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# CTS JANUARY 9TH

=================

## 1. If [x] indicates integral of x i.e is the largest integer less than

x and |x| indicates absolute value of x then what is the maximum value
of [x]/|x|.
A. 1 B. 0 C.-1 D. None of these Ans: A

## 2. In the above question what is the minimum value of [x]/|x|.

A. 1 B. 0 C.-1 D. None of these Ans: D

(3-6)
If the clock(Conventional clock with numbers from 1 to 12 in order) is
cut into 3 pieces such that the sum of numbers on each piece are in
Arithemetic Progression(A.P) with a common difference of 1.

## 3. What is the sum of even numbers in the group where 5 is present?

A. 4 B.10 C.12 D.14 Ans: B

## 4. What is the produ ct of all numbers in the group in which 12 is present

A. 212 B. 252 C. 244 D. None of these

## 5. What is the count of numbers in each piece.

A. 2,2,5 B. 5,5,2 C. 3,4,5 D. 6,4,2 Ans: C

## 6. What is the sum of the numbers in the group wher 9 is present(excluding 9)

A.12 B. 20. C.18 D.21 Ans C

7.

## 8. Avinash takes 15 days to complete a work and Bada takes 12 days to

complete the same work. If they work in alternate days, In how many
days they finish the work.
A. 13 days B. 13 1/4 days C. 6 1/4 days D. None Ans:

## 9. There is a circular track of length 400 mts. If A and B Starts at

the same point but in opposite direction with a speeds of 8 m/sec and
12 m/s respectively.Then at what time after the be gining they will
meet for the second time.
A. 1hr 40 sec B. 20 sec C. 40sec D. 3hr 20 sec Ans: C

10. In the above question when will they meet for the first time at
the starting point.
A. 1hr 40 sec B. 20 sec C. 40sec D. 3hr 20 sec Ans: A

11. If the vertices of the triangle are A(1,2), B(-2,-3) and C(2,3)
then which is the largest angle?
A. Angle(ABC) B.Angle(BAC) C.Angle(ACB) D.None Ans:B

12. If (-1,0), (0,-1) and (-1,-1) are three vertices of a square then
what is the 4th vertex.

## 13. If [x] indicates integral of x i.e is the largest integer less

than x and |x| indicates absolute value of x then find the value of
[1.99]+[-2.99]+[1.03]+[2.50]
A. 2 B.1 C.-2 D. -5 Ans: A

## (14-15). Watch the below Algorithm for 4 digit number X.

; Step1: Add all the numbers
Step2: If it is less than 10 STOP, else go to Step1.

14. If X=6724 then what is the end result after applying the above algorithm.
A. 19 B.10 C.1 D. None Ans:C

15. If the 4 numbers are arranged in all possible orders then how
many solutions are possible.
A. ONE B. TWO 3.THREE 4. NONE Ans A

16. A trader frauds by 10% while buying and 10% while selling the
same. What is the total gain he obtained during the transaction?
A. 13 B.221/4 C.20 D.None of these Ans.

17. There are three cylinders with same height and surface area. If a
new cylinder is created by me lting these three with the same height as
before what is the surface area of the new cylinder when compared to
that of the previous.
A. 25% more B.50% more C.100% more D.None Ans.

18. If x=a then y=b except when x=b and y=a. If x=a, then p,q,r,s but
when x not equal to a then p,q,r,s=e,f,g,h. If x=m or n then both
charecters preeciding it and following it also equals the same with
the precedence to the preceding charecter.

## (25-31) Based on passages. (Barrons GRE must be enough)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CTS PAPER CONDUCTED ON NOV 6TH 2004 IN HYD

COLOR CODE:WHITE
---------------------------------
40 QUESTIONS ---1 HOUR WITH A NEGATIVE MARKING OF 0.25 PER QUESTION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## 1. If [x] indicates integral of x i.e is the largest integer less than

x and |x| indicates absolute value of x then what is the maximum value
of [x]/|x|.
A. 1 B. 0 C.-1 D. None of these Ans: A

## 2. In the above question what is the minimum value of [x]/|x|.

A. 1 B. 0 C.-1 D. None of
these Ans: D

(3-6)
If the clock(Conventional clock with numbers from 1 to 12 in order) is
cut into 3 pieces such that the sum of numbers on each piece are in
Arithemetic Progression(A.P) with a common difference of 1.
3. What is the sum of even numbers in the group where 5 is present?
A. 4 B.10 C.12 D.14 Ans: B

## 4. What is the product of all numbers in the group in which 12 is

present
A. 212 B. 252 C. 244 D. None of these

## 5. What is the count of numbers in each

piece.
A. 2,2,5 B. 5,5,2 C. 3,4,5 D. 6,4,2 Ans: C

## 6. What is the sum of the numbers in the group wher 9 is

present(excluding 9)
A.12 B. 20. C.18 D.21 Ans C

7.

## 8. Avinash takes 15 days to complete a work and Bada takes 12 days to

complete the same work. If they work in alternate days, In how many days
they finish the work.
&nb sp;A. 13 days B. 13 1/4 days C. 6 1/4 days D. None Ans:

## 9. There is a circular track of length 400 mts. If A and B Starts at

the same point but in opposite direction with a speeds of 8 m/sec and 12
m/s respectively.Then at what time after the begining they will meet
for the second time.
A. 1hr 40 sec B. 20 sec
C. 40sec D. 3hr 20 sec Ans: C

10. In the above question when will they meet for the first time at the
starting point.
A. 1hr 40 sec B. 20 sec C. 40sec D. 3hr 20 sec Ans: A

11. If the vertices of the triangle are A(1,2), B(-2,-3) and C(2,3)
then which is the largest angle?
A. Angle(ABC) B.Angle(BAC) C.Angle(ACB) D.None Ans:B

12. If (-1,0), (0,-1) and (-1,-1) are three vertices of a square then
what is the 4th vertex.

13. If [x] indicates integral of x i.e is the largest integer less than
x and |x| indicates absolute value of x then fin d the value of
[1.99]+[-2.99]+[1.03]+[2.50]
A. 2 B.1 C.-2 D. -5
Ans: A

## (14-15). Watch the below Algorithm for 4 digit number X.

Step2: If it is less than 10 STOP, else go to Step1.

## 14. If X=6724 then what is the end

result after applying the above
algorithm.
A. 19 B.10 C.1 D. None Ans:C
15. If the 4 numbers are arranged in all possible orders then how
many solutions are possible.
A. ONE B. TWO 3.THREE 4. NONE Ans A

16. A trader frauds by 10% while buying and 10% while selling the same.
What is the total gain he obtained during the transaction?
A. 13 B.221/4 C.20 ;D.None of these Ans.

17. There are three cylinders with same height and surface area. If a
new cylinder is created by melting these three with the same height as
before what is the surface area of the new cylinder when compared to
that of the previous.
A. 25% more B.50% more C.100% more D.None Ans.

18. If x=a then y=b except when x=b and y=a. If x=a, then p,q,r,s but
when x not equal to a then p,q,r,s=e,f,g,h. If x=m or n then both
charecters preeciding it and following it also equals the same with the
precedence to the preceding
charecter.

## hello Plzz help me to answer some technical & HR questions of CTS......

b) Use of DFT.
c) Wheth er a DC source can be used to run a computer
d) Storage class in C ?
e) what type of I/O device is required for C.
f) Application of the
various bands in Satellite communication
g) Process to convert a transistor to diode.
h) effect of quantisation on the BW of a signal.
Some typicals HRs.....
i) how wud u like to spend 7 day holiday
j) what u expect from CTS
k) short term & long term goals
l) How u can contribute from ECE to software
m) Physical realization of Phase modulation.

===================================================
CTS Paper of 8th November
TIME= 60 mins
QUES=
40
VENUE= Kolkata
COLOR = Purple
===================================================
(1) What is the co-efficient of the term independent of x in the series
[ (1/2)(1/x)^1/3 +(1/x)^(-1/5)]^8. where ^ denotes "to the power of".
(2) In an examination a student must answer 65% of the questions
correctly. But it was found t hat after answer 7 questions corretly out of the
first 14, the student qualified. What is the min no. of questions in
the paper. (a) 22 (b) 18 (c) 20 (d) Can't say
(3) There r two jars. In the first jar there is 25%Milk and in the
second jar there is 50% milk. What ratio of milk should be added to get 12
lit of milk from the two jars such that we get 62.5% Milk in the whole
mixture. [Ans: 6lit : 6lit]
(4) There r 8 envelops and 8 letters. What is the probability that the
all the letters will be inserted in the correct envelop.
(5) There r two bridges at a distance of 1Km. A person starts rowing
upstream from 1st bridge and when he reaches the second
bridge he losses
his cap. After 15mins he realises it and turns bach and rows downstream
and catches his hat at the bottom of 1st bridge. Find : The speed of
boat in still water
(6) Same problem but find the speed of the river
(7) There are 1000 doors that are of the open-close type. When a person
opens the door he closes it and then opens the other. When the first
person goes he opens-closes the doors ion the multiples of 1 i.e., he
opens and closes all the doors. when the second goes he opens and closes
the doors 2, 4 6 8 respectively. Similarly when the third one goes he
does this for 3 6 9 1 2 15th doors resly. Find number of doors that are
open at last. [Ans: 31]
(8) 40 people can do a work in 60 days. After every 10 days 5 persons
keeps leaving the job. In how many days will the job be completed.
(9) A square field is there of dim : 40 X 60 m. A 1 m path is
surrounded on the field outside it. What is the area of the path.
(10) x=2 + 2^(1/3) + 2^(2/3). Find the value of x^3 -6x^2 - 8x.
Something like this we have to find the answer was 8.
(11) There was a puzzle on 5 traders in the name
Steel,wood,Timber....and they produce Steel, wood, timber ...and
supply them to others but
not to the manufacturer of it. For eg: Steel supplies Wood's Product to
the r eciver of Timber.
this was a comfusing puzzle. About 4 questions
were from this part
(12) A person starts from A to B. After 1hr his tyre gets punctured and
he repairs it for 10 mins and travels the rest of the distant with
30km/hr and arrives 30 min late. had the puncture occured 30 Kms earlier he
wud been only 15 mins late. Find the ditance betn. A & B and his intila
speed.
Beside these there were about 20 question on English like Fill in the
blanks, passage with conclusion, passage with some questions, Questions
on whether cond. A is sufficient to solve the problem, whether cond. B
is sufficient to solve the problem, whether cond. A & B both r
neccessary to solve the problem. Whether the problem cannot be solved with the
two conditions given. I was surprised to see s many English portions in
the paper very much unlike CTS.
TECH QUESTIONS
What is an OS?
Types of Os?
what is batch file?
Multiprocessing?
segments,paging?
Page fault?
how virtual memory implemented?
Thrashing?

Memory leakage?(i said its something deals with memory wastage but no idea
sir)
Semaphore? P() v() conditions..

## u designed ur college website did u know j2ee , scripting?

( I have no idea abt j2ee I used tools to design a website)
What tools (dream weaver,fireworks)
Whats ur collegesite address ( our old college site is not yet updated with mine
but one I designed is at www.adhiparasakthienggcollege.tk)

What is Datastructure?
Stack?
which is FIFO and LIFO ? (queue and stack respectively)
dangling pointer?
Types of sorting?
Explain heap sort?
y link list rather than array?
(my ans is - max memory usage through pointers in link list, easy to insert and
delete)

What is normalisation?
Types?
-i explained first normal form he said proceed with 2nd,3rd,BCNF,fourth normal
form...i said all but confused abt fifth normal form..)
What is RDBMS and compare with DBMS?
Explain OSI
what is open system in network?
( system which has nodes communicate independent of underlying architecture)
what is a microprocessor? (my ans-a programmable electronic device with
memory and processes input data)
What is OPCODE?
Diff between C & C++?
which is faster c r c++?
What is a JOIN
types of join
explain equi join?
innerjoin, outerjoin
left join
outer join
what i in oracle8i stands for ? internet
i may left some questions but every questions r fundamentals only.
No questions on Proj as mine is an application in VC++.
No question frm Software engg (for me)
PROGRAMS AND SQL
While i am answering tech questions simultaneously he wrote questions in a
sheet
1.Swap two nos without third var(temp)
swap(a,b)
{
a=a+b;b=a-b;a=a-b;
}
3.example for Multiple inheritance
he drawed two tables emp and dept and asked for
4.Find the nth max frm sal in emp table? ( i tried with MAX() in sql but couldnt get
it right)
5.equijoin emp and dept table
6.Left and right join emp and dept table

=========================

## 1)tell us abt urself

2)family background
3)If u r completely unaware abt' the question being
asked, just don't blunder something, instead say with a little smile "Sorry sir".
These were told by my
friends, who arrived there at CTS.
4)They asked me why there was a variation in performance in various
periods.
5)They also asked me in detail about every hobby/interest. One of my hobbies is
poetry. They saw a couple of poems I had written and then they asked me to
write a poem on the spot. They also wanted clarification on my answers to the
rest of the 4 questions I mentioned earlier.So if you mention any detail (in the
questionairre or in the interview), I suggest you be honest.
6)Do some research about the company before the interview.
7)Preparation makes you thorough. Thoroughness instills confidence in you. So
PREPARATION IS THE KEY. Plan your interview.
8)Before interview You will be given One form to fill in…asking some personal
questions……ur strengths, weakness; aim in the life; what do u expect from the
company…..etc etc…It is better to take help from any english “funda master ” or
after discussing with our friends..
Interview will be cool…
Technical…..bit from unix shell prg…OOPS..
Whatever u say make sure u say in good english ..without “babbabba….” Or
“pardon sir”. I guess they value the communiation skills very much.
That’s all

## 14)Aren't you going for higher studies abroad? Why?

15)What qualities do you have that make you a person
suitable for going into the IT industry .

## 17)When do you think you will complete and be able to

join.

18)How can you assure that you will join by that time.

## ( may be paper publications etc. )

************************************************************************ 1.
Hobbies/Interests
2. Strengths and weaknesses
3. Expectations from CTS
4. Short-term and long-term goals
5. What are the qualities required to be a successful software professional? Why
do you think you can be a successful software professional?
TECHNICAL QUESTIONS

C
1)diff b/w c,c++ & java
2)What is FILE pointer?
3)How do u do fopen operation, explain abt the various arguments of the
function?
4)What is the difference b/w the small and large memory model?
Small memory model: The poiners length is by default 16 bit and if u were to
address more than plus or minus 32k then u need to use "far pointer" in the case
of small memory model. An example, is our Turbo C as well as Turbo C++
wherein by default we operate
with small memory model
Large memory model: The pointers are by default 32 bit wide and they can
5)What is the maximum addressable memory in DOS?
Ans: 1 MB
6)How much memory can be addressed by DOS if it were being used in a 24 bit
processor?
(Ans: Ha! Ha! The same 1MB )
7)write strlen()function & signature of printf() function.
8)difference between c &c++?

C-structured
C++-OOPs

## The main difference between C and C++ is that C isn't object-oriented.

• structs don't copy in C. That is, if a and b are structs then the
line a = b;
doesn't work. Nor will structs be fed into functions as arguments. The
only way
to deal with them sensibly is to use pointers to them, or to write
functions to
copy their elements explicitly. classes (with private members) don't
exist in C.
• There is no operator and function overloading in C. If a function has
a name,
then that's it---you can't have another version with the same name
that does
the same thing with different arguments, as you can in C++. The fact
that
<< and >> (left and right shift) do output and input in C++ is a
consequence
of the ability of the language to overload those operators. Output and
input
in C are handled by functions called printf and scanf respectively
(these also work in C++ if you want, of course).
• In C storage allocation and de-allocation are not handled by new and
delete
but by a function called malloc. In general, the whole process is a
bit more
messy in C, but is not too bad once you get the hang of it.

## 9)Diff b/w uniniatialised pointer and null pointer

10)What is File pointer?
11)How do u do fopen operation, explain abt the various arguments of the
function?
12)What is the difference b/w the small and large memory model?
Small memory model: The poiners length is by default 12 bit and if u were to
address more than plus or minus 32k then u need to use "far pointer" in the case
of small memory model. An example, is our Turbo C as well as Turbo C++
wherein by default we operate
with small memory model
Large memory model: The pointers are by default 32 bit wide and they can
13)What is the maximum addressable memory in DOS?
Ans: 1 MB
14)How much memory can be addressed by DOS if it were
being used in a 24 bit processor? The same 1MB
15)Write the syntax of malloc
16)Diff b/w calloc and malloc
17)What is a pointer. How memory is allocated in pointer?

C++

## 1) explain different concepts of OOPS

2) explain each one of them
3) what is object
4) what is class
5) how do u implement inheritance in c++ and in java
6) what is static variable in c++
7)What is inheritance, encapsulation etc.
inheritance deriving parent class properties and methods to the derived class
encapsulation is th process of binding data and methods together.
They are used for polymorphism
9) what is oops.
supports bottom up way of programming
supports reusablility thro' inheritance
10)properties of oops.
11)inheritence,sequence diagram.

COBOL
1)four division in cobol?
Identification division,Environment division,
Data division, Procedure division.
(If you did’nt include in your resume don’t worry much
abt this).
2)significance of 01,77,88,66 level?
Level numbers are used to express data hierarchy. The higher the
level number, the lower the item is in the hierarchy. At the lowest level the data is
completely atomic.
Level 77's can only be used to define individual elementary items.
Level 88's are used to define Condition Names.
Level 66's (RENAMES clause) are used to apply a new name to
an identifier or group of identifiers.
COMPILER
1)How much time is spent usually in each phases and why ?
2)function of compiler?
3)difference between object file & exe file?
obj file generated by compiler from source code
exe file generated by linker from obj files
4)Diff between compilers and interpreters. Some fundaes about how to link code
in different files.
Compilers do multiple passes or single pass and generate code Interpreters
interpret line by line. Abt linking code after compilation if there are some external
functions being referred linker takes care of generating the code for linking those
external functions.

CLIENT SERVER
1)Which one is not suitable for client-server application? tcp/ip,message
passing,rpc,none of the above.

DBMS

## 1)Qs from 1 DBms that u know well

2)what is RDBMS, primary & foreign key
Here informations stored as relations or tables. Uses relational calculus
3)what is dbms
4)what is relational dbms
5)what is the diff betw them
6)what normalisation
7)explay different normalisation with ex
8)what is the necessity of normalisation
9)what is joins
10)different types of joins
11)explain right and left joins
12)triggers & its types.
13)UNION & UNION ALL
14)few queries
15)like what is data model types of data model
1.flat file
2.hierarchical
3.network
4.object oriented
5.rdbms
16)what is RDBMS.
17)what is normalization,functional dependency,1NF,2NF,3NF,BCNF.
18)data model
a.record base b.logical base c.object base
19)what is a parent key
20)describe view mechanism
21)joining(outer,lossless!)
22)functional dependency
A functional dependency occurs when one attribute in a relation uniquely
determines another attribute. This can be written A -> B which would be the
same as stating "B is functionally dependent upon A."
23)ffd
24)ddl,dml,dcl
ddl-data definiton language(create,drop),dml(update,insert),dcl
25)three tier structure
26)vertical ,horizontal projection
27)explain rdbms,ddbms
28)fixed fomat data model
29)name the technology used to connect a dbms to front end
30)how will u design a dbms
31)what is data dictionary,dba,about normalization etc.
32)why it is called relational.
33)what is dba?
34)difference between primary,foreign,candidate&super key?

candidate key is list of all candidates key who can be primary keys
primary key is the key selected as the one among the candidate keys
foreign key is the key in another table corresponding to primary key in a 1 to m
relationship manner in the oreder primary - foreign.

PRIMARY KEY :
The primary key of a relational table uniquely identifies each record in the table. It
can either be a normal attribute that is guaranteed to be unique (such as Social
Security Number in a table with no more than one record per person) or it can be
generated by the DBMS (such as a globally unique identifier, or GUID, in
Microsoft SQL Server).
CANDIDATE KEY :
A candidate key is a combination of attributes that can be uniquely used
to identify a database record without any extraneous data. Each table may have
one or more candidate keys. One of these candidate keys is selected as the
table primary key.
FOREIGN KEY :
A foreign key is a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column
of another table. The foreign key can be used to cross-reference tables.
SUPER KEY :
A Primary key is minimal superkey . For ex in a table X(car_name , vin_no ,
city..) Here car_name & vin_no can act as a key. But thn vin_no can alone act
as a primary key. But thn car_name + vin_no is a super key . So a primary key
can be a superkey but not the other way .
35)different type of databases?
flat file
hierarchical
network
object oriented
rdbms
36)what is normalsation?explain them?
NORMALIZATION :

## Normalization is typically a refinement process after the initial exercise of

identifying the data objects that should be in the database, identifying their
relationships, and defining the tables required and the columns within each table.

First normal form (1NF). This is the "basic" level of normalization and
generally corresponds to the definition of any database, namely:

## It contains two-dimensional tables with rows and columns.

Each column corresponds to a sub-object or an attribute of the object
represented by the entire table.
Each row represents a unique instance of that sub-object or attribute and must
be different in some way from any other row (that is, no duplicate rows are
possible).
All entries in any column must be of the same kind. For example, in the column
labeled "Customer," only customer names or numbers are permitted.

Second normal form (2NF). At this level of normalization, each column in a table
that is not a determiner of the contents of another column must itself be a
function of the other columns in the table. For example, in a table with three
columns containing customer ID, product sold, and price of the product when
sold, the price would be a function of the customer ID (entitled to a discount) and
the specific product.

Third normal form (3NF). At the second normal form, modifications are still
possible because a change to one row in a table may affect data that refers to
this information from another table. For example, using the customer table just
cited, removing a row describing a customer purchase (because of a return
perhaps) will also remove the fact that the product has a certain price. In the third
normal form, these tables would be divided into two tables so that product pricing
would be tracked separately.
37)difference between sql&c++?

DATA STRUCTURE

## 1)time complexity of different sorting algos

Nlogn : Quick sort , Heap sort , Merge sort
linklist - unlimited(limited to size of primary memory or RAM)non-contiguos array
stack-LIFO
queue-FIFO
3)write a program to reverse a linklist?
step1:traverse forward and store the addresses of nodes in a stack
step2:pop stack and repoint the nodes to reverse the linked list
4)What is a Linked List?. What r the diff types of linked list and what r their
5)What r the various data structures that u have encountered?

HARDWARE
1)What is a Micro-Kernel architecture.
The microkernel includes only a small set of core services within the
kernel, including thread services, message passing,condition variables,
semaphores, signals, and scheduling. The kernel can be extended by
dynamically plugging in service- providing processes, such as file systems,
device drivers, POSIX message queues, and networking. These services run in
userspace and benefit from protected memory.

IT
1) What are the current trends and areas of focus in IT.
J2EE,Mainframes

JAVA
1)What is your favourite package in Java. I have told
jav.awt.,java.util
2)What is collection?
3)What are the classes inside the collection framework.
4)What is hash map?
5)What is hash table?
6)Diff. hash map and hash table?
7)What is array list?
8)Tell the interfaces in servlet package
9)What is Generic servlet and http servlet?
10)They have given me the situation and asked how we can
use the ejb here.
11)What is the diff. between stateless and stateful
12)What is diff. between CMP and BMP
13)Tell any one design pattern
14)How we can can use the static variable inside a static
method.
15)can we change static method valued inside static
method and outside the nonstatic method.
16)What is jms(java messageing service).
17)They have given me the situation and asked how we can
use the JMS here.
18)How the MVC architecture can
19)What is observer and Observer Class and with
differences?

MICROPROCESSOR

INTERNET

## 2) how a search engine works

(need not say in detail just say it briefly)
visit this to find how search engine works: (its
too long)
http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/may01/liddy.htm

3)how internet works(for eg; when u type www.yahoo.com what actually happens
how the yahoo page is loaded?
You type in address bar of browser
Browser - client
Yahoo.com - Server
client/server architecture
the browser sends the requested resource here the html page
NETWORKS

1)Describe the Sliding window protocol. What is it's advantage over stop-and-
wait?
Sliding window protocol:
SWP (Sliding Window Protocol) a connection-less protocol. It allows data
to be sent in one direction between a pair of protocol entities, subject to a
maximum number of unacknowledged messages. The protocol simulation shows
a time-sequence diagram with
transmitting and receiving protocol entities, and a communications medium that
carries messages. The transmitter simply sends messages numbered DT(0),
DT(1), etc. Once sequence numbers reach a maximum number (like 7), they
wrap back round to 0. The
content of messages is not explicitly identified. An acknowledgement AK(n)
means that the DT message numbered n is the next one expected (i.e. all
messages up to but not including this number have been received). Since
sequence numbers wrap round, an
acknowledgement with sequence number 1 refers to messages 0, 1, 7, 6, etc.
Note that if a DT message is received again due to re-transmission, it is
The protocol has a maximum number of messages that can be sent without
acknowledgement. If this window becomes full, the protocol is blocked until an
acknowledgement is received for the earliest outstanding message. At this point
the transmitter is clear to send more messages.With sliding windows, it is
possible to fully utilize a link, provided the window size is large enough.
Throughput is ~ (w/RTT); Sender has to buffer all unacknowledged packets,
because they may require retransmissionReceiver may be able to accept out-of-
order packets, but only up to its buffer limits
Stop & Wait is like w = 1.
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/1572/slidwin.htm
2)Why networks are layered ? What is the advantage of that ?
Layering helps in abstractions.
1.Easy to understand
2.Being modular easy to modify if required
3)network topologies ?Which are the different network toplogies ?
4)an example of bus type network.
5)What is the Bandwidth of ethernet ?
7)Which is the protocol used in ethernet. (CSMA/CD) Why is it called so ?
8)What is the advantage of Ring network ?
9)Compare it with ethernet.
10)Which one is not done by Data link layer ? bit
stuffing, LRC,CRC,parity check
11)Which one is not related to Data link layer?
12)How many layers are there in OSI ? Why is it called OSI model ?
OS
1)OS & its functions
Os is s/w for controlling and managing h/w, s/w, memory, i/o devices
2)How is paging implemented? How page faults are handled?
Page faults are handled as misses and after miss occurs in Primary memory they
are looked from secondary memory
Paging: When a process starts in Unix, not all its memory pages are read
in from the disk at once. Instead, the kernel loads into RAM only a few pages at a
time. After the CPU digests these, the next page is requested. If it is not found in
RAM, a page fault
occurs, signaling the kernel to load the next few pages from disk into RAM. This
is called demand paging and is a perfectly normal system activity in Unix
3)Why paging is used ?
Without paging to address memory we need to address by byte or word. So with
paging things are simplified. Also paging is very helpful for doing OS level
operations such as pagein or pageout.
Pagein - from secondary mem to primary
Pageout - viceversa
4)Which is the best page replacement algo and Why ?
Page replacement algorithms:
· Random: pick any page at random (works surprisingly
well!).
· FIFO: throw out the page that has been in memory the
longest. The idea is to be fair, give all pages equal
residency.
· MIN: naturally, the best algorithm arises if we can
predict the future.
· LFU: use the frequency of past references to predict
the future.
· LRU: use the order of past references to predict the
future.
5)If there are too many page faults what is the problem?
Then there occurs shuttling of data b/w primary and secondary memory and
which inturn reduces the system performance drastically as more time is spend
in shuttling rather than in processing.
6)To ensure one pgm. doesnt corrupt other pgm. in a Multi-pgm.
Environment.what you should do?
They use boundary registers
7)Which one you will use to implement critical section? Binary Semaphore
8)Which one is not needed for Multi-pgm. enviornment?
options are: virtual memory,security,time sharing,none of the above.
ans:none of the above
9)Term stickily bit is related to a)kernel b)undeletable file c) d)none
10)semaphore variable is different from ordinary variable by ?
11)Where semaphore is used?
A synchronization variable that takes on positive
integer values. Invented by Dijkstra. Apart from initialisation,it is accessed thru 2
std atomic opertions.Wait and Signal.
· P(semaphore): an atomic operation that waits for
semaphore to become positive, then decrements it by 1.
· V(semaphore): an atomic operation that increments
semaphore by 1.
Semaphores can be used mutual exclusion.
12)what is Test and set lock?
13)what is critical section and methods for mutual exclusion?
Mutual exclusion: Mechanisms that ensure that only one person or process is
doing certain things at one time (others are excluded). E.g. only one person goes
shopping at a time.
Critical section: A section of code, or collection of operations, in which only one
process may be executing at a given time
14)what is internal fragmentation ,external fragmentation,compaction?
External Fragmentation
Eventually, main memory forms holes too small to hold any process. This is
external fragmentation.
Total memory space may exist to satisfy a request but it is not contiguous.
Compaction reduces external fragmentation by shuffling memory contents to
place all free memory together in one large block.
Think what is needed to be able to move processes around?

8K

12K

22K

18K

31K

5K

43K
Please allocate 63K for the next process.

## 15)what is page fault?How the os finds a page fault has really

occured?(protection bits: valid bit, invalid bit)
17)what is an operating system.
Ability to execute more than one task at a time is multitasking .
being a program. The terms multitasking and multiprocessing are often used
interchangeably, although multiprocessing implies that more than one CPU is
involved. In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one
program to another so quickly that
it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time.

Time sharing: Refers to the concurrent use of a computer by more than one user
-- users share the computer's time.
20)what is memory management.
21)what is virtual paging.
22)what is o.s
23)semaphore
semaphore is a protected variable for implementing mutual exclusion thro' critical
sections enforcement.
24)what is o.s?
When 2 or more processes are in memory and when a situation occurs wherein
none can proceed then deadlock is said to occcured.
A deadlock is a situation in which two computer programs sharing the same
resource are effectively preventing each other from accessing the resource,
resulting in both programs ceasing to function.
26)what is a semaphore?
27)difference between semaphore & monitor?

PROJECT

## 1)details abt projects done

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
1)WHat is software life cycle ?
The five things 1.req' analysis2.Desing 3.code 4.test 5.package and deployment
and after that maintenance

SDLC
A systems development life cycle (SDLC) model is one of a number of
structured approaches to information system development, created to guide all
the processes involved, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of
the completed application. Various SDLC approaches include the waterfall
model, the original SDLC method; rapid application development (RAD); joint
application development (JAD); the fountain model; the spiral model; build and
fix; and synchronize-and-stabilize. Frequently, several models are combined into
some sort of hybrid process. Documentation is crucial regardless of the type of
model chosen or devised for any application, and is usually done in parallel with
the development process.

## 1. The existing system is evaluated. Deficiencies are identified. This can be

done by interviewing users of the system and consulting with support
personnel.
2. The new system requirements are defined. In particular, the deficiencies in
the existing system must be addressed with specific proposals for
improvement.
3. The proposed system is designed. Plans are laid out concerning the
physical construction, hardware, operating systems, programming,
communications, and security issues.
4. The new system is developed. The new components and programs must
be obtained and installed. Users of the system must be trained in its use,
and all aspects of performance must be tested. If necessary, adjustments
must be made at this stage.
5. The system is put into use. This can be done in various ways. The new
system can phased in, according to application or location, and the old
system gradually replaced. In some cases, it may be more cost-effective
to shut down the old system and implement the new system all at once.
6. Once the new system is up and running for awhile, it should be
exhaustively evaluated. Maintenance must be kept up rigorously at all
times. Users of the system should be kept up-to-date concerning the latest
modifications and procedures.

2)What is testing ?
testing is seeing code with intention to find bugs
Testing objectives include
1. Testing is a process of executing a program with
the intent of finding an error.
2. A good test case is one that has a high probability
of finding an as yet undiscovered error.
3. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet
undiscovered error.

## 3)Which are the different types of testing ?

unit testing
integration testing
regression testing
user acceptance testing

## a)White box testing----------- Basis path testing,

loop testing, Conditional testing, Data flow testing
b)Black box testing ----------equivalence
partitioning, Boundry value analysis, Cause effect
Graphing techniques
4)What is White box testing?
5)What is Black box testing?
6)Which are the different phases in Software life
7)Why is analysis and testing phases very important ?
analysis phase helps one to clarify the req' with the customer and to get a clear
understanding of the requirement.Testing helps to remove bugs and prevent it to
happen at client side.
8)what is sdlc(software development life cycle)?

SITE

## Founded in 1994 as a division of Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, Cognizant

Technology Solutions began doing large-scale full lifecycle software projects.
CTS works in fields related e-business and application management. CTS is also
engaged in offshore development and provide services in other fields like
wireless, data warehousing and euro-compliance. They also service varied
industries like healthcare, finance, information services, retail and restaurant and
telecom.

## Headquartered in Teaneck, New Jersey, CTS has sales offices located in

Chicago, Dallas, Minneapolis, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Toronto, London and
Frankfurt. CTS has nine development facilities in India spread across Chennai,
Calcutta, Pune and Bangalore.