You are on page 1of 20

# MECH 1120 Energy Systems

## Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 1 of 20

Fluids and Fluid Statics
This unit introduces the basic concept of a fluid and then applies these basic concepts to
the analysis of the pressure in a stationary fluid. An overview of different pressure
measurement devices is presented and the applicability of these different devices is
discussed. Fluid statics is briefly introduced as background for future fluid mechanics
courses.
Objectives
After completing this module students will be able to:
1. Define the term fluid as used in engineering
2. Calculate the pressure in systems of stationary fluids (liquids).
3. Define absolute and gauge pressure.
4. Describe the principle of operation of common pressure gauges.
5. Calculate the resulting force on a rectangular vertical plate placed in a fluid.
States of Matter
There are generally, three states of matter that we interact with on a regular basis:
- Solids Matter that has a definite size and shape and retains that shape for
long periods of time.
A metal bar is an example of a solid we expect it to retain its shape unless
we put significant energy into changing that shape.
- Liquids Matter that has a definite size (volume) but will take the shape of
the container it is placed into.
Water at room temperature is the most common liquid we interact with.
When the water is in the pipes in our houses it takes the shape of the pipes
and, when the tap is opened it flows into a kettle, washing machine, etc. and
takes the shape of the new container it is placed into. We accept the fact that a
water meter can measure the quantity of water we use and that this quantity
will match the actual amount of water that goes into our washing machine.
- Gases Matter that has neither a definite shape nor definite size and that will
take the shape and size of the container it is placed in.
When the fuel in a car engine is ignited it creates a gas (Carbon Dioxide).
This gas expands to fill the entire cylinder and, as the cylinder changes shape,
the gas continues to fill the entire space. If the valves on one cylinder seized
but the engine continued to run the gas in the cylinder would continue to
change shape with the changing shape of the cylinder.
Notes:
1. This list excludes Plasmas which, though the most common state of matter in the
universe, are not part of our everyday experience.
2. Some substances do not fall easily into one of these categories. For example a
mixture (suspension) of corn starch and water acts like a solid when forces are
applied and flows when they are not.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 2 of 20
Fluids
Most people can intuitively recognize that liquids and gases are fluids things that can
flow. However, sand, gravel and other substances are sometimes referred to as flowing
so we need to be careful with this definition. The scientific definition of a fluid:
A fluid is a substance that will flow if a shear force
(no matter how small) is applied to it.
Note that sand and gravel do not fall within this definition since, with small shear forces,
they tend to bunch up and resist shear forces (which is why we can use gravel to support
the foundation of a building while we cannot use oil to do so the gravel can resist the
shear forces between it and the small pores in the dirt below it while the oil will
eventually flow through the pores in the dirt and the building will fall down). This being
said, sand and gravel can sometimes be analysed as fluids in the correct conditions.
Pressure in a Stationary Fluid
One common problem that is encountered in engineering is the calculation of the pressure
a fluid will exert at some location. For example, aeronautical engineers need to be able to
calculate the pressure an airplane will experience when it is flying at 36,000 feet above
the ground. The designers of sub sea vehicles also need to know what pressure their
vehicles will be expected to withstand at some given depth below the surface of the
ocean. We will start by looking at the pressure relationship for a stationary fluid and
then, in later units, look at how this applies to fluids in motion.
Pressure is defined as the force, per unit area, that is exerted by (or on) a fluid:

A
F
P = ) / (
2
m N Pa Pressure P =
) (
) (
2
m Area A
N Force F

Based on our definition of a fluid above we can draw some conclusions about the
direction and magnitude of the pressure in a fluid for two important situations (called
Pascals Laws after the scientist who first described them):
- At any point in the fluid the pressure acts uniformly in all directions.
This follows from our definition of a fluid as a substance that cannot resist a
shear force. Consider a 1 mm
2
volume of fluid that has a vertical force of 1 N
applied to it. From our definition of pressure we can show that the pressure
in this fluid (assuming it has a very low density) is:
MPa Pa
mm
N
A
F
P 1 000 , 000 , 1
1
1
2
= = = =
This pressure is applied by the force on the top and bottom of the cube.
However, if we have no forces on the sides of the cube, the fluid will squirt
out of the cube on the sides as the fluid cannot resist the shear force caused
(this is discussed in more detail in Strength of Materials courses). Using
statics we can show that we need to have exactly 1 N on each 1 mm
2
face of
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 3 of 20
the cube to balance this pressure. In fact, using statics, we can show that
there has to be an equal balancing pressure in all directions in the fluid.
- On any solid boundary the pressure in a fluid acts perpendicular to the
boundary.
Again, this follows from our earlier definition of a fluid. If the fluid cannot
resist a shear force the reaction forces between the boundary and the fluid
must be normal to the surface otherwise the boundary will create a shear
force and the fluid will start to flow.
Density, Specific Gravity and Specific Weight
Before developing the equation for the pressure changes within a fluid with depth
(compared to within a fluid power component) we need to define a few terms that are
common in fluid mechanics.
1. Density Mass per unit volume

V
m
= ) / (
3
m kg Density
) (
) (
3
m Volume V
kg Mass m

2. Specific Gravity The ratio of the density of a fluid to the density of water

water
fluid
SG

=
3. Specific Weight The weight (generally in earths gravity) per unit volume
g = ) / (
3
m N Weight Specific
Pressure Changes Within a Fluid
For simplicities sake, for this course, we will assume that the fluids we are dealing with
have a constant density with pressure. Many fluids (such as the atmosphere) do not have
a constant density with pressure and the calculation of pressure at different elevations is
much more complicated in these cases. This assumption, generally, restricts the
following derivation to liquids rather than gases. The derivation of a more complete
relationship that includes density changes of a fluid with pressure requires the use of
calculus.
Consider a container with a horizontal flat area defined on its bottom that holds a liquid
as shown in Figure 1. In this case the horizontal flat area has fluid pressure acting upon it
from the fluid above it. Since we know that a stationary fluid cannot resist a shear force
we can draw an imaginary tube up from the specified area and conclude that the weight
of the fluid in this tube will be supported entirely by the flat area shown (there can be no
shear forces supporting the column at the boundary of the tube).
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 4 of 20

Area A
Depth of
Fluid, h
Imaginary
tube above
area A

Figure 1: Container with horizontal flat area
Since the flat area of size, A, holds the weight of the fluid above it, Ah (specific weight
times volume) we can write:
gh h
A
Ah
A
F
P

= = = = (1)
Note: The above equation assumes that the pressure at the surface of the liquid is zero
(we have set our reference level at the surface).
Example
A 18 inch long vertical tube is closed at the bottom and is open at the top.
a) If the tube is filled with water (
3
/ 94 . 1 ft slug = ) determine the pressure at the
bottom of the tube in psi.
b) If the tube is filled with mercury ( 6 . 13 . . = G S ) determine the pressure at the
bottom of the tube in psi.
Solution
a) Given:
- 18 inch (1.5 ft) vertical tube
- filled with water (
3
/ 94 . 1 ft slug = )
Find: Pressure at bottom of tube
Use equation (1) to solve for the pressure at the bottom of the tube.
) 5 . 1 )( / 2 . 32 )( / 94 . 1 (
2 3
ft s ft ft slug gh P = =
psi ft lb P 6507 . 0 / 702 . 93
2
= = psi P 651 . 0 =

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 5 of 20
b) Given:
- 18 inch (1.5 ft) vertical tube
- filled with mercury ( 6 . 13 . . = G S )
Find: Pressure at bottom of tube
Use equation (1) to solve for the pressure at the bottom of the tube.
) 5 . 1 )( / 2 . 32 )( / 94 . 1 6 . 13 (
2 3
ft s ft ft slug gh P = =
psi ft lb P 8496 . 8 / 347 . 1274
2
= = psi P 85 . 8 =
Concept of Gauge Pressure
As mentioned in the note above, equation (1) assumes that the
pressure at the top surface of the fluid is zero. Consider the
situation with a container with two different fluids in it, as shown.
In this case the pressure on the bottom of the container is due to the
mass of the two different liquids. We can, by following the same
analysis as before, determine the pressure at the bottom of the
container as:

2 2 1 1
gh gh P + =
The first term (
1 1
gh ) accounts for the weight of the first
liquid while the second term (
2 2
gh ) accounts for the weight
of the second liquid.
Now,
1 1
gh is the pressure that liquid one exerts on to top of Liquid #2. The pressure at
the bottom can then also be written as:

2 2 1
gh P P + = with
1 1 1
gh P =
In fact, if we have a liquid in an open container on earth, there is another fluid creating
pressure on the top surface, namely the atmosphere. Many pressure measurement devices
measure the pressure difference between the atmosphere and the fluid, rather than the
absolute pressure in the fluid. We therefore need to define two different types of
pressure:
1. Absolute Pressure: The actual force per unit area exerted by the fluid at any given
location.
2. Gauge pressure: The pressure as measured with respect to atmospheric pressure
(atmospheric pressure is considered 0).
Based on our discussion above of having two fluids in a container, we can relate gauge
pressure to absolute pressure if we know the atmospheric pressure.

gauge atm abs
P P P + =
We know, from our review of basic physics (see Appendix A) that pressure is measured
in either kPa or psi depending on which unit system being used. We append suffixes

Liquid #1

Liquid #2
h
1

h
2

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 6 of 20
onto these units to indicate either absolute or gauge pressure as shown in Table 1. It is
important, when writing units of pressure, to indicate if the pressure is gauge or absolute.

Unit System Absolute Pressure Unit Gauge Pressure Unit
SI System kPa abs kPag
EGU System psia psig
Table 1: Absolute and Gauge Pressure Units
Barometer
A barometer is often used to measure absolute pressure as shown in Figure 2. A
barometer is created by placing a liquid into a closed-ended tube with no air or other fluid
in the top of the tube. The pressure at the top of the tube is therefore zero (absolute). The
mass of the liquid causes a vacuum to form at the top of the tube and the absolute
pressure outside the barometer holds the column of fluid up in the barometer.

Mercury
(SG = 13.6)
h
Vacuum
P
abs
=0

Figure 2: Barometer
We can develop the relationship for the absolute pressure at the opening of the barometer
to the height of fluid in the barometer:
gh P gh P
vacuum abs
= + =
Note: Barometers are the reason that pressure is sometimes measured in units of inches
of mercury (inHg) or millimetres of mercury (mmHg). When provided with a reading in
either of these units (or height of water or any other fluid) the reference needs to be
provided. On a gauge this is usually atmospheric pressure while in a barometer this is a
vacuum. Once we know the reference point and the measurement we can use the
pressure equation to convert this to the pressure units we require.
Application of the Pressure Equation
There are many different systems that use the equation derived above to allow the
measurement of pressure. The most common of these is the manometer, the inclined
manometer and the barometer, as discussed above.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 7 of 20
Manometer
Figure 3 shows a basic manometer. This system can be used to measure the pressure in
the water (fluid 1) based on the height differences measured on the tube of the
manometer. We can analyse this system by considering that the pressure at the same
elevation, in the same fluid, will be equal. We can therefore say that the pressure at B is
equal to the pressure at C.

A
h
1

Mercury
(Fluid 2)
(SG = 13.6)
A
Water (Fluid 1)
h2
B C
D

Figure 3: Manometer
Starting our analysis with the pressure in the water at A we can write:

B A
P gh P = +
1 1

On the other side of the manometer we can write:

C D
P gh P = +
2 2

Combining these equations and solving for the pressure at A give us:

2 2 1 1
gh P P P gh P
D C B A
+ = = = +

1 1 2 2
gh gh P P
D A
+ =
In most cases the pressure at D is considered to be atmospheric (if P
A
is in gauge
pressure) and therefore is set to zero. There are also some situations (measuring air
pressure, for example) where the density of fluid 1 is so small as to be nearly negligible.
Inclined Manometer
A basic manometer works well for a certain range of pressures (depending on the fluid
used). There are some situations where we want to measure very small changes in
pressure and, even with a very light fluid in a standard manometer, it is very difficult to
get a reasonable resolution for the measurement. This is very common when measuring
small changes in air pressure due to low velocity flow.
If measurement of small pressure changes are going to be made an inclined manometer
can be used as shown in Figure 4.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 8 of 20

A
h
1

Kerosene
(Fluid 2) (SG
= 0.823)
A
Air (Fluid 1)
h
2
B C
D
L
u

Figure 4: Inclined Manometer
In this case the measurement axis of the manometer is inclined so a small change in
pressure causes a proportionally larger change in the location of the top surface of the
fluid. In this case we can, using geometry, show that the manometer equation becomes:

1 1 2 1 1 2 2
sin gh gL P gh gh P P
D D A
u + = + =
In most cases, for an inclined manometer, the fluid being measured has a negligible
density and the pressure is measured as a gauge pressure so we use the simplified form of
this equation:
u sin
2
gL P
A
= (2)
Example
The pressure of air flowing through the tube at A in Figure 4 is being measured by an
inclined manometer containing kerosene ( 823 . 0 . . = G S ). If the pressure at A is 0.1 psig
and the manometer is inclined at 45, how far up the manometer will the kerosene go?
Solution
Given:
-
2
/ 4 . 14 1 . 0 ft lb psig P
A
= =
- Kerosene ( 823 . 0 . . = G S ) in manometer
- Manometer inclined at 45
Find: Distance L
Assume that the density of the air in the manometer is negligible. Therefore we can use
equation (2) to solve for L.
) 45 sin( ) / 2 . 32 )( / 94 . 1 832 . 0 ( sin / 4 . 14
2 2
2
2
= = = L s ft ft slug gL ft lb P
A
u
in ft L 7019 . 4 3918 . 0 = = in L 70 . 4 =
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 9 of 20
Complex Fluid Systems
In many cases systems exist where there are two or more fluids in a given system and we
want to relate the pressure at one end of the system to the other. Figure 5 shows two
examples of such systems.

(SG = 1.18)
hBC
Blue Curacao
(SG = 1.11)
Peach Schnapps
(SG = 1.04)
h
G
h
PS
h
A
B
C
E
D

A
h
Oil (SG = 0.87)

B
A
B
Water
Water
1.2 m

Figure 5: Examples of Complex Fluid Systems
The process for developing a relationship between the different variables in each of these
systems is the same we relate the pressures at the two known (or the two points of
interest) by swimming from one location to the other. We start at one location and
swim through the fluids, adding and subtracting pressure changes due to each fluid,
until we get to the other location of interest.
Lets develop the equation for the mixed alcoholic beverage. The equation for the
inverted differential manometer is left as an exercise for the reader.
Taking the plunge at the top of the Peach Schnapps at A and swimming down to B gives
us:

PS PS atm B
gh P P + =
We now swim down from point B to point C:

BC BC PS PS atm BC BC B C
gh gh P gh P P + + = + =
Continuing to swim down to the bottom of the container gives:

G G BC BC PS PS atm G G C D
gh gh gh P gh P P + + + = + =
And, finally, swimming up to E gives (note that, since we are swimming up at this point,
the pressure change is negative so therefore we subtract):
gh gh gh gh P gh P P P
G G G BC BC PS PS atm G D atm E
+ + + = = =
gh gh gh gh
G G G BC BC PS PS
+ + = 0
If there are many different fluids that need to be considered we can continue to swim
from one to the other and develop an equation for the relationship between the pressure at
one point and the pressure at another point in the fluid system. When you become
practiced at this process you will not need to write out the intermediate steps but will be
able to just write out the full equation in one step, adding as you swim down and
subtracting as you swim up.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 10 of 20
Pressure changes in fluid power systems
In fluid power systems often both the height change and the system components affect
the pressure in the fluid. In these cases the geometry of the components needs to be taken
into account to determine pressures and forces in the system. Two examples where this is
the case are the hydraulic lift and the cylinder.
Hydraulic Lift
A hydraulic lift as shown in Figure 6 uses the principle of different areas to allow a small
force to lift a much bigger load similar to a mechanical lever. Hydraulic lifts are used in
many industrial applications including forklifts and car hoists. In fact, every hydraulic
system works on the principle of a change in areas allowing different forces to operate
different components.

Hydraulic
Fluid
A
B
C
F
B
F
A

Figure 6: Hydraulic Lift
In the hydraulic lift shown in Figure 6 the change in areas allows a small force, F
A
, to
B
. If the height difference between piston A and piston B is
negligible we can state that the pressure in the hydraulic fluid at points A and B is the
same (we can swim through the tube C to get from one piston to the other). We can
therefore determine the relationship between the forces based on the areas of the pistons:

A
A
A
A
F
P =
B
B
B
A
F
P =
With the pressures being the same, we can solve for the ratio of the forces:

B
B
B
A
A
A
A
F
P
A
F
P = = =

A
B
B
A
A
A
F
F =

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 11 of 20
Cylinders
A cylinder, as shown in Figure 7, is used to provide motion and/or force in fluid power
systems. The analysis of a cylinder and the pressures and forces on it are more
complicated that for a hydraulic lift.

F

Piston Rod
A
C
A
R
P
C
P
R
Rod End Cap End

Figure 7: Hydraulic Cylinder
The relationship between the force, F, the pressure at the cap end, P
C
and the pressure at
the rod end, P
R
requires an analysis of the forces acting on the piston. There are three
forces acting on the piston:
The fluid pressure on the cap end:
2
C C C C C
d P A P F t = =
Where d
C
is the diameter of the cylinder
The force on the end of the piston rod, F
The fluid pressure on the piston rod side of the piston:
) (
2 2
R C R R R R
d d P A P F = = t
Where d
R
is the diameter of the piston rod
Pulling this all together and assuming that the piston is not accelerating we can write:

R C
F F F + =
) (
2 2 2
R C R C C
d d P F d P + = t t
One should note that, even if the cylinder has no force applied to the piston rod, the
pressures at the inlet and outlet will still be different.
Pressure Gauges
There are a large variety of different pressure gauges and transducers that are used in
industry. A brief overview of the operating principles of bourdon tube and bellows
pressure gauges is provided.
Pressure transducers (electronic gauges) are generally based on the principle of
measuring deflection. This can be done by measuring the deflection of a bourdon tube or
bellows with a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) or by applying a strain
gauge to a metal plate and measuring the strain on the plate. Piezoelectric elements are
also often used as pressure transducers. As the measurement of deflection is covered in
other courses the discussion of pressure transducers is left to those courses.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 12 of 20
Bourdon Tube
A bourdon tube is a curved tube with a closed end as shown in Figure 8. When the
pressure in the tube inlet is increased, the tube will stretch and straighten out. This
motion is transferred, using gears and mechanical linkages, into the deflection of a needle
on a gauge.

Inlet
Base (Fixed to
gauge body)
Free End (Connected
to dial indicator with
levers and gears)

Figure 8: Bourdon Tube
Bellows
As the name implies, a bellows is a simple balloon like structure that stretches with
increases in pressure as shown in Figure 9. As with a bourdon tube pressure gauge, a
bellow type pressure gauge changes shape when pressure is applied and the resulting
linear movement is converted (or read directly) as an indication of the pressure.

The top of the bellows
is connected to an
indicator (dial, needle)
Inlet
Bellows
(A change in pressure
causes the rubber
bellows to stretch)

Figure 9: Bellows
Depending on the specific design the bellows may be made from rubber, steel, copper,
etc. and may return to its original shape naturally when the pressure is released. In other
bellows type pressure gauges a spring is used to return the bellows to its neutral position.

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 13 of 20
Basic Concept of Fluid Statics
Consider a rectangular vertical section of a tank wall as shown in Figure 10. The
pressure distribution on this area, using our basic gh equation is also shown. Based on
the principles of statics we can calculate both the resulting force on this plate and the
location that the force acts.
Vertical Plate of
height h, width
w and top at
depth d

Pressure distribution on vertical plate
gd P =
) ( h d g P + =

Figure 10: Pressure on a vertical plate in a fluid
First, to calculate the total force acting on this vertical rectangular plate we find the
average pressure on the plate over the area. Since the pressure varies linearly the average
pressure can be found as a simple mathematical average of the two pressures:

2
)] ( [
2
1
2
h
g gd h d g gd
P P
P
bot top
ave
+ = + + =
+
=
The force is then found by multiplying this by the area of the rectangle:
( ) wh
h
g gd A P F
ave
(

+ = =
2

Note that this is equivalent to:

c
gAh F = where h
c
is the depth of the centroid of the area.
The concept of centroid and the calculation of the centroid for various shapes are
covered in other courses.
We would also like to know the location of the resulting force acting on this area. From
statics we can show that the location of the resultant force can be found by summing the
moments of the resultant forces around a reference point on the vertical plate. As most
students will take statics in other courses this is left as an exercise for the reader.
For more complex planar shapes that are submerged under a fluid it becomes necessary to
use analysis based on the centroid and the moment of area of the shape. For forces on
non-planar shapes under a fluid the analysis requires the use of calculus. This is beyond
the scope of these notes.

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 14 of 20
Summary
A fluid is defined as a substance that cannot resist a shear force. The pressure at some
depth, h, in a fluid can be found from: gh P
G
=
To apply this equation to a system with many different fluids that are placed on top of
each other (as in a U-tube manometer) we can approach it as if we were swimming up
and down through the fluids from one end to the other. Each change in pressure (positive
when swimming down, negative when swimming up) is summed to relate the pressure at
one end of the system to the pressure at the other end of the system.
Pressure is, generally, taken to be with respect to the pressure of the atmosphere on the
top surface of the fluid. To get the absolute pressure of the fluid (the actual force exerted
by the fluid on its container) we need to add the pressure of the atmosphere:
gh P P P P
atm gauge atm abs
+ = + =
A number of different pressure measurement devices can be used to measure pressure in
It is possible to calculate the force resulting from a fluid acting on a vertical rectangular
plate in the fluid using concepts from statics. More complex shapes and structures can
require an analysis based on calculus to solve the equations of statics.
Review Problems
1. Define the term fluid as it is used in engineering.
2. Define pressure as used in engineering. Give the units for pressure in both the SI and
Imperial measurement systems.
3. Define density, specific gravity and specific weight. Give the units for each in both
the SI and Imperial measurement system.
4. A bathtub contains water to a depth of 20 inches. Determine the pressure at the
bottom of the bathtub in both psia and psig.
5. A rain barrel contains rainwater to a depth of 1.7 metres. Determine the pressure at
the bottom of the rain barrel in both kPa abs and kPag.
6. The manometer of Figure 3 has inches h 2
1
= and inches h 12
2
= . Determine the
pressure at A in psig.
7. The manometer of Figure 3 has inches h 2
1
= and psig P
A
27 = . Determine
2
h in
inches.
8. The manometer of Figure 3 has cm h 5
1
= and cm h 40
2
= . Determine the pressure at
A in kPag.
9. The manometer of Figure 3 has cm h 5
1
= and kPag P
A
210 = . Determine
2
h in cm.
10. The inclined manometer of Figure 4 has inches h 2
1
= , inches L 12 = and = 30 u .
Determine the pressure at A in psig.
11. The inclined manometer of Figure 4 has inches h 2
1
= , psig P
A
07 . 0 = and = 30 u .
Determine L in inches.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 15 of 20
12. The inclined manometer of Figure 4 has cm h 5
1
= and cm L 40 = and = 30 u .
Determine the pressure at A in kPag.
13. The inclined manometer of Figure 4 has cm h 5
1
= and kPag P
A
10 = and = 30 u .
Determine L in cm.
14. A barometer filled with mercury, as shown in Figure 2, shows a height of 32 inches.
What is the atmospheric pressure in bar. Convert this into kPa abs, psia and mmHg.
15. For the tank shown determine:

P
h
Oil (SG = 0.87)

a) The height, h, if the pressure, P, at the gauge is 90 kPa abs.
b) The pressure at the gauge, in psig, if the height, h, is 4 inches.
16. Find the height of the Crme de Cacao (Chocolate Liqueur, SG = 1.14) in the open
holding tank.

Crme de Cacao
(SG = 1.14) h
P = 1.3 psi

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 16 of 20
17. For the tank shown determine:

Air

9.5 in
h
Oil
(SG = 0.87)
Water

a) The pressure at the gauge in psig if the height, h, is 5 in.
b) The height, h, if the pressure gauge reads 0.75 psig.
18. For the manometer shown:

A
h
Oil (SG = 0.87)

B
A
B
Water
Water
1.2 m

a) Develop the equation that relates the pressure at B to the pressure at A.
Simplify the equation as far as possible.
b) Determine the gauge pressure at B if pressure A is 90 kPa abs and h is 2.0 m.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 17 of 20
19. A bartender mixes a layered drink in a fancy glass that has a straw connected to the
bottom as shown.

(SG = 1.18)
0.4 Blue Curacao
(SG = 1.11)
Peach Schnapps
(SG = 1.04)
0.4
0.8
h

a) Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the glass in psig.
b) Determine how high up the straw the Grenadine will go, in inches.
c) If the bartender mixes the drink will the pressure at the bottom change? Why or
why not.
d) If the bartender mixes the drink will the height of the fluid in the straw change?
Why or why not.
20. For the tank shown:

Mercury
(SG = 13.54)
Water
h
Hg

h
w

A

a) If m h
w
1 = and cm h
Hg
10 = find the pressure at the gauge.
b) If kPag P
A
130 = and cm h
Hg
10 = find the height of the water.
c) If in h
w
30 = and in h
Hg
1 = find the pressure at the gauge.
d) If psia P
A
30 = and in h
Hg
1 = find the height of the water.
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 18 of 20
21. For the system shown:

Water
h
w

A
Mercury
(SG = 13.54)
h
Hg

a) If m h
w
1 = and cm h
Hg
10 = find the pressure at the gauge.
b) If abs kPa P
A
70 = and cm h
Hg
10 = find the height of the water.
c) If in h
w
30 = and in h
Hg
1 = find the pressure at the gauge.
d) If psia P
A
12 = and in h
Hg
1 = find the height of the water.
22. Water flows through the Venturi Tube shown. Find the pressure difference between
Point1 and Point 2 if h
Hg
is 25 cm.

Water
Point 2
Point 1
Datum
A
1

A
2

A = A
1

Mercury
(SG = 13.54)
h
Hg

MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 19 of 20
23. Oil flows through the Venturi meter shown to the
right. If h
w
is 30 inches and h
1-2
is 20 inches find
the pressure difference between points 1 and 2.

24. For the manometer system shown below:

A
Oil (SG = 0.87)
A
Mercury
SG = 13.54
Water
h
1

A B
h
2
h
4
h
3
Kerosene (SG = 0.832)

a) Develop the equation for the pressure difference between points A and B.
b) If cm h 15
1
= , cm h 35
2
= , cm h 12
3
= , and cm h 8
4
= determine the pressure
difference between A and B.
25. For the hydraulic lift shown:

Hydraulic
Fluid
A
B
C
F
B
F
A

a) If piston A has a 2 cm diameter and piston B has a 20 cm diameter, determine
the force required on piston A to lift a 1000 kg load with piston B.
b) If piston A has a 1 in diameter and piston B has a 12 in diameter, determine the
force required on piston A to lift a 1500 lb load with piston B.

Oil
SG=0.8
Point 2
Point 1
Water
h
w

h1-2
MECH 1120 Energy Systems
Unit 1: Basic Fluid Concepts and Pressure T.Niet 2008-2009 Page 20 of 20
26. For the hydraulic cylinder shown:

F

Piston Rod
A
C
A
R
P
C
P
R
Rod End Cap End

a) If the cylinder diameter is 6 cm, the piston rod is 2 cm in diameter, the force on
the piston is 5 N and pressure P
C
is 500 kPag, determine the pressure at the
piston rod end, P
R
.
b) If the cylinder diameter is 2 in, the piston rod is in in diameter, the force on
the piston is 8 lb and pressure P
C
is 50 psig, determine the pressure at the piston
rod end, P
R
.
27. Explain the principle of operation of a Bourdon Tube pressure gauge.
28. Explain the principle of operation of a Bellows type pressure gauge.
29. If the holding tank of problem 16 is square and has sides that are 20 inches wide
determine the force the Crme de Cacao causes on one side of the tank.
30. Determine the total force of the water, the location it acts and the direction it acts on
the inclined plate if the tank is 1 m long (into the page) for a) = 30 u , b) = 45 u ,
and c) = 60 u .

Water
2 m
50 cm
u