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SEMINAR REPORT

ON

INNOVATIVE

STEELMAKING

(CONARC AND CONSTEEL)

DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

INDIRA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SARANG -759146

SUBMITTED BY

UNDER GUIDANCE OF:


MRS.SWARNALATABEHERA

ADITYA SHANKAR ROUTRAY ROLL NO: 26614

REGD NO: 0701105140

ACKNOWLDGEMENT

I would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to those who helped me to complete this project. First of all, I would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mrs. Swarnalata Behera , Lecturer in Dept. of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, I.G.I.T, Sarang for her continuous support & belief on me .I am immensely indebted to our H.O.D. Dr. S.C.Pattnaik Sir, for his continuous guidance and help. Finally I sincerely thank to all those who have rendered their valuable service either directly or indirectly and helped me in making the seminar successful.

Submitted by ADITYA SHANKAR ROUTRAY ROLL NO 26614 REGD NO 0701105140

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled INNOVATIVE STEELMAKING(CONARC&CONSTEEL)is a confide work submitted by Aditya Shankar Routray, final year student of Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering under my guidance & supervision for the partial fulfilment towards completion of B-tech in IGIT Sarang, for the session 2010-11.

Signature of the H.O.D.

Signature of the guide

(Dr.S.C. Pattnaik) Date: Place: IGIT, Sarang

(Mrs.Swarnalata Behera) Date: Place: IGIT, Sarang

ABSTRACT
With increase in demand of steel along with various grade of it. The productivity has to be increased keeping in view the energy consideration. The capability of a steel plant with regard to the economical production of different grades as well as their quality is largely determined by the capability of the complete integrated production line. Within this production line the steel making plant is of outstanding importance as it determines the required charge material and the steel grades to be produced. The sensible heat of the off gas can be utilized to pre heat the charge materials , so as to reduce energy consumption. Also the charging can be continuous so as to use the heat of the melted charge in the furnace as in case of CONSTEEL. This has its advantage in case of solid charge material i.e scrap and DRI. The charge mix of an Electric Arc Furnace is mainly determined by the steel quality or grade to be produced. As the quality demands are steadily increasing, highest flexibility in terms of charging scrap, DRI and hot metal, the use of different energy sources and the production of a wide range of steel qualities including stainless steel grades are of extremely importance for the producer. The CONARC process was developed for using any kind and mix of raw materials like hot metal, DRI and scrap to ensure highest quality requirements for the production of all steel grades covering a wide range from carbon to stainless steel. This report will show that the CONARC process is the best solution for steelmaking allowing maximum flexibility without any equipment modifications when producing carbon or stainless steel and also CONSTEEL Process for continuous production by charging continuously the solid charge material ,reducing the energy consumption.

CONTENTS
1.Introduction 2.CONSTEEL PROCESS 3.CONARC 4.EAF versus LD 5.DRI versus HOT METAL 6. CONARC FURNACE 7. CONARC PROCESS 7.1CONARC Carbon Steel 7.2 CONARC Stainless Steel 8. CONCLUSION 9.REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
With increase in demand of steel along with various grade of it. The productivity has to be increased keeping in view the energy consideration. Many process innovation had been adopted so as to reduce the energy consumption and to enhance the productivity along with to have flexibility in their operation. The two process come handy keeping in view present scenario of India in general and Odisha in particular where DRI is the main charge material. So the two new innovative steelmaking process has their own added advantage . The capability of a steel plant with regard to the economical production of different grades as well as their quality is largely determined by the capability of the complete integrated production line. Within this production line the steel making plant is of outstanding importance as it determines the required charge material and the steel grades to be produced. The sensible heat of the off gas can be utilized to pre heat the charge material , so as to reduce energy consumption. Also the charging can be continuous so as to use the heat of the melted charge in the furnace as in case of CONSTEEL. The charge mix of an Electric Arc Furnace is mainly determined by the steel quality or grade to be produced. As the quality demands are steadily increasing, highest flexibility in terms of charging scrap, DRI and hot metal, the use of different energy sources and the production of a wide range of steel qualities including stainless steel grades are of extremely importance for the producer. The CONARC process was developed for using any kind and mix of raw materials like hot metal, DRI and scrap to ensure highest quality requirements for the production of all steel grades covering a wide range from carbon to stainless steel. The CONSTEEL for continuous production with continuous charging of solid charge materials effectively.

DRI and ITS ADVANTAGES


The use of DRI in gives rise to the following advantages: India is the highest producer of DRI in the world with 20 million tonne in 2009-2010. Since DRI does not contain any undesirable impurities, it ideally substitutes low grade scrap and concurrently improves the final steel quality. This allows electric furnace steelmakers to meet the stringent quality requirements imposed by the end users , e.g by the wire drawing and the automotive industries. It can be seen that while the elongation increases ,both the yield and tensile strengths decrease with increasing percentage of DRI-a consequence of the lower levels of residual in the steel produced. Since DRI has a known composition ,it enables accurate prediction of the end point analysis of the bath. This can result in superimposition of a major portion of the refining requirements on the melting period, if continuous charging of DRI resorted to. This contributes to increase in productivity. Better control on the cost of the input materials can be exercised since the variation in the price of DRI produced in house is used. The uniform size of DRI lends itself to mechanical handling and continuous charging. The unreduced iron oxide in DRI reacts with the carbon present in the bath resulting in a vigorous boil during continuous charging.

CHARGE (%)

ELECTRICAL ENERGY (kWh/t)

PRODUCTION (tph)

ELECTRODE (kg/t)

100 Scrap 70 Scrap,30 DRI 70 Scrap,30 HM 30 Scrap,30 DRI,40 HM

450 480-500 260-280 270-290

120 105 160 130

1.5 1.9 1.2 1.3

From the table it is clear that the energy consumption is high in case of 100% solid charge in EAF, in CONSTEEL this can be reduced by using the off gas to preheat the charge material and also continuously charging solid charge material in the molten bath to use its excess temperature. Use of DRI can have a detrimental effect on power consumption because of the gangue content in DRI and lower iron units than those in scrap. In this situation ,simultaneous usage of hot metal gives rise to win-win situation since the specific heat and chemical energy in hot metal contribute to lower power consumption. A 50-60% solid charge(made up of different proportions of DRI and scrap depending upon their respective availability and price) and the remainder (50-40%) hot metal has therefore, become the standard practice in most of efficient operated EAF plants. This flexibility is achieved by CONARC process.

INNOVATIVE PROCES
CONSTEEL(Continuous Steelmaking) Inter-Steel Technology, USA in collaboration with Techint, now Tenova(Italy),has developed this process, which can be used to produce steel in an EAF continuously using scrap ,pig iron ,cold DRI, hot HBI and hot metal. The CONSTEEL process as shown in the figure, comprises continuous feeding and preheating of the metallic charge(scrap,pig iron,HBI, etc.) in the EAF while controlling gaseous emissions. The charge is loaded directly from the scrap yard or rail car to the charge conveyor. The charge is then automatically and continuously transported to the EAF as it is pre-heated by off-gases leaving the furnace through the pre-heat conveyor. Once pre-heated, the charge discharges into the EAF where it is continuously melted in the liquid steel bath. This permits constant flat bath operation a key advantage over conventional EAF processes where scrap is melted directly by using an electric arc. The efficient use of available energy, meeting strict environmental regulations, flicker reduction, harmonic disturbance reduction, and productivity increases are some of the features claimed by the Consteel System.

The advantages claimed by the Consteel system are: Increased productivity (more than 30%) Lower electrical energy consumption Lower electrode consumption Lower refractory and maintenance cost 30% reduction in dust losses Reduced production costs Lower environmental impact and noise level Reduced electrical disturbances on the network

The process can reduce the power consumption to around 380kWh/t of liquid steel using 25Nm3/t of oxygen in an AC furnace. In the current scenario, using the consteel process, it is possible to charge up to 50% hot metal into the EAF without encountering problems. With EAF production moving towards high value added products, better controller tramp elements is necessary , which requires that at least some proportion of the charge should also be in the form of DRI or HBI. With several installations worldwide , CONSTEEL is a proven development in EAF operations. The Consteel system is the only commercial process continuously feeding, preheating and melting the metallic charge. The scrap is loaded onto the conveying system and travels toward the furnace, in the last conveyor section the scrap enters the preheated tunnel in which the gases leaving the furnace flow over the metallic charge. Like in a counter-flow heat exchanger the transferred to the metallic charge. There is never solid steel in the furnace. Melting takes place with the electrodes always working on flat bath, the scrap not being heated by the arc, but by the hot steel pool in the furnace. It is quite evident that the furnace operation is different when considering the Consteel compared to a batch wise top charged furnace. There are only two main duties to be accomplished during Consteel operation: Control the liquid steel temperature. The temperature can be sampled throughout the whole heat since the steel is always liquid. In order to be able to utilize the whole power available, the operator sets the power profiles and then the automation controls the conveying system speed to control the temperature, using the scrap feeding rate. Control the oxygen and carbon injection devices as well as the slag formers addition to make sure the slag is foaming properly, thus covering the electric arc. This operation is critical to fully take advantage of the flat bath operations. When the arc is covered by the foamy slag the radiation is shielded from going toward the furnace wall and roof and the arc is stabilized, thus dramatically increasing the heat transfer efficiency from the arc to the steel bath. Additionally the arc stability minimizes the generation of electrical disturbances such as flicker and harmonics. generated is much lower than in a situation with a bare arc. It is important to realize that the operations with the oxygen and carbon lances are a lot easier and more efficient when working on a flat bath instead of working with solid steel in the furnace. Also the slag formers can be added easily and in a distributed way so that the slag is not only always liquid and of homogeneous composition but has also the correct FeO content.

CONSTEEL PROCESS

CONSTEEL SIDE CHARGING

CONARC PROCESS:
SMS Demag has developed the Conarc process which uses a twin shell electrical arc furnace for efficient conversion of metallics to steel .In this process, the electric arc furnace reaches is full flexibility of using different input raw materials by combining oxygen blowing of hot metal with subsequent continuous DRI or Scrap charging into an especially designed twin-shell arrangement. The specific electrical power consumption has been drastically reduced by using hot metal in combination with DRI and Scrap. The basic equipment of CONARC furnace includes : Two furnace shells One slewable electrode supporting system serving both the furnace shells supply system for both the furnace shells One slewable oxygen top lance common to both the shells

A single electrical The flexibility in the material input to Conarc furnaces is substantial as can be gauged from:
Scrap DRI/HBI Hot metal Cold pig iron 0-100% 0-100% 0-50% 0-70%

The details of some important Conarc installations worldwide are summarised:


Steel Mill Capacity,Mtpa Ispat Profilarbed Saldanha Steel India Luxembourg South Africa Location Type

2 x 180 t AC(137 MVA) 1 x 155 t DC(140 MVA) 0.95 1 x 170 t AC(115 MVA)

3.00

1.35

It is interesting to note that the first commercial Conarc installation was built in India in 1996 by Ispat Industries .The 3 Mtpa plant consists of two twin-shell EAFs (137MVA), featuring an oxygen top-lance system. The furnace are fed with DRI from a Midrex unit (1.2 Mtpa), hot metal from a blast furnace (1.5Mtpa) and scrap (0.3 Mtpa). The end product is hot-rolled coils processed through the thin slab casting route . Bhusan steels Ltd. In India has also just ordered another Conarc EAF.

NEED FOR THE NEWER PROCESS DRI for EAF


Depending on the raw materials used , and process adopted for direct reduction ,the apparent density of DRI varies between 3.5 and 4.9 g/cm3, the bulk density varies between 1.5 and 1.9 t/m3 and specific surface area is in the range of 0.51.4 cm2/g.. Because of high porosity ,DRI has poorer thermal conductivity than pig iron(solidified hot metal) or scrap. As a result ,the ideal process for melting DRI calls for a concentrated high temperature heat source- as in the case in an electric arc furnace in order to maintain a high temperature differential between the DRI particles and the surrounding regions. Thus DRI in EAF need much more power than any of the charge materials. So , energy consumption is on the high side in case of DRI as a charge material in EAF.And also it doesnt have high productivity and takes more tap to tap time than LD process.It also lacks the refining capacity and emulsion forming that LD has.The process of conversion of DRI to steel is much more a melting process to eliminate the gangue contained in the DRI and that refining plays a small role therein.EAF is limited in providing the free board required to accommodate foam as is available in LD.The sponge iron is very porous and hence is very susceptible to oxidation in steel making. Reoxidation can take place if DRI gets heated in air to its ignition temperature of 200 c or when it comes in contact with moisture even at low temperatures.The LD process doesnt take more than 15-35% of scrap or DRI because of its thermal constraints .

And followings disadvantages of DRI in Ld: Charging of DRI is often accompanied by an increase in converter slopping and the resulting loss in yield could be about 0.5%. If added right at the beginning in large quantities ,DRI tends to remain undissolved fairly long after the commencement of yhe blow,because it clusters together to form aggregates (icebergs) insulated by molten slag. The presence of such undissolved clusters lowers the refining capacity of the slag, which may affect the removal of the metalloids. This may result in the converter being operated with slag containing a higher percentage of iron oxides than in case of all scrap heats. This could have a deleterious effect on the converter yield and lining of the vessel.

HOT METAL v/s DRI


It must be clearly understood that the use of hot metal and refining by oxygen gas make the steel making process a autogenous one , wherein no external fuel is required to carry out the steelmaking operation. In fact extra heat is available for melting some proportion of solid charge along with it. Since the oxygen refining if hot metal is very fact ,the productivity of such shops is very high. When DRI is used as a source of iron in place of hot metal , to derive its advantages like cheap production, less tramp element and percentage of carbon content in it and since thermal energy is required to melt it, the productivity of the shop comparatively falls drastically. The production of DRI is cheaper as compared with hot metal production using blast furnae because it uses cheaper fuels for reduction . A judicious combination of the two as a charge material, in CONARC needs to be a advantage.

PROCESS
An ideal combination of the advantages of an electric arc furnace and those of the conventional converter blowing process in a single production unit with two identical shells. The name CONARC sums up this fusion of two processes (CONverter ARCing). You as a steelworks operator gain a great deal from this: enhanced flexibility in your use of raw materials as well as in the steel grades you can produce. Thats because you can determine the percentage of scrap, pig iron or sponge iron depending on the steel grade you produce as well as according to the availability and prices of materials. And theres even more flexibility when it comes to the type of energy you use. You can operate our CONARC process using electricity, coal or gas. Two process stages. Its your choice: we equip your CONARC either with one pivoting or two stationary top lances for oxygen blowing. You also have the option of extra bottom stirring devices integrated in the shell bottom. A watercooled top lance that can be swung from one shell to the other blows oxygen into the shell. This process breaks down into two stages:

The converter process during which the liquid metal is decarburized by blowing in oxygen through the top lance. The electric furnace process which uses electricity to melt the solid substances and superheat the bath to tapping temperature

The converter ARC furnace technology or the CONARC process developed by SMS-Demag combines the advantages of converter and EAF. The process utilizes liquid hot metal in the charge mix of EAF along with DRI and solid scrap. Each vessel of the twin shell initially act as a converter, blowing oxygen into the molten iron and is then charged with scrap and there after operated as a conventional EAF for melting and refinishing. The vessel is used as a converter, while the other operates as an EAF melting unit which increase both flexibility and productivity of operation. The Conare process reduces energy consumption from 600 k Wh / tonne in the conventional process to less than 300 kWh / tonne. The oxygen blowing top lance can be used with highest efficiency, when hot metal and sponge iron are the main output. In this case, the energy consumption is less than 200 kWh/tonne The steelmaking in a CONARC is split up into two main phases. One, the electric arc furnace process to melt down cold charge materials, using electrical energy and to superheat them up to operating temperature and second, the converter process to decarburise the liquid hot metal by top lance injection of oxygen.

CONARC SOLUTIONS
CONARC CARBON STEEL CONARC - STAINLESS STEEL

Before discussing these two technological solutions I would like emphasise the requirements for some high-quality steel products and their consequences for the charged raw material as well as the technological steelmaking process to be selected. The requirements for maximum tolerable tramp elements (Cu + Cr+ Ni + Mo) range from0.13 % for deep-drawing steel for automotive ex-posed body, cans and screen masks to -0.35 % for heavy plates for the shipbuilding industry, boilers and welded pipes up to -0.8 % for seamless tubes for gas and oil drilling applications. These tramp element requirements have a direct influence on the material that can be charged in the steelmaking plant. Tramp element levels of, e.g., 0,13 % or 0,35 % can only be realised by using large percentages of virgin materials such as DRI, HBI, pig iron and hot metal. Scrap used as main charge material needs to be blended with a significant amount of virgin materials. It is obvious that steel mills based on scrap as charge material can hardly fulfil the stringent requirements imposed by most of the more sophisticated high-quality steel products. The technological process selected for the steelmaking plant (figure 1) is greatly determined by these tramp element requirements and the starting material charged. For products that require about 80% or more virgin hot metal the Oxygen Blowing Furnace (BOF) is applied with good economic results. For material charges with a hot-metal content of only up to 30%, the Electric Arc Furnace process should be selected. Here both alternatives, the AC or DC Furnace, can be applied depending on the capacity of the electrical power network. The most flexible of all processes is the CONARC process in which the starting material may on the one hand be chosen according to the requirements of the finished product and on the other hand according to the economics of raw materials and energy sources available.

At Saldanha Steel the relation between hot metal and DRI as charged material was varied over a wide range.In production the relation of hot metal and DRI covers a range from 30% to 70% upto 5 to 25%.

The graph shows that: A power consumption of less than 200 kWh/t has been achieved The consumption of oxygen was adjusted to the increasing amount of hot metal The tap-to tap time representing the capacity of the CONARC process was kept constant over the full raw material range.

THE CONARC- CC FOR CARBON STEEL


The process starts with the charging of hot metal into a small part of the previous melt kept in the furnace. After the top lance has been brought into position, the oxygen blow is initiated. During the converter phase, the contents of carbon, silicon, manganese and phosphorus in the bath are reduced. These reactions are exothermic, i.e. they generate heat. Cold material like DRI or scrap is added to the furnace to utilise this energy and to avoid overheating of the bath. After completion of the decarburisation process, the top lance is slewed away and the electrodes are brought into operating position. In the arcing phase, the remaining solid charge material like scrap or sponge iron is fed into the bath until the desired tapping weight is reached. The temperature of the bath is then increased to the required value, whereupon the heat is tapped into a ladle.

THE CONARC SS PROCESS FOR STAINLESS STEEL


The successful results of the CONARC CS process for carbon steel gave a rise to the idea of introducing this innovative process also in the production of stainless steel. The Conventional Stainless steel making process as shown in starts either with scrap or with hot metal from a blast furnace and ferro alloys. The hot metal has to be treated in a special process for decarburisation, dephosphorisation and desiliconisation to satisfy the requirements of stainless steel production. Depending on the finished product mix and its average carbon content,the Duplex or Trplex route is to be selected. The Duplex route, represented by a one-step decarburisation is suited for carbon levels >4ppm.If ultra low carbon levels (<2ppm) represent a greater part of the product mix, the Triplex process with its two-step decarburisation is the most economic process route. The new CONARC SS process for stainless steel that combines with the EAF with the Stainless-steel converter opens up a new economic window for stainless steel production.All types of raw materials can charged , and even products with an extra low carbon content(<2 ppm) can be produced using a VOD vacuum degasser. The process sequence is totally reversed to that of carbon steel production. As in conventional stainless steel production ,the process starts with melting-down of the scrap and ferroalloys in an EAF. The second phase , refining of the steel ,takes place in the same vessel with oxygen blowing in combination of bottom stirring. The complete process is performed in only one vessel which has outstanding economic advantages for the total production . In comparison with the conventional Duplex or Triplex process the CONARCSS process yields a significantly higher productivity (upto 30%) due to shorter tap to tap times for the entire process. Based on 150 ton melting units, capacities of more than 1.1 million tons per year can be produced. Calculations demonstrate that production cost savings up to 50 US$ per ton and a reduced specific plant investment of about 20% in comparison with conventional stainless steel routes can be expected.

ADVANTAGES
Highest flexibility regarding material input. Scrap , hot metal or sponge iron percentage can be fixed according to steel quality and/or availability and/or unit prices Utmost flexibility with respect to energy sources(electricity,coal,fuel,gas) Smooth network disturbances Process can be used for stainless steel and carbon steel making.

CONCLUSION
The CONARC process is the new technology for the most economic way of steelmaking given its extremely high flexibility in terms of: - charging of any kind and mix of raw materials - the use of different energy sources - the production of all steel grades covering a wide range from carbon to stainless steel. The CONARC process is the best solution for steelmaking, allowing maximum flexibility without any equipment modifications . The CONSTEEL PROCESS which has following advantages: - Reduction in energy consumption - Preheating the solid charge using the off gas - Continuous operation enhances productivity - Less emission - Flexibility in raw material

Thus keeping in view the present scenario in India which is the largest producer of DRI and also to enhance the productivity of the Integrated Iron and Steel Plants and keeping in mind the energy consumption and environment, these two process have a very bright future in steelmaking.

REFERENCES:
www.sms-siemag.com www.orimartin.com Sponge Iron production by Direct reduction of Iron Oxide by Amit Chatterjee Modern Steel Making by Dr. R H Tupkary