GPLX fully opens, the liquid supply
seconds depending on the evaporator size in solenoid valve ICFE in ICF ➀ is opened to start the
order to pump down the evaporator of liquid. refrigeration cycle. The fan is started after a delay
in order to freeze remaining liquid droplets on
The fans are stopped and the GPLX closed. It the surface of the evaporator.
takes 45 to 700 seconds to close the gas powered
solenoid valve GPLX ➂ depending on the valve
size, refrigerant and evaporating temperature. A
further delay of 10 to 20 seconds for the liquid
in the evaporator to settle down in the bottom
without vapour bubbles. The solenoid valve ICFE
in ICF ➄ is then opened and supplies hot gas to
the evaporator.

46 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.5 In the process industry, it is very common to use


Multi Temperature an evaporator for different temperature settings.
Changeover
When the operation of an evaporator is required
at two different fixed evaporating pressures, this
can be achieved by using one servo valve ICS
with two constant pressure pilots.

Application example 5.5.1:


Evaporating pressure control, � Danfoss
Tapp_0071_02
changeover between two S1:EVM 04-2006
pressures
� �
S2:CVP P:CVP
To liquid separator

SVA �
ICS

Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant

From liquid
➀ Pressure regulating valve separator
➁ Pressure regulating
pilot valve SVA REG SVA
➂ Pressure regulating FA+EVRA
pilot valve Evaporator
➃ Solenoid pilot valve
Application example 5.5.1 shows a solution Example:
for controlling two evaporating pressures in I II
evaporators. This solution can be used for DX or Outlet air temperature +3°C +8°C
pumped liquid circulation evaporators with any Evaporating temperature –2°C +2°C
type of defrost system.
Temperature change 5K 6K
Refrigerant R22 R22
The servo valve ICS is equipped with one EVM
(NC) solenoid valve pilot in the S1 port and two Evaporating pressure 3.6 bar 4.4 bar
CVP constant pressure pilots in the ports S2 and P
respectively. S2: CVP is preset to 3.6 bar, and
P: CVP is preset to 4.4 bar.
The CVP I the S2 port is adjusted to the lower
operating pressure and the CVP in the P port is I: EVM pilot opens.
adjusted to the higher operating pressure. Hence the evaporating pressure is controlled
by S2: CVP.
When the solenoid in S1 port is energised, the II: EVM pilot closes.
evaporator pressure will follow the setting of the Hence the evaporating pressure is controlled
CVP pilot in S1 port. When the solenoid is de- by P: CVP.
energised, the evaporator pressure will follow the
setting of the CVP pilot in the P port.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 47


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.6 Solutions are provided for where there are


Media Temperature Control stringent requirements for accurate temperature
control in connection with refrigeration. E.g.:
Cold room for fruits and food products
Work premises in the food industry
Process cooling of liquids

Application example 5.6.1:


Danfoss
Media temperature control � EKC 361 Tapp_0072_02
using pilot operated valve ICS � S1:CVQ 04-2006


To liquid S2:CVP

separator P:A+B

SVA �
ICS

� AKS 21
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant

➀ Pressure regulating valve


➁ Pressure regulating
pilot valve
From liquid
➂ Electronic pilot valve separator
➃ Blind plug
➄ Controller SVA REG SVA
➅ Solenoid valve with filter � FA+EVRA Evaporator
➆ Temperature sensor
Application example 5.6.1 shows a solution of the CVQ pilot valve, and thereby controlling
for accurate media temperature control. the evaporating pressure to match the required
Furthermore there is a need to protect the cooling load and temperature.
evaporator against a too low pressure to avoid
freezing up of the products in the application. This solution will control the temperature with
an accuracy of +/- 0.25°C. If the temperature falls
This design can be applied for DX or pumped below this range, the EKC controller can close the
liquid circulation evaporators with any type of solenoid valve in the liquid line.
defrost system.
The media temperature controller EKC 361 will
Control valve type ICS 3 with CVQ in S2 port, control all functions of the evaporator including
controlled by media temperature controller EKC thermostat and alarms.
361 and CVP in the S1 port. The P port is isolated
using the A+B blanking plug. For more details, please refer to the manual of the
EKC 361 controller.
The CVP is adjusted according to the lowest
pressure allowed for the application.

The media temperature controller EKC 361 will


control the temperature in the application at
the desired level, by controlling the opening

48 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 5.6.2:


Media temperature control Danfoss
using direct operated valve � EKC 361 Tapp_0073_02
04-2006

To liquid separator

SVA �
ICM

AKS 21

Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant From liquid
separator

➀ Pressure regulator SVA REG SVA


(motor valve)
� FA+EVRA
➁ Controller Evaporator
➂ Solenoid valve with filter
Application example 5.6.2 shows a solution for This solution will control the media temperature
accurate media temperature control without with an accuracy of +/- 0.25°C. If the temperature
start/stop control. falls below this range, the EKC controller can
close the solenoid valve in the liquid line.
This design can be used for DX or pumped liquid
circulation evaporators with any type of defrost The media temperature controller EKC 361 will
system. control all functions of the evaporator including
thermostat and alarms.
Motor valve type ICM controlled by media
temperature controller EKC 361 is selected. For more details, please refer to the separate
manual of the EKC 361 controller.
The media temperature controller EKC 361 will
control the temperature in the application at the
desired level, by controlling the opening degree
of the ICM motor valve, and thereby controlling
the evaporating pressure to match the required
cooling load and temperature.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 49


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.7
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations

Direct Expansion Control


DX evaporator, thermostatic All DX systems Simple installation without Lower capacity and
expansion control with TEA, separator and pump system. efficiency than circulated
EVRA, and EKC 202 systems; Not suitable for
TC
flammable refrigerants.
Evaporator

DX evaporator, electronic All DX systems Optimised superheat; Quick Not suitable for flammable
expansion control with ICM/ response; Possible to control refrigerant.
ICF, EVRA and EKC 315A remotely; Wide capacity
M range.
Evaporator

Pumped Liquid Circulation Control


Pumped liquid circulation Pump circulating systems High capacity and efficient Fluctuations, and high
evaporator, expansion evaporator refrigerant charge
control with REG, EVRA and
EKC 202
Evaporator

Hot Gas Defrost Control-DX Air Coolers


DX Evaporator with hot gas CVPP

EVM
EVM All DX systems Quick defrost; The hot gas Not capable for systems with
defrost GPLX
can bring out the oil left less than 3 evaporators.
ICS
in the low temperature
TC evaporator.
Evaporator

Hot Gas Defrost Control-Pumped Liquid Circulation Air Coolers


Pumped liquid circulation EVM
All pump circulated systems Quick defrost; The hot gas Not suitable for systems with
GPLX
evaporator with hot gas can bring out the oil left less than 3 evaporators.
defrost in the low temperature
OFV evaporator.
Evaporator

Pumped liquid circulation EVM


All pump circulated systems Quick defrost; The hot gas Not suitable for systems with
GPLX
evaporator with hot gas can bring out the oil left less than 3 evaporators.
defrost controled by SV1/3 in the low temperature
evaporator; The float valve
is efficient and stable in
Evaporator
regulating the hot gas flow.

Multi-temperature Changeover
Multi-temperature control PC CVP Evaporators that need The evaporator can change Pressure drop in suction line.
with ICS and CVP EVM CVP
PC
to work at different over between 2 different
temperature levels temperature levels.
ICS
Evaporator

Media Temperature Control


Media temperature control EKC 361
Very accurate temperature The CVQ will precisely Pressure drop in suction line
with ICS, CVQ and CVP CVP
control, combined with control the temperature;
CVQ
E PC
minimum pressure CVP can keep the pressure
protection (Frost) above the required lowest
ICS
level.
Evaporator

Media temperature control EKC 361


Very accurate temperature The ICM will control the Maximum capacity is ICM 65.
with motor valve ICM control temperature very accurate,
by adjusting the opening
M
degree
ICM
Evaporator

50 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

5.8 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
AKS 21 ED.SA0.A FIA PD.FN0.A AKS 21 RI.14.D FIA PI.FN0.A
For an alphabetical overview of AKS 32R RD.5G.J GPLX PD.BO0.A AKS 32R PI.SB0.A GPLX RI.7C.A
all reference literature please go
AKS 33 RD.5G.H ICF PD.FT0.A AKS 33 PI.SB0.A ICF PI.FT0.A
to page 101
AKVA PD.VA1.B ICM PD.HT0.A AKVA PI.VA1.C PI.VA1.B ICM PI.HT0.A
CVP PD.HN0.A ICS PD.HS0.A CVP RI.4X.D ICS PI.HS0.A
CVQ PD.HN0.A NRVA RD.6H.A CVQ PI.VH1.A NRVA RI.6H.B
EVM PD.HN0.A OFV PD.HQ0.A EVM RI.3X.J OFV PI.HX0.B
EKC 202 RS.8D.Z PMLX PD.BR0.A EKC 202 RI.8J.V PMLX RI.3F.D RI.3F.C
EKC 315A RS.8C.S REG PD.KM0.A EKC 315A RI.8G.T REG PI.KM0.A
EKC 361 RS.8A.E SV 1-3 RD.2C.B EKC 361 RI.8B.F SV 1-3 RI.2B.F
EVRA(T) RD.3C.B SVA PD.KD0.A EVRA(T) RI.3D.A SVA PI.KD0.B
FA PD.FM0.A TEA RD.1E.A FA RI.6C.A TEA PI.AJ0.A

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 51


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

6. Oil Systems Generally, industrial refrigeration compressors side, equalization of oil level in systems with
are lubricated with oil, which is forced by the oil several piston compressors and oil drain off
pump or due to pressure difference between the points. Most of these are supplied by compressor
high and the low pressure sides to the moving manufacturer.
parts of the compressors (bearings, rotors,
cylinder walls etc.). In order to guarantee reliable The oil system design of an industrial
and efficient operation of the compressor the refrigeration plant depends on the type of
following oil parameters should be controlled: the compressor (screw or piston) and on the
Oil temperature. This should be kept within refrigerant (ammonia, HFC/HCFC or CO2).
the limits specified by manufacturer. The Normally immiscible oil type is used for ammonia
oil should have the correct viscosity and and miscible for Fluorinated refrigerants.
the temperature should be kept below the As oil systems are very compressor related,
ignition point. some of the above mentioned points have been
described in compressor controls (section 2) and
Oil pressure. Oil pressure difference should be safety systems (section 7).
kept above the minimum acceptable level.

There are generally some supporting


components and equipment within refrigeration
systems for oil cleaning, oil separation from
the refrigerant, oil return from the low pressure

6.1 Refrigeration compressors (including all screw Oil can also be cooled by means of injection
Oil cooling compressors and some piston compressors) of the liquid refrigerant directly into the
generally require oil cooling. Too high discharge intermediate compressor port. For piston
temperatures can destroy oil, which leads to the compressors, it is quite common not to have any
damage of the compressor. It is also important special oil cooling systems at all, as temperature
for the oil to have the right viscosity, which is less critical than for screw compressors, with
largely depends on the temperature level. It is the oil being cooled in the crankcase.
not enough just to keep the temperature below
critical limit, it is also necessary to control it.
Normally, oil temperature is specified by the
compressor manufacturer.

There are a few different types of oil cooling


systems used in refrigeration. The most common
types are:
water cooling
air cooling
thermosyphon cooling

52 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.1.1:


Oil cooling with water
Hot oil in

� SVA
Oil cooler
Cooling water out

Cooling water in

SNV � WVTS

Oil
Cold oil out
➀ Water valve Danfoss
➁ Stop valve � SVA
Tapp_0083_02
04-2006
➂ Stop valve
These types of systems are normally used in Please contact your local Danfoss sales company
plants where it is possible to get cheap water to check suitability of components to be used
source. Otherwise, it is necessary to install a with sea water as the cooling medium.
cooling tower to cool down the water. Water
cooled oil coolers are quite common for marine
refrigeration plants.

The water flow is controlled by the water valve


type WVTS ➀, which controls the water flow
according to the oil temperature.

Technical data Water valve - WVTS


Materials Valve body: cast iron
Media Fresh water, neutral brine
Max. working pressure [bar] 10
Bulb: 0 to 90
Operating temp. range [°C]
Liquid: –25 to 90
DN [mm] 32 to 100
Max. Kv value [m3/h] 12.5 to 125

Water valve - AVTA


Media Fresh water, neutral brine
Max. working pressure [bar] 16
Bulb: 0 to 90
Operating temp. range [°C]
Liquid: –25 to 130
DN [mm] 10 to 25
Max. Kv value [m3/h] 1.4 to 5.5

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 53


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.1.2:


Thermosyphon oil cooling
SCA
� SVA
RT 1A RT 5A
SVA
Compressor
From liquid Condenser
separator/
evaporator

Oil separator
HP vapour refrigerant SVA SFA SFA
SVA
HP liquid refrigerant SVA
LP vapour refrigerant DSV
Oil SNV
Receiver
� FIA LLG
➀ Oil regulating valve
� ORV
➁ Filter � MLI
➂ Sight glass Oil cooler � MLI � SVA SNV
To liquid
➃ Stop valve � REG*
separator
➄ Hand regulating valve Danfoss
➅ Sight glass Tapp_0084_02
04-2006 SNV
➆ Stop valve
These types of systems are very convenient, as oil Otherwise the refrigerant will not return from
gets cooled inside the system. It is only necessary the oil cooler and the system will not function.
to oversize the condenser for the amount of Only minimal number of SVA stop valves should
heat taken from the oil cooler. Conversely, be installed. No pressure dependent solenoid
thermosyphon oil cooling requires additional valves are allowed. On the return pipe it is
piping on site and sometimes it is also necessary recommended to install a MLI ➅ sight glass.
to install an additional priority vessel (in cases
when the HP liquid receiver is placed too low or Oil temperature is maintained at the correct level
not installed). by the ORV ➀ three-way valve. The ORV keeps
the oil temperature within the limits defined by
High pressure liquid refrigerant flows from the its thermostatic element. If the oil temperature
receiver due to gravity force into the oil cooler rises too high then all the oil returns back to the
where it evaporates and cools the oil. Refrigerant oil cooler. If it is too low, then all the oil flow is
vapour rises back to the receiver or, in certain bypassed around the oil cooler.
cases, to the condenser inlet. It is critical that the
pressure drop in the feed and the return pipes is * REG regulating valve may be usefull in case of
minimal. largely oversized oil cooler.

Technical data Oil regulating valve - ORV


Materials Valve body: cold resistant steel
Media All common refrigeration oils and common refrigerants including R717
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
Temperature range [°C] Continuous operation: –10 to 85
Short operation: –10 to 120
DN [mm] 25 to 80

54 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.1.3:


Oil cooling with air
SCA
RT 1A RT 5A To condenser

Compressor

From
seperator/
evaporator

Oil seperator
SVA

� FIA
� MLI
� ORV
Oil cooler
HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil

➀ Oil regulating valve Danfoss


➁ Strainer Tapp_0085_02
04-2006
➂ Sight glass
It is quite common to use air cooled oil coolers on In this case ORV divides the flow from the oil
the compressor units with semi-hermetic screw separator and controls according to the change
compressors (power RACs). of the oil discharge temperature.

The oil temperature valve is controlled by the oil


regulating valve ORV ➀.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 55


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

6.2 During normal running of the refrigeration For the latter method it is necessary to check
Oil Differential compressor, oil is circulated by the oil pump and/ if the compressor manufacturer allows a few
Pressure Control or pressure difference between the HP and LP seconds of dry operation. Normally, this is
sides. The most critical phase is during start-up. possible for screw compressors with ball bearings
but not possible for those with slide bearings
It is vital to have a quick build up of oil pressure
otherwise the compressor may be damaged.

There are two basic ways to quickly build up


oil differential pressure in the refrigeration
compressor. First is to use an external oil pump,
and the second is to install a control valve on the
compressor discharge line after the oil separator.

Application example 6.2.1:


Oil differential pressure control CVPP
with ICS and CVPP
SCA To
RT 1A RT 5A condenser

Compressor � ICS
From liquid
separator/
evaporator

Oil separator
SVA

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil From oil cooler
Danfoss

➀ Differential pressure Tapp_0086_02


04-2006 To oil cooler
regulator

In this application, a servo operated ICS ➀ The main advantage of this solution is its
complete with differential pilot CVPP should flexibility, as differential pressure could be
be used. The pilot line from the CVPP valve readjusted on site, and ICS can also serve for
is connected to the suction line before the some other functions using other pilots.
compressor. ICS ➀ is closed at the moment the
compressor is started up.

As the piping between the compressor and


the valve is very short, the discharge pressure
increases rapidly. It requires very little time before
the valve fully opens and the compressor runs at
normal conditions.

Technical data Pilot operated servo valve - ICS


Material Body: low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717 and R744
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80
Nominal capacity* [kW] 20.9 to 864
* Conditions: R717, hot gas line, Tliq = 30°C, Pdisch. = 12bar, ΔP = 0.2bar, Tdisch. = 80°C, Te = –10°C

Differential pressure pilot - CVPP (HP)


Material Body: stainless steel
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] CVPP(HP): 28
Regulating range [bar] 0 to 7, or 4 to 22

56 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.2.2:


Oil differential pressure control
with KDC � KDC
RT 1A RT 5A

Compressor To
condenser
From liquid
separator/
evaporator

Oil separator

SVA Check valve

HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil From oil cooler

➀ Differential pressure Danfoss


Tapp_0087_02
regulator 04-2006 To oil cooler
➁ Check valve
The principle of operation for this example is the However, KDC ➀ also has some limitations. The
same as for example 6.2.1. The multifunctional valve is not adjustable and there are a limited
compressor valve KDC ➀ opens until the pressure number of differential pressure settings available,
difference between the oil separator and the and it is necessary to have a check valve ➁ in the
suction line exceeds the setting value and at the suction line.
same time the pressure in the oil separator is
greater than the condensing pressure. If this check valve is not present, there could be a
very large reverse flow through the compressor
KDC ➀ valve has some advantages, as it can also from the oil separator. It is neither allowed to
function as a check valve (it can not be open by have a check valve between compressor and oil
the back pressure), and it gives smaller pressure separator; otherwise it may require too long time
drop when open. for KDC to close.

Technical data Multifunctional compressor valve - KDC


Material Low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants including R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
DN [mm] 65 to 200
Nominal capacity* [kW] 435 to 4207
* Conditions: R717, +35°C/–15°C, ΔP = 0.05bar

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 57


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.2.3:


Oil differential pressure control � EVM (NC) � EVM (NO)
with KDC and EVM pilots
CVH CVH

RT 1A RT 5A
� KDC

Compressor To condenser

From liquid
separator/
evaporator

Oil separator
HP vapour refrigerant SVA
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil

➀ Multifunctional
compressor valve
From oil cooler
➁ Solenoid pilot
(normally close) Danfoss
Tapp_0088_02
➂ Solenoid pilot 04-2006 To oil cooler
(normally open)

When there is no possibility to install a check When the compressor stops, EVM NC ➁ should
valve in the suction line or there is a check valve be closed and EVM NO ➂ opens. That equalizes
between the compressor and the oil separator, it the pressure over the KDC spring and it closes.
is possible to use KDC ➀ equipped with EVM pilot
valves. Please note the installation direction of the CVH
and EVM pilot valves.
These EVM pilots are installed in external lines
using CVH bodies, as illustrated. During start up
of the compressor the system works as in the
previous example (6.2.2).

58 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

6.3 Normally no oil is necessary for the components If too much oil leaves the compressor unit into
Oil Recovery System of industrial refrigeration plants except for the the system, the oil level in the compressor will
compressor unit. drop below the critical limit. So there are two
major tasks for the oil recovery systems: to
However, oil can always travel through the oil remove oil from the low pressure side and to
separation system in to the plant, and ends return it to the compressor.
up staying on the low pressure side in liquid
separators and evaporators, decreasing their
efficiency.

Application example 6.3.1:


Oil drain from ammonia
systems
AKS 41
To compressor From
SVA evaporator
suction line SFA SFA
SNV SVA
From receiver
SVA SVA
DSV

AKS 38

LLG Liquid separator

AKS 38
HP vapour refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant � SVA
SNV SVA SVA
Oil
� SVA � BSV
➀ Stop valve
➁ Stop valve � SVA � QDV
SVA
To refrigerant pump
➂ Stop valve
➃ Quick closing oil drain valve Danfoss
Oil receiver
➄ Regulating valve Tapp_0089_02
Hot gas in
08-2006 � REG
➅ Safety relief valve
In ammonia systems immiscible oil is used. As the Then drain the oil using the quick closing oil
oil is heavier than liquid ammonia, it stays in the drain valve QDV ➃, which can be closed quickly
bottom of the liquid separator and is unable to after oil evacuation and when ammonia starts to
return to the compressor via the suction line. come out.

Therefore, oil in ammonia systems is normally Stop valve SVA ➂ between QDV and the receiver
drained from the liquid separator into the oil must be installed. This valve is opened before
receiver. It makes separation of oil from ammonia evacuation of oil and closed afterwards.
easier.
Necessary precautions during drain of oil from
When draining the oil, close the stop valve ➀ and ammonia should be taken.
➁, and open the hot gas line, allowing the hot
gas to increase the pressure and heat up the cold
oil.

Technical data Quick closing drain valve - QDV


Material Housing: steel
Refrigerants Commonly used with R717; applicable to all common non-flammable refrigerants.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 150
Max. working pressure [bar] 25
DN [mm] 15

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 59


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 6.3.2:


Oil drain from fluorinated � SVA
systems
� RT 1A
EVRA+FA
� SVA To oil
separator
SVA
SVA
From evaporator

EVM
SVA AKS 41
HP vapour refrigerant
SFA SFA SVA
HP liquid refrigerant SNV
� MLI SVA ICM ICS SVA From
Liquid/vapour mixture FIA receiver
of refrigerant DSV
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant
� HE AKS 38
Liquid separator
LLG
➀ Stop valve
AKS 38
➁ Solenoid valve
➂ Regulating valve
➃ Heat exchanger
➄ Sight glass � REG SVA SVA SNV

➅ Stop valve � � SVA


➆ Stop valve EVRA+FA
To refrigerant
➇ Solenoid valve � REG pump Danfoss
➈ Regulating valve SVA
Tapp_0090_02
04-2006
Stop valve

In fluorinated systems miscible oil is Low pressure refrigerant is heated up by high


predominantly used. In systems using good pressure liquid refrigerant and evaporates.
piping practice (slopes, oil loops etc.), it is not
necessary to recover oil, as it returns with the Refrigerant vapour mixed with oil returns to the
refrigerant vapour. suction line. Refrigerant from the liquid separator
is taken from the working level.
However in low temperature plants oil may stay
in the low pressure vessels. Oil is lighter than Regulating valve REG ➄ is adjusted such a way
commonly used Fluorinated refrigerants, so that there are no drops of liquid refrigerant seen
it’s impossible to drain it in a simple way as in in the sight glass MLI ➄. Danfoss heat exchange
ammonia systems. HE type could be used to recover the oil.

Oil stays on top of the refrigerant, and the level Refrigerant could also be taken from pump
fluctuates together with refrigerant level. discharge lines. In this case it doesn’t really
matter if the refrigerant is taken from the working
In this system the refrigerant moves from the level or not.
liquid separator into the heat exchanger ➃ due
to gravity.

Technical data Heat exchanger - HE


Refrigerants All fluorinated refrigerants
Media temp. range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] HE0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 4.0: 28
HE8.0: 21.5
DN [mm] Liquid line: 6 to 16
Suction line: 12 to 42

60 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

6.4
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations


Oil Cooling Systems
Water cooling, WVTS water Hot oil in
Marine installations, plants Simple and efficient Could be expensive, requires
Oil cooler
valve Cooling water out
where cheap cold water separate water piping
TC
Cooling
water in
source is available
WVTS

Cold oil out

Thermosyphon cooling, ORV Compressor All types of refrigeration Oil is cooled by refrigerant Require extra piping and HP
plants without loss of installation liquid receiver installed on
Oil seperator

Condenser efficiency defined height


Receiver
TC

Oil cooler

Air cooling, ORV Compressor


“Heavy commercial” Simple, no additional piping Big fluctuations in oil
refrigeration systems with or water required temperature in different
Oil seperator

power packs. seasons possible; Air cooler


may be too big for large
installations
TC

Oil cooler

Differential Oil Pressure Control


ICS + CVPP PDC

Flexible, different settings Requires installation of the


Compressor possible check valve
Oil seperator

From oil cooler

To oil cooler

KDC PDC Doesn’t require check valve, It is necessary to install


Compressor
pressure drop lower than ICS check valve in the suction
Screw compressors (should line, no change of setting
Oil seperator

be confirmed by compressor possible


manufacture)
From oil cooler

To oil cooler

KDC+EVM NC NO
As previous, but installation Requires external piping, no
PDC of the check valve in the change of setting possible
Compressor
suction line is not necessary.
Oil seperator

From oil
cooler
To oil cooler

Oil Recovery Systems


Oil recovery from ammonia To LP vessels
All ammonia plants Simple and safe Requires hand operating
systems, QDV Liquid separator

QDV

Oil receiver

Oil recovery from fluorinated Compressor


Low temperature Doesn’t require manual Adjusting could be
systems, HE Fluorinated systems operation complicated

Liquid separator

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 61


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

6.5 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
BSV RD.7F.B MLI PD.GH0.A BSV RI.7F.A ORV RI.7J.A
For an alphabetical overview of CVPP PD.HN0.A ORV PD.HP0.A CVPP RI.4X.D QDV PI.KL0.A
all reference literature please go
EVM PD.HN0.A QDV PD.KL0.A EVM RI.3X.J REG PI.KM0.A
to page 101
FIA PD.FN0.A REG PD.KM0.A FIA PI.FN0.A SVA PI.KD0.B
HE RD.6K.A SVA PD.KD0.A HE RI.6K.A WVTS RI.4D.A
ICS PD.HS0.A WVTS RD.4C.A ICS PI.HS0.A
KDC PD.FQ0.A KDC PI.FQ0.A

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

62 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

7. Safety systems All industrial refrigeration systems are designed Pressure limiter is a device that protects against
with different safety systems to protect them high or low pressure with automatic resetting.
against unsafe conditions, like excessive pressure.
Any foreseeable excessive internal pressure Safety pressure cut out
should be prevented or relieved with minimum Safety switches are designed for limiting the
risk for people, property and the environment. pressure with manual resetting.

Requirements on the safety systems are heavily Liquid level cut out is a liquid level actuated
controled by authorities, and it is therefore device designed to prevent against unsafe liquid
always necessary to verify the requirements in levels.
the local legislation in various countries.
Refrigerant detector is a sensing device which
Pressure relief device e.g. pressure relief valves responds to a pre-set concentration of refrigerant
are designed to relieve excessive pressure gas in the environment. Danfoss produces
automatically at a pressure not exceeding the refrigerant detectors type GD, please see specific
allowable limit and reseat after the pressure has application guide for more information.
fallen below the allowable limit.

Temperature limiting device or temperature


limiter is a temperature actuated device that is
designed to avoid unsafe temperatures so that
the system can be stopped partly or completely
in case of a defect or malfunction.

7.1 Safety valves are installed in order to prevent Main parameters for safety valves are the relief
Pressure Relief Devices the pressure in the system from rising above the pressure and reseating pressure. Normally the
maximum allowable pressure of any component relief pressure should not exceed more than 10%
and the system as a whole. In case of excessive of the set pressures. Furthermore, if the valve
pressure, safety valves relieve refrigerant from the does not reseat or reseats at too low a pressure,
refrigeration system. there can be significant loss of system refrigerant.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 63


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 7.1.1:


NO PERSONNEL
Safety valve SFA SHOULD WORK
IN THE OUTLET
AREA OF THE
RELIEF PIPE

From
condenser
� MLI
OIL LEVEL
SVA
From
discharge
line � SFA � SFA
SVA

SVA SNV
� DSV

Receiver
LLG
AKS 38

HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
SNV
➀ Double stop valve
➁ Safety relief valve SVA SVA

➂ Safety relief valve Danfoss


Tapp_0099_02
To oil cooler To liquid separator
➃ Sight glass 04-2006

Pressure relief devices should be installed on all Please note: Some countries do not allow
vessels in the systems, as well as on compressors. installation of u-trap.

Generally, back pressure dependent safety relief Outlet pipe from the safety valve should be
valves (SFA) are normally used. Safety valves designed in such a way that people are not
should be installed with a changeover valve endangered in the event that refrigerant is
DSV ➀, to enable the servicing of one valve whilst relieved.
the other is still in operation.
Pressure drop in the outlet pipe to the safety
Pressure relief devices should be mounted close valves is important for the function of the
to the part of the system they are protecting. In valves. It is recommended to check the relative
order to check if the relief valve has discharged to standards for recommendations on how to size
the atmosphere a u-trap filled with oil and with a these pipes.
sight glass MLI ➃ mounted can be installed after
the valve.
Technical data Safety relief valve - SFA
Material Housing: special steel approved for low temperature operation
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC, other refrigerants (depending on the sealing material compatibility)
Media temp. range [°C] –30 to 100
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 43
Leakage test: 25
Set pressure [bar] 10 to 40

Double stop valve - DSV 1/2


Material Housing: special steel approved for low temp. operation
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants incl. R717
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 100
Max. operation pressure [bar] 40
Kv value [m3/h] DSV1: 17.5
DSV2: 30

64 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 7.1.2:


Internal safety valves-BSV and
POV
NO PERSONNEL SHOULD
WORK IN THE OUTLET AREA
OF THE RELIEF PIPE

� BSV
� POV
� MLI
� �
SFA SFA
SCA

Compressor
� DSV To condenser

Oil separator
From
evaporator SVA
HP vapour refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil

➀ Pilot-operated internal
safety valve
➁ Internal safety valve
➂ Double stop valve Danfoss SVA
➃ Sight glass Tapp_0100_02
04-2006 EVRAT+FA
➄ Safety relief valve
To relieve refrigerant from high pressure If a stop valve is mounted in the discharge line
side to low pressure side only back pressure from the oil separator, it is necessary to protect
independent relief valves should be used (BSV/ the oil separator and the compressor against
POV). excessive pressure caused by external heat or
compression heat.
BSV ➁ can act either as a direct relief valve with
low capacity or as a pilot valve for POV ➀ main This protection can be achieved with standard
valve. When the discharge pressure exceeds the safety relief valves SFA ➄ combined with a
set pressure, BSV will open the POV to relieve change over valve DSV ➂.
high pressure vapour into the low pressure side.

The back pressure independent relief valves are


installed without change over valve. In case it is
necessary to replace or readjust the valves, the
compressor has to be stopped.

Technical data Safety relief valve - BSV


Material Housing: special steel approved for low temperature operation
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and other refrigerants (depending on the sealing material compatibility)
Media temp. range [°C] –30 to 100 as an external safety relief valve
–50 to 100 as a pilot valve for POV
Set pressure [bar] 10 to 25
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 43
Leakage test: 25

Pilot-operated internal safety valve - POV


Material Housing: steel
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and other refrigerants (depending on the sealing material compatibility)
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to 150 as a pilot valve for POV
Set pressure [bar] 15 to 25
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 50
Leakage test: 25
DN [mm] 40/50/80

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 65


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

7.2
Pressure and Temperature
Limiting Devices

Application example 7.2.1:


Pressure /temperature cut-out
for compressors � RT 1A �
MP 55A


RT 107 �
HP vapour refrigerant FIA
LP vapour refrigerant RT 5A
Oil
To oil separator

➀ Low pressure cut-out From liquid


➁ Low differential pressure separator/ SVA Compressor
Danfoss
cut-out evaporator Tapp_0101_02

➂ High temperature cut-out From oil cooler 04-2006

➃ High pressure cut-out


To protect the compressor from too high For piston compressors oil differential switch MP
discharge pressure and temperature, or too low 54/55 ➁ is used to stop the compressors in case
suction pressure, switches KP/RT are used. of too low oil pressure.
RT1A ➀ is a low pressure control, RT 5A ➃
is a high pressure control, and RT 107 ➂ is a The oil differential switch cuts out the
thermostat. compressor, if it does not build up enough
differential pressure during start up after defined
Setting of the high pressure controls should period of time (0-120 s).
be below setting of the safety valves settings
on the high pressure side. Setting on the low
pressure switch is specified by the compressor
manufacture.

Technical data Thermostat - RT


Refrigerants R717 and fluorinated refrigerants
Enclosure IP 66/54
Max. bulb temperature [°C] 65 to 300
Ambient temperature [°C] –50 to 70
Regulating range [°C] –60 to 150
Differential Δt [°C] 1.0 to 25.0

Differential pressure control - MP 54/55/55A


Refrigerants MP 54/55: fluorinated refrigerants
MP 55A: R717
Enclosure IP 20
Regulating range ΔP [bar] MP 54: 0.65/0.9
MP 55/55A: 0.3 to 4.5
Max. working pressure [bar] 17
Max. test pressure [bar] 22
Operation range –1 to 12
on LP side [bar]

66 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

7.3
Liquid Level Devices

Application example 7.3.1:


Low / high level controls for AKS 41
liquid separator To compressor
suction line
SFA SFA
SNV
SVA SVA
DSV

Liquid separator � AKS 38 From receiver


LLG SVA

� AKS 38
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant SNV
LP vapour refrigerant SVA From
LP liquid refrigerant SVA evaporator
SVA

SVA
➀ High level switch To evaporator Danfoss
➁ Low level switch QDV Tapp_0102_02
04-2006

Vessels on the high pressure side and low Low pressure vessels normally have both low
pressure side have different liquid level switches. and high level switches. The low level switch is
installed to make sure that there is sufficient head
High pressure receivers only need to have low of refrigerant to avoid cavitation of pumps.
level switch (AKS 38) in order to guarantee
minimum refrigerant level to feed expansion A high level switch is installed to protect
devices. compressors against liquid hammering.

Sight glass LLG for visual monitoring of the liquid Liquid level sight glass LLG for visual level
level can also be installed. indication should also be installed.

Technical data Level switch - AKS 38


Material Housing: zinc chromate cast iron
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –50 to +65
Max. working pressure [bar] 28
Measuring range [mm] 12.5 to 50

Sight glass - LLG


Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717.
Media temp. range [°C] –10 to 100 or –50 to 30
Max. working pressure [bar] 25
Length [mm] 185 to 1550

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 67


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

7.4
Summary

Solution Application
Safety Valves
Safety valves SFA + change over valve DSV Protection of vessels, compressors, and heat
exchangers against excessive pressure

Receiver

Overflow valve BSV + pilot operated overflow Protection of compressors and pumps against
valve POV excessive pressure

Pressure Cut Out Controls


Pressure cut out: RT Protection of compressors against too high
discharge and too low suction pressure
PDZ
Differential pressure cut out MP 55 PZL TZH PZH Protection of reciprocating compressors against
too low oil pressure

Thermostat RT Protection of compressors against too high


discharge temperature

Liquid level Devices


Liquid level switch AKS 38 Protection of the system against too high/too
low refrigerant level in the vessels
LI Liquid separator LS
Liquid level glass LLG LS Visual monitoring of liquid refrigerant level in the
vessels

7.5 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
AKS 38 RD.5M.A POV PD.ID0.A AKS 38 RI.5M.A POV PI.ID0.A
For an alphabetical overview of BSV RD.7F.B RT 1A RD.5B.A BSV RI.7F.A RT 1A RI.5B.C
all reference literature please go
DSV PD.IE0.A RT 107 RD.5E.A DSV PI.IE0.A / RI.7D.A RT 5A RI.5B.C
to page 101
LLG PD.GG0.A RT 5A RD.5B.A LLG RI.6D.D SFA RI.7F.F
MLI PD.GH0.A SFA PD.IF0.A MP 55 A RI.5C.E
MP 55 A RD.5C.B

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

68 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

8. Generally, industrial refrigeration systems have


Fig. 8.1
Refrigerant Pump pump circulation of liquid refrigerant. There are
Placing of the pump
Controls a few advantages of pump circulation compared
with DX type systems:
Pumps provide efficient distribution of
liquid refrigerant to evaporators and return
of vapour-liquid mixture back to the pump
separator; Liquid Separator
It is possible to decrease the superheat to
almost 0 K, thereby increase efficiency of the
evaporators, without risk of liquid hammer in
the compressor.

When installing the pump, care must be taken H


to prevent cavitation. Cavition can occur only
if the static refrigerant liquid pressure at the
pump inlet is lower than the saturation pressure
corresponding to the liquid temperature at this
point.
H-∆Hf- ∆Hd>NPSH Refrigerant
pump
Therefore the liquid height H above the pump
should at least be able to compensate the Danfoss
Tapp_0107_02
pressure loss of friction ΔHf through the pipe 04-2006
and valves, the pipe inlet loss ΔHd, and the
acceleration of the liquid into the pump impellor
ΔHp (pump net positive suction head, or NPSH), LP liquid refrigerant
as shown in fig. 8.1.

In order to keep the refrigerant pump in trouble-


Fig. 8.2
free operation, the flow through the pump
A typical Q-H curve for pumps
should be maintained within the permissible

Tapp_0108_02
operating range, fig. 8.2.
H H1

Danfoss

04-2006
If the flow is too low, the motor heat may Q -H
evaporate some refrigerant and result in dry
running of the pump. 2

When the flow is too high, the NPSH (Net


Positive Suction Head) characteristic of the
pump deteriorates to an extent that the available
NPSH
positive suction head becomes too low to
prevent cavitation.
0 Permissible operating range Q
Therefore, systems should be designed for the
refrigerant pump to keep this flow within the Q min Q max
operating range.

8.1 Pumps are easily damaged by cavitation. To avoid For example, incorrect operations on the
Pump Protection with cavitation, it is important to maintain sufficient evaporators may cause increased flow through
Differential Pressure Control positive suction head for the pump. To achieve the pump, the low level switch may fail, and the
enough suction head, low level switch AKS 38 is filter before the pump may be blocked, etc.
installed on the liquid separator.
All these may lead to cavitation. Therefore, it is
However, even if the low level switch is installed necessary to shut down the pump for protection
on the liquid separator is kept above the when the differential pressure drops below H2 in
minimum acceptable level, cavitation can still fig. 8.2 (equivalent to Qmax).
occur.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 69


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 8.1.1:


Danfoss
Pump protection with Tapp_0109_02
differential pressure control 04-2006

RT 260A AKS 41
To
compressor SVA From
SVA evaporator
suction line SFA SFA
SNV

SVA SVA From receiver


DSV

AKS 38

LLG Liquid separator

AKS 38

SNV SVA

Liquid/vapour mixture � SVA


of refrigerant REG
REG
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant � SVA SVA
SVA
� FIA � FIA
➀ Stop valve SVA
➁ Filter
➂ Differential pressure switch � �
QDV RT 260A
➃ Check valve RT 260A
Refrigerant
➄ Stop valve pump BSV
➅ Stop valve � NRVA
➆ Filter
➇ Differential pressure switch BSV
� NRVA
SVA
To evaporator
➈ Check valve � SVA
Stop valve

Differential pressure controls are used for Since pressure drop can lead to cavitation, it
protection against too low pressure difference. is recommended to install a 500µ mesh. Finer
RT 260A ➂ and ➇ are supplied without a timing meshes could be used during the cleaning up,
relay and cause a momentary cut-out when the but be sure to take into account the pressure
differential pressure drops below the pressure drop when designing the piping. Additionally, it
controls setting. is necessary to replace the mesh after a period of
time.
The filters FIA ➁ and ➆ are installed on the pump
line to remove particles and protect automatic If a filter is installed in the discharge line, pressure
control valves and pumps from damage, drop is not as crucial and a 150-200µ filter can
blockage, and general wear and tear. The filter be used. It is important to note that in this
can be installed in either suction line or discharge installation, particles can still enter the pump
line of the pump. before being removed from the system.

If the filter is installed in the suction line before The check valves NRVA ➃ and ➈ are installed on
the pump, it will primarily protect the pump the discharge lines of the pumps to protect the
against particles. This is particularly important pumps against reverse flow (pressure) during
during initial clean-up during commissioning. standstill.

Technical data Differential pressure control - RT 260A/252A/265A/260AL


Refrigerants R717 and fluorinated refrigerants
Enclosure IP 66/54
Ambient temperature [°C] –50 to 70
Regulating range [bar] 0.1 to 11
Max. working pressure [bar] 22/42

70 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

8.2 The most common way to keep the flow through Even if the liquid supply to all evaporators in the
Pump Bypass Flow Control the pump above the minimum permissible value system is stopped, the bypass line can still keep a
(Qmin in fig. 8.2) is to design a bypass flow for the minimum flow through the pump.
pump.
The bypass line can be designed with regulating
valve REG, differential pressure overflow valve
OFV, or even just an orifice.

Application example 8.2.1: Danfoss


Pump bypass flow control with Tapp_0110_02
04-2006
REG
To AKS 41
compressor SVA From
suction line SFA SFA SVA evaporator
SNV

SVA From receiver


DSV SVA

AKS 38

LLG Liquid separator

AKS 38

SNV SVA

SVA SVA � REG


� REG
� SVA
� SVA FIA FIA
Liquid/vapour mixture SVA
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant RT 260A
LP liquid refrigerant RT 260A
QDV
Refrigerant
➀ Hand regulating valve pump � BSV
➁ Stop valve NRVA NRVA
➂ Hand regulating valve
➃ Stop valve � BSV SVA
➄ Stop valve SVA To evaporator

➅ Internal safety relief valve


The bypass line is designed for each pump with example, when the stop valves are closed, the
regulating valve REG. liquid refrigerant trapped in the pipes may be
The internal overflow valve BSV is designed for heated to excessive high pressure.
safety relief when there is excessive pressure. For

Technical data Regulating valve - REG


Material Special cold resistant steel approved for low temperature operation
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants, including R717
Media temperature range [°C] –50 to +150
Max. working pressure [bar] 40
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 80
Leakage test: 40
Kv value [m3/h] 0.17 to 81.4 for fully open valves

Safety relief valve - BSV


Material Housing: special steel approved for low temp. operation
Refrigerants R717, HFC, HCFC and other refrigerants (depending on the sealing material compatibility)
Media temperature range [°C] –30 to 100 as an external safety relief valve
–50 to 100 as a pilot valve for POV
Set pressure [bar] 10 to 25
Test pressure [bar] Strength test: 43
Leakage test: 25

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 71


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

8.3 It is of great importance to some types of By using pilot controlled servo valve ICS and pilot
Pump Pressure Control pump circulation systems that a constant valve CVPP, it is possible to maintain a constant
differential pressure can be maintained across differential pressure across the pump, and
the permanently set throttle valve before the therefore a constant differential pressure across
evaporator. the throttle valve.
Application example 8.3.1:
Danfoss
Pump differential pressure Tapp_0111_02
control with ICS and CVPP 04-2006

To AKS 41
compressor SVA From evaporator
suction line SVA
SFA SFA
SNV SVA From receiver
SVA
DSV

AKS 38
LLG Liquid separator

AKS 38

CVPP
SNV SVA � SVA
SVA SVA � ICS � SVA

SVA
FIA FIA

Liquid/vapour mixture
RT 260A
of refrigerant RT 260A
LP vapour refrigerant QDV BSV
LP liquid refrigerant Refrigerant
pump
NRVA NRVA
➀ Stop valve
➁ Differential pressure BSV
SVA
SVA
To evaporator
regulator
➂ Stop valve

Technical data Pilot-operated servo valve - ICS


Material Body: low temp. steel
Refrigerants All common refrigerants, incl. R717 and R744
Media temperature range [°C] –60 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] 52
DN [mm] 20 to 80

Differential pressure pilot valve - CVPP


Material Body: stainless steel
Refrigerants All common non-flammable refrigerants incl. R717
Media temperature range [°C] –50 to 120
Max. working pressure [bar] CVPP(HP): 28
CVPP(LP): 17
Regulating range [bar] 0 to 7, or 4 to 22
Kv value [m3/h] 0.4

72 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

8.4
Summary

Solution Application Benefits Limitations


Pump Protection with Differential Pressure Control
Pump protection with Applicable to all pump Simple. Not applicable to flammable
differential pressure control Liquid separator circulation systems. Effective in protecting refrigerants.
RT 260A the pump against low
differential pressure
(corresponding to high
flow).

Filter and Check Valve


Filter FIA and check valve Applicable to all pump Simple. Filter on the suction line
NRVA on the pump line Liquid separator
circulation systems. Effective in protecting the may lead to cavitation when
pump against back flow and blocked.
particles. Filter on the discharge line
still allows particles to enter
the pump.

Pump Bypass Flow Control


Pump bypass flow control Applicable to all pump Simple. Part of pump power wasted.
with REG and protection Liquid separator circulation systems. Effective and reliable in
with safety relief valve BSV keeping the minimum flow
for the pump.
Safety valve can effectively
prevent excessive pressure.

Pump Pressure Control


Pump pressure control with Applicable to pump Provides a constant Part of pump power wasted.
ICS and CVPP circulation systems that differential pressure and
Liquid separator
require constant differential circulation ratio for the
pressure across the evaporators.
PC
regulating valves before
evaporators.

8.5 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
BSV RD.7F.B NRVA RD.6H.A BSV RI.7F.A NRVA RI.6H.B
For an alphabetical overview of CVPP PD.HN0.A REG PD.KM0.A CVPP RI.4X.D REG PI.KM0.A
all reference literature please go
FIA PD.FN0.A RT 260A RD.5B.A FIA PI.FN0.A RT 260A RI.5B.B
to page 101
ICS PD.HS0.A SVA PD.KD0.A ICS PI.HS0.A SVA PI.KD0.B

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 73


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9. Others
9.1 Water, acids and particles appear naturally in Cooling of the bearings is reduced due to less oil
Filter Driers in fluorinated refrigeration systems. Water may circulating through the bearing gap. This causes
Fluorinated Systems enter the system as a result of installation, these components to get hotter and hotter. Valve
service, leakage, etc.; acids are generated by plates start to leak by causing higher discharge
decomposition of refrigerants and oils; and superheating effect. As the problems escalate the
particles usually come from soldering/welding compressor failure is imminent.
debris, reaction between refrigerants and oil, etc.
Filter driers are designed to prevent all the above
Failure to keep the contents of acids, water and circumstances. Filter driers serve two functions:
particles within acceptable limits will significantly drying function and filtering function.
shorten the lifetime of the refrigeration system
and even burn out the compressor. The drying function constitutes the chemical
protection and includes the adsorption of water
Too much moisture in systems with evaporating and acids. The purpose is to prevent corrosion of
temperatures below 0°C could form ice which the metal surface, decomposition of the oil and
may block control valves, solenoid valves, filters, refrigerant and avoid burn-out of motors.
and so on. Particles increase the wear-and-tear
of the compressor and valves, as well as the The filter function constitutes the physical
possibility of creating a blockage. Acids are protection and includes retention of particles and
not corrosive if there is no water. But in water impurities of any kind. This minimizes the wear
solution, acids can corrode the pipe work and and tear of the compressor, protects it against
plate the hot bearing surfaces in the compressor. damage and significantly prolongs its life.

This plating builds up on to the hot bearing


surfaces including the oil pump, crankshaft, con
rods, piston rings, suction and discharge valve
reeds etc. This plating causes the bearings to
run hotter as the lubrication gap in the bearings
reduces as the plating gets thicker.

74 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.1.1:


Filter drier in fluorinated systems

HP vapour refrigerant Compressor


Condenser

Oil separator
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant Receiver
Oil

➀ Filter drier
➁ Filter drier � SVA
SNV
➂ Filter drier � DCR
➃ Stop valve SVA

SGRI
➄ Stop valve � SVA
➅ Stop valve SNV
➆ Sight glass � DCR
TE �
➇ Sight glass Evaporator SVA SGRI
➈ Sight glass � SVA
Stop valve Danfoss
SNV
Stop valve Tapp_0116_02 � DCR
12
04-2006

Stop valve SVA SGRI

For fluorinated systems, filter driers are normally In addition to the above normal solid cores,
installed in the liquid line before the expansion Danfoss also provide other customer-tailored
valve. In this line, there is only pure liquid flow solid cores. And Danfoss also provide filter driers
through the filter drier (unlike the two-phase flow with fixed solid cores. For more information,
after the expansion valve). please refer to the product catalogue or contact
your local sales companies.
The pressure drop across the filter drier is small,
and the pressure drop in this line has little
The sight glass with indicator for HCFC/CFC, type
influence on the performance of the system. The
SGRI, is installed after the filter drier to indicate
installation of filter drier could also prevent ice
the water content after drying. Sight glasses with
formation in the expansion valve.
indicator for other types of refrigerants can also
In industrial installations the capacity of one filter be provided. For more information, please refer
drier is not normally sufficient to dry the whole to Danfoss product catalogue.
system, therefore several filter driers could be
installed in parallel.
DCR is a filter drier with interchangeable solid
cores. There are three types of solid cores: DM, DC
and DA.
DM - 100% molecular sieve solid core suitable
for HFC refrigerants and CO2;
DC - 80% molecular sieve and 20% activated
alumina solid core suitable for CFC & HCFC
refrigerants and compatible with HFC
refrigerants;
DA - 30% molecular sieve and 70% activated
alumina solid core suitable for clean up after
compressor burn-out and compatible with
CFC / HCFC / HFC refrigerants.

Technical data Filter drier - DCR


Refrigerants CFC/HFC/HCFC/R744
Material Housing: steel
Max. working pressure [bar] HP: 46
Operating temp. range [°C] –40 to 70
Solid cores DM/DC/DA

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 75


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9.2 In many respects CO2 is a far less complicated In the evaporator, when the liquid CO2 vaporizes,
Filter Driers in CO2 Systems refrigerant, but it does have some unique the water solubility in the refrigerant decreases
features compared with other common significantly especially when the circulation ratio
refrigerants. One such feature is the water is near to one. This brings a risk of creating free
solubility in CO2. As shown in the figure below, water. If this happens and the temperature is
there is little difference between the solubility below 0°C, the free water will freeze, and the ice
in both the liquid and vapour phases of R134a. crystals may block control valves, solenoid valves,
However, with CO2 this difference is quite filters and other equipment.
significant.
Installing filter driers is still the most efficient
What happens in fluorinated system will also method to avoid the above mentioned freezing,
happen in CO2 systems when water, acids and blockages and chemical reactions. And the
particles are present in the system, e.g. blockage zeolite type filter drier commonly used in
by particles and corrosion by acids. fluorinated systems has proven to be effective for
CO2 systems. To install filter driers in a CO2 system,
Furthermore the unique water solubility of CO2 the unique water solubility should also be taken
will increase the risk of freezing in CO2 systems. into consideration.

Water solubility in CO 2
1000 Liquid
Maximum solubility [ppm}

100 Vapour
R134a
(mg/kg)

10

Danfoss
Tapp_0117_02
1
04-2006 -50 -30 -10 10 [°C]

76 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.2.1:


Filter driers in CO2 pumped NH3 out
liquid circulation systems
Compressor

Oil separator
NH3 in

Condenser

Receiver
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture Liquid Separator
of refrigerant Expansion
LP vapour refrigerant valve 1
LP liquid refrigerant
Oil
� SVA
� SVA
➀ Stop valve SNV
➁ Filter drier � DCR
Danfoss
➂ Sight glass Evaporator
� Tapp_0118_02
SGRN 04-2006
➃ Stop valve
To install a filter drier in a CO2 system, the In a CO2 pumped liquid circulation systems, filter
following criteria should be considered: driers are recommended to be installed on the
Relative Humidity liquid lines before evaporators. On these lines,
As shown in the figure below, when the RH RH is high, there is no two phase flow, and it’s not
is too low, the capacity of the filter drier sensitive to pressure drop.
decreases quickly.
Installation in other positions is not
Pressure Drop recommended for the following reasons:
The pressure drop across the filter drier should 1. In the compressor-condenser-expansion valve
be small. And the system performance should loop the RH is low. In the liquid separator,
not be sensitive to this pressure drop. more than 90% water exists in the liquid phase
Two Phase Flow because of the much lower solubility of
Two phase flow through the filter drier should vapour CO2 compared with liquid. Therefore,
be avoided, which brings risk of freezing little water is brought into the compressor
and blocking because of the unique water loop by the suction vapour. If filter driers are
solubility characteristics. installed in this loop, the drier will have too
little capacity.
Relative drier capacity 2. In the wet suction line there is a risk of
Molecular Sieves “freezing” because of the two phase flow as
100 mentioned.
3. In the liquid line before the refrigerant pumps,
80 pressure drop increases the risk of cavitation
Relative capacity [%]

to the pumps.
60
If the capacity of one filter drier is not enough,
40 several filters driers in parallel could be
considered.
20

0
Danfoss 0 20 40 60 80 100
Tapp_0119_02
04-2006 Relative humidity - RH [%]

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 77


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.2.2:


Filter driers in CO2 DX systems NH3 out

Compressor

Oil separator
NH3 in

HP vapour refrigerant Condenser


HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant Receiver
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil

➀ Filter drier
➁ Filter drier � SVA
➂ Filter drier � DCR SNV

➃ Stop valve �
SVA SGRI
➄ Stop valve � SVA
➅ Stop valve
SNV
➆ Sight glass � DCR
➇ Sight glass TE �
Evaporator SVA SGRI
➈ Sight glass � SVA
Stop valve
� DCR SNV
Stop valve Danfoss
Tapp_0120_02 12 �
Stop valve 04-2006 SVA SGRI

In a CO2 DX system, the water concentration is 1. In the suction line and discharge line, it is
the same throughout the system, so the RH is sensitive to the pressure drop, as well as the
only up to the water solubility of the refrigerant. high risk of freezing in the suction line. Filter
driers are not recommended to be installed
Although the RH in the liquid line before the here although the RHs are high.
expansion valve is relatively small because of the 2. In the liquid line after the expansion valve,
high water solubility of the high temperature installation of filter drier should also be
liquid CO2, it’s still recommended that filter driers avoided because of the two phase flow.
be installed on this line (same position as in
fluorinated system) for the following reasons:

78 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9.3 The issue of water in ammonia systems is unique Basically, there are three ways to deal with water
Water Removal compared with fluorinated systems and CO2 contamination:
for Ammonia Systems systems: Change the charge
The molecular structure of ammonia and water This is suitable for systems with small charges
are similar, both small and polar and as a result (e.g. chillers with plate type evaporators), and
both ammonia and water are completely soluble. it should comply with local legislation.
As a result of the similarity of ammonia and water Purging from some evaporators
molecular, there has been no efficient filter drier This is suitable for some gravity driven systems
for ammonia. Furthermore, because of the high without hot gas defrost. In these systems,
solubility of water in ammonia, free water is water remains in the liquid when ammonia
difficult to extract from the solution. vaporizes, and accumulates in the evaporators.
Water rectifier
Water and ammonia will co-exist and act as a Part of contaminated ammonia is drained
kind of zeotropic refrigerant, whose saturated P-T into the rectifier, where it is heated, with the
relationship is no longer the same as anhydrous ammonia vaporising and the water drained.
ammonia. This is the only way of removing water for
pumped liquid circulation systems.
These are factors as to why ammonia systems
are seldom designed as DX systems: on one For more information on water contamination
hand, the liquid ammonia is hard to completely and water removal in ammonia refrigeration
vaporize when water is present, which will lead systems, please refer to IIAR bulletin 108.
to liquid hammer; on the other hand, how can a
thermostatic expansion valve function correctly It is necessary to mention that there is a down
when the saturated P-T relationship changes? side to too low water content - the possibility of
a special kind of steel corrosion. However it is not
Pumped liquid circulation systems could well likely in a real plant.
avoid the potential damages of water to the
compressors. With only vapour entering in the
suction line, liquid hammer is avoided; and so
long as there is not too much water in the liquid,
the vapour will contain nearly no water
(< the recommended max. of 0.3%), which could
effectively avoid the oil pollution by water.

While pumped liquid circulation systems


effectively avoid damage to the compressors,
it also keeps the other penalties of water
unnoticed:
COP of the system is reduced
When there is water content, the saturated
P-T relationship of the refrigerant will be
different from pure ammonia. Specifically,
the refrigerant will evaporate at a higher
temperature for a given pressure. This will
decrease the refrigeration capacity of the
system and increase power consumption.
Corrosion
Ammonia becomes corrosive with water
present and start to corrode the pipe work,
valves, vessels, etc.
Compressor problems
If water is taken into the compressors, e.g.
due to inefficient liquid separators, it will also
lead to oil and corrosion problems to the
compressors.

Therefore, to keep the system in efficient and


trouble-free mode, it’s recommended to detect
water regularly, and employ some water removal
method when the water content is found to be
above the acceptable level.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 79


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.3.1:


Water rectifier heated by hot gas
controled by float valves SVA
To liquid separator

BSV
� EVRA
SVA

HP vapour refrigerant Sight


HP liquid refrigerant glass � SV4 Contaminated
LP vapour refrigerant ammonia in
LP liquid refrigerant Sight
glass SVA
Oil
� EVRA+FA
Hot gas in
➀ Solenoid valve
➁ Low pressure float valve SVA � REG
➂ Solenoid valve � EVRA+FA
SVA
➃ Solenoid valve
➄ Hand regulating valve SVA
➅ High pressure float valve SVA

➆ Internal safety relief valve To liquid � SV1 Danfoss


� QDV
➇ Quick drain valve separator
SVA
Tapp_0121_02
04-2006

Procedure for removing water:


1. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➀ and 3. When the rectifying is completed the levels in
➂. Contaminated ammonia is drained into the both the vessel and the coil will stop
rectifying vessel. The float valve SV4 ➁ will changing, and the float valve ➁ and ➅ will
close when the liquid level in the vessel close. De-energise the solenoid valve ➀ and
reaches the set level. ➃, then open the stop valve SVA and drain
valve QDV ➇, and drain off the water
2. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➃. Hot remaining in the vessel.
gas is fed to the coil inside the vessel and
starts to heat the contaminated ammonia. 4. Close the drain valve QDV ➇ and stop valve
Ammonia starts to evaporate, and water SVA. Then de-energise the solenoid valve ➂
remains in the liquid. The float valve SV1/3 to stop the water removal process, or if
➅ complete with a special kit inside (shown in necessary, repeat step 1 to continue the
dot line) controls the flow of hot gas process.
according to the heating load and maintains
the heating temperature at the condensing For safety considerations, safety relief
temperature of the hot gas. When ammonia valve BSV ➆ is installed on the vessel to avoid
evaporates in the vessel and the liquid level excessive pressure build up.
drops, the float valve SV4 ➁ will open and
drain more contaminated ammonia into the
vessel.

80 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.3.2:


Water rectifier heated by hot CVP
gas, equipped with float valve
and ball valve
� SVA To intermediate
EVRA � ICS cooler/liquid separator
To suction line
SVA

REG
BSV
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant
Oil
Sight
glass SVA
➀ Ball valve � NRVA
➁ Check valve Sight
➂ Hand regulating valve Hot gas in glass � REG � Contaminated
Ball valve ammonia in
➃ Solenoid valve SVA � REG
➄ Hand regulating valve �
EVRA+FA
➅ Pressure regulating valve
➆ Solenoid valve SVA SVA
➇ Hand regulating valve
➈ High pressure float valve To liquid � SV1
QDV Danfoss
Internal safety relief valve separator Tapp_0122_02
SVA 04-2006
Quick drain valve
This is a manual water removal process.

Steps for removing water:


1. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➃, then 3. When the boiling in the vessel stops (monitor
open the ball valve ➀. Contaminated through the sight glasses), de-energise the
ammonia from the low pressure side is drained solenoid valve EVRA ➆, open the drain valve
into the water rectifier. When the ammonia QDV to drain the water from the vessel.
in the vessel reaches the required level
(monitor through the sight glasses), close the During the distillation, it is important to maintain
ball valve ➀ and de-energise the solenoid the proper pressure and temperature in the
valve EVRA ➃. vessel. The temperature should not be too high,
otherwise water will evaporate. Additionally the
2. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➆. Hot temperature should not be too low; otherwise
gas is fed to the coil inside the vessel and too much ammonia will remain in the vessel
starts to heat the contaminated ammonia, as liquid and be wasted when draining. This
with the ammonia evaporating and the is ensured by the servo valve ICS ➅ with the
water remaining in the liquid. The float valve constant pressure pilot valve CVP, which keeps
SV1/3 ➈ with a special kit inside (shown in the pressure in the vessel at an optimal level.
dot line) controls the flow of hot gas
according to the heating load, and maintains For safety considerations, safety relief valve BSV
the heating temperature at the condensing is installed on the vessel to avoid excessive
temperature of the hot gas. pressure build up.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 81


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.3.3:


CVP
Water rectifier heated by hot
water
� � ICS SVA To intermediate
EVRA cooler/liquid separator
To suction line
SVA
� REG

BSV

HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Sight
Oil glass SVA
� NRVA
Sight
➀ Ball valve Hot water in glass � REG � Contaminated
➁ Check valve Ball valve ammonia in
➂ Hand regulating valve SVA � REG

➃ Solenoid valve EVRA+FA
➄ Hand regulating valve
➅ Pressure regulating valve SVA
➆ Solenoid valve
➇ Hand regulating valve Danfoss
QDV
➈ Internal safety relief valve Hot water out Tapp_0123_02
SVA 04-2006
Quick drain valve

This is a manual water removal process with


hot water as the heating source. The hot water
supplied via heat reclaim.

Steps for removing water:


1. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➃, then During the distillation, it is important to maintain
open the ball valve ➀. Contaminated the proper pressure and temperature in the
ammonia from the low pressure side is drained vessel. The temperature should not be too high,
into the water rectifier. When the ammonia otherwise water will evaporate. Additionally the
in the vessel reaches the required level temperature should not be too low; otherwise
(monitor through the sight glasses), close the too much ammonia will remain in the vessel
ball valve ➀ and de-energise the solenoid as liquid and be wasted when draining. This is
valve EVRA ➃. ensured by the servo valve ICS ➅ with constant
pressure pilot valve CVP, which keeps the
2. Open the solenoid valve EVRA ➆. Hot water is pressure in the vessel at an optimal level.
fed to the coil inside the vessel and starts
to heat the contaminated ammonia, with the For safety considerations, safety relief valve BSV
ammonia evaporating and the water ➈ is installed on the vessel to avoid excessive
remaining in the liquid. pressure build up.

3. When the boiling in the vessel stops (monitor


through the sight glasses), de-energise the
solenoid valve EVRA ➆, open the drain valve
QDV to drain the water from the vessel.

82 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9.4 Presence of Non Condensable Gases The capacity reduced in the condenser is a
Air purging systems Non-condensable gases are present in fact but is very hard to determine. Air purger
refrigeration systems at the outset of the manufacturers have provided some data, which
installation process, with pipes and fittings being indicates a 9-10 % capacity reduction for every
full of air. Therefore, if a good vacuum process is bar of increased condensing pressure. If a more
not undertaken air can remain within the system. accurate calculation is required, ASHRAE gives
Additionally, air can enter the system as a result some guidelines on how to estimate it
of the system leaking, when the system is open as well as some examples of research undertaken
for maintenance, penetration through the system with the results achieved. (HVAC Systems &
components, leaking at welded connections Equipment Manual, Non-Condensable Gases).
where the pressure of the ammonia is lower than Other manufacturers estimate the risks and the
atmospheric pressure (below -34°C evaporating associated costs rising from the compressor
temperature), when adding oil, etc. side. As the condensing pressure and discharge
Moreover, impurities in the refrigerant and temperature increase, there will be higher risks
/ or decomposition of the refrigerant or to the bearings due to oil problems, as well as an
the lubricating oil due to high discharge increase in the running cost of a compressor. The
temperatures may generate non-condensable cost estimation is related to the compressor type
gases (e.g. Ammonia decomposes into nitrogen and size in the plant.
and hydrogen). All in all the presence of non-condensable gases
is as undesirable as unavoidable and air purging
Location & Detection equipment is often used.
Non-condensable gases are contained within the
high pressure side of the refrigeration system, Air purging systems
mainly in the coldest and less agitated points in The air or non-condensable gases can be purged
the condenser. out of the system manually. This is performed
A simple way to check for the presence of non- by maintenance personnel and may lead to
condensable gases in the system, is to compare excessive refrigerant losses.
the pressure difference between the actual Another way of purging is called refrigerated
condensing pressure, read at the pressure purging: gases coming from the sampling
gauge of the receiver and the saturated pressure points are cooled down inside a chamber with a
corresponding to the temperature measured at cooling coil in order to condense the refrigerant
the condenser outlet. and return it back to the system. The gases
For example if 30°C is measured at the outlet then left in the chamber should be purged out
of the condenser in an ammonia system, the to the atmosphere. The idea of cooling down
related saturated temperature is 10.7 bar g and and condensation is to reduce the amount of
if the pressure gauge reading is 11.7 bar g then refrigerant released.
there is 1 bar difference and this is due to the The refrigerant used for the cooling coil could be
presence of non-condensable gases. the same as the refrigeration plant; it can also be
another different refrigerant.
Problems generated Location for purge connection is quite difficult
The air tends to form a film over the condenser and depends on the system and condenser type.
pipes isolating the heat transfer surface from Below are some examples of purge points. In the
the refrigerant in the condenser. The result is a picture, the arrows in the condenser coils and the
reduction of the condenser capacity and thus an vessels represent the flow velocities. The length
increase in the condensing pressure. The energy of arrow decreases as the velocity decreases.
efficiency will then decline and depending on the
condensing pressure, the potential for oil related The air accumulation is shown by the black dots.
problems would increase. These places with high content of air are where
samples for purging should be taken.

� Horizontal shell-tube condenser

� Evaporative condenser

� Receiver Verticle
shell-tube
Danfoss condenser
Tapp_0124_02
04-2006

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 83


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.4.1:


SVA
Automatic air purging system
To liquid separator SVA
using the refrigerant from the
plant
� REG
EVRA
Water tank

From
discharge
line

� SV1 � RT 280A
SVA SVA
HP vapour refrigerant SVA
REG
HP liquid refrigerant REG �
Liquid/vapour mixture � FA+EVRA
EVRAT+
of refrigerant From SVA FA
refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant pump � FA+EVRAT
Oil Condenser

SVA
SVA
➀ Solenoid valve
➁ Solenoid valve
➂ Solenoid valve
➃ Float valve Danfoss
➄ Pressure switch Tapp_0125_02
04-2006 Receiver
➅ Solenoid valve
Steps for air purging:
1. Energise the solenoid valve EVRA ➀, so that 3. With the air that accumulates in the top of
low pressure liquid refrigerant enters the coil the vessel, the total pressure inside the vessel
and cools down the refrigerant contained in compared with the saturated pressure of the
the vessel. liquid refrigerant increases. When this pressure
reaches the setting on the pressure switch RT
2. Energise the solenoid valve EVRAT ➁ or ➂. 280A ➄ opens the solenoid valve EVRA ➅
Gas refrigerant with accumulated air is drawn and purges some air from the vessel.
into the vessel, inside which refrigerant vapour
condenses and air rises to the top of the
vessel. The float valve SV1 ➃ drains the
condensed liquid refrigerant automatically.

84 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9.5 The free heat from de-superheating and/or The purpose of control is to coordinate heat
Heat Recovery System condensing in the condenser can be reclaimed recovery and refrigeration:
if there are requirements for heating in the 1. The basic function of refrigeration should be
plant. These include heating of air in offices or ensured whether the heat recovery is running
shops, heating water for washing or processing, or not. The condensing pressure should not be
preheating boiler feed water, etc. too high when heat recovery stops.
Furthermore for DX systems, the condensing
To make heat recovery an economic solution, pressure should not be too low either (See
it is important to ensure that the free heat and section 3).
the heating requirements match in terms of 2. The requirements for heat recovery, e.g.
timing, temperature level and heat flow. For the temperature and the heat flow, should be
example, for production of hot water, i.e. when fulfilled.
heat at high temperature level is required, the 3. Trouble free on/off control of the heat
de-superheating heat could be recovered; whilst recovery loop according to the demand.
for office heating, usually the recovery of all the
condenser heat could be considered. Heat recovery control needs very sophisticated
design, which may vary from plant to plant. The
A well designed control system is crucial following are some examples:
for trouble free and efficient operation of
refrigeration systems with heat recovery.

Application example 9.5.1:


Control for series arrangement To

Tapp_0126_02
suction
of recovery heat exchanger and line

Danfoss

04-2006
condenser SVA

� REG
� EVRAT+FA
EVM Heat recovery
SVA condenser

Water in
� ICS

Water out
� NRVA SVA
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant CVP
Oil

➀ Pressure regulator From


discharge
SVA � ICS SVA SVA

➁ Solenoid valve line


➂ Check valve
➃ Solenoid valve Condenser To receiver
➄ Hand regulating valve
This heat recovery system is applicable to air as ICS ➀ will normally close because of the
well as water. increased condensing capacity and decreased
discharge pressure. If the discharge pressure
Refrigerating cycle without heat recovery increases, constant pressure pilot CVP (HP) will
Hot gas from the discharge line is led directly to open the servo valve ICS ➀ so that part of the hot
the main condenser through the pilot-operated gas can flow towards the main condenser.
servo valve ICS ➀ with constant pressure pilot
CVP (HP). The check valve NRVA ➂ prevents the In summertime the heat recovery condenser is
flow back towards the heat recovery condenser. idle for extended periods of time. To avoid the
risk of accumulation of liquid in this condenser,
Heat recovery cycle a solenoid valve EVRA ➃ and a regulating valve
The pilot operated servo valve ICS ➁ is controlled REG ➄ ensure periodic evaporation of any
by the on/off switching of the pilot solenoid valve condensate in the recovery condenser.
EVM, through a time clock, thermostat etc. Hot
gas enters the recovery condenser.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 85


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Application example 9.5.2:


Heat recovery

Tapp_0127_02
Control for series arrangement SVA condenser
of recovery heat exchanger and

Danfoss

04-2006
condenser
Water in
� RT 107

Water out � NRVA SVA

From CVPP EVM


HP vapour refrigerant discharge
HP liquid refrigerant line
Oil
SVA SVA SVA
� ICS
➀ Differential pressure
regulator
➁ Thermostat Condenser To receiver
➂ Check valve
This heat recovery system is applicable to central When this pressure drop exceeds the setting of
refrigeration plant with several compressors. differential pressure pilot CVPP(HP) on the servo
valve ICS ➀ partially opens and excess pressure
Provided only a small proportion of compressor
gas is led direct into the main condenser.
capacity is used, all the discharge gas will pass
through the recovery condenser and then to the When the desired water or air temperature has
main condenser. been achieved by means of the heat recovery
condenser, the thermostat RT 107 ➁ activates the
The greater the amount of compressor capacity
on/off pilot EVM, and the servo valve ICS ➀ will
used, the higher becomes the pressure drop in
open fully.
the recovery condenser.

Application example 9.5.3:


Heat recovery

Tapp_0128_02
Control for parallel arrangement SVA condenser
of recovery heat exchanger and

Danfoss

04-2006
condenser
Water in

� RT 107
Water out SVA

� NRVA
To receiver

HP vapour refrigerant From CVP EVM


HP liquid refrigerant discharge
Oil line

SVA SVA SVA


� ICS
➀ Pressure regulator and
solenoid valve
➁ Thermostat To receiver
➂ Check valve Condenser

This heat recovery system is applicable to pilot EVM is closed, which in turn causes the
systems with several compressors - e.g. for the servo valve ICS ➀ to close. If the condensing
heating of central heating water. pressure exceeds the setting of the constant
pressure pilot CVP (HP), the servo valve ICS 3 will
In normal operation the servo valve ICS ➀ is kept
open and excess pressure gas will be led to the
open by the on/off switching of the solenoid
main condenser.
valve pilot EVM, activated by an external control
connected to the thermostat RT 107. The check valve NRVA prevents flow back of
refrigerant to the recovery condenser.
In wintertime, when the heating demand
necessitates heat recovery, the solenoid valve

86 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

9.6 Technical Leaflet / Manual Product instruction


Reference Literature Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no. Type Literature no.
BSV RD.7F.B REG PD.KM0.A BSV RI.7F.A REG PI.KM0.A
For an alphabetical overview of CVP PD.HN0.A RT 107 RD.5E.A CVP RI.4X.D SGR PI.EK0.A
all reference literature please go
DCR PD.EJ0.A SGR PD.EK0.A DCR PI.EJ0.B SNV PI.KB0.A
to page 101
EVM PD.HN0.A SNV PD.KB0.A EVM RI.3X.J SVA PI.KD0.B
EVRA(T) RD.3C.B SVA PD.KD0.A EVRA(T) RI.3D.A SV 1-3 RI.2B.F
ICS PD.HS0.A SV 1-3 RD.2C.B ICS PI.HS0.A SV 4-6 RI.2B.B
NRVA RD.6H.A SV 4-6 RD.2C.B NRVA RI.6H.B

To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 87


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10. Appendix
10.1 Refrigeration systems are basically characterized By the way of supplying refrigerant to
Typical Refrigeration by the refrigeration cycle and the way of evaporators, the systems could be categorized
Systems supplying refrigerant to the evaporator. By into two basic types:
the refrigeration cycle, industrial refrigeration
systems are categorized into three types: Direct expansion system
The liquid/vapour mixture of refrigerant after
Single-stage system expansion is directly fed into evaporators.
This is the most basic cycle: compression-
condensation-expansion-evaporation. Circulated system
The liquid and vapour of refrigerant after
Two-stage system expansion are separated in a liquid separator and
In this kind of system, there is always an only the liquid is fed into evaporators. The liquid
intermediate cooler or economizer. circulation could be either gravity circulation or
pump circulation.
Cascade system
These types of refrigeration systems will be
This system is actually two basic cycles in
illustrated by some examples:
cascade. The evaporator in the high temperature
cycle acts also as the condenser of the low
temperature cycle.

88 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Single-stage system Fig.10.1 Single-stage Refrigeration System with Direct Expansion


with direct expansion (DX)
1 2 3
Compressor

Oil separator
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant
Liquid/vapour mixture Condenser
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Oil
Receiver

➀ Compressor control zone TC

Tapp_0129_02
➁ Oil control zone Thermostatic
➂ Condenser control zone

Danfoss

04-2006
Evaporator expansion
4
➃ Evaporator control zone valve

Single-stage refrigeration system with direct Please notice that thermostatic expansion
expansion is the most basic refrigeration valve can only keep a constant superheat,
system, which is very popular in air conditioning instead of a constant evaporating temperature.
and small refrigeration systems, fig.10.1. The Specifically, if no other controls happen, the
refrigeration cycle is: low pressure vapour evaporating temperature will rise with a load
refrigerant is compressed by the compressor increase and drop with a load decrease. Since
into the condenser, where the high-pressure a constant evaporating temperature is the
vapour condensates into high pressure liquid. aim of refrigeration, some other controls are
The high-pressure liquid then expands through also necessary, e.g. compressor control and
the thermal expansion valve into the evaporator, evaporator control. The compressor control
where the low pressure liquid evaporates into could adjust the refrigeration capacity of the
low-pressure vapour, and will be drawn into the system, and the evaporator control could secure
compressor again. a right flow of refrigerant to the evaporator.
Details of these two kinds of controls can be seen
The oil separator and the receiver have nothing in Section 2 and Section 5, respectively.
to do with the refrigeration cycle, but they are
important to the control: Theoretically, the lower the condensing
The oil separator separates and collects the oil temperature, the higher the refrigeration
from the refrigerant, then sends the oil back efficiency is. But in a direct expansion system,
to the compressor. This oil loop is important if the pressure in the receiver is too low, the
to secure safe and efficient running of the pressure difference across the expansion
compressor, e.g. good lubrication. And oil valve will be too low to provide enough flow
control (Section 6) is essential for keeping the oil of refrigerant. Therefore, controls should be
temperature and pressure at an acceptable level. designed to prevent a too low condensing
pressure, if the condensing capacity of a direct
The receiver could absorb/release refrigerant expansion system is possible to vary too much.
when the refrigerant contents in different This is discussed in Condenser Controls (Section
components vary with the load, or some 3).
components shut off for service. The receiver
could also maintain a supply of liquid refrigerant The main drawback of direct expansion is the low
at constant pressure to the expansion valve. efficiency. Since a certain superheat has to be
maintained:
The thermostatic expansion valve is controlled Part of the heat transfer area in the evaporator
by the superheat. This is of great importance for is occupied by vapour, and the heat transfer
the functions of both the evaporator and the efficiency is lower.
compressor:
The compressor consumes more power to
By keeping a constant superheat at the compress the superheated vapour than the
outlet of the evaporator, the thermostatic saturated vapour.
expansion valve supplies the right flow of
liquid refrigerant to the evaporator according This drawback becomes especially terrible in a
to the load. low-temperature refrigeration plant or a large
A certain superheat could ensure that only refrigeration plant. In these refrigeration systems,
vapour enters the compressor suction. circulated system with pump circulation or
Liquid droplet in the suction will cause liquid natural circulation is designed in order to save
hammering, which is equivalent to knocking energy.
in a motor.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 89


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Single-stage system Fig.10.2 Single-stage Refrigeration System with Pump Circulation and Hot Gas Defrost
with pump circulation of 2 3
1
refrigerant
Compressor

Oil separator
HP vapour refrigerant
HP liquid refrigerant Oil cooler Condenser
Liquid/vapour mixture
of refrigerant
Receiver
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Expansion
Oil valve 1
valve 2
Expansion
Liquid separator
➀ Compressor control zone
➁ Oil control zone Refrigerant
pump
Evaporator
➂ Condenser control zone 5 4
➃ Liquid level control zone Danfoss
Tapp_0130_02
➄ Evaporator control zone 04-2006

The refrigeration cycle for the single-stage If the evaporators are air cooler type, and the
system with pump circulation shown in fig. 10.2 is evaporating temperature is below 0°C, frost will
almost the same as the one with DX shown in form on the coils. The frost needs to be removed
fig. 1.1. The main difference is that in this periodically; otherwise it will restrict the air flow
system, the vapour refrigerant which enters the and increase the heat transfer resistance.
compressor suction line is saturated vapour,
instead of superheated vapour. The most widely used methods of defrost
industrial coils are using: air, water, electric, or hot
This thanks to the installation of the liquid gas. In fig.10.2, hot gas is used to defrost. Part of
separator between the Expansion valve 1 and the high pressure vapour from the discharge is
the evaporator. The liquid and the vapour from drawn into the evaporator for defrost.
the expansion valve are separated in the liquid
separator. Only vapour enters the compressor The vapour will heat the evaporator and
suction line, and only liquid is fed into the condense into high pressure liquid. This high
evaporator by the refrigerant pumps. pressure liquid leaving the evaporator expands
into the liquid separator through the expansion
Because the superheat disappears, the valve 2.
temperature in the suction line is lower, and
the compressor can save some energy. And the Hot gas defrosting is only applicable to systems
evaporator could be filled with liquid refrigerant, containing at least three parallel evaporators. In
thus improve the heat transfer efficiency. So a the process of defrosting, at lease two thirds of
circulated system is more energy-efficient than a the evaporators (in terms of capacity) must be
similar DX system. under refrigerating, and at most one thirds under
defrosting, otherwise the output of hot gas will
The line between the receiver and the inlet of the be insufficient.
condenser is for equalizing the pressure, in order
to ensure good draining of liquid refrigerant from How to switch between the refrigeration process
the condenser into the receiver. and the defrost process is one topic in the
Section of evaporator control (Section 5).
In systems with pump circulation, it’s of great
importance to keep the pump running well.
Therefore pump control should be taken to keep
a proper pressure difference across the pump, to
secure a clean flow of liquid, to detect the state of
the pump, etc. This is discussed in Section 7.

In a circulated system, there is no superheat to be


used as a control variable for the expansion valve.

Expansion is generally controlled by the level


in the liquid separator or, sometimes, the level
in the receiver/condenser. This is the so called
liquid level control, details of which can be seen
in Section 4.

90 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Two-stage system In single-stage systems, the liquid refrigerant So the two-stage system is especially suitable
directly expands from the high pressure (in the for low-temperature refrigeration system, for the
receiver) into the suction pressure, as shown high efficiency and low discharge temperature.
in fig. 10.1 and fig. 10.2. In the process of the
expansion, part of the liquid refrigerant will The intermediate cooler could also supply
evaporate into vapour and cool the other part of refrigerant to intermediate-temperature
liquid. evaporators. In fig. 10.3, the intermediate supply
refrigerant to the plate type evaporator by gravity
This part of vapour then will have no refrigeration circulation.
capability, but still needs to be compressed
from the suction pressure into the discharge of Compared with pump circulation, gravity
pressure. circulation is driven by the thermosyphon effect
in the evaporator, instead of the pump. Natural
This part of compressing power is a kind of circulation is simpler and more reliable (on pump
waste. If some liquid refrigerant could expand failure), but the heat transfer is generally not as
at an intermediate pressure to cool the other good as the pump circulation.
liquid, thermodynamically, it will be more
efficient because the cooling happens in a higher Two-stage system could be theoretically
temperature. effective. However, it difficult to find a kind
of refrigerant that is suited for both the high
This is the idea of the two-stage system, e.g. temperature and the low temperature in low-
fig. 10.3. Part of the liquid refrigerant from the temperature refrigeration systems.
receiver first expands into the intermediate
pressure, and evaporates to cool the other part of At high temperatures, the refrigerant pressure
liquid refrigerant in the intermediate cooler. will be very high, posing high requirement on the
compressor. At low temperatures, the refrigerant
The intermediate-pressure vapour is then pressure may be vacuum, which leads to more
directed into the discharge line of the low-stage leakage of air into the system (the air in the
pressure, cools the low-stage discharge vapour, system will reduce heat transfer of the condenser,
and enters the high-stage compressor. see Section 9.4). Therefore, cascade system may
be a better choice for low refrigeration system.
The power used to compress this part of vapour
from the suction pressure into the intermediate
pressure is saved and the discharge temperature
of the high-stage compressor is lower.

Fig.10.3 Two-stage Refrigeration System


Compressor
Oil separator

Compressor
Oil separator

Condenser
Oil cooler
Receiver
Inter-
mediate
HP vapour refrigerant cooler
HP liquid refrigerant Expansion
Expansion valve
Liquid/vapour mixture valve
of refrigerant
LP vapour refrigerant
Evaporator
LP liquid refrigerant Liquid separator
Intermediate pressure
liquid refrigerant Refrigerant Evaporator
Intermediate pressure pump
vapour refrigerant Danfoss
Other media Tapp_0131_02
04-2006
(oil, water, etc.)

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 91


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Cascade system A cascade system consists of two separate This CO2/NH3 system needs less charge of
refrigeration circuits, as shown in fig. 10.4. A ammonia and proves to be more efficient in low
cascade condenser interconnected the two temperature refrigeration than a similar two-
circuits by acting as both the condenser of the stage ammonia system.
high temperature circuit and the evaporator of
the low temperature circuit.

The refrigerant for the two circuits could be


different, and optimized for each circuit. For
example, the refrigerant could be NH3 for the
high temperature circuit and CO2 for the low
temperature circuit.

Fig.10.4 Cascade Refrigeration System


Danfoss
Tapp_0132_02
04-2006
Compressor
Compressor

Oil separator
Oil separator

Condenser
Oil cooler

Receiver
Receiver

Expansion
valve
Expansion
HP vapour refrigerant valve
HP liquid refrigerant Liquid separator
Liquid/vapour mixture Evaporator
Cascade
of refrigerant Liquid separator
condenser
LP vapour refrigerant
LP liquid refrigerant Refrigerant
Refrigerant pump
Other media pump
(oil, water, etc.)

10.2 Detailed below is the basic theory for ON/OFF and the technical terms used. Furthermore some
ON/OFF and and modulating control. The intension is to practical advice will also be given.
modulating controls provide a basci understanding of control theory

Abbreviations and definitions P Proportional


I Integration
D Derivative
PB Proportional Band [%] in a P, PI or PID controller. Number in percent, that Process variable
(PV),has to change, in order for the controller to change the output (y) from 0 to 100 %
Kp Amplification factor in a P, PI or PID controller
Ti Integration time [s] in a PI or PID controller
Td Differential time [s] in a PID controller
PID A typical controller that includes both P, I and D functions
SP Set point
PV Process Variable (the controlled parameter: temperature, pressure, liquid level, etc)
offset (x) Difference between Set point (SP) and Process Variable (PV)
y Calculated output of a controller.
dead time If Process Variable (PV) measurement is physically mounted thus the signal is always has
a time delay , compared to if Process Variable (PV) measurement was installed locally
without time delay.

References [1] Reguleringsteknik, Thomas Heilmann / L. Alfred Hansen

92 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.1 In some cases a control application in practice Normally ON/OFF is used because:
ON/OFF control can be achived with ON/OFF control. This means Low price, less complicated system, no
that the regulating device (valve, thermostat) feedback loop.
only has two positions:,contacts closed or open
This control principle is called ON/OFF control. It can be accepted that PV varies a little from
Historically ON/OFF was iimployed widely SP, along with that the ON/OFF device is
within refrigeration, particularly in refrigerators operating.
equipped with thermostats. The process has so big capacity that the ON/
OFF operation does not have any influence
However ON/OFF principles can also be used on PV
in advanced systems where PID principles are In systems with dead time, ON/OFF control
used. E.g. is an ON/OFF valve (i.e. Danfoss type can be advantageous
AKV/A) used to control superheat with PID
available parameters on the dedicated electronic In ON/OFF systems you will have a feed back,
controller. (Danfoss type EKC 315A) as for modulating systems, but, characteristic of
ON/OFF systems is that PV varies and the system
An ON/OFF controller will only react within some is not able to eliminate any offset.
given limit values, like e.g. Max and Min. Outside
these limit values an ON/OFF controller can not
carry out any action.

An example of ON/OFF control


To control liquid level between a minimum and
a maximum level an ON/OFF device can be
used like Danfoss type AKS 38. AKS 38 is a float
switch that can control the switching of ON/OFF
solenoid valves.

From
receiver

AKS 38
EVRA+FA
Liquid separator

HP liquid refrigerant Danfoss


Tapp_0133_02
LP vapour refrigerant 04-2006
LP liquid refrigerant

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 93


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 The main difference between modulating like P, I and D. This gives a high degree of
Modulating control controls and ON/OFF systems is that modulating flexibility which again is very useful because the
systems will constantly react when there is a controller can then be adjusted to suit different
change of PV. applications.

Furthermore electronic controller provide the


flexibility to change different control parameters,

An example of modulating control

EKC 347: Controller with


parameters to
AKS41 be entered:
SP
P
I
D

From
ICM receiver
PV Liquid separator
measured

Danfoss
HP liquid refrigerant Tapp_0134_02
04-2006
LP liquid refrigerant

Basic P, I and D principles


Generally, in most common controllers there is
the facility to adjust parameters for P, PI, or PID
settings
In a P controller it is possible to adjust: PB or
Kp;
In a PI controller it is possible to adjust: PB or
Kp and Ti;
In a PID controller it is possible to adjust: PB or
Kp and Ti and Td.

P-controller
In every controller a P component exists. In a P-
controller there is a linear relation between input Controller
and output.
50%
SP + x KP + y%
Controller
%
Tapp_0136_02

- +
Danfoss

04-2006

SP + x y
PV %
Tapp_0135_02

- Y = Kp (PV – SP)+50%
Danfoss

04-2006

PV
Some controllers do not use PB, but Kp.
X = SP – PV → Y = Kp (PV-SP) The relation between PB and Kp is:
PB[%] = 100/Kp
Practical P-controllers are designed so when
SP=PV the controller must give an output that Please observe that PB can be bigger than 100%,
corresponds to the normal load of the system. corresponding to that Kp is less than 1.

Normally this means that the output will be 50


% of max output. E.g. a motorized valve will over
time run in 50 % opening degree in order to
maintain SP.

94 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 P-controller (continued)


Modulating control If PV = 46% the P-controller will calculate an
(continued) Amplification factor Kp and

Tapp_0137_02
output(y) of 70%. Please observe that at this
proportional band PB condition, there is an offset between SP and PV

Danfoss

04-2006
of 6%, and that is an offset that a P-controller can
y, % not overcome. The caused offset is coming from
100 the basic function of a P-controller.
80
To obtain a minimum offset it is important that
60 (40, 50) the regulating device (valve) is designed thus
40 that the output(y) from the controller can control
20 the process so it equals the normal average load.
SP PV, % Then the offset at any time be smallest and over
0 25 55 time approach zero.
0 50 100
SP = 40%, PB = 30% (Kp = 3.33)

When PV = SP the controller will give an output(y)


of 50%. (i.e. a valve will have an opening degree
of 50%).

P-controller adjustment characteristics


P is the primary control component. In most Below drawing is of universal validity for straight
cases, P will create a permanent offset that can forward P controlled loop.
be insignificant small, but also unacceptable
big. However a P control is better than none (no It shows the different responses by a loop having
feedback, no closed loop). PB = 33% and PB = 333% when the P controlled
loop is influenced by SP is changed by +1 unit.
Change of PB has two important effects:
Smaller PB (bigger amplification) gives less
offset, i.e. better effect against load changes,
but also increased tendency to fluctuations.
Bigger P-band (smaller amplification) gives
more offset, but less tendency to fluctuations.
Smaller PB means that theoretically the
control is approaching ON/OFF operation.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 95


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 I-controller
Modulating control The most important characteristic for an I- Basically the tendency to fluctuations is worse for
(continued) controller is that it eliminates offset, and that is an I-controller than a P-controller.
why it is used. I-controller continues to change
its output as long as offset exists. However the The ability to counteract on load changes is
ability to fully remove offset is linked to that it in slower for an I-controller than a P-controller.
practice, is proportioned correctly.

I-controller’s good property to remove offset


has also a negative action: It will increase the
tendency to fluctuations in a control loop.

PI controller
The combination of advantages and When Ti has to be entered, it has to be
disadvantages for both P and I makes it compromise between stability and elimination
advantageous to combine P and I into a PI- of offset.
controller.
Decreased Ti (bigger integration influence) means
In a PI controller it would be possible to adjust: faster elimination of offset, but also increased
PB and Ti. Ti is normally entered in seconds or tendency to fluctuations.
minutes.

D-controller
The most important characteristic for a D- In controllers with D influence the Td can be
controller (derivative) is that it can react on adjusted. Td is normally entered in seconds or
changes. This also means that if a constant offset minutes.
is present, a D-controller will not be able to do
any action to remove the offset. D-component It has to be observed not to make Td too big, as
makes the system fast respond on load changes. then the influence, when e.g. changing SP, will be
too dramatic. During start-up of plants it may be
D effect improves stability and makes the system advantageous simply to remove the D influence.
faster. It does not have any significance for offset, (Td=0)
but it works to make tendency to fluctuations
smaller. D reacts on changes in the error and The above means that a D-controller will never
the loop reacts faster against load changes than be used alone. Its typical use is in combination as
without D. The fast reaction on changes means a PD or PID with its ability to damp fluctuations.
damping of all fluctuations.

PID-controller
The combination of all three components into a I component increases the tendency to
PID controller has become of general use. fluctuations.
D component damps the tendency to
The general guidelines / properties for a PID fluctuations and makes the control faster.
controller are: Bigger D (bigger Td) the stronger influence
Decreased PB improves offset (less offset), but on above, however until a specific limit. A
the stability is worse; too big Td will mean that it reacts too strong
I component eliminates offset. Bigger I (less Ti) on sudden changes, and the control loop
makes faster elimination of offset. becomes unstable.

96 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 Typical PID transient state curves 1: optimal PID settings


Modulating control
(continued) The settings:
PB Ti Td
P 66.7 % - -
PI 100 % 60 s -
PID 41.7 % 40 s 12 s

Above displays the different controls principles,


when is influenced by SP is changed by +1 unit.

Same settings as above. Exposed to a load


change of 1.

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 97


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 Typical PID transient state curves 2: change of PB


Modulating control
(continued) The settings:
PB Ti Td
PID-a 25.0 % 40 s 12 s
PID-b 41.7 % 40 s 12 s
PID-c 83.3 % 40 s 12 s

Above shows variation of PB for PID control when becomes more unstable (oscillatory). When PB is
is influenced by SP is changed by +1 unit. From too big it becomes too slow.
above it is clear when PB is too small the systems

Typical PID transient state curves 3: change of Ti

The settings:
PB Ti Td
PID-a 41.7 % 20 s 12 s
PID-b 41.7 % 40 s 12 s
PID-c 41.7 % 120 s 12 s

Above shows variation of Ti for PID control when becomes more unstable (oscillatory). When Ti is
is influenced by SP is changed by +1 unit. From too big it takes a very long time to eliminate the
above it is clear when Ti is too small the systems last offset.

98 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 © Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

10.2.2 Typical PID transient state curves 4: change of Ti


Modulating control
(continued) The settings:
PB Ti Td
PID-a 41.7 % 40 s 24 s
PID-b 41.7 % 40 s 12 s
PID-c 41.7 % 40 s 6s

Above shows variation of Td for PID control when big compared to the optimal (Td=12) the systems
is influenced by SP is changed by +1 unit. From become more unstable (oscillatory).
above it is clear when Td is either too small or too

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 99


Application Handbook Automatic Controls for Industrial Refrigeration Systems

Reference Literature - Type Title Technical leaflet / Product


Alphabetical overview Manual instruction
AKD Variable speed drive RB.8D.B EI.R1.H / EI.R1.R
AKS 21 Temperature sensor ED.SA0.A RI.14.D
AKS 32R Pressure transmitter RD.5G.J PI.SB0.A
AKS 33 Pressure transmitter RD.5G.H PI.SB0.A
AKS 38 Float switch RD.5M.A RI.5M.A
AKS 41 Liquid level transmitter PD.SC0.A PI.SC0.A
AKVA Electrically operated expansion valve PD.VA1.B PI.VA1.C / PI.VA1.B
AMV 20 Three point controlled actuator ED.95.N EI.96.A
BSV Safety relief valve RD.7F.B RI.7F.A
CVC Pilot valves for servo operated main valve PD.HN0.A RI.4X.L
CVP Pilot valves for servo operated main valve PD.HN0.A RI.4X.D
CVPP Pilot valves for servo operated main valve PD.HN0.A RI.4X.D
CVQ Pilot valves for servo operated main valve PD.HN0.A PI.VH1.A
DCR Filter drier PD.EJ0.A PI.EJ0.B
DSV Double stop valve (for safety valve) PD.IE0.A PI.IE0.A / RI.7D.A
EKC 202 Controller for temperature control RS.8D.Z RI.8J.V
EKC 315A Controller for control of industrial evaporator RS.8C.S RI.8G.T
EKC 331 Capacity controller RS.8A.G RI.8B.E
EKC 347 Liquid level controller RS.8A.X RI.8B.Y
EKC 361 Controller for control of media temp. RS.8A.E RI.8B.F
EVM Pilot valves for servo operated main valve PD.HN0.A RI.3X.J
EVRA / EVRAT Solenoid valve RD.3C.B RI.3D.A
FA Strainer PD.FM0.A RI.6C.A
FIA Filter PD.FN0.A PI.FN0.A
GPLX Gas powered stop valve PD.BO0.A RI.7C.A
HE Heat exchanger RD.6K.A RI.6K.A
ICF Control solution PD.FT0.A PI.FT0.A
ICM / ICAD Motor operated valve PD.HT0.A PI.HT0.A
ICS Servo operated valve PD.HS0.A PI.HS0.A
KDC Compressor discharge valve PD.FQ0.A PI.FQ0.A
LLG Liquid level glass PD.GG0.A RI.6D.D
MLI Sight glass PD.GH0.A
MP 55 A Differential pressure control RD.5C.B RI.5C.E
NRVA Check valve for ammonia RD.6H.A RI.6H.B
OFV Overflow valve PD.HQ0.A PI.HX0.B
ORV Oil regulating valve PD.HP0.A RI.7J.A
PMFL / PMFH Modulating liquid level regulator RD.2C.B PI.GE0.A / RI.2C.A
PMLX Solenoid valve, two-step on/off PD.BR0.A RI.3F.D / RI.3F.C
POV Pilot operated internal safety valve PD.ID0.A PI.ID0.A
QDV Quick oil drain valve PD.KL0.A PI.KL0.A
REG Hand regulating valve PD.KM0.A PI.KM0.A
RT 107 Differential thermostat RD.5E.A
RT 1A Pressure control, differential pressure control RD.5B.A RI.5B.C
RT 260A Pressure control, differential pressure control RD.5B.A RI.5B.B
RT 5A Pressure control, differential pressure control RD.5B.A RI.5B.C
SCA Stop check valve / check valve PD.FL0.A PI.FL0.A
SFA Safety relief valve PD.IF0.A RI.7F.F
SGR Sight glass PD.EK0.A PI.EK0.A
SNV Stop needle valve PD.KB0.A PI.KB0.A
SV 1-3 RD.2C.B RI.2B.F
Modulating liquid level regulator
SV 4-6 RD.2C.B RI.2B.B
SVA Stop valve PD.KD0.A PI.KD0.B
TEA RD.1E.A PI.AJ0.A
Thermostatic expansion valve
TEAT RD.1F.A PI.AU0.A
VM 2 Pressure balanced valve ED.97.K VI.HB.C
WVS RD.4C.A RI.4C.B
Water valve
WVTS RD.4C.A RI.4D.A
To download the latest version of the literature please visit the Danfoss internet site
http://www.danfoss.com/BusinessAreas/RefrigerationAndAirConditioning/Products/Documentation.htm

© Danfoss A/S (RA Marketing/MWA), 12 - 2006 DKRCI.PA.000.C1.02 / 520H1623 101


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