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Fundamentals of EMI

Chris Herrick Ansoft Applications Engineer

Three Basic Elements of EMC


Emission EMI source

Coupling process
Conduction Space & Field

Conductive

Capacitive

Inductive

Radiative

Low, Middle & High , g Frequency

Low & Middle Frequency LC Resonance


Immunity EMS

High Frequency

Controlling EMI
EMI source Emission

Coupling process
EMI Filters Shields

Conduction
Conductive Capacitive Inductive

Space & Field


Radiative

Low, EMI FiltersHigh Middle & Frequency

Shields Shields Low & Middle Frequency LC Resonance

High Shields Frequency

EMS Immunity

PCB Noise Sources


Intentional Signals
Emissions from intentional signals include loop-mode and common-mode sources.

Unintentional Signals ( more than 90% of EMI )


Emissions f E i i from unintentional signals i l d common-mode, i t ti l i l include d crosstalk coupling to I/O traces (both PCB and IC level), power planes, and above board structures.
*Reference from PCB Design for Real-World EMI Control, B C t l Bruce Archambeault

Intentional Signals
Focus on Clock and High Speed Signals
Stripline not necessarily better than Microstrip Examine Clock Harmonics

Common Mode Conversion


SCD11=0.5*(S11-S13+S31-S33) SCD21=0.5*(S21-S23+S41-S43)

Unintentional Signals
Crosstalk is a big concern
Beware the low speed nets; use post-layout analysis to scan for unintended coupling Coupling may be direct, through intermediate metal or even from plane cavities

Common mode will always exist


Don t Dont neglect the overall plane impedance

Loop Mode & Common Mode Noise


A PC Board & Cables
Loop mode current t

A victim device

A Driver & Receiver

by AC Analysis of Q3D Extractor

Differential mode current flows --- Loop Common mode current flows --- Open We can see Common mode current is more serious than Normal mode.

Common mode current

Antenna theory
-A Differential mode current flow -A Common mode current flow Loop antenna theory Dipole antenna theory

131.6 10-16 (f 2 AI) sin E= r

r : distance A : area of the loop p

4 10 7 ( f Il ) sin E= r

r Length :l

I Illustration of a loop antenna

I Illustration of a dipole antenna

FCC B level Mag. E limit :40dBuV/m @ 3m Mag. Mag E( Loop antenna) : 20mA Mag. E( Dipole antenna) : 8uA

EMC Design Flow


Impedance Analysis Ensure a low impedance as seen by active parts Change stackup, plane cutouts and Ch t k l t t d decoupling as necessary Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Enclosure Simulation

Decoupling Capacitor
Decoupling Capacitor on Package Chip Via Va On-chip Pwr/Gnd Ball Bonding VRM

Power/Ground

Wire Bonding

Ball Bonding

VRM

Package P/G Network

PCB P/G Network

Chip

Decoupling Decoupling Capacitor Capacitor on Chip on Package

Decoupling Capacitor on PCB

Bulk Capacitor Near VRM

Decoupling Impedance of PDN

Bare PCB 0.01uF 0.1uF 1uF 10uF Total PDN

Plasma Screen Example


Changed Return Path Widened section of GND plane Added decoupling Capacitors Added

GND
GND

Old model

New model Impedance test port near C3,4,5

Impedance Plot p

Impedance : Old model

Impedance New model

EMI Test Results : Old model


CISPR spec.

EMI Test Results : New model

EMC Design Flow


Impedance Analysis Ensure power planes do not resonant in critical locations Change stackup, plane cutouts and decoupling as necessary Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Enclosure Simulation

Managing Resonances
Even though resonances ALWAYS exist, you dont need to excite them: y

Keep them away from Clock harmonics p y Examine Via Transitions Avoid routing near splits Move discrete parts

VCC12

Z11

544 MHz

18

EMC Design Flow


Impedance Analysis Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction Ensure signals meet required bandwidth Change routing as necessary Enclosure Simulation

Emissions Analysis

Image Plane Violations


Always Consider Return Current Capacitor bridging Path the moat to transfer
RF current return path RF currents between p partitions

Signal Trace g

Moat or slot in ground plane

EMI Reduction using Ferrites

Insert High Q Ferrite Insert Low Q Ferrite Without Ferrite

Internal Clock Line

EMI Test Results

Before Ferrite B f F it

After Ferrite

Clock Distortion

Clock Distortion

Clock Distortion

Clock Distortion

Clock Distortion

Clock Distortion

EMC Design Flow


Impedance Analysis Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis

Ensure EMI is at acceptable level Optimize previous three simulations

Enclosure Simulation

Full Channel Analysis

DC Supply DCSupply
0

Vcc Vss

Vcc Vss

A
0 VCC_main o tn u U_V C1 N 18 C _G D U_a _e 1 p ir1 n g U_a _o 1 p ir1 p s U_V C1 N 21 C _G D U_a _e 2 p ir1 n g U_a _o 2 p ir1 p s

A
in n

Load
o tn u R4 55 R4 56 10 0 10 0 o tp u

R6 53 0 .1 C560 0.5/datarate

R5 58 10 0

in n

in p R5 59 10 0

o tp u d up b iffo t_ ro e

in p

R6 54 0 .1 V7 45 V4 51

d up b iffo t_ ro e

SIw M d l SI ave Model

Differential PRBS

Real Drivers as Noise Source

MaxE Radiated from PCB

PCB Data-Line Source spectrum

Near-Fields

High |Z| at 137 MHz Low |Z| at 50 MHz

EMC Design Flow


Impedance Analysis Resonance Analysis

Signal Extraction

Emissions Analysis Test performance of different enclosures Iterate design as necessary

Enclosure Simulation

Linking EMI Source with Shield


A noise analysis by SIwave

A excitation source

SIwave to HFSS HFSS to HFSS


A ECU analysis by HFSS

A EM analysis by HFSS

A noise source and a cable


310 MHz Impedance Peak on PCB

A cable

Conclusions
It s Its easiest to control EMI at its source it s
Prevents Emission and Self Interference

EMC is comprised of good PI and SI Simulating throughout the design cycle can help you avoid trouble in the chamber