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GEOLOGY

Bautista, Bryan Mikhail Bayot, Rebomafil II Gimenez, Loriza

PART I

What is Geology?
Came from words ge meaning earth and logos meaning study Science that comprises study of solid earth Comprises plate tectonics, history of life and climates Important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration

How is Geology Utilized in Site Planning?


Soil classification for excavation purposes (density and compaction) Assessment of soil condition Construction materials Disaster mitigation

Why Geology is important in Site Planning?


Geology Affects
Design Safety Effectiveness Cost

Natural Disasters
Earthquakes Landslides Sinkholes Liquification

Bearing Powers of Materials


Material Rock, solid Rock, semishattered Kg/cm^2 24.6 4.9 Tons/m^2 240 50

Clay Dry Damp Wet


Gravel, cemented Sand Dry, compacted Dry, clean Quicksand and alluvial soil

3.9 1.9 1.0 7.7 3.9 1.9 0.5

40 20 10 80 40 20 5

Geological Investigations
Research Maps Aerial Photographs Field Reconnaissance Geophysical Methods Subsurface borings Test pits, trenches and tunnels Groundwater Observations

Values of Allowable Bearing Values for Spread Foundations


Material Type Consistency in place Allowable bearing pressure (tons per square foot) Ordinary Range Recomm ended Value

Massive igneous & metamorphic rock


Foliated metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Weathere

Hard, sound rock


Medium-hard sound rock Medium-hard sound rock

60-100
30-40 15-25

80
35 20

Soil Erosion Control


Mechanical Measures Land Grading Bench Terraces Subsurface Drains Diversions Berms Storm Sewers Outlets Waterway Stabilization Structures Lined Channels

Lined channels Sediment basins Stream channel and bank stabilization

Vegetative Measures
Mulch Temporary cover Permanent cover Fibrous Materials

Stabilizing Cut-and-Fill Slopes Site Analysis

Site Selection
Avoid Geological Conservation site Avoid quicksands, sinkholes, etc. Holds the structure

Site planning is the art of arranging structures on the land and shaping the spaces between.

-Kevin Lynch

Process of site Planning


1. gathering of research material 2. analysis of the site 3. formulation of the program

Importance of building
IMPORTANT Hospitals, clinics, communication buildings, fire and police stations, water supply facilities, cinemas, theatres and meeting halls, schools, dormitories, cultural treasures such as museums, monuments and temples, etc. ORDINARY Housings, hostels, warehouses, factories, etc.

Site Location
Topography and Slopes
Visually, as well as functionally, the form of the landscape, its slopes and patterns are one of the most important categories to consider, no matter what the proposed land use.

Slope Suitability Category


Slope 0-2% 2-8% 8-16% 16-24% 24%+ Suitability Most developable Easily accommodates most categories of development Some development restrictions; upper limits for roads and walks Significant restrictions to most development Generally restricted for development

Site Selection according to Slopes


I

Steep Slopes
Buildings should be significantly away from steep Building located near steep slopes. slopes. Sites located on or very close to steep slopes are always prone to landslides.

II

Filled Up Soil
Foundation should rest only on firm soil and not on filled up soil.

Buildings located on filled-up soil should be avoided.

III Raft on Pile Foundations


In such unavoidable situations to construct on filled up soil, raft on pile foundations have to be provided.

Buildings located on filled-up soil should be provided with raft on pile foundations.

Soil
Suitability of soils is very much dependent upon the proposed uses. Three soil types are considered here: 1. Firm: Those soils which have an allowable bearing capacity of more than 10 t/m2 2. Soft: Those soils, which have allowable bearing capacity less than or equal to 10 t/m2. 3. Weak: Those soils, which are liable to large differential settlement, liquefaction during an earthquake. Weak soils must be avoided or compacted to improve them so as to qualify as firm or soft.

Other Geological Factor


1. shallow depth to bedrock may restrict certain construction options on the basis of cost and impact of development.

2. a high water table may limit or restrict some sanitary sewage options. 3. the geological history of the site.

In 2000, a Brussels-based research center declared Philippines as the most disaster-prone country on earth. It cited typhoons, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, garbage landslides and military actions against Muslim rebels as bases.

The Philippines lies in the so-called CircumPacific belt of fire and typhoon. Also, Philippine plate is squeezed in between the Eurasian plate and the Pacif.ic Plate

The Philippine Institute for Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) estimates that the Philippines experiences about four to five earthquakes daily of varying intensities. This is mainly because the country is situated along two major tectonic plates--the Pacific Plates and the Eurasian Plates.

These are not random acts of God, but events that can be foreseen by careful study of the rocks and crust. And once foreseen, earthquakes can be prepared for in the building codes and the architects office. geology.about.com

NATURAL DISASTERS KILL PEOPLE. BUILDINGS KILL MORE.

Site Selection according to Seismic Zones


1.

Zone A: Risk of Widespread Collapse and Destruction


Zone B: Risk of Collapse and Heavy Damage Zone C: Risk of Damage

2. 3.

4. Zone D: Risk of Minor Damage

The extent of special earthquake strengthening should be greatest in Zone A and, for reasons of economy, can be decreased in Zone C, with relatively little special strengthening in Zone D.

Category I II

Combination of Conditions for the Category Important building on soft soil in zone A Important building on firm soil in zone A Important building on soft soil in zone B Ordinary building on soft soil in zone A

III

Important building on firm soil in zone B Important building on soft soil in zone C Ordinary building on firm soil in zone A Ordinary building on soft soil in zone B Important building on firm soil in zone C Ordinary building on firm soil in zone B Ordinary building on firm soil in zone C

IV

You think you own whatever land you land on The earth is just a dead thing you can claim But I know every rock and tree and creature Has a life, has a spirit, has a name -Colors of the Wind

PART III

is associated with earthquakes. It refers to the condition in which solid ground can turn mushy when soils are vibrated. Under certain conditions soils lose all bearing capacity, and buildings and bridges can slip or sink (as in quicksand) or buried structures (such as tanks) can float to the surface. These conditions have been associated with fine- to medium-grained sands and silts found in loosely packed layers. In general, the greater the soil density, the lower the liquification risk. A clay content of 15 percent or more is believed to be adequate protection from liquification (Borcherdt and Kennedy 1979)