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Autry & Burdette Archeology 1

Archeology

Digging up the Past

Brenda Autry and Maria Burdette

What is Archeology?
Scientific vs. Humanistic… let’s combine both.
Determining Ownership…using archeological dating, excavations,
and research to solve mysteries and find answers.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 2

Archeology

Brenda Autry and Maria Burdette

Research Paper
Autry & Burdette Archeology 3
Abstract

Archeology is the study of past cultures. The process is executed by analyzing artifacts

left behind to find out how people lived. The informal study of past cultures and human behavior

began around 5,000 years ago. Archeology became a formal science as early as 19th century.

Some different types of archeology are classical archeology, which is the study of Greek and

Roman culture, historical, which is the study of past cultures that use some form of writing,

Egyptologist, who study generations of Egyptians, and geoarchaeology, who study the

environment and landscape of areas. Archeologist use a variety of tools, such as brushes,

shovels, trowels, measuring devices, recording items, soil screens, tarps, and many others.

Procedures that archeologist use to examine past human lives are field work, excavations, and

lab work. Archeologists use many other scientific fields to help make their findings more

accurate.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 4
Archeology

Archeology

The word archeology comes from the Greek word archaia (“ancient things”) and logos

(“theory” or “science”) (Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d.). Archeology is the study of human

cultures and behaviors. By means of archeology, scientists (archeologists) examine the evidence

and interpret the data to reconstruct what went on in a society during an earlier period (Reinhard,

1998). It tells the story of ancient burial rituals and how people interacted with each other.

Although archeologists have helped in the study of ancient societies, they have several hurdles to

overcome. Many do not agree on how to interpret the artifacts, solves disputes of ownership, or

how to study and preserve the past simultaneously.

Archeologists

Archeologists specialize in different time frames and cultures. Examples of some

different types of archeology are classical, historical, and Egyptology (Archeology, 2003).

Archeologists study the remains of human civilizations such as human bones, tools, food,

buildings, pottery, and jewelry. According to Gamble (2004), “It is quite simply the study of the

past through material remains” (p15). Archeological research help verify if something is a legend

or a fact. Rinaldo, (2008) stated that archeologists investigate and solve mysteries from an

earlier period, such as solving questions about lost civilizations. They study the culture of

different civilizations by researching the people, their languages, religions, and artifacts. It is a

misconception that archeologists spend most of their time engaged in fieldwork. In fact,

Rinaldo, (2008) pointed out that the majority of an archeologist’s time is spent on research and
Autry & Burdette Archeology 5
lab work. Gamble (2004) cites that there is nothing more silent than a piece of archeological

evidence. “Stones, pots and bones do not speak to us. They make no sense by themselves. It is

only through research and interpretation that they become relevant” (Gamble 2004, p 45). When

archeologists put the pieces together, then they can solve the mystery and answer the questions to

determine whether information is fact or legend.

Tools and Work of an Archeologist

Archeological sites are found when doing construction, farming, or other chance findings.

Other ways that sites are found are through aerial photos, scouting, or if the site was visible

above ground, like in the case of Stonehenge or the Parthenon in Greece. Most sites are found by

intentional searching and not by accident. According to Dowdey (2008) some devices used to

discover sites are geographic information systems (GIS), computers, surveys, satellites, land

metal detectors or ground penetrating radar.

Archeologists have several goals when they discover a site (Goals of Archeology, n.d).

The first objective is to find the age or chronology of the materials from the site. The ages of

artifacts are determined by a number of ways. In the earlier years, archeologists used mainly

stratigraphy (giving a sequence) and typology (identifying artifacts typical of different time

periods) (Archeology, 1994). Today, modern archeologists use radio carbon dating and radio

metrics based on the rate of decay. A major breakthrough in carbon-14 dating occurred with the

introduction of the accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). Encyclopædia Britannica (2010) cites

that this instrument is highly sensitive and allows precise ages on as little as one milligram of

carbon, where the older method might require as much as 25 grams for ancient material. There

two types of dating: relative dating and absolute dating. Both techniques must be used when

artifacts are first collected to determine how old a site and/ or artifact is. Relative dating deals
Autry & Burdette Archeology 6
with the relationship to the other artifacts within the site and its stratigraphic layer in which the

artifact was found. It is done by first estimating a date to an artifact. This estimated date is based

on many factors such as; location, type of artifact, and geology. Absolute dating determines the

year the artifact was deposited. It is a more accurate way to date something. A couple of ways

archeologists use absolute dating is through analyzing tree growth rings and radioactive isotopes

in decayed products.

The second goal that archeologists want to meet is to reconstruct how life looked at the

specific time (Goals of Archeology, n.d). The archeologists thoroughly investigate the artifacts,

buildings, and other findings from that site to reconstruct how that particular society lived. The

location of the site is also important to recreating the life of the people that resided there.

The final goal archeologists try to accomplish is an explanation of the past from the site

(Goals of Archeology, n.d). Archeologists use scientific theory, theoretical models, experiments

and observations of the world today to try to explain the past culture that inhabited the area.

During an excavation, the archeologist uses many tools. Digging tools like bulldozers,

picks, and shovels remove large layers of earth if needed. Trowels and mesh screens allow for

sorting through small areas of dirt. Dental picks and air compressors are used for cleaning out

areas in small crevices. Another way to sort through soil is through flotation in which sediments

mixed in water and the organic matter floats to the surface.

Archeologists must keep meticulous records on the placement of where the artifacts were

found. Dowdey (2008) acknowledged that archeologists use a grid system to record the accurate

location of the artifacts. The artifacts found are photographed and marked on the grid indicating

depth and location. The depth and soil sample are used to help calculate a time line date.
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The Importance of Archeology

Archeology is an important science where people can learn about past cultures and

behaviors. By analyzing the past, archeologists can see how a community adapted to changes

over time. For instance, ancient farming was one discovery made that has improved the way that

it is done in present day. Archeology preserves history so that society can learn from its past

mistakes.

Cultural history places the importance on data, facts and classifications (Gamble, 2004).

It defines a society according to its material findings; such as objects and the landscape. These

materials provide information regarding ethnic and cultural groups. However, it does not

consider adaptations and variations in cultural changes. This is where processual archeology

comes in. It looks for answers or reasons to why there are changes in societies and whether they

prospered or not. For example; “Why did these cultures have to make or choose not to make

adaptations?” Gamble (2004) acknowledged the importance of the relationships in inferring the

archeological evidence and connecting it to the issues concerning past human behavior and the

progression of that behavior.

Rinaldo (2008) points to some important key dates as pinnacles in archeological history.

Two of these dates are 1648 and 1748. In 1648, a young man named John Aubrey discovered

the site of Stonehenge and started wondering, who lived there and why it was built. He was the

first person known to use a scientific approach in order to answer the questions about an ancient

culture (Rinaldo, 2008). The second key date in archeological history is 1748. On this date, the

city of Pompeii, which was buried in ash during a volcanic eruption in AD79, was rediscovered
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(Rinaldo, 2008). This was the first site ever to undergo an archeological excavation.

Consequently, the foundation of archeology was set in motion.

Hurdles to Overcome

Hazards to the craft of archeology lie in the way it is perceived. Some archeologists

argue that there may not be such things as “facts” because it is impossible to truly determine the

reasons for buildings and artifacts from a different time period and society. Another hazard is

emphasizing the importance of preserving its ancestry. Constable (2000) declared that

archeology, in general, is working against the natural order because it is attempting to preserve

fossils and corpses. Archeologists want to know how these civilizations came into existence.

What do the archeological data tell us about the origins of these civilizations, and in essence

about the origins of civilization itself (Reinhard, 1998)? Therefore, the root of this hazard lies in

our human curiosity. It makes us want to know what happened.

“For all the arguments that rage in archeology, Constable (2000) reminds us that in

essence it is a fantastically enriching, uplifting, and fascinating subject that within a few hundred

years have transformed our knowledge of the human race” (p.190). Even though archeologists

are scientists who are interested in learning about the way people lived in the past, they do not

concur on the processes or analyses. However there is one thing that archeologists all agree on.

Through archeology, we are able to transport ourselves to an ancient time and place and emulate

how past societies evolved and interpret their odyssey.


Autry & Burdette Archeology 9
References

Accelerator mass spectrometer. (2010). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/2850/accelerator-mass-spectrometer

Dowdey, S. (2008). How archeology works. Retrieved from

.http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geology/archeology.htm

Constable, N. (2000). The world atlas of archeology. New York: The Lyons Press.

Gamble, C. (2004). Archeology: The basics. New York: Routledge.

Goals of Archeology. (n.d.).

http://www.nd.edu/~ikuijt/anth301/general_public/a1g6/a1g6.html#framework

Hammond, N. (1994). Wonders of the ancient world: National Geographic atlas of archeology.

Washington, DC: The National Geographic Society Gilbert M. Grosvenor.

McIntosh, J. (1994). Eyewitness books: Archeology. New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf.

Reinhard, J. (1998). Discovering the inca ice maiden: My adventures on Ampato. Washington,

D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Rinaldo, D. (2008). Cities of the dead: Finding lost civilizations. New York: Scholastic Inc.

Ryan, S. (2010). The history of archeology. Retrieved from

http://ezinearticles.com
Autry & Burdette Archeology
10
Part A: What is odyssey?

Odyssey is an epic journey that depicts a life story of an individual or group. It is not just

a story of their travels. Their odyssey tells their story of trials, tribulations, celebrations and

important events. It is living outside of the normal day experiences. Each and every one of us

exists day to day, but our odyssey is made up of the experiences that are memorable, and often

define who we are.

Part B: How is the concept of odyssey depicted by your subtopic?

Our subtopic is archeology. In our unit, odyssey is depicted in archeology through

discovering people from an earlier period and determining their life story. The students will

review that an archeologist studies past civilizations and their behaviors through their skeletal

remains, artifacts, and environmental surroundings. These things are used to convey an odyssey

by reconstructing how people of an ancient time lived and what was important to them. An

archeologist uses his or her knowledge of history and artifacts to reveal experiences that define a

particular people and their heritage, therefore uncovering the odyssey of that civilization. In our

unit, the students will look at present day artifacts to reveal the life story of the owners. The

students will also learn how to use archeological tools and dating processes to unearth how,

when, and why a journey transpired. They will continue this process of reconstructing life stories

by learning how some ancient artifacts are moved, and different ways archeological discoveries

impact the people who live in the area today. It is this movement of the artifacts that has caused a

dispute between Egypt and Germany. The students will address this problem using the

knowledge that they have gain through camp to generate ideas on how to solve this problem.

This will be submitted through a voice thread project.


Autry & Burdette Archeology 11
Technology Infused Authentic Product Paper

Introduction

The students participating in the ECU AIG summer camp will step into the shoes of an

archeologist. They will experience some of the problems archeologists encounter while

working with local governments and citizens of the community. Archaeology is often necessary

when it is part of a solution to an obstruction in construction and development, disputing

ownership of artifacts, or planning to avoid a predicament in the future. Although the field of

Archeology faces several problems, our students will focus on repatriation.

Real World Problem

Our real world problem is a dispute between Germany and Egypt and the rightful owner

of the Bust of Nefertiti. The students will discover how researching history and ownership can

be in conflict of each other, and then generate ideas on how to avoid and/or resolve these

conflicts.

We are addressing the issue of repatriation and returning objects to the country of

Egypt. Zahi Hawass, who is in charge of antiquities there, wants 6 major objects returned to

Egypt. They are in different museums and all have different stories. Some left the country

legitimately, others more suspiciously. The students will come up with ideas on how to resolve

the ownership of the bust of Nefertiti in Berlin. The Egyptians recently asked (again) for the

bust to be returned. How does that request look now in the face of the violence and uncertainty

in Egypt? What is the archeologist’s responsibility in this situation?

Synopsis of Unit

A community and its member’s odyssey present the trials and tribulations it

experiences over a period of time. The students will begin this unit by viewing a website from
Autry & Burdette Archeology 12
the National Park Service introducing them to background knowledge of archeology. Next the

students will examine trash to decide the value of the artifacts and make inferences about the

person’s life. During this activity, they will be using digital cameras or video cameras to record

their findings.

The next day the students will meet an expert in the field of archeology. Dr. Ewen from

East Carolina University (ECU) will explain how digs are excavated and how technology is

used in the field of archeology today. He will bring some authentic artifacts for the students to

examine and discuss the tools needed for excavations. Then Dr. Ewen will elaborate on how

he uses the process of dating artifacts by their period of origin.

During our third day, the students will engage in a Webquest project to research facts

concerning the dispute of the Bust of Nefertiti. After their research, the students will engage in

a Socratic Seminar through a Voicethread link. This will allow both camp groups to have a

conversation together about their questions and concerns over this dispute. One of the link the

students will explore on the Webquest project is, “The Ethics of Repatriation”, which will give

them background knowledge in addressing repatriation.

On the last day the students will conclude their Webquest research about laws and

regulations that archeologists deal with in their occupation, as well as the history behind both

Germany and Egypt’s claim to the Bust of Nefertiti. Then they will present their persuasive

opinion on their Voicethread project.

Authentic Product and Audience

Our authentic product will include a Voicethread in which the students will be presented

with the issue of the Bust of Nefertiti and Dr. Hawass’ request for its return. They will record

their solution based on their knowledge gained throughout the four days. The students will

examine the history and claims represented by both Germany and Egypt through the
Autry & Burdette Archeology 13
Webquest links. The repatriation issue will be presented on the Voicethread and the students

will have to respond and present a persuasive opinion on whether or not the Bust of Nefertiti

should be given back to Egypt or kept in the Egyptian Museum Berlin. Then, the students’

completed Voicethread project presenting their ideas/solutions will be sent to Dr. Peter Der

Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology, at Harvard University for review. Dr. Peter Der

Manuelian’s seminar group will look over the students’ persuasive opinions for discussion with

his class. (Voicethread, 2010).

Resources

peter_manuelian@harvard.edu

http://www.nps.gov/archeology/public/kids/index.htm#

Voicethread. (2010). Voicethread Software [Software]. Available from http://voicethread.com

http://heritage-key.com/world/give-it-back-ethics-repatriation

http://www.dr.hawass.com/

http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962

http://www.speakingofhistory.com/speakingofhistory65.mp3

http://archaeology.about.com/cs/ethics/a/realworld.htm
Autry & Burdette Archeology 14

Catchy Phrases

Archeology
“Digging Up the Past”
Where did it come from? Whose trash is it anyway? If you like to dig
in the dirt, find things that are lost, and figure out stories from clues,
then this is the unit for you. Let’s walk like an Egyptian and dig
through layers of time to find out who really owns artifacts from the
past.
Join us to find out what archeologists do and solve some
archeological mysteries of our own!
Autry & Burdette Archeology 15
Unit Summary Form: For Camp Summer 2011
Catchy Unit Title: Archeology “Digging Up the Past”
Partners’ Names: Brenda Autry and Maria Burdette
Circle One: ELEM Unit or Middle Grades Unit
Real World Problem: Egypt and Germany are disputing the ownership of the Bust of Nefertiti
Real World Audience: Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology at Harvard University
Technology Product: Voicethread Project
Connection to Odyssey: In our unit, odyssey is depicted in archeology through discovering
people from an earlier period and determining their life story. The students will review that an archeologist
studies past civilizations and their behaviors through their skeletal remains, artifacts, and environmental
surroundings. These things are used to convey an odyssey by reconstructing how people of an ancient time lived
and what was important to them. An archeologist uses his or her knowledge of history and artifacts to reveal
experiences that define a particular people and their heritage, therefore uncovering the odyssey of that
civilization. In our unit, the students will look at present day artifacts to reveal the life story of the owners. The
students will also learn how to use archeological tools and dating processes to unearth how, when, and why a
journey transpired. They will continue this process of reconstructing life stories by learning how some ancient
artifacts are moved, and different ways archeological discoveries impact the people who live in the area today. It
is this movement of the artifacts that has caused a dispute between Egypt and Germany.
Less Lesson Content Lesson Hook Lesson Activities
on
Title
Mond Trash 1. Overview of archeology: Webquest projected 1. Webquest
ay Picke 2. Ownership of the Bust of Nefertiti. on the screen -Your Introduction
rs 3. Impact of movies on archeology quest... You are a http://www.zunal.co
Vocabulary words world-renowned m/webquest.php?w
antiquities (n) archeologist. Dr. Peter =87962
archeology (n) artifacts (n) Der Manuelian, 2. review archeology
civilization (n) date (v) Professor of 3. Introduce
egyptology (n) legend (n) Egyptology at repatriation
repatriation (n) voicethread (n) Harvard University 4. Whose trash is it
http://disruptivetechnologiesk- and asked to give anyway?
16.pbworks.com/w/page/17910651/VoiceTh your opinion on the 5. Podcast from
read-Tutorials fate of a the Bust of archeologist.
webquest (n). nefertiti (n) Nefertiti http://www.speakingofh
istory.com/speakingof
history65.mp3
6. Create a Socratic
seminar post to the
Voicethread project.
http://voicethread.c
om/share/1465479//
Autry & Burdette Archeology 16

Day 2 Meet 4. Archeologist: The tools are ready 1. tools from the
Tuesd the a. Archeologist: Tools for use… Wait! Let’s Prehistoric Period
ay Exper b. Processes check its date. 2. Dr. Ewen, Professor
t 5. Interpreting a community’s odyssey http://www.zunal.com of Archeology
from remains & artifacts /webquest.php?w=87 3. Socratic Seminar:
Vocabulary words- 962 postings
cataloging(v) evidence (n) (FIRST RESOURCE http://voicethread.c
excavating (v) radiocarbon dating(v) DAY2) om/share/1465479//
stylistic difference dating (v) 4. Satellite photos of
landscape-
determine where to
dig. http://heritage-
key.com/world/goo
gles-satellite-
revolutionn
Day Can 7. What are the archeological processes? Some tools of 1. Scenario: You are
3 You Vocabulary words archeology will be set an archeologist
Wed Dig dig (n) fieldwork (n) up for students to http://www.zunal.co
nesd It? sediment (n) explore. m/webquest.php?w
ay provenience quadrant (n) =87962
2. processes an
archeologist applies
3. The students’ mock
dig
4. Socratic Seminar:
postings
Voicethread
Day 4 I Am 8. Ethics and Repatriation: Review Students will be given 1. “Money” dilemma
Thurs An http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/Pri a dilemma in which 2. Ethical decision.
day Arche nciplesofArchaeologicalEthics/tabid/203 they have to decide 3. Review the Ethics
ologis /Default.aspx what is ethical. and Repatriation
t 9. Analysis of ethical dilemmas 4. Persuasive opinion-
10. Connection to returning artifacts decision is ethical.
Vocabulary Words 5. Revisit the link sites
ethics (n) to resolve the
ownership of the
bust of Nefertiti.
6. Use the persuasive
opinion rubric as a
guide- create & post
a position statement
to the Voicethread
project.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 17
Content Outline

Archeology “Digging Up the Past”


Lesson Title Lesson Content Lesson Hook Lesson Activities
Monday Trash Pickers 4. Overview of The students will 11. Through the use of a
archeology: enter the room with Promethean board, the
a. It is the study of past their Webquest teachers will begin by
cultures and human projected on the discussing the Webquest
behavior. screen Introduction page
b. The process is displaying their quest
executed by Your quest... You are and start the discussion
analyzing artifacts a world-renowned with the statements
left behind to find out archeologist and an below: The teacher will
how people lived. expert on preservation, ask the students to think
5. Ownership of the Bust protection and about the statements and
of Nefertiti. maintenance of cultural ask, “Is this true?” Then
a. Who is Nefertiti and objects. You were state, “This is our quest”.
what is her Odyssey? recently approached by a. Cultural objects
b. Repatriation Dr. Peter Der should be returned to
Manuelian, Professor their country of
6. Impact of movies on of Egyptology at origin
archeology Harvard University and b. Stable countries
a. Positive impact is asked to give your should be the
increase interest in opinion on the fate of a protectors of cultural
the field of the Bust of Nefertiti objects
archeology that is located in c. Museums that
b. Negative impact is Germany. excavated the
the illusion of cultural objects
adventure and In the past, you have should remain the
excitement as worked mainly on the caretakers of these
displayed in the repatriation of human artifacts
Indiana Jones movies bones and funeral http://www.zunal.com/webq
objects. Now you have uest.php?w=87962
Vocabulary words been asked to give your
antiquities (n) opinion on the best 12. After exploring the
(an-TIK-wi-teez) something procedure to preserve “Hook” link, the teacher
belonging to or remaining and protect the Bust of will have the students
from ancient times, as Nefertiti. You will need share their thinking and
monuments, relics, or to develop your relevant information
customs knowledge of Egyptian about archeology. This
archeology (n) and German history will pull together the
(ar-kee-OL-uh-jee) the and culture in order to students background
study of past cultures. determine the best way knowledge. Next the
Archeologists study to handle this ancient teacher will open the
building, graves, objects, object. Remember, this Archeology Webquest
human remains, and object is extremely Introduction page to
artifacts. fragile. One wrong review archeology and
Autry & Burdette Archeology 18
artifacts (n) move or uninformed why it is important in
(ART-uh-fakts) objects decision could result in proving or disputing
made by humans, especially the loss of it to history.
tools or weapons used in the civilization forever! http://www.zunal.com/w
past ebquest.php?w=87962
civilization (n) http://www.zunal.com/ 13. The teachers will then
(siv-ih-luh-ZAY-shuhn) a webquest.php?w=8796 introduce students to the
highly developed and 2 issue of repatriation and
organized society with its its relevance to their
own culture and technology quest. Review Germany
date (v) and Egypt’s claim to the
(dayt) to determine the age Bust of Nefertiti. Next,
of an artifact the students will discuss
egyptology (n) the issue of Repatriation:
(ee-jip-TOL-uh-jee ) the Ethics. (link on
study of the archeology and Webquest page)
language of ancient Egypt http://www.zunal.com/webq
legend (n) uest.php?w=87962
(LEJ-uhnd) a story passed 14. Whose trash is it
down from earlier times that anyway? Today the
have not been students will look at
proven to be true. artifacts left behind by
repatriation (n)(ree-PEY- two people living in the
tree’uh-shun) to send back same community. First,
or return to one’s own the students will explore
country. the “It’s in the Garbage”
voicethread (n) strategy project with a partner.
known as digital Each group will receive
storytelling. It is an online a different trash bags.
media album that can hold The partners will
essentially any type of examine the trash and
media (images, documents make inferences to
and videos): determine the odyssey of
http://disruptivetechnologies that person’s life. They
k- will use their “It’s in the
16.pbworks.com/w/page/17 Garbage” sheet to record
910651/VoiceThread- their analysis. The
Tutorials students will then
webquest (n) as implied by present their analysis to
the name, is an inquiry- the group by creating a
based, on-line learning story of a typical day.
activity. During this activity The journey description
students work in groups, may include a possible
dividing assignments among age, gender,
each other, so that everyone socioeconomic status,
participates in a group- etc... These descriptions
assigned role. can be a half page long,
Autry & Burdette Archeology 19
nefertiti (n) Nefertiti (c. a poster, reenactment of
1370 BC – c. 1330 BC) was the character, or a three
the Great Royal Wife (chief minutes presentation to
consort) of the Egyptian read in class. Some
Pharaoh Akhenaten. questions to ponder are:
Nefertiti and her husband How does the trash
were known for a religious (artifacts) left behind tell
revolution, in which they us about the people’s
started to worship one god odyssey and their life
only. journey? The students
may ask questions, make
connections/
assumptions about this
time period, state
hypothesis, etc…
a. It’s in the Garbage”
project material
i. 2 different trash
bags per group
containing different
items. The first bag
will include some
Acrombie & Finch
clothing tags, a hair
clip, high price
restaurant receipt,
concert tickets for
Justin Bieber &
Taylor Swift, a
carnival cruise
itinerary flyer, and a
Play Station 3 game
wrapper. The
second bag will
contain a flyer for
the Second Chance
Mission shelter, a
baseball cap, a
candy bar wrapper,
playing cards,
receipts from a
second hand
clothing store,
fishing line, Wal-
Mart receipt for
lures, and a TV
dinner box.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 20
ii. Poster board,
markers, writing
paper
iii. Recording sheet
(posted below)
15. The student will listen to
a brief podcast from an
author and archeologist.
They will create 2 to 3
questions to ask our
guest speaker concerning
the science of
archeology.
http://www.speakingofhistor
y.com/speakingof
history65.mp3

(We are only going to


listen to the section
referring to Indiana
Jones and the positives
and negatives that the
movie created-its start
about a third into the
interview)

16. Create a Socratic


seminar discussion post
to the Voicethread
project.

http://voicethread.com/share
/1465479//

The students will post their


questions/ideas concerning
the dispute of ownership in
regards to the Bust of
Nefertiti and what they have
learned thus far (Socratic
Seminar posting for days 1-3
only). The students will
submit their questions/ideas
post on a Voicethread. Upon
completion, it will be
submitted to Dr. Peter Der
Manuelian, Professor of
Autry & Burdette Archeology 21
Egyptology, at Harvard
University. His seminar
class is planning to talk
about this same issue and
will utilize the students
Voicethread Socratic
discussion and persuasive
opinion statements as a
springboard for his class to
debate.
Day 2 Meet the 6. Archeologist: A scientist The tools are ready for 3. The teacher will present
Tuesday Expert that studies ancient use… Wait! Let’s a PowerPoint slide
people, societies, and check its date. depicting various tools
their cultures The students will view from the Prehistoric
7. Archeologist: today the pictures of various Period from the
students will meet an tools from the times Webquest Day 2 page.
archeologist and learn during the Prehistoric http://www.zunal.com/webq
about data analysis, Period. The teacher uest.php?w=879622
carbon dating, and will inquire about the While viewing the pictures
cataloging. style of tools, their of the tools, the teacher will
c. Tools purpose, and how the ask about the style of the
d. Processes style tells the age and tools and how these styles
8. Interpreting a time period. give insight to the tools’ age.
community’s odyssey 4. The students will meet
from remains & artifacts an expert in the field, Dr.
http://www.zunal.com/
Ewen, Professor of
webquest.php?w=8796
Vocabulary words- Archeology at East
2
cataloging(v) Carolina University.
(FIRST RESOURCE
(KAT-l-awg, -og-ing) a. Visit NAGPRA
DAY2)
identifies the evidence and website to review
makes a record of them. To concerns that Native
do the job well, archeologist American remains
need to know when and how were not being treated
things were made, their with due respect by
names, styles, and uses. archeologists and
evidence (n) museum curators.
(EV-uh-duhnss) information http://
or facts used to prove b. Tools of archeology
something and how artifacts are
excavating (v) dated- Dr Ewen will
(EK-skuh-vay-ting) digging present information
up and recovering artifacts on how to date artifact
and other clues about people using Stylistic
of the past Differences. The
radiocarbon dating (v) shapes and
(rey-dee-oh-KAHR-buh proportions help
n) basically, all living determine time
Autry & Burdette Archeology 22
things absorb carbon during periods. Curving,
their lives. Scientists know paintings, and
that it takes about 5,500 decorations are also
years for half the carbon to indicators to specific
break down. By measuring time periods as well
the remaining radioactive as regions/ cultural
carbon, researchers can thus c. The students will be
calculate the age of the allowed to ask Dr.
item. Ewen questions.
stylistic difference dating d. Responsibility of the
(v) Archeologist
(stahy-lis-tic-dif-er-uh ns) i. Inventory-prepare
researchers can thus list of all human
calculate the age of the remains and objects
items based on their shapes in their collection
and proportions as well as together with
curving, paintings, and cultural affiliation
decorations are indicators to (if known)
specific time periods ii. Notification- notify
closest-affiliated
descendant
iii. Repatriation-
culturally affiliated
descendants can
request the
repatriation of the
remains and objects
e. Seriation: Ordering
Archeological
Evidence by Stylistic
Difference- The
students will
participate in a
Seriation ordering
exercise using
archeological tools
and processes skills
for dating. They will
be presented with the
following problem:
The Data and the Problem-
12 stirrup spouts were
excavated in a single
cemetery. Radiocarbon
measurement on tissues
from individuals buried in
the cemetery ranged from
Autry & Burdette Archeology 23
3800 years to 2600 years,
suggesting that the cemetery
was used for over a 1,000
years. This means that the
stirrup spout bottles
excavated from the different
tombs might have different
ages. The style of the bottles
determines its age. The first
step is to set up a matrix in
which as many features as
possible have continuous
time spans. Significant
features include the shape
and proportions of the spout,
the shape and proportions of
the body, the kind of
decoration that is used,
where the decoration is
applied on the bottle, and the
orientation of the design
field.

5. Socratic Seminar: listen


to postings from fellow
campers, and then add
discussion posts to
others’
comments/questions on
the Voicethread project

http://voicethread.com/share
/1465479//

The students will post their


questions/ideas concerning
the dispute of ownership in
regards to the Bust of
Nefertiti and what they have
learned thus far (Socratic
Seminar posting for days 1-3
only). The students will
submit their questions/ideas
post on a Voicethread. Upon
completion, it will be
submitted to Dr. Peter Der
Autry & Burdette Archeology 24
Manuelian, Professor of
Egyptology, at Harvard
University. His seminar
class is planning to talk
about this same issue and
will utilize the students
Voicethread Socratic
discussion and persuasive
opinion statements as a
springboard for his class to
debate. This final exercise
will prepare the students for
their Day 3 excavation
exercise. The link below will
provide a virtual experience
is viewing landscapes to
determine possible “dig”
sites.

6. The students will view


satellite photos, focusing
on the landscapes, to
determine where to dig.

http://heritage-
key.com/world/googles-
satellite-revolutionn
Day 3 Can You Dig 17. What are the Some tools of 4. Hook-Through a power
Wednes It? archeological processes? archeology will be set point (Webquest Day 3-
day a. Pre-Field up for students to hook link), the teachers
investigations- to explore. They will be will introduce the
conduct research on using the tools in their following scenario: You
the area of the mock dig. Cards will be are an archeologist who
archeological find. positioned beside the is part of Germany’s
b. Fieldwork- Use the tools asking: Can you archeological team. Your
basic elements of site identify what each tool quest is to excavate an
excavation and record is and what it is used area in Egypt where the
keeping for? The tools will be Museum Berlin acquired
· An archeologist numbered and the permits to dig.
compares the layers students will record http://www.zunal.com/w
in which artifacts are their answers in their ebquest.php?w=87962
found to determine field notebooks. Books 5. The teacher will then
the age based on the about actual digs and review the processes an
its context and this is activities will also be archeologist applies
called stratigraphic set up for the students using the following
dating to look through. websites: (Webquest
c. Lab analysis- In the Day 3 Archeological
Autry & Burdette Archeology 25
lab stage an Process and think quest
archeologist will links)
classify artifacts by http://www.zunal.com/w
color, shape, size, and ebquest.php?w=87962
material in which it is 6. The students will
made. participate in a mock dig
d. Interpretation-
Archaeologists study a. Pre-field
artifacts from the past, investigation- the
and evaluate the students will
context of those determine what they
artifacts to understand want to accomplish
how the artifacts were in this mock dig and
used and who used will create a research
them. design plan
Vocabulary words b. Field-work and lab
dig (n) analysis-the students
in archeology, a dig is a site will split into two
that is being excavated- or teams and will
dug up choose one of the
fieldwork (n) containers to
(FEELD-wurk) work done excavate. The
at a dig or archeological site students will use a
sediment (n) camera, grid and log
(SED-uh-muhnt) solid stuff book to record the
that has been carried by location of each
water artifact found and its
provenience relevance
(proh-VEE-nee-uh ns, - c. Interpretation- The
veen-yuh ns) a place of students will then
origin, esp that of a work of describe each artifact
art or archaeological and interpret what it
specimen was used for, how
quadrant (n) old it is, and who
(KWOD-ruh nt) geometry, may have used it.
astronomy. one of the four
parts into which a plane, as 7. Socratic Seminar: listen
the face of a heavenly body, to postings from fellow
is divided by two campers, and then add
perpendicular lines, discussion posts to
numbered counterclockwise others’
from upper right: the first comments/questions on
quadrant of the moon. the Voicethread project.
http://voicethread.com/s
hare/1465479/

The students will post their


Autry & Burdette Archeology 26
questions/ideas concerning
the dispute of ownership in
regards to the Bust of
Nefertiti and what they have
learned thus far (Socratic
Seminar posting for days 1-3
only). The students will
submit their questions/ideas
post on a Voicethread. Upon
completion, it will be
submitted to Dr. Peter Der
Manuelian, Professor of
Egyptology, at Harvard
University. His seminar
class is planning to talk
about this same issue and
will utilize the students
Voicethread Socratic
discussion and persuasive
opinion statements as a
springboard for his class to
debate.
Day 4 I Am An 18. Ethics and Repatriation: Students will be given 7. The teacher will begin
Thursday Archeologist Review the seven a dilemma in which the class with a brief
principles they have to decide discussion the “Money”
http://www.saa.org/Abo what is ethical. dilemma which will be
uttheSociety/Principleso Dilemma: You are out given as the students
fArchaeologicalEthics/ta of money and want to enter the door.
bid/203/Default.aspx go to the movies with 8. The students will give
your friends. Your their opinions on what
Principle No. 1: parents do not lend you they believe to be an
Stewardship money for any reason ethical decision.
The archaeological record, because they are trying 9. The teacher will review
that is, in situ archaeological to teach you the Ethics and
material and sites, responsibility. Your Repatriation Issues and
archaeological collections, mom and dad don’t the 7 guiding principles
records and reports, is know that you have archeologists follow.
irreplaceable. It is the spent all of your
responsibility of all allowance at the http://www.saa.org/Aboutth
archaeologists to work for football game last eSociety/PrinciplesofArchae
the long-term conservation night. You know that ologicalEthics/tabid/203/Def
and protection of the they have a cash fund ault.aspx
archaeological record by drawer that they do not
practicing and promoting check very often and S tewardship
stewardship of the your parents are gone A ccountability
archaeological record. and won’t be back for C ommercialization
Stewards are both caretakers hours. The money is P ublic Education &
Autry & Burdette Archeology 27
of and advocates for the not yours to take but Outreach
archaeological record for you will pay it back I ntellectual Property
the benefit of all people; as when you get your P ublic Reporting &
they investigate and allowance next week. Publication
interpret the record, they Do you take the money R ecords & Preservation
should use the specialized even though it is not T raining & Resources
knowledge they gain to yours and pay it back (display on previously
promote public later or do you just tell prepared poster)
understanding and support your friends, “No, I
for its long-term can’t go because I 10. Remind students that
preservation. spent all my money last when they create & post
night?” their persuasive opinion,
Principle No. 2: What is the right thing to make sure that their
Accountability to do? Be ready to decision is ethical.
Responsible archaeological discuss with the other 11. Then the students will
research, including all levels campers. revisit the link sites
of professional activity, through the Webquest
requires an pages. They will
acknowledgment of public generate ideas on how to
accountability and a resolve the ownership of
commitment to make every the bust of Nefertiti
reasonable effort, in good located in Egyptian
faith, to consult actively Museum Berlin, Berlin,
with affected group(s), with Germany.
the goal of establishing a
working relationship that http://www.zunal.com/webq
can be beneficial to all uest.php?w=879622
parties involved.
12. The students will use the
Principle No. 3: persuasive opinion
Commercialization The rubric as a guide to
Society for American create and post a
Archaeology has long position statement to the
recognized that the buying Voicethread project.
and selling of objects out of http://voicethread.com/s
archaeological context is hare/1465479/
contributing to the
destruction of the On the final day of this
archaeological record on the project, the students will
American continents and post their persuasive opinion
around the world. The statement on the issue of
commercialization of repatriation and the request
archaeological objects - for the Bust of Nefertiti to
their use as commodities to be returned to Egypt. The
be exploited for personal students will present their
enjoyment or profit - results position on this dispute
in the destruction of through a post on the
Autry & Burdette Archeology 28
archaeological sites and of Voicethread project. Upon
contextual information that completion, it will be
is essential to understanding submitted to Dr. Peter Der
the archaeological record. Manuelian, Professor of
Archaeologists should Egyptology, at Harvard
therefore carefully weigh University. His seminar
the benefits to scholarship class is planning to talk
of a project against the costs about this same issue and
of potentially enhancing the will utilize the students
commercial value of Voicethread Socratic
archaeological objects. Seminar discussion and
Whenever possible they persuasive opinion
should discourage, and statements as a springboard
should themselves avoid, for his class to debate.
activities that enhance the
commercial value of
archaeological objects,
especially objects that are
not curated in public
institutions, or readily
available for scientific
study, public interpretation,
and display.

Principle No. 4: Public


Education and Outreach
Archaeologists should reach
out to, and participate in
cooperative efforts with
others interested in the
archaeological record with
the aim of improving the
preservation, protection, and
interpretation of the record.
In particular, archaeologists
should undertake to: 1)
enlist public support for the
stewardship of the
archaeological record; 2)
explain and promote the use
of archaeological methods
and techniques in
understanding human
behavior and culture; and 3)
communicate archaeological
interpretations of the past.
Many publics exist for
Autry & Burdette Archeology 29
archaeology including
students and teachers;
Native Americans and other
ethnic, religious, and
cultural groups who find in
the archaeological record
important aspects of their
cultural heritage; lawmakers
and government officials;
reporters, journalists, and
others involved in the
media; and the general
public. Archaeologists who
are unable to undertake
public education and
outreach directly should
encourage and support the
efforts of others in these
activities.

Principle No. 5: Intellectual


Property
Intellectual property, as
contained in the knowledge
and documents created
through the study of
archaeological resources, is
part of the archaeological
record. As such it should be
treated in accord with the
principles of stewardship
rather than as a matter of
personal possession. If there
is a compelling reason, and
no legal restrictions or
strong countervailing
interests, a researcher may
have primary access to
original materials and
documents for a limited and
reasonable time, after which
these materials and
documents must be made
available to others.

Principle No. 6: Public


Reporting and Publication
Autry & Burdette Archeology 30
Within a reasonable time,
the knowledge
archaeologists gain from
investigation of the
archaeological record must
be presented in accessible
form (through publication or
other means) to as wide a
range of interested publics
as possible. The documents
and materials on which
publication and other forms
of public reporting are
based should be deposited
in a suitable place for
permanent safekeeping. An
interest in preserving and
protecting in situ
archaeological sites must be
taken in to account when
publishing and distributing
information about their
nature and location.

Principle No. 7: Records


and Preservation
Archaeologists should work
actively for the preservation
of, and long term access to,
archaeological collections,
records, and reports. To this
end, they should encourage
colleagues, students, and
others to make responsible
use of collections, records,
and reports in their research
as one means of preserving
the in situ archaeological
record, and of increasing the
care and attention given to
that portion of the
archaeological record which
has been removed and
incorporated into
archaeological collections,
records, and reports.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 31
Principle No. 8:Training
and Resources
Given the destructive nature
of most archaeological
investigations,
archaeologists must ensure
that they have adequate
training, experience,
facilities, and other support
necessary to conduct any
program of research they
initiate in a manner
consistent with the
foregoing principles and
contemporary standards of
professional practice.

19. Analysis of ethical


dilemmas
20. How does it play a part
in returning artifacts to
its place of origin?

Vocabulary Words
ethics (n)
(ETH-iks) the body of
moral principles or values
governing or distinctive of a
particular culture or group:
the Christian ethic; the tribal
ethic of the Zuni.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 32
DIGGING UP THE PAST: ARCHEOLOGY
LESSON 1: TRASH PICKERS

I. DEFINE THE CONTENT


LESSON OBJECTIVE: After completing this lesson the students will be able to determine the correlation
between artifacts found and their significance in the odyssey of the owners. Furthermore, they will be
able to interpret the impact of archeologists.
LESSON POINT TO PONDER: If I excavated it, then it belongs to me.

II. PREPLANNING: BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND


AFTER THE LESSON,
STUDENTS WILL KNOW THAT… archeologists are trying to attain a view of the
past. The people of the past to determine why and how they did things, as
A. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE WORTH well as what was significant to them.
KNOWING?
(THINK ABOUT THE CONTENT
STUDENTS WILL KNOW THAT… archeologists are determining the records of the
YOU HAVE SELECTED. WHAT IS
IMPORTANT FOR STUDENTS TO past and sequences of culture history to find out what happened.
KNOW?)
STUDENTS WILL KNOW THAT… it is important to know that preservation of the
evidence of the past is for the benefit of all.

AFTER THE LESSON,


STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… gather information and construct their own
opinion about the artifacts recovered in the trash and how the artifacts
B. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE
IMPORTANT FOR STUDENTS TO
depict an account of someone’s life from the past.
BE ABLE TO DO?
(DEFINE WHAT STUDENTS STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… use problem solving skills to determine how
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO AS A people lived by examining their garbage.
RESULT OF YOUR LESSON.)
STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… communicate their predictions by explaining
the relationship between the artifacts and the owner.

AFTER THE LESSON,


STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT… Archeology is the study of people.
Archeologists are scientists who look at old things and sites to investigate
how people lived in the past.
C. WHAT ARE THE ENDURING
UNDERSTANDINGS THAT STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT… The artifacts that archeologists find
STUDENTS SHOULD TAKE tell about a person’s story over time. Archeologists make observations and
AWAY FROM THE LESSON? connections about the artifacts found to how people lived their lives.
(DEFINE THE BIG IDEAS.)
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT… In a sense, archeologists are time
travelers because they transport themselves from the present to the past
through the stories they discover. They find out something about
everything people did in the past: how they made tools, why they moved
around, and what kind of foods they ate.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 33

III. PLANNING
How do artifacts tell a journey of a community/family/individual?
D. ESSENTIAL Q UESTION:
(ONE OVERARCHING LESSON
QUESTION )

As the lessons progress, the teachers will gather information to informally


assess the students understanding of the material presented.

The students will engage in an “It’s in the Garbage” project. The purpose
of this exercise is to interpret artifacts and its relevance to the former
owners. The students will utilize an activity sheet for recording their
E. ASSESSMENT:
responses and guiding their presentations of the trash owners.
(PERFORMANCE TASK) WHAT
WILL THE STUDENTS DO TO The presentations will be assessed for relevance, completeness, and
SHOW YOU THAT THEY accuracy. Questions guiding their thinking should be; how did the owner of
MASTERED THE CONTENT?
these artifacts live? What is the importance of the artifacts to the owner?
What do the artifacts tell about the owners’ odyssey?

The students will generate 2 or 3 questions for our Day 2, “Guest Expert”,
Dr. Ewen. The teacher will use these questions to informally assessment
the students’ level of understanding so far and make necessary adjustments
for the next lessons.
7. Overview of archeology:
a. It is the study of past cultures and human behavior.
b. The process is executed by analyzing artifacts left behind to
find out how people lived.
8. Ownership of the Bust of Nefertiti.
a. Who is Nefertiti and what is her Odyssey?
ii. Queen of Egypt
F. CONTENT iii. Bust was made of her and is now a famous symbol
LIST THE CONTENT FOR THIS of Egypt
LESSON ONLY. iv. Powerful Queen
(OUTLINE THE CONTENT YOU v. Bust is now located in Germany
WILL TEACH TODAY-THIS MAY a) Repatriation
COME FROM YOUR CONTENT 7. Impact of movies on archeology
OUTLINE)
a) Positive impact is increase interest in the field of archeology
b) Negative impact is the illusion of adventure and excitement as
displayed in the Indiana Jones movies

Vocabulary words
antiquities (n)
(an-TIK-wi-teez) something belonging to or remaining from ancient times,
as monuments, relics, or customs
Autry & Burdette Archeology 34
archeology (n)
(ar-kee-OL-uh-jee) the study of past cultures. Archeologists study
building, graves, objects, human remains, and artifacts.
artifacts (n)
(ART-uh-fakts) objects made by humans, especially tools or weapons used
in the past
civilization (n)
(siv-ih-luh-ZAY-shuhn) a highly developed and organized society with its
own culture and technology
date (v)
(dayt) to determine the age of an artifact
Egyptology (n)
(ee-jip-TOL-uh-jee ) the study of the archeology and language of ancient
Egypt
legend (n)
(LEJ-uhnd) a story passed down from earlier times that have not been
proven to be true.
repatriation (n)(ree-PEY-tree’uh-shun) to send back or return to one’s
own country.
voicethread (n) strategy known as digital storytelling. It is an online media
album that can hold essentially any type of media (images, documents and
videos): http://disruptivetechnologiesk-
16.pbworks.com/w/page/17910651/VoiceThread-Tutorials
webquest (n) as implied by the name, is an inquiry-based, on-line learning
activity. During this activity students work in groups, dividing assignments
among each other, so that everyone participates in a group-assigned role.
Nefertiti (n) Nefertiti (c. 1370 BC – c. 1330 BC) was the Great Royal Wife
(chief consort) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her
husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they started to
worship one god only.
The students will enter the room with their Webquest projected on the
screen
Your quest... You are a world-renowned archeologist and an expert on
preservation, protection and maintenance of cultural objects. You were
recently approached by Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology
at Harvard University and asked to give your opinion on the fate of a the
G. HOOK: Bust of Nefertiti that is located in Germany.
(DESCRIBE HOW YOU WILL
GRAB STUDENTS’ ATTENTION In the past, you have worked mainly on the repatriation of human bones
AT THE BEGINNING OF THE and funeral objects. Now you have been asked to give your opinion on the
LESSON. B E CREATIVE.) best procedure to preserve and protect the Bust of Nefertiti. You will need
to develop your knowledge of Egyptian and German history and culture in
order to determine the best way to handle this ancient object. Remember,
this object is extremely fragile. One wrong move or uninformed decision
could result in the loss of it to civilization forever!

http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
Autry & Burdette Archeology 35
21. Through the use of a Promethean board, the teachers will begin by
discussing the Webquest Introduction page displaying their quest and
start the discussion with the statements below: The teacher will ask the
students to think about the statements and ask, “Is this true?” Then
state, “This is our quest”.
a. Cultural objects should be returned to their country of origin
b. Stable countries should be the protectors of cultural objects
c. Museums that excavated the cultural objects should remain the
caretakers of these artifacts
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
22. After exploring the “Hook” link, the teacher will have the students
share their thinking and relevant information about archeology. This
will pull together the students background knowledge. Next the teacher
will open the Archeology Introduction page on the Webquest to review
archeology and why it is important in proving or disputing history.
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
23. The teachers will then introduce students to the issue of repatriation
and its relevance to their quest. Review Germany and Egypt’s claim to
the Bust of Nefertiti. Next, the students will discuss the issue of
Repatriation: Ethics. (link on Webquest page)
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
24. Whose trash is it anyway? Today the students will look at artifacts left
H. INSTRUCTION: behind by two people living in the same community. First, the students
(TELL, STEP-BY-STEP, WHAT will explore the “It’s in the Garbage” project with a partner. Each
YOU WILL DO.) group will receive a different trash bags. The partners will examine the
trash and make inferences to determine the odyssey of that person’s
life. They will use their “It’s in the Garbage” sheet to record their
analysis. The students will then present their analysis to the group by
creating a story of a typical day. The journey description may include a
possible age, gender, socioeconomic status, etc... These descriptions
can be a half page long, a poster, reenactment of the character, or a
three minutes presentation to read in class. Some questions to ponder
are: How does the trash (artifacts) left behind tell us about the people’s
odyssey and their life journey? The students may ask questions, make
connections/ assumptions about this time period, state hypothesis, etc…
a. It’s in the Garbage” project material
i. 2 different trash bags per group containing different items. The
first bag will include some Acrombie & Finch clothing tags, a
hair clip, high price restaurant receipt, concert tickets for Justin
Bieber & Taylor Swift, a carnival cruise itinerary flyer, and a Play
Station 3 game wrapper. The second bag will contain a flyer for
the Second Chance Mission shelter, a baseball cap, a candy bar
wrapper, playing cards, receipts from a second hand clothing
store, fishing line, Wal-Mart receipt for lures, and a TV dinner
box.
ii. Poster board, markers, writing paper
iii. Recording sheet (posted below)
Autry & Burdette Archeology 36
25. The student will listen to a brief podcast from an author and
archeologist. They will create 2 to 3 questions to ask our guest speaker
concerning the science of archeology.
http://www.speakingofhistory.com/speakingof history65.mp3
(We are only going to listen to the section referring to Indiana Jones
and the positives and negatives that the movie created-its start about a
third into the interview)

26. Create a Socratic Seminar discussion post to the Voicethread project.


http://voicethread.com/share/1465479/

The students will post their questions/ideas concerning the dispute of


ownership in regards to the Bust of Nefertiti and what they have
learned thus far (Socratic Seminar posting for days 1-3 only). The
students will submit their questions/ideas post on a Voicethread. Upon
completion, it will be submitted to Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, Professor
of Egyptology, at Harvard University. His seminar class is planning to
talk about this same issue and will utilize the students Voicethread
Socratic discussion and persuasive opinion statements as a springboard
for his class to debate.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 37
Autry & Burdette Archeology 38

Grid Paper in Student Log Book


Autry & Burdette Archeology 39
Quest for the Bust of Nefertiti

Quest for the Bust of Nefertiti: Repatriation of Cultural Objects Worksheet (for use
along with the Webquest)

Student name(s)
________________________________________________________________________

1. Describe what repatriation means in your own words.


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

2. Who is Queen Nefertiti?


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

3. Where, when and by whom was the Bust of Nefertiti taken??


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

4. What is the cultural significance of the Bust of Nefertiti to Egypt?


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

5. What is the cultural significance of the Bust of Nefertiti to Germany?


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Autry & Burdette Archeology 40

Your Quest: Persuasive Opinion Post through a Voicethread


You have now studied generally about the issue of repatriation of cultural objects and learned of the
Bust of Nefertiti.
Now, as part of the committee of archeologist making a recommendation, you will give your expert
opinion as to where the Bust of Nefertiti should be located.
Here are some questions that might help you in your decision:
• Who owns the world’s significant cultural objects?
• Why are such objects important and to whom?
• Should ownership/control be in the hands of the more powerful?
Or should it be returned to the geographic place of origin?
Or should it go to the cultural group (e.g. language or religion) with which it is associated?
Or should such artifacts be placed where they can best be preserved?
• What are the legalities if the artifact had been sold to another? What if the conditions under which an
artifact was moved are in question?
Now, you will develop your opinion. Your position statement should include the following criteria:
Position clearly stated and a minimum of two facts that support your position.

Archeology: Digging Up the Past Instructions for Socratic Seminars

Participant Preparations — what do we all do before we come to a Socratic Seminar?

· Research the topic thoroughly


· Write notes on key points and interesting facts
· Notate or highlight any Internet printouts
· Brainstorm themes relevant to the topic.
· Brainstorm connections among facts and details
· Create questions.

Dialogue and expectations are characterized by:

· suspending judgment
· examining our own work without defensiveness
· exposing our reasoning and looking for limits to it
· communicating our underlying assumptions
· exploring viewpoints more broadly and deeply
· being open to disconfirming data
· approaching someone who sees a problem differently not as an adversary, but as a colleague in
common pursuit of better solution
· asking for help to clear up confusion
· supporting each other
· questioning each other in a civil manner
Autry & Burdette Archeology 41

Persuasive Opinion Statement: Rubric Quest for the Bust of Nefertiti


CATEGORY 4- 3- 2- 1- Score
Above Meets Approaching Below
Standards Standards Standards Standards

Position The position The position A position There is no


statement statement statement is position
Statement provides a clear, provides a clear present, but does statement.
strong statement statement of the not make the
of the author's author's position author's position
position on the on the topic. clear.
topic.

Support for Includes 2 or Includes 2 or Includes 2 pieces Includes no


more pieces of more pieces of of evidence evidence (facts,
Position evidence (facts, evidence (facts, (facts, statistics, statistics,
statistics, and statistics, examples, examples, real-
examples) that examples, real- real-life life experiences).
support the life experiences) experiences) that
position that support the support the
statement. position position
The author statement. statement.
anticipates the
reader's
concerns, biases
or arguments and
has provided at
least 1
counterargument.

Evidence All evidence and Most of the At least one of the Evidence and
examples are evidence and pieces of evidence examples are
and specific, relevant examples are and examples is NOT relevant
Examples and explanations specific, relevant relevant and has AND/OR are not
are given that and explanations an explanation explained.
show how each are given that that shows how
piece of evidence show how each that piece of
supports the piece of evidence evidence supports
author's position. supports the the author's
author's position. position.

Accuracy All supportive Almost all Most supportive Most supportive


facts and supportive facts facts and statistics facts and
statistics are and statistics are are reported statistics were
reported reported accurately. inaccurately
accurately. accurately. reported.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 42

DIGGING UP THE PAST: ARCHEOLOGY


LESSON 2: Meet an Expert
Dr. Charles Ewen, Professor of Archeology, East Carolina University

I. DEFINE THE CONTENT


LESSON OBJECTIVE: After meeting Dr. Ewen, the students will be familiar with the responsibilities of an
archeologist and be able to use archeological tools/time periods correctly to examine and analyze
artifacts.
LESSON POINT TO PONDER: Historical accounts accurately present the story of people and their things.

II. PREPLANNING: BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND


AFTER THE LESSON,
A. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE STUDENTS WILL KNOW… that archeologists utilize several methods to
WORTH KNOWING? calculate the age of an item.
(THINK ABOUT THE CONTENT STUDENTS WILL KNOW… that archeologists spend more time conducting
YOU HAVE SELECTED. WHAT research than doing fieldwork.
IS IMPORTANT FOR STUDENTS
STUDENTS WILL KNOW… that archeologists use precise methods for
TO KNOW?)
cataloging the evidence, as well as a variety of tools to excavate the artifacts
and/or remains
AFTER THE LESSON,
B. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… engage in an archeological activity
IMPORTANT FOR STUDENTS
TO BE ABLE TO DO?
selecting appropriate tools.
(DEFINE WHAT STUDENTS STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… analyze artifacts & assess possible
SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO AS A methods used for dating the items.
RESULT OF YOUR LESSON.) STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO… to view satellite landscapes and make
educated guesses on where to excavate.
AFTER THE LESSON,
C. WHAT ARE THE ENDURING
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT…. As scientists, archeologists are
UNDERSTANDINGS THAT reconstructing and interpreting the past.
STUDENTS SHOULD TAKE STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT… archeologists employ various tools
AWAY FROM THE LESSON? while completing fieldwork.
(DEFINE THE BIG IDEAS.)
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT… archeologists utilize multiple methods
for calculating the chronology date of artifacts

III. PLANNING
D. ESSENTIAL Q UESTION: How do archeologists process and date artifacts and why is this relevant?
(ONE OVERARCHING LESSON
QUESTION )

E. ASSESSMENT: 1. The teacher will informally assess the students for understanding
(PERFORMANCE TASK) throughout the discussion.
WHAT WILL THE STUDENTS 2. Seriation: Ordering Exercise will be assessed using the matrix rubric that
DO TO SHOW YOU THAT THEY is included in the resource, provided by Dr. Ewen
Autry & Burdette Archeology 43
MASTERED THE CONTENT?

1. Archeologist: A scientist that studies ancient people, societies, and their


cultures
2. Archeologist: today the students will meet an archeologist and learn
about data analysis, carbon dating, and cataloging.
e. Tools
f. Processes
3. Interpreting a community’s odyssey from remains & artifacts
g. Research topic to form opinion on a topic
h. Learn how to write their opinion on a controversial topic through
Socratic Seminar

F. CONTENT Vocabulary words


LIST THE CONTENT FOR THIS cataloging(v)
LESSON ONLY.
(KAT-l-awg, -og-ing) identifies the evidence and makes a record of them. To
(OUTLINE THE CONTENT YOU
WILL TEACH TODAY-THIS
do the job well, archeologist need to know when and how things were made
MAY COME FROM YOUR their names, styles, and uses.
CONTENT OUTLINE) evidence (n) (EV-uh-
duhnss) information or facts used to prove something
excavating (v) (EK-skuh-vay-ting)
digging up and recovering artifacts and other clues about people of the past
radiocarbon dating (v) (rey-dee-oh-KAHR-buh n) basically,
all living things absorb carbon during their lives. Scientists know that it
takes about 5,500 years for half the carbon to break down. By measuring the
remaining radioactive carbon, researchers can thus calculate the age of the
item.
stylistic difference dating (v)
(stahy-lis-tic-dif-er-uh ns) researchers can thus calculate the age of the
items based on their shapes and proportions as well as curving, paintings,
and decorations are indicators to specific time periods
The tools are ready for use… Wait! Let’s check its date.
G. HOOK: The students will view pictures of various tools from the Stone times during
(DESCRIBE HOW YOU WILL the Prehistoric Period. The teacher will inquire about the style of tools, their
GRAB STUDENTS’ ATTENTION
purpose, and how the style tells the age and time period.
AT THE BEGINNING OF THE
LESSON. B E CREATIVE.) http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
(FIRST RESOURCE DAY2)
5. The teacher will present a PowerPoint slide depicting various tools from
the Prehistoric Period from the Webquest Day 2 page.
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
H. INSTRUCTION: While viewing the pictures of the tools, the teacher will ask about the style
(TELL, STEP-BY-STEP, WHAT of the tools and how these styles give insight to the tools’ age.
YOU WILL DO.) 6. The students will meet an expert in the field, Dr. Ewen, Professor of
Archeology at East Carolina University.
a. Visit NAGPRA website to review concerns that Native American
remains were not being treated with due respect by archeologists
Autry & Burdette Archeology 44
and museum curators. (Webquest Day 3 –resource link 3)
b. Tools of archeology and how artifacts are dated- Dr Ewen will
present information on how to date artifact using Stylistic
Differences. The shapes and proportions help determine time
periods. Curving, paintings, and decorations are also indicators
to specific time periods as well as regions/ cultural
c. The students will be given an opportunity to ask Dr. Ewen
questions.
d. Responsibility of the Archeologist
i. Inventory-prepare list of all human remains and objects in
their collection together with cultural affiliation (if
known)
ii. Notification- notify closest-affiliated descendant
iii. Repatriation- culturally affiliated descendants can request
the repatriation of the remains and objects
e. Seriation: Ordering Archeological Evidence by Stylistic
Difference- The students will participate in a Seriation ordering
exercise using archeological tools and processes skills for dating.
They will be presented with the following problem:
The Data and the Problem- 12 stirrup spouts were excavated in a single
cemetery. Radiocarbon measurement on tissues from individuals buried in
the cemetery ranged from 3800 years to 2600 years, suggesting that the
cemetery was used for over a 1,000 years. This means that the stirrup spout
bottles excavated from the different tombs might have different ages. The
style of the bottles determines its age. The first step is to set up a matrix in
which as many features as possible have continuous time spans. Significant
features include the shape and proportions of the spout, the shape and
proportions of the body, the kind of decoration that is used, where the
decoration is applied on the bottle, and the orientation of the design field.

8. Socratic Seminar: listen to postings from fellow campers, and then add
discussion posts to others’ comments/questions on the Voicethread
project. http://voicethread.com/share/1465479/

The students will post their questions/ideas concerning the dispute of


ownership in regards to the Bust of Nefertiti and what they have learned
thus far ((Socratic Seminar posting for days 1-3 only). The students will
submit their questions/ideas post on a Voicethread. Upon completion, it
will be submitted to Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology,
at Harvard University. His seminar class is planning to talk about this
same issue and will utilize the students Voicethread Socratic discussion
and persuasive opinion statements as a springboard for his class to
debate.

This final exercise will prepare the students for their Day 3 excavation
exercise. The link below will provide a virtual experience is viewing
Autry & Burdette Archeology 45
landscapes to determine possible “dig” sites.

9. The students will view satellite photos, focusing on the landscapes, to


determine where to dig.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/opaxir/2505866623/in/pool-890580@N25

Hook: ctrl+click to open Prehistoric Tools PowerPoint link

How do these tools relate to the odyssey of


the people who made and used them,
Autry & Burdette Archeology 46

Dr. Charles Ewen’s Seriation: Ordering Archeological Evidence by Stylistic Differences Exercise and

Rubric
Autry & Burdette Archeology 47

DIGGING UP THE PAST: ARCHEOLOGY


LESSON 3: Can You Dig It?

I. DEFINE THE CONTENT


LESSON OBJECTIVE: The students will learn and understand how to complete and excavation and
keep accurate records of their findings.
LESSON POINT TO PONDER: The context in which an artifact is found is as important as the artifact.

II. PREPLANNING: BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND


AFTER THE LESSON,
A. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE STUDENTS WILL KNOW… that it is important to keep accurate records so
WORTH KNOWING? that the archeologist can refer back to their journals when making an
(THINK ABOUT THE interpretation of the site.
CONTENT YOU HAVE
SELECTED. WHAT IS
STUDENTS WILL KNOW… if accurate records are not kept people will not
IMPORTANT FOR know the true story of the culture to which the artifacts belong.
STUDENTS TO KNOW?) STUDENTS WILL KNOW… that archeology helps retell a true account of
history.
AFTER THE LESSON,
B. WHAT 3 ITEMS ARE STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO… carefully excavate, record findings, and
IMPORTANT FOR
make observations about each artifact.
STUDENTS TO BE ABLE
TO DO?
(DEFINE WHAT STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO… reconstruct the “site” and what it might have
STUDENTS SHOULD BE looked like in the past.
ABLE TO DO AS A
RESULT OF YOUR
LESSON.) STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO …set up a grid system for recording the
location of each artifact.
AFTER THE LESSON,
C. WHAT ARE THE STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT …artifacts tell a story
ENDURING
UNDERSTANDINGS
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT …Artifacts are important to the culture
THAT STUDENTS
SHOULD TAKE AWAY
in which they belong but are also important to others so that all people can
FROM THE LESSON? learn from other cultures.
(DEFINE THE BIG
IDEAS.)
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT …archeology is important for
discovering a culture’s history.

III. PLANNING
D. ESSENTIAL Why is important to keep accurate records when conducting an
QUESTION: excavation?
(ONE OVERARCHING
Autry & Burdette Archeology 48
LESSON Q UESTION )

The students will conduct a mock dig designed to simulate the processes an
archeologist takes when locating artifacts at the excavation site. Students
E. ASSESSMENT:
will be given grid journals to record their findings. The students will record
(PERFORMANCE
TASK) WHAT WILL accurately in their field journals the location of each artifact, total number
THE STUDENTS DO TO of artifacts found, stratigraphy (layer) in which each artifact was found,
SHOW YOU THAT THEY and observations made about each artifact.
MASTERED THE
The field journal recordings will be assessed for completeness and
CONTENT?
accuracy using a model grid scale and point rubric. The teacher will
monitor and point out any inaccuracies during the mock dig exercise.
2. What are the archeological processes?
a. Pre-Field investigations- to conduct research on the area of
the archeological find.
b. Fieldwork- Use the basic elements of site excavation and
record keeping
· Archeologist record where and what they find
during the excavation on a grid which is laid out in
squares and labeled with coordinates.
· An archeologist compares the layers in which
artifacts are found to determine the age based on the
its context and this is called stratigraphic dating
c. Lab analysis- In the lab stage an archeologist will classify
F. CONTENT artifacts by color, shape, size, and material in which it is
LIST THE CONTENT made.
FOR THIS LESSON d. Interpretation- Archaeologists study artifacts from the past,
ONLY.
and evaluate the context of those artifacts to understand
(OUTLINE THE how the artifacts were used and who used them.
CONTENT YOU WILL
TEACH TODAY-THIS
Vocabulary words
MAY COME FROM dig (n)
YOUR CONTENT in archeology, a dig is a site that is being excavated- or dug up
OUTLINE) fieldwork (n)
(FEELD-wurk) work done at a dig or archeological site
sediment (n)
(SED-uh-muhnt) solid stuff that has been carried by water
provenience
(proh-VEE-nee-uh ns, -veen-yuh ns) a place of origin, esp that of a
work of art or archaeological specimen
quadrant (n)
(KWOD-ruh nt) geometry, astronomy. one of the four parts into which
a plane, as the face of a heavenly body, is divided by two perpendicular
lines, numbered counterclockwise from upper right: the first quadrant
of the moon.

G. HOOK: Some tools of archeology will be set up for students to explore. They will
(DESCRIBE HOW YOU be using the tools in their mock dig. Cards will be positioned beside the
WILL GRAB
tools asking: Can you identify what each tool is and what it is used for?
STUDENTS’
Autry & Burdette Archeology 49
ATTENTION AT THE The tools will be numbered and the students will record their answers in
BEGINNING OF THE
their field notebooks. Books about actual digs and activities will also be set
LESSON. B E
CREATIVE.)
up for the students to look through.
8. Hook-Through a power point (Webquest Day 3- hook link), the
teachers will introduce the following scenario: You are an archeologist
who is part of Germany’s archeological team. Your quest is to excavate
an area in Egypt where the Museum Berlin acquired permits to dig.
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
9. The teacher will then review the processes an archeologist applies
using the following websites: (Webquest Day 3 Archeological Process
and think quest links)
http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=87962
10. The students will participate in a mock dig

a. Pre-field investigation- the students will determine what they want


to accomplish in this mock dig and will create a research design
plan. The students will generate questions or hypotheses about the
archaeological site, details about what is already known, and a
layout of the various methods that will be employed during the
investigation. The plan will be recorded in outline form in the log
books
H. INSTRUCTION: b. Field-work and lab analysis-the students will split into two teams
(TELL, STEP-BY-STEP, and will choose one of the containers to excavate. The students
WHAT YOU WILL DO.) will use a camera, grid and log book to record the location of each
artifact found and its relevance
c. Interpretation- The students will then describe each artifact and
interpret what it was used for, how old it is, and who may have
used it.

10. Socratic Seminar: listen to postings from fellow campers, and then add
discussion posts to others’ comments/questions on the Voicethread
project. http://voicethread.com/share/1465479/

The students will post their questions/ideas concerning the dispute of


ownership in regards to the Bust of Nefertiti and what they have
learned thus far (Socratic Seminar posting for days 1-3 only). The
students will submit their questions/ideas post on a Voicethread. Upon
completion, it will be submitted to Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, Professor
of Egyptology, at Harvard University. His seminar class is planning to
talk about this same issue and will utilize the students Voicethread
Socratic discussion and persuasive opinion statements as a springboard
for his class to debate.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 50
Day 3 Hook PowerPoint link

I
Autry & Burdette Archeology 51

Grid Paper

A B C
Autry & Burdette Archeology 52
Excavation Rubric
CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Field work The student used The student used The student used The student used
a camera, grid a camera, grid a camera, grid a camera, grid
and log book to and log book to and log book to and log book to
accurately record record the record 80% of record only 70%
the location of location of 90% the artifacts of the artifacts
each artifact of the artifacts found. found.
found. found.
The student The student The student The student The student
classified the classified the classified the classified the classified the
artifacts by color, artifacts using all artifacts using 3 artifacts using 2 artifacts using 1
shape, size, and of the stated out of the 4 out of the 4 out of the 4
material in which attributes. attributes. attributes. attributes.
it is made.
Interpretation The student gives The student gives The student gives The student's
a reasonable and a reasonable and a fairly explanations
clear explanation clear explanation reasonable and were weak and
of how each of how most clear explanation unclear as to how
artifact may have artifacts may of how most each artifact was
been used. have been used. artifacts may used.
have been used.
Time and Effort Class time was Class time was Class time was Class time was
used wisely. used wisely. not always used not used wisely
Much time and Student could wisely, but and the student
effort went into have put in more student did use did not use the
using the time and effort some of the archeological
archeological into using the archeological processes.
processes. archeological processes.
processes.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 53
DIGGING UP THE PAST: ARCHEOLOGY
LESSON 4: I am an Archeologist!

I. DEFINE THE CONTENT


LESSON OBJECTIVE: Student will review information on the repatriation of Egyptian artifacts from both
the German’s point of view and the Egyptian’s point of view. They will focus on the problem the
archeologist, Dr. Hawass, faces and create a solution on Voicethread. Each solution will be sent to Dr.
Peter Der Manuelian, Professor of Egyptology, at Harvard University for review.

LESSON POINT TO PONDER: Most of Egypt’s artifacts have either been destroyed or removed to other
institutes for study. They should be returned to the place of their origin: Egyptians have the only valid
right to Egyptian artifacts.

II. PREPLANNING: BEGIN WITH THE END IN MIND


A. WHAT 3 AFTER THE LESSON,
ITEMS ARE
WORTH
STUDENTS WILL KNOW…. the journey of the “Bust of Nefertiti” and how she ended up
KNOWING? in Berlin.
(THINK ABOUT STUDENTS WILL KNOW…. how to use a rubric to guide their decision in developing a
THE CONTENT persuasive opinion.
YOU HAVE STUDENTS WILL KNOW…. how to apply their knowledge in Voicethread
SELECTED.
WHAT IS
IMPORTANT
FOR STUDENTS
TO KNOW?)

B. WHAT 3 AFTER THE LESSON,


ITEMS ARE
IMPORTANT
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO …. create a Voicethread post that state their opinion
FOR STUDENTS accurately and clearly to an appropriate audience.
TO BE ABLE TO STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO …. to state their opinion based on research.
DO?
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO …. make decisions regarding archeology following the
(DEFINE WHAT
ethical principles of archeology.
STUDENTS
SHOULD BE
ABLE TO DO AS
A RESULT OF
YOUR LESSON.)

C. WHAT ARE AFTER THE LESSON,


THE ENDURING
UNDERSTANDIN
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT….rules and regulations aren’t always cut and dry.
GS THAT STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT….some situations have more than one point of view
STUDENTS or story.
SHOULD TAKE
STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT….you must research a topic thoroughly to make an
AWAY FROM
THE LESSON? informed decision without bias.
(DEFINE THE
BIG IDEAS.)
Autry & Burdette Archeology 54
III. PLANNING
D. ESSENTIAL Who should have possessions of artifacts after they have been carefully excavated?
QUESTION: Should the owner of the land have the artifact or should the country who conducted the
(ONE dig control ownership of the artifact?
OVERARCHING
LESSON
QUESTION )
The students will create a Voicethread post. The teacher will assess their final project
using the persuasive opinion rubric as a guide. Mastery of the final project will be based
E.
ASSESSMENT:
on the following criteria:
(PERFORMANC · Position Statement: create a position statement providing clear, strong statement
E TASK) WHAT of the author’s position on the topic
WILL THE
· Support for Position: includes 2 or more pieces of evidence (facts, statistics, and
STUDENTS DO
TO SHOW YOU examples) that support the position statement
THAT THEY · Evidence and Examples: most of the evidence and examples are specific,
MASTERED THE relevant and explanations are given that show how each piece of evidence
CONTENT?
supports the position statement
· Accuracy: Almost all supportive facts and statistics are reported accurately

Ethics and Repatriation: Review the seven principles


http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/PrinciplesofArchaeologicalEthics/tabid/203/D
efault.aspx

Principle No. 1: Stewardship


The archaeological record, that is, in situ archaeological material and sites,
archaeological collections, records and reports, is irreplaceable. It is the
responsibility of all archaeologists to work for the long-term conservation and
F. CONTENT protection of the archaeological record by practicing and promoting stewardship of
LIST THE the archaeological record. Stewards are both caretakers of and advocates for the
CONTENT FOR
archaeological record for the benefit of all people; as they investigate and interpret
THIS LESSON
ONLY.
the record, they should use the specialized knowledge they gain to promote public
(OUTLINE THE understanding and support for its long-term preservation.
CONTENT YOU
WILL TEACH Principle No. 2: Accountability
TODAY-THIS Responsible archaeological research, including all levels of professional activity,
MAY COME requires an acknowledgment of public accountability and a commitment to make
FROM YOUR
CONTENT
every reasonable effort, in good faith, to consult actively with affected group(s),
OUTLINE) with the goal of establishing a working relationship that can be beneficial to all
parties involved.

Principle No. 3: Commercialization


The Society for American Archaeology has long recognized that the buying and
selling of objects out of archaeological context is contributing to the destruction of
the archaeological record on the American continents and around the world. The
commercialization of archaeological objects - their use as commodities to be
exploited for personal enjoyment or profit - results in the destruction of
archaeological sites and of contextual information that is essential to understanding
Autry & Burdette Archeology 55
the archaeological record. Archaeologists should therefore carefully weigh the
benefits to scholarship of a project against the costs of potentially enhancing the
commercial value of archaeological objects. Whenever possible they should
discourage, and should themselves avoid, activities that enhance the commercial
value of archaeological objects, especially objects that are not curated in public
institutions, or readily available for scientific study, public interpretation, and
display.

Principle No. 4: Public Education and Outreach


Archaeologists should reach out to, and participate in cooperative efforts with others
interested in the archaeological record with the aim of improving the preservation,
protection, and interpretation of the record. In particular, archaeologists should
undertake to: 1) enlist public support for the stewardship of the archaeological
record; 2) explain and promote the use of archaeological methods and techniques in
understanding human behavior and culture; and 3) communicate archaeological
interpretations of the past. Many publics exist for archaeology including students
and teachers; Native Americans and other ethnic, religious, and cultural groups who
find in the archaeological record important aspects of their cultural heritage;
lawmakers and government officials; reporters, journalists, and others involved in
the media; and the general public. Archaeologists who are unable to undertake
public education and outreach directly should encourage and support the efforts of
others in these activities.

Principle No. 5: Intellectual Property


Intellectual property, as contained in the knowledge and documents created through
the study of archaeological resources, is part of the archaeological record. As such it
should be treated in accord with the principles of stewardship rather than as a matter
of personal possession. If there is a compelling reason, and no legal restrictions or
strong countervailing interests, a researcher may have primary access to original
materials and documents for a limited and reasonable time, after which these
materials and documents must be made available to others.

Principle No. 6: Public Reporting and Publication


Within a reasonable time, the knowledge archaeologists gain from investigation of
the archaeological record must be presented in accessible form (through publication
or other means) to as wide a range of interested publics as possible. The documents
and materials on which publication and other forms of public reporting are based
should be deposited in a suitable place for permanent safekeeping. An interest in
preserving and protecting in situ archaeological sites must be taken in to account
when publishing and distributing information about their nature and location.

Principle No. 7: Records and Preservation


Archaeologists should work actively for the preservation of, and long term access to,
archaeological collections, records, and reports. To this end, they should encourage
colleagues, students, and others to make responsible use of collections, records, and
reports in their research as one means of preserving the in situ archaeological record,
and of increasing the care and attention given to that portion of the archaeological
record which has been removed and incorporated into archaeological collections,
Autry & Burdette Archeology 56
records, and reports.

Principle No. 8:Training and Resources


Given the destructive nature of most archaeological investigations, archaeologists
must ensure that they have adequate training, experience, facilities, and other
support necessary to conduct any program of research they initiate in a manner
consistent with the foregoing principles and contemporary standards of professional
practice.

Analysis of ethical dilemmas


a. Mock dilemma- clear ethical choice
b. Germany’s and Egypt’s reasons for ownership- both legitimate claims-unclear
ethical choice

Vocabulary Words
ethics (n)
(ETH-iks) the body of moral principles or values governing or distinctive of a particular
culture or group: the Christian ethic; the tribal ethic of the Zuni.
Students will be given a dilemma in which they have to decide what is ethical.
G. HOOK: Dilemma: You are out of money and want to go to the movies with your friends. Your
(DESCRIBE parents do not lend you money for any reason because they are trying to teach you
HOW YOU WILL responsibility. Your mom and dad don’t know that you have spent all of your allowance
GRAB
at the football game last night. You know that they have a cash fund drawer that they do
STUDENTS’
ATTENTION AT
not check very often and your parents are gone and won’t be back for hours. The money
THE BEGINNING is not yours to take but you will pay it back when you get your allowance next week. Do
OF THE LESSON. you take the money even though it is not yours and pay it back later or do you just tell
BE CREATIVE.) your friends, “No, I can’t go because I spent all my money last night?”
What is the right thing to do? Be ready to discuss with the other campers.
13. Remind students of final assignment…Their Quest
14. The teacher will begin the class with a brief discussion of the “Money” dilemma
which will be given as the students enter the door.
15. The students will give their opinions on what they believe to be an ethical decision.
16. The teacher will review the Ethics and Repatriation Issues and the 7 guiding
principles archeologists follow.
http://www.saa.org/AbouttheSociety/PrinciplesofArchaeologicalEthics/tabid/203/Defaul
H. t.aspx (How will we review these –some more important than others?)
INSTRUCTION: S tewardship
(TELL, STEP- A ccountability
BY-STEP, WHAT C ommercialization
YOU WILL DO.) P ublic Education & Outreach
I ntellectual Property
P ublic Reporting & Publication
R ecords & Preservation
T raining & Resources (display on previously prepared poster)

17. Remind students that when they create & post their persuasive opinion, to make sure
that their decision is ethical.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 57
18. Then the students will revisit the link sites through the Webquest pages. They will
generate ideas on how to resolve the ownership of the bust of Nefertiti located in
Egyptian Museum Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

http://www.zunal.com/webquest.php?w=879622

19. The students will use the persuasive opinion rubric as a guide to create and post a
position statement to the Voicethread project. http://voicethread.com/share/1465479/

On the final day of this project, the students will post their persuasive opinion statement
on the issue of repatriation and the request for the Bust of Nefertiti to be returned to
Egypt. The students will present their position on this dispute through a post on the
Voicethread project. Upon completion, it will be submitted to Dr. Peter Der Manuelian,
Professor of Egyptology, at Harvard University. His seminar class is planning to talk
about this same issue and will utilize the students Voicethread Socratic Seminar
discussion and persuasive opinion statements as a springboard for his class to debate.

Dilemma
Ÿ You are out of money and want to go to the movies with your friends. Hook
Ÿ Your parents do not lend you money for any reason because they are trying to Day 4

teach you responsibility.


Ÿ Your mom and dad don’t know that you have spent all of your allowance at the
football game last night.
Ÿ You know that they have a cash fund drawer that they do not check very often
and your parents are gone and won’t be back for hours.
Ÿ The money is not yours to take but you will pay it back when you get your
allowance next week.
Ÿ You have two choices:
1. Do you take the money even though it is not yours and pay it back later?
2. Do you just tell your friends, “No, I can’t go because I spent all my money last
night?”
Be ready to discuss your decision.
Autry & Burdette Archeology 58

Persuasive Opinion: Quest for the Bust of Nefertiti


CATEGORY 4 - 3- 2- 1- Score
Above Meets Approaching Below
Standards Standards Standards Standards

Position The position The position A position There is no position


statement provides statement provides a statement is statement.
Statement a clear, strong clear statement of present, but does
statement of the the author's position not make the
author's position on on the topic. author's position
the topic. clear.

Support for Includes 2 or more Includes 2 or more Includes 2 pieces of Includes no


pieces of evidence pieces of evidence evidence evidence (facts,
Position (facts, statistics, (facts, statistics, (facts, statistics, statistics,
and examples) that examples, real-life examples, examples, real-life
support the experiences) that real-life experiences).
position statement. support the position experiences) that
The author statement. support the position
anticipates the statement.
reader's concerns,
biases or
arguments and has
provided at least 1
counterargument.

Evidence All evidence and Most of the evidence At least one of the Evidence and
examples are and examples are pieces of evidence examples are NOT
and specific, relevant specific, relevant and and examples is relevant AND/OR
Examples and explanations explanations are relevant and has an are not explained.
are given that show given that show how explanation that
how each piece of each piece of shows how that
evidence supports evidence supports piece of evidence
the author's the author's position. supports the
position. author's position.

Accuracy All supportive facts Almost all supportive Most supportive Most supportive
and statistics are facts and statistics facts and statistics facts and statistics
reported are reported are reported were inaccurately
accurately. accurately. accurately. reported.