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System Implementation  System implementation is the process of carrying out the operational plans developed as part of information system

planning.  The implementation process involves acquisition of IS resources, testing, documentation, installation and conversion activities.  Implementation include all the activities required to replace the old system by the new system. Steps in System Implementation 1. Hiring and training of personnel 2. Program development 3. Site preparation 4. Acquisition and installation of Hardware 5. Software Acquisition 6. File conversion 7. Documentation 8. System conversion 9. Acceptance of the system 10. Post Audit 1.Hiring and training of personnel For successful use of new system extensive training to people already in the firm and those freshly hired is essential. Operators are responsible for keeping the equipment running and providing support services. They need to be trained to handle equipments and maintenance. 2. Program Development Program design stage specifies program development tasks. The program have to be designed in detail using programming coded checked and rechecked until they are error free and functioning satisfactorily 3. Site Preparation It includes activities like electrical wiring, humidity controls, air-conditioning and space allocation. The system engineers or consultants prepare detailed specification for site preparation

4. Acquisition and installation of Hardware Decision in hardware acquisition is determining the system capacity. 5. Software Acquisition The required software that is specified in systems analysis phase is to be acquired from software vendors. 6. File conversion The conversion can be done manually by re-entering data into new file or through software that can convert existing files into new format. 7. Documentation Detailed documentation of the system is essential for maintaining the system and training personnel in using the system 8. System Conversion It is the process of changing from the old system to the new system. 4 methods for replacing the old system with the new one; I. II. III. IV. Direct cut-over Parallel running and conversion Phased cut over Pilot approach

9. Acceptance of the system The system should be checked for errors and other malfunctioning 10. Post Audit It is carried out to ensure that the new system meets the requirements. It also looks into the possibility of improving the system.

TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS (TPS) MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM Management Information System (MIS) is a system consisting of people, machines, procedures, database and data models, as its elements; which gathers data from the internal and external sources of an organization, processes it and supplies information to assist managers in decision making.

CLASSIFICATION OF MIS Based on the role in the operations and management of a business, the information systems can be categorized into two:  Operations Support Systems examples:  Transaction Processing Systems  Office Automation Systems  Management Support Systems examples:

 Management Information System  Decision Support System  Executive Support System  Enterprise Systems

OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEMS  When any transaction takes place in an organization, data is generated.  The information system which is used to process such data are called Operations support system.  The role of Operations Support System is to efficiently process business transactions, control industrial processes, support organizational communications and update company s database. TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS  Transaction may be defined as an activity taking place in an organization, which generates or modifies data that is eventually stored in an information system.

 Transactions could be externally generated from customers, suppliers etc; or from events internal to an organization like recording depreciation on equipment, making routine file changes etc.  Transaction Processing Systems collect, store, modify and retrieve transactions.  TPS is also known as Data Processing System.  Its domain is at the lowest level of management hierarchy of an organization.  TPS does not provide any information to the user for decision making.  It represents the automation of the fundamental routine processing used to support business operations.  TPS uses data and produces data.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TPSCHARACTERISTICS OF TPS

 Rapid response fast performance with rapid response time.  Reliability a breakdown will disrupt operations or even stop the business. So its failure rate must be very low. If a TPS does fail, then quick and accurate recovery must be possible.  Inflexibility every transaction is processed in the same way regardless of the user.  Controlled processing the processing in a TPS must support an organization's operations. TYPES OF TRANSACTION PROCESSING  TPS process transactions either in batch processing or in real-time processing.  Batch transaction processing collects the transaction data as a batch and process several transactions at the same time, and the results of each transaction are not immediately available when the transaction is being entered; there is a time delay. Transactions are accumulated for a certain period, where updates are made especially after work.  Transactions in real-time processing are unique both in the entry to the system and also in the handling of output.  Real-time processing has fewer errors than batch processing, as transaction data is validated and entered immediately.  Examples for batch transaction processing

 Cheque clearance: written order asking bank to pay money to a person  Bill generation: an invoice for goods/services supplied to a customer.  Credit card sales transaction: takes impression of customer s card  Examples for real-time processing  Reservation systems: set aside service/product for future use  Point-of-sale (POS) terminals at retail stores: use electronic cash register to record sales.  Library loan systems: keeps track of items borrowed from library TYPE OF FILES IN TPS The TPS uses the files to store and organize its transaction data. In a TPS, there are 5 different types of files:  Master file: Contains information about an organization s business situation. Most transactions and databases are stored in the master file.  Transaction file: It is the collection of transaction records. It helps to update the master file and also serves as audit trails and transaction history.  Report file: Contains data that has been formatted for presentation to a user.  Work file: Temporary files in the system used during the processing.  Program file: Contains the instructions for the processing of data. DISADVANTAGES OF TPS  The processing schedule is pre-determined.  Will halt immediately if an error occurs in any one of the tasks.  Errors cannot be corrected during processing.  Must have exclusive access and control over its data files.  Sorting the transaction data is expensive and time consuming.  Does not provide data that are fully current. Executive Information System Introduction & Characteristics Introduction

Executive Information System (EIS) is a type of management information system intended to facilitate and support the information and decision-making needs of senior executives by providing easy access to both internal and external information relevant to meeting the strategic goals of the organization. y y Provides executive information in a readily accessible, interactive format Usually allows summary over the entire organization and also allows drilling down to specific levels of details. Used by top level ( strategic ) management Lets the CEO of an organization tie in with all levels of the organization, and helps the strategic management staff make decisions by providing information, models, or analytical tools. Support of semi structured and unstructured decisions For analytical work, rather than general office support Flexible, quick and adaptable. Uses sophisticated modeling tools by which manager makes simulations and predictions

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Characteristics y y y y y y y y Caters to top executives Shows graphical orientations Uses internal corporate data flows( revenue) as well as external data flows ( economy) Provides user-friendly interface Aids and support management decision making Oriented to future Flexible, adaptable, expandable Analytically sophisticated- models, algorithms

PURPOSE OF EIS y y y Gives managers access to the data Promotes managerial learning Provides timely information

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Looking at the data leads to questions Identifies trends Measures performance

MANAGEMANT INFORMATION SYSTEM MIS is an acronym of 3 words,  Management  Is the art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups

Information  Is the output or processed data and is presented in a form which assists decision makers

System  A set of elements which are joined together to achieve a common goal

Managerial functions Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling

Types of information Strategic Information Required for the formulation of organizational strategies, relates to long term planning policies Tactical Information Used in the short term planning Operational Information Used by decision makers at the operational level for immediate actions, Statutory Information Information required by law MIS MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization. Is an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations, management and the decision making functions in the organizations. A system based on the database of the organization for the purpose of providing to the people in the organization. Is a computer based information system Handling of voluminous data Complex processing of data

Quick search and retrieval Mass storage Communication of the information system to the user on time Fulfilling the changing the needs of the information Role of heart in the body MIS ensures that appropriate data is collected, processed and sent to all needy destinations It helps in strategic planning, management control, operational control and transaction processing Plays the role of information generation, communication, problem identification and decision making

Impact Efficient management of marketing, finance, production and personnel Improves decision making ability

STRUCTURE OF MIS Based on physical components  Hard ware

Physical data processing equipments and peripheral devices  Software

instructions or programs that direct the operation of hardware  Database

database consists of all data utilised by application software  Procedures

operating procedures which are required to operate a system  Operating personnel

operators, programmers, system managers,  Input and output

various inputs to the system and outputs from the system Processing functions To process transactions To maintain master file to store data To produce reports To process enquiries To process interactive support systems

Functions Data capturing from various internal and external sources Processing of data to convert it into required management information Storage of information for future use Retrieval of information when required by users Dissemination of management information

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND CASE TOOLS Software Engineering y Software Engineering is a profession dedicated to designing, implementing and modifying software, so that it is of higher quality, more affordable, maintainable and faster to build. It is a systematic approach to the analysis, design, assessment implementation, test maintenance and reengineering of software, i.e. application of engineering to software.

Software Engineering y Software Engineering is a profession dedicated to designing, implementing and modifying software, so that it is of higher quality, more affordable, maintainable and faster to build. It is a systematic approach to the analysis, design, assessment implementation, test maintenance and reengineering of software, i.e. application of engineering to software.

Different Layers of Software Engineering y y Software Engineering is a 4 layered technology. Ist Layer:- A QUALITY FOCUS

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It focus on total quality management. IInd Layer:- PROCESS LAYER SE process is a glue that holds the technology layers together and enables rational and timely development of computer software. Process defines a framework for a set of key process areas that must be established for effective delivery of SE technology. Ivth layer :- TOOLS SE tools provide automated or semi-automated support for Process and the Method. When tools are integrated so that information created by one tool can be used by another, a system for the support of software development called CASE is established. CASE combines software, hardware and a software Engineering database to create a SE environment for hardware.

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CASE TOOLS y It is the scientific application of a set of tools and methods to a software system which is meant to result in high quality, defect free and maintainable software products. It also refers to methods for development of information systems together with automated tools that can be used in the software development process. It can refer to the software used for automated development of system software i.e. computer codes. CASE functions include analysis, design, and programming.

Objectives of CASE 1. Reduction in time. 2. Reduction in cost of software development. 3. Enhancement of quality of software. Good Points of CASE y y y They provide better perceptive of system. Facilitates communication among team members. Tools are more effective for large scale systems and immense projects.

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CASE tools provide visibility of process and logic. CASE tools improve quality and productivity of software. CASE tools reduce the time for error corrections and maintenance. CASE tools provide clear readability and maintainability of the system.

SEMINAR ON MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND MODELS NETWORKS Local Area Network ( LAN ): They are privately owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometers in size. Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN): which covers a city. E.g. Cable TV Wide Area Network ( WAN) : spans a large geographical area often a country or a continent, contains a collection of machines which intended for running user programs. PROTOCOL All communications between devices require that the devices agree on the format of the data. The set of rules defining a format is called a protocol NETWORK MODELS ISO-OSI Reference model TCP/IP Reference model ISO-OSI Reference model   Proposed by International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1983 Refers to Open System Interconnection because it deals with connecting open systems, that is , systems that are open for communicating with other systems.

Layers in OSI Model 1. Physical layer: concerned with the transmission of bits over a communication channel ( IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.11) 2. Data blink layer: concerned with the transmission of frames ( a few hundreds or a few thousand bytes). Eg. SLIP,GFP

3. Network layer: a key issue here is how packets are routed from source to destination. This layer avoids congestion of packets (IPv4, IPv6) 4. Transport layer: the basic function is to accept data from the above , split up into small pieces if need be and pass these to the network layer.(TCP, UDP) 5. 5. Session layer: allows the user to establish dialog control (keeping track of whose turn is to transmit) ,token management (preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation at the same time) etc. 6. 7. 8. 9. SAP , L2TP, PPTP ,SPDY 6. Presentation layer: concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. MIME, XDR , TLS, SSL 7. Application layer: provide services directly to user applications. It contains a wide variety of protocols that are commonly needed by users. eg. HTTP, FTP, SMTP, TELNET etc.

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Layers in TCP/IP 1. Host-to-network layer: describes the protocols used to describe the local network topology and the interfaces needed to affect transmission of Internet Layer datagram to next-neighbour hosts. 2. Internet layer: job is to deliver IP packets where they are supposed to go. 3. Transport layer: This layer deals with opening and maintaining connections between Internet hosts. TCP, UDP etc are used here. 4. Application layer: contains all the higher level protocols like FTP, DNS , TELNET etc. Systems Development "originated in the 1960s,to develop large scale functional business systems in an age of large scale business conglomerates. Information systems activities revolved around heavy data processing and number crunching routines". Elliott & Strachan & Radford (2004), The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), or Software Development Life Cycle in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering, is the process of creating or altering systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. The concept generally refers to computer or information systems.

History The Systems Life Cycle (SLC) is a type of methodology used to describe the process for building information systems, intended to develop information systems in a very deliberate, structured and methodical way, reiterating each stage of the life cycle. Several systems development frameworks have been partly based on SDLC, such as the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) produced for the UK government Office of Government Commerce in the 1980s. Ever since, according to Elliott (2004), "the traditional life cycle approaches to systems development have been increasingly replaced with alternative approaches and frameworks, which attempted to overcome some of the inherent deficiencies of the traditional SDLC".

System development is regarded as another form of problem solving in software which consists of activities like Understanding the problem Deciding a plan for a solution Coding the planned solution and Testing the coded program

System Development Stages 1. Investigation 2. Analysis 3. Design 4. Construction 5. Implementation 6. Maintenance 7. 1. System Investigation 8. Preliminary investigations is the first step in the system development project. The preliminary investigation is a way of handling the users request to change, improve or enhance an existing system, improve or modify the existing system or build altogether a new one. 9. System investigation has 2 objectives

10. a. Problem definition 11. b. Feasibility study a. Problem definition- system analyst has to prepare a written statement of the objectives and scope of the problem. Proper understanding and definition of the problem is essential to discover the cause of the problem and to plan a directed investigation. Possible definitions of problems The existing system has a poor response time, i.e. it is slow It is unable to handle the workload The problem of cost, i.e. the existing system is not economical The problem of accuracy and reliability The requisite information is not produced by the existing system The problem of security

A system analyst should provide a rough estimate of the cost involved for the system development. b. Feasibility Study-It is a high level capsule version of the entire process, intended to answer a number of questions like What is the problem? Is the problem even worth solving?

The finding of this study should be formally presented to the user management. This presentation marks a crucial decision point in the life of the project. The aim of a feasibility study is to assess alternative systems and to propose the most feasible and desirable system for development. Organizational feasibility Economic feasibility Technical feasibility Operational feasibility Methods of Preliminary Investigation Reviewing documents Interviewing selected persons

b. Feasibility Study-It is a high level capsule version of the entire process, intended to answer a number of questions like What is the problem? Is the problem even worth solving?

The finding of this study should be formally presented to the user management. This presentation marks a crucial decision point in the life of the project. The aim of a feasibility study is to assess alternative systems and to propose the most feasible and desirable system for development. Organizational feasibility Economic feasibility Technical feasibility Operational feasibility Methods of Preliminary Investigation Reviewing documents Interviewing selected persons

Format of Preliminary Investigation Project Title : lines, stating the problem

Problem Statement : Concise, possibly in a few

Project Objectives : State objectives of the project defined by the problem Preliminary Ideas : Possible solutions, if any, occurring to user and/or analyst could be stated here. Project Scope Feasibility Study : Give overall cost estimate : Indicate here time and cost for the next step

2 System Analysis Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations of a business activity (system), along with its boundaries. The objective of this phase is to determine exactly what must be done to solve the problem.

System Analysis involves a detailed study of The information needs of the organization and its end users

Existing information systems (their activities, resources and products) The expected information system (in terms of capabilities of IS required to meet the information needs of users)

3. System Design System analysis describes WHAT a system should do to meet the information needs of users. System design specifies HOW the system will accomplish this objective. The term design refers to the technical specification that will be implied in constructing the system. User Interface Data design Process design

The design must specify what type of hardware resources, software resources (programs and procedures), and people resources (end users and system staff) will be needed. 4. Construction and Testing Once the system specifications are understood, the system is physically created. The required programs are coded, debugged and documented. The system should be tested with some test data to ensure its accuracy and reliability. 5.Implementation This stage involves hardware and software acquisition, site preparation, user training and installation of the system. We have testing of the system, involving all components and procedures should be done. 6. Maintenance System maintenance involves the monitoring, evaluating and modifying of a system to make desirable or necessary improvements. It includes enhancements, modifications or any change from the original specifications. Software needs to be maintained not because some of its modules or programs wear out and need to be replaced but because there are often some residual errors remaining in the system which have to be removed as soon as they are discovered. This is on-going process, until the system stabilizes. TELECOMMUNICATION y Telecommunication:

It is the transmission of information, over significant distances, for the purpose of communication. Telecommunications play an important role in the world economy and the worldwide telecommunication industry's revenue is expected to touch $2.7 trillion by 2013. Advantages of Telecommunication in business: Overcome geographical barriers Overcome time barriers Overcome cost barriers Overcome structural barriers Telephones: Customer Support Follow-up Calls Crisis Hotlines Public Relations Fax Contact number New trends: Business are now increasingly moving to teleconferencing technology. video phone calls and teleconferencing can connect business and their clients in virtual meetings with the click of a mouse.

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y To replace private branch exchange (PBX) telephone systems, Microsoft has rolled out its new Lync Server, a single platform that delivers communications through a software-based approach. This forms a platform that enables users to communicate via desktop using speakerphones, headsets and touch screens also used for instant messaging, file transfer as well as voice and video communication. Businesses worlwide are shifting to unified communications to boost efficiency and reduce costs

VoIP(voice over internet protocol) and skype are a few other software application which make voice communication easier and cheaper. Telecommunication processors: Modem: A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Wireless modems are devices that allow computers to connect to a wireless local area network (WLAN) without physical cabling

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Multiplexer: multiplexer is a device that combines several input information signals into one output signal, which carries several communication channels. Internetwork processors: processors which aid in the interconnection of telecommunications networks. Most commonly used inter-network processors are switches, bridges, hubs, routers and gateways Telecommunication software: Network operating system: an operating system that includes special functions for connecting computers and devices into a local-area network (LAN). It s a Software that enhances a basic operating system by adding networking features Ex Microsoft windows server. Middleware: middleware is a Programming that forms the "glue" between software components or between software and the network A common application of middleware is to allow programs written for access to a particular database to access other databases. Telecommunication media: Twisted pair Coaxial cable

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Fiber optics Terrestrial microwave Communication satellites Cellular technologies Wireless LAN Telecommunication network: WAN: telecommunication network that covers a wider geographical area. LAN: Connects computers within a limited physical area such as a classroom or an office VPN: A secure network that uses internet as its backbone but relies on firewall, encryption, and other security.