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HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING

PA College of Engineering and Technology, EEE Department 1



P.A. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
PALLADAM ROAD, POLLACHI 642 002
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering




HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING








ACADEMIC YEAR 2008 2012




Prepared By

Mr.A.VINOTHKUMAR

TWO MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
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UNIT-1
PART-A
1. What are the 2 types of over voltages?
- Lightning over voltages,
- Switching over voltages.
2.


Explain the various regions of the cloud.
The upper regions of the cloud are positively charged, whereas the lower region
and the base are predominantly negative except the local region near the base and
the head which is possible.
3. Mention the different theories of charge formation.
- Simpsons theory,
- Reynolds theory and Masons theory
4. What does a thunder cloud consist?
A thundercloud consists of super cooled water droplets moving upwards and
Large hailstones moving downwards.
5. Mention the requirements for the thunderclouds and charge formation of air
currents.
Moisture and specific temperature range
6. What is back flashover?
When a direct lightning stroke occurs on a tower, the tower has to carry huge
impulse currents. If the tower footing resistance is considerable, the potential of
the tower rises to a large value, steeply with respect to the line and consequently a
flashover may take place along the insulator strings. This is known as back
flashover.
7. State the parameters and the characteristics of the lightning strokes.
Amplitude of the current, the rate of rise, the probability distribution of them and
the wave shapes of the lightning voltages and currents.
8. Define Isokeraunic level or thunderstorm days.
It is defined as the number of days in a year when the thunder is heard or recorded
in a particular location. Often it does not distinguish between the ground strokes
and the cloud-to-cloud strokes.
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9. State the factors influence the lightning induced voltages on transmission
lines.
The ground conductivity, the leader strokes current and the corona.
10. State the attenuation and distortion of travelling waves.
The decrease in the magnitude of the wave as it propagates along the line is called
attenuation. The elongation or change of wave shapes that occur is called
distortion.
11. When over voltages are generated in EHV system?
Over voltages are generated in EHV systems when there is a sudden release of
internal energy stored either in the electrostatic form or in the electromagnetic
form.
12. What are the causes for power frequency and its harmonic over voltages?
Sudden loss of loads, Disconnection of inductive loads or connection of
capacitive loads, Ferranti effect, unsymmetrical faults and saturation in
transformers etc.
13. What are the uses of shunt reactors?
- Used to limit the voltage rise due to Ferranti effect.
- Used to reduce surges caused due to sudden energizing.
14. What is ground wire?
Ground wire is a conductor run parallel to the main conductor of the transmission
line supported on the same tower and earthed at every equally and regularly
spaced towers. It is run above the main conductor of the line.
15. What is the use of ground wire?
It shields the transmission line conductor from induced charges, from clouds as
well as from a lightning discharge.
16. What are the causes of power frequency over voltages?
- Sudden load rejection
- Disconnection of inductive loads or capacitive loads
- Ferranti effect
- Unsymmetrical fault
- Saturation in the transformers
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17. Name the source of switching surges.
- Opening and Closing or switchgears
- High natural frequency of the system
- Damped normal frequency voltage components restriking between the
contacts
18. What are the causes of power frequency over voltages?
- Sudden load rejection
- Disconnection of inductive loads or capacitive loads
- Ferranti effect
- Unsymmetrical fault
- Saturation in the transformers
- Tap changing operations
19. What is lightning phenomenon?
Lightning phenomenon is a peak discharge in which charge accumulated in the
clouds discharges into a neighbouring cloud or to the ground.
20.
How does switching over voltage originate?
Switching over voltages originate in the system itself by connection and
disconnection of circuit breaker contact or due to initiation or interruption of
faults.
21.
How is transmission lines classified?
- Lines with no loss or ideal lines
- Line without distortion or distortion less lines
- Line with small losses
- Lines with infinite and finite length defined by all the four parameters
22.
What are the different method by which switching over voltages of short
duration and long magnitude be calculated?
- Mathematical modelling of a system using digital computer
- Scale modelling using transient network analyzers
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- By conducting field tests to determine the expected maximum amplitude
of the over voltages and their duration at different points on the line.
23.
What are the components of switching surges?
Switching surges may include high natural frequencies of the system, damped
normal frequency voltage component or the restriking and recovery voltage of the
system with successive reflected waves from terminations.
24. What are the different types of faults that may occur in power lines?
- Symmetrical fault
- Unsymmetrical fault
25. Why is high voltage preferred for transmission of long distance?
In high voltage transmission, naturally current decreases. So transmission loss I
2
R
decreases and the size of transmission conductor decreases and the cost of copper
required also decreases for a long distances. Therefore high voltage is preferred
for long distance.
26. State the different methods of protection against over voltages.
Overvoltage due to lightning strokes can be avoided or minimized in practice by,
- Shielding the overhead lines by using ground wires above the phase wires,
- Using ground rods and counter-poise wires, and
- Including protective devices like expulsion gaps, protector tubes on the
lines, and surge diverters at the line terminations and substations.

PART-B
1.
Explain the different theories of charge formation in clouds.
2.
What are the mechanisms by which lightning strokes develop and induce over
voltages on over head power lines?
3.
Give the mathematical models for lightning discharges and explain them.
4. Explain the different characteristics of lightning strokes.
5. What are the various causes of over voltage due to switching surges and power
frequency, how it can be Prevented?
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6. What are the different methods employed for lightning protection of Overhead
lines?
7. Derive the expression for the voltage and current waves on long transmission
lines and obtain the surge impedance of the line.
8. What is travelling waves in transmission line and explain
- Lines terminated with open end
- Short circuited end.



















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UNIT-2

PART-A

1. Mention the gases used as the insulating medium in electrical apparatus?
Most of the electrical apparatus use air as the insulating medium and in a few cases
other gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, Freon and sulphurhexafluoride.
2. What is breakdown voltage?
The maximum voltage applied to the insulation at the moment of breakdown is called
the breakdown voltage.
3. What are the two types of electrical discharges in gases?
Non-sustaining discharges, self-sustaining discharges.

4. What is spark breakdown?
Spark breakdown is the transition of a non-sustaining discharge into a self-sustaining
discharge.
The build-up of high current s in a breakdown is due to the process known as
ionization in which electrons and ions are created from neutral atoms or molecules
and their migration to the anode and cathode respectively leads to high currents.
5.
Give the types of electrical discharge in gases.
- Non sustaining discharges.
- Self sustaining discharges.
6.
Give the theories that explain the mechanism for breakdown.
- Townsend theory.
- Streamer theory.
7.
What are the conditions in the gases that govern the ionization process?
- Pressure.
- Temperature.
- Electrode field configuration.
- Nature of electrode surfaces.
- Availability of initial conducting particles.
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8. What are electronegative gases? Give example.
Electronegative gases are the gases that have affinity towards electrons. When
electron comes into contact with these gas molecules, the gas molecule attracts the
electrons and becomes negative ion.
Examples:
- Carbon dioxide
- Oxygen
- SF6
9. What are pure liquids dielectrics?
Pure liquids are those which are chemically pure and do not contain any other
impurity even in traces of 1 in 10
9
, and are structurally simple. Examples are n-
hexane (C
6
H
14
), n-heptane (C
7
H
16
) and other paraffin hydrocarbons.
10. What are the limitations of Townsends theory?
Townsends mechanism failed to explain the following:
- According to the Townsend theory, current growth occurs as a result of
ionization processes only. But in practice, breakdown voltages were found to
depend on the gas pressure and the geometry of the gap.
- Mechanism predicts time lags of the order of 10
-5
S, while in actual practice
breakdown was observed to occur at very short times of the order of 10
-8
S.
- Townsend mechanism predicts a very diffused form of discharge, in actual
practice, discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular.
11. Name the various mechanism of breakdown in solid dielectrics.
- Intrinsic or ionic breakdown
- Electromechanical breakdown
- Failure due to treeing and tracking
- Thermal breakdown
- Electrochemical breakdown
- Breakdown due to internal discharges.
12. What is paschens law?
The breakdown voltage of a uniform field gap is unique function of the product of p,
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the gas pressure and d, the electrode gap, for a particular gas or for a given electrode
material.
V=f(pd)
13. Define Townsends first ionization co-efficient.
Townsends Primary ionization coefficient is defined as the average number of
ionizing collision made by the free electron per centimeter travel in the direction of
applied electric field.
14. Define Townsends second ionization co-efficient.
The Townsends secondary ionization coefficient is defined as the net number of
secondary electrons produced per incident positive ion, photon, excited particle or
Metastable particle.
15.
What are the effects of corona?
- Loss of power
- Deterioration of insulation
- Rise to radio interference.
16.
Define corona.
If the field is non-uniform an increase in voltage will first cause a discharge in the gas
to appear at points with highest electric filed intensity namely at sharp points or
where the electrodes are curved or on transmission lines. This form of discharge is
called a corona discharge.
(Or)
The phenomenon of faint violet glow, hissing noise and ozone gas produced in the
transmission lines during rainy seasons is called as corona.
17.
What are the properties of good gaseous dielectric for the HV application?
- High dielectric strength
- Thermal stability and chemical inactivity towards materials of construction.
- Non-flammability and physiological inertness and environmentally non-
hazardous.
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- Low temperature of condensation
- Good heat transfer
- Ready availability at moderate cost.
18.
What is vacuum?
A vacuum system which is used to create vacuum is a system in which the pressure is
maintained at a value much below the atmospheric pressure.
19.
Define vacuum discharge.
Electrons get multiplied due to the various ionization processes and an electron
avalanche is formed. In high vacuum, even if the electrodes are separated by a few
centimeters, an electron crosses the gap without encountering any collisions.
20.
What are the different mechanisms of breakdown in vacuum?
- Particle exchange mechanism
- Field emission mechanism
- Clump theory
21.
On what factors does liquid dielectric is selected?
- Chemical stability
- Space
- Cost
- Previous usage
- Susceptibility to the environmental influences.
22.
Give different properties of liquid electric.
Electrical properties
- Its capacitance per unit volume or its relative permittivity
- Its resistivity
- Its loss tangent or its power factor
- Its ability to with stand high electric stresses.
- Heat transfer characteristics

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23.
What are the factors that influence conduction in pure liquid dielectric and in
commercial liquid dielectric?
- The nature and condition of the electrodes
- The physical properties of the liquid
- The impurities and gases present in the liquid
24.
What are the various theories that explain breakdown in commercial liquid
dielectric?
- Suspended particle mechanism
- Cavitations and bubble mechanism
- Stressed oil volume mechanism
25.
What are the properties of good solid dielectric?
- Low dielectric loss
- High mechanical strength
- Should be free from gaseous inclusions and moisture
- Resistant to thermal and chemical deterioration
26.
What are the different breakdown mechanisms in composite dielectric?
- Short term breakdown
- Long term breakdown
27. What is tracking and treeing?
When the voltage is applied, formation of continuous conducting path across the
surface of the insulation due to surface erosion is called as tracking.
The spreading of spark channels during tracking, in the form of the branches of a tree
is called treeing.
28. What is tracking index?
The numerical value of voltage that initiates or causes the formation of a track is
called the "tracking index" and this is used to qualify the surface properties of
dielectric materials.
29. What is called a composite dielectric?
Composite dielectrics are the different insulating materials in parallel or in series with
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each other, such as air or SF
6
gas in parallel with solid insulation.
30.
What is streamer?
When a positive voltage impulse is applied to a point electrode, a filamentary branch
is formed by ionization. This discharge is called as streamer.

31. What are the properties of perfect vacuum?
The properties of perfect vacuum should be
- No conduction
- Act as a perfect insulating medium.
32. What are the applications of vacuum insulators?
- Interrupters and contactors
- High frequency capacitors
- Relays and circuit breakers
- Electrostatic generator
33. What is field emission process?
When the gap voltage increases and nearer to the breakdown voltage, sharp points on
the cathode surface is responsible for the existence of the pre-breakdown current.
This process is called a field emission process.

PART-B
1. State the criteria for sparking potential and hence obtain the relation between sparking
potential and (pd) values (Paschens law). Discuss on the nature of variations of
sparking potential with (pd) values.
2. Deduce the Townsends breakdown criteria. Also define the Townsends primary and
secondary ionization co-efficient.
3. Explain clearly breakdown in non-uniform fields and corona discharges.
4. Explain streamer theory of breakdown in uniform fields
5. Explain the different mechanisms by which the breakdown occurs in solid dielectrics.
6. Explain various theories of breakdown mechanism of the commercial liquid dielectrics.
7. Explain the characteristics of liquid dielectrics. What are the factors that influence
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conduction in pure liquid dielectrics and in commercial liquid dielectrics?
8. Explain various theories of breakdown mechanism of the commercial liquid dielectrics.
9. Discuss in details, about the breakdown of vacuum medium.
10. Discuss Meeks theory of breakdown in gases under non-uniform fields and Explain
why electronegative gases have high breakdown strength.





















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UNIT-3
PART-A
1. Give some uses of HVDC.
- Electron Microscopes
- X-Ray units
- Electrostatic precipitators
- Particle Accelerators in nuclear physics
2. What are the applications of impulse current wave forms of high magnitude?
- Testing of surge diverters
- Testing of non-linear resistors
- Electric arc studies
3. Explain the necessity for generating impulse currents and mention the features of
impulse current generators.
- Impulse current generation is required for,
o Testing of surge diverters
o Testing of non-linear resistors
o Electric arc studies
o Studies of electric plasmas in high current discharges
- For producing impulse currents of large value, a bank of capacitors connected in
parallel are charged to a specified value and are discharged through a series R-L
circuit.
- Wave shapes used in testing surge diverters are 4/10 and 8/20 s. The tolerances
allowed on these times are 10% only.
- Rectangular waves of long duration are also used for testing. The rectangular
waves generally have durations of the order of 0.5 to 5 ms, with rise and fall
times of the waves being less than 10% of their total duration.
4. How are capacitances connected in an impulse current generator?
In high impulse current generation, a bank of capacitors connected in parallel are
charged to a specified value and are discharged through a series R-L circuit.
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5. What are the types of wave form will be available in impulse current generator
output?
- Impulse current waves - 4/10 and 8/20 s; Tolerances are 10%.
- Rectangular waves - Durations of the order of 0.5 to 5 ms, with rise and fall
times of the waves being less than 10% of their total duration
6. Draw a circuit diagram of a simple voltage doubler.

7. Write the expression to find the optimum number of stages and %ripple in a
voltage multiplier circuit.
I
fC V
n
optimum
max
=
8. What is Tesla coil?
Tesla coil is the commonly used high frequency resonant transformer, which is a doubly
tuned resonant circuit. The primary and the secondary are wound on an insulated former
with no core (air-cored) and are immersed in oil.
9. Draw a simple Tesla coil equivalent circuit for generation of high frequency AC
high voltage.

10. What are the advantages of high frequency resonant transformer used in HVAC
generation?
Advantages of these high frequency transformers are:
- Absence of iron core saves in cost and size,
- Pure sine wave output,
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- Slow build-up of voltage over a few cycles and hence no damage due to
switching surges, and
- Uniform distribution of voltage across the winding coils due to subdivision of
coil stack into a number of units.
11. Find the percentage ripple in the output voltage produced by an 8 stage Cockcroft-
Walton multiplier circuit with a capacitance all equal to 0.05F. The supply
transformer secondary voltage is 125kV at a frequency of 150Hz and the load
current is 5mA.
Percentage Ripple
max
2
100
nV
v
=
Ripple Voltage,
2
) 1 (

1
+
=
n n
fC
I
v
Where, No. Of Capacitances=2 X No. Of Stages
( )
% 2667 . 2
10 125 16 2
100 10 67 . 90
%
67 . 90
2 10 05 . 0 150
1 16 16 10 5

10 5 ,
16 8 2
3
3
6
3
3
1
=


=
=

+
=
=
= =

Ripple
kV v
A I Current Load
n

12. A Cockcroft Walton type voltage multiplier has 8 stages with capacitances all equal
to 0.05F. The supply transformer secondary voltage is 125kv at a frequency of
150Hz and the load current is 5mA.Find the optimum number of stages for
minimum voltage regulation.
Maximum Voltage, V
max
=125kV=125X10
3
V
Stages
I
f C V
n
optimum
14 693 . 13
10 5
10 05 . 0 150 10 125
3
5 3
max
~ =


=
=


13. A tesla coil has a primary winding rated for 10kV with 2F capacitance on
primary side and 1nF capacitance on secondary side. If the energy efficiency is 5%.
Calculate the output voltage.
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Output Voltage is given by,
kV V
V
C
C
V V
100
10 10 10
10 1
10 2
100
5
10 10
2
3
9
6
3
2
2
1
1 2
=
=

=
=

q

14. A 12 stage impulse generator has a 0.126F capacitor. The wave front and wave
tail resistances are 800ohms and 5000ohms respectively. If the load capacitor is
1000pF, find the front and tail times of the impulse wave produced.
Generator Capacitance, C
1
=(0.126/12)=0.0105 F
Load Capacitance, C
2
=1000X10
-12
F=0.001 F
R
1
=800O and R
2
=5000O
Front Time,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
2 1
2 1
1 1 1
3 3
C C
C C
R C R t
e

Sec t 19 . 2
10 001 . 0 10 0105 . 0
10 001 . 0 10 0105 . 0
800 3
6 6
6 6
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=



Tail Time, ) )( ( 7 . 0
2 1 2 1 2
C C R R t + + =
Sec t
t
69 . 46
) 10 001 . 0 10 0105 . 0 )( 5000 800 ( 7 . 0
2
6 6
2
=
+ + =


15. What is voltage multiplier circuit?
- Multiplier circuit is a circuit to generate very high d.c voltages from single
supply transformers by extending the simple voltage doubler circuits.
- This is simple and compact when the load current requirement is less than one
milliampere, such as for cathode ray tubes, etc.
- Multiplier Circuits are designed to overcome the difficulties in higher voltage
generation using cascaded voltage multiplier circuits which require too many
supply and isolating transformers.

16. Distinguish between electromagnetic and electrostatic machines.
Electromagnetic machines: Current carrying conductors are moved in a magnetic field,
so that the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
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Electrostatic machines: Charged bodies are moved in an electric field against an
electrostatic field in order that mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
17. Name the circuits used to generate HVDC.
- High Voltage Half Wave and Full Wave rectifier
- Voltage Doubler and Cascaded Voltage Doubler
- Voltage Multiplier : Cockcroft Walton Multiplier
- Deltatron Circuit
- Electrostatic Machines: (a).Van De Graff Generator, (b).Electrostatic Generator
18. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Deltatron circuit?
- Can produce high voltages
- Gives high stability
- Small ripple factor
- Fast regulation
19. What are the limitations of Van de graff generator?
- Applicable only in low current applications
- Belt velocity is limited due to vibration
- Difficult to have an accurate grading of fields.
- Maintenance is required due to mechanically stressed parts.
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using cascaded transformer?
Advantages:
- Better cooling
- Easy to transport since the units are light and compact
- Construction is identical
- Three phase connection in delta or star is possible for three units
- Available for both indoor and outdoor applications
Disadvantage:
- Costly and requires more space for installation
21. What is the front and tail time of a standard impulse wave? What are the
tolerances allowed as per the specifications?
- Front Time: Time required for the wave to rise from 10% to 90% (or 0% to
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100%) of the peak value at first instance.
Tolerance: 30%
- Tail Time: Time corresponding to 50% of the peak value during its tail.
Tolerance: 20%.
22. How is the wave front and wave tail times controlled in impulse generator circuits?
For a given impulse generator, the generator capacitance C
1
and load capacitance C
2
will
be fixed depending on the design of the generator and the test object. Hence, the desired
wave shape is obtained by controlling R
1
and R
2
.
Front Time,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
2 1
2 1
1 1 1
3 3
C C
C C
R C R t
e

Tail Time, ) )( ( 7 . 0 2
2 1 2 1
C C R R t + + =


23. What is peak value?
The maximum positive deviation of the output with respect to its desired value is known
as peak value.
24. Give four components of a multistage impulse generator.
- D.C. Charging Set
- Charging Resistors
- Generator Capacitors and Spark Gaps
- Wave-shaping Resistors and Capacitors
25. What are the advantages of Marx circuit?
- Cost is less
- Occupied space is less
- Control resistors are smaller in size because of distributing R
1
and R
2
.
- Efficiency is high.
26. Define rise time.
It is the time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90% or 0 to 100% of the
final value at the very first instance.


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27. Explain the superiority of cascaded transformers over two winding transformers
used for generation of high A.C. voltages.
- For higher voltage requirements, a single unit construction becomes difficult and
costly due to insulation problems.
Drawbacks
- Erection and transportation become difficult
- These drawbacks are overcome by series connection or cascading of several
identical units of transformer, wherein H.V windings of all the units effectively
come in series.

PART-B
1. Describe the cascaded transformer connection to generate high alternating voltages
(OR)
Explain any one method of generating HVAC at power frequency and discuss its
limitations (or) features.
2.
With neat sketch explain the working principle of a cockroft-Walton voltage multiplier
circuits
3. Describe with neat diagram the principle of operation, advantages, limitations and
applications of vande-graff generator.
4. Give the Marx circuit arrangement for multistage impulse generator. How is the basic
arrangement modified to accommodate the wave time control resistances?
5. Draw and explain the circuits for producing impulse waves.
6. What is Tesla coil? How is damped high frequency oscillations obtained from a Tesla
coil (OR)
Explain the principle of generation of high frequency AC high voltages briefly.
7. How impulse currents are generated? Explain with the neat diagram.
Draw and explain the circuits for producing impulse waves.
8. What are the components of multistage impulse generator? Explain.


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UNIT-4

PART-A
1. What are the general methods for measurement of high frequency and impulse
current?
- Potential dividers with a cathode ray oscillograph
- Peak voltmeters
- Sphere gaps
2. What are the high voltage D.C. measurement techniques used?
- Series resistance micro ammeter
- Resistance potential divider
- Generating voltmeters
- Sphere and other spark gaps
3. For what measurement are hall generators are normally used.
- Measurement of high direct currents
- Measurement of high frequency and impulse currents.
4. What are the types of measuring devices preferred for measurement of impulse
current of short duration?
- Potential dividers with a cathode ray oscillograph
- Peak voltmeters
- Sphere gaps
5. Draw the simple circuit of peak reading voltmeter and its equivalent.

6. List the factors that are influencing the peak voltage measurement using sphere
gap
- Nearby earthed objects
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- Atmospheric conditions and humidity
- Irradiation
- Polarity and rise time of voltage waveform.
7. What are the advantages in CVT measurement in HVAC?
- Simple design and easy installation
- Can be used both as a voltage measuring device for meter and relaying
purposes and also as a coupling condenser for power line carrier
communication and relaying.
- Frequency independent voltage distribution along elements as against
conventional magnetic potential transformers which require additional
insulation design against surges.
- Provides isolation between the high voltage terminal and low voltage
metering.
8. What are the limitations of generating voltmeter?
- Need calibration
- Careful construction is needed
- Any disturbances due to position and monitoring of the electrodes make the
calibration invalid.
9. State the demerits of CVT measurement for HVAC measurement.
- Voltage ratio is susceptible to temperature variations.
- In the presence of capacitance, the problem of ferroresonance occurs in power
system.
10.
What are the methods available for measuring ac voltages of power frequency?
- Series impedance ammeters
- Potential dividers
- Potential transformers
- Electrostatic voltmeters
- Sphere gaps

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11.
What are the methods available for measuring dc current?
- Resistive shunts with milli ammeter
- Hall effect generators
- Magnetic links
12.
What is generating voltmeter?
A generating voltmeter is a variable capacitor electrostatic voltage generator which
generates current proportional to the applied external voltage. The device is driven
by an external synchronous or constant speed motor and does not absorb power or
energy from the voltage measuring source.
13.
What are the advantages and limitations of generating voltmeter?
Advantages:
- No source loading by the meter
- No direct connection to high voltage electrode
- Scale is linear and extension of range is easy
- A very convenient instrument for electrostatic devices
Limitations:
- They require calibration
- Careful construction is needed and is cumbersome instrument requiring an
auxiliary drive
- Disturbance in position and mounting of the electrodes make the calibration
invalid.
14.
What are the sources that contribute to the error?
- The effective value of the capacitance being different from the measured
value of C.
- Imperfect rectifiers which allows small reverse currents
- Non-sinusoidal voltage waveforms with more than one peak or maxima per
half cycle.
- Deviation of the frequency from that of the value used for calibration.
15.
How resistance shunt is usually designed?
- Bifilar flat strip design
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- Coaxial tube or Parks shunt design
- Coaxial squirrel cage design.
16.
What are the different techniques for impulse current measurement?
- Rogowski coil
- Magnetic links
- Hall generators
- Faraday generator
- Current transformer
17.
What is hall voltage and hall coefficient?
If electric current flows through a metal plate located in a magnetic field
perpendicular to it, Lorenz forces will deflect the electrons in the metal structure in a
direction normal to the direction of both the current and the magnetic field. The
charge displacement generates an emf in the normal direction, called the Hall
voltage. The Hall voltage is proportional to the current I a, the magnetic flux
density B and the reciprocal; of the plate thickness, the proportionality constant R is
called the Hall coefficient.
V
H
= R (Bi / d)
18. Mention the devices used to measure the d.c electric field strength.
Variable capacitor probe and a vibrating plate capacitor.
19. Define flashover voltage.
The voltage that causes a flashover at each of its applications under specified
Conditions when applied to test objects as specified is called flashover voltage.
20. State the advantages of Sphere gaps?
They are used for voltage measurements. They are suitable for all types of waveforms
from d.c to impulse voltages of short times. They are used for radio frequency a.c
voltage peak measurements up to 1 MHz.
21. State the advantages of magnetic potential transformers.
They are simple in construction and designed for any voltage. For very high voltages
cascading of the transformers are possible.

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22. What are the measurements available for impulse voltage?
Cathode ray oscilloscope
23. What are the advantages of spark gap measurement for high D.C, A.C, impulse
voltages?
- High reliability
- Simplicity
- More accurate if electronic circuits are applied for measurements.
24. Define faraday effect
When a linearly polarized light beam passes through a transparent crystal in the
presence of magnetic field, the plane or polarization of the light beam undergoes
rotation. These rotation of plane of polarization is proportional to the current
Angle of rotation Bl
Angle of rotation = VBl
Where, V = constant of the crystal depends on the wavelength of the light.
B = magnetic flux density.
l = length of the crystal.


PART-B
1. Discuss the different methods of measuring high DC voltages. What are the limitations
in each method?
2. Explain the principle of operation and construction of electrostatic voltmeter. Also
mention its merits and demerits for high voltage ac measurement.
3. What is a capacitance voltage transformer? Explain with phasor diagram
4. Give the basic circuit for measuring peak A.C.voltage & Impulse voltage.
5. Explain how a sphere gap can be used to measure the peak voltages? What are the
parameters and factors that influence such voltage measurement?
6. Give the schematic arrangement of an impulse potential divider with an oscilloscope
connected for measuring impulse voltage.
7. Explain the various potential divider used for impulse voltage measurements.
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8. What is a mixed potential divider? how is it used for the measurement of Impulse
voltage
9. What are the various methods for measuring impulse current
10. Discuss the different methods of measuring high DC currents and AC currents.
11. Explain the cathode ray oscillograph with neat diagram.





















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UNIT-5
PART-A
1. What is a surge diverter?
It is a non-linear resistor in series with a spark gap kept at line terminals in the
Substations.
2.
Name the different types of standard tests conducted on high voltage apparatus.
- Type Test - To check the design features
- Routine Test - To check the quality of the individual test piece.
- High Voltage Tests Include
o Power frequency tests
o Impulse tests
3.
What is the test conducted on bushings?
- Power Factor-Voltage Test
- Internal or Partial discharge Test
- Momentary Withstand Test at Power frequency
- One Minute withstand Test at Power Frequency
- Visible Discharge Test at Power Frequency
- Impulse voltage tests- a. Full wave Withstand Test , b. Chopper Wave
withstand Test.
4.
Define withstand voltage.
The voltage which has to be applied to a test object under specified conditions in a
withstand test is called the withstand voltage [as per IS: 731 and IS: 2099-1963].
5.
Define impulse voltage.
- Impulse voltages are characterized by,
o Polarity,
o Peak value,
o Time to front (t
f
), and
- According to IS: 2071 (1973), standard impulse is defined as one with t
f
=
1.2Sec, t
t
=50 Sec (called 1/50 Sec wave).
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- The tolerances allowed are 3% on the peak value, 30% in the front time, and
20% in the tail time.
6.
Differentiate type test and routine test. (or) What do you mean by type tests and
routine test?
Type Tests:
- These tests are intended to prove or check the design features and quality
- Type tests are done on samples when new designs or design changes are
introduced.
Routine Tests:
- Routine tests are intended to check the quality of the individual test piece.
- Routine tests are done to ensure the reliability of the individual test objects and
quality and consistency of the materials used in their manufacture.
7.
Define creeping distance.
It is the shortest distance on the contour of the external surface of the insulator unit or
between two metals fitting on the insulator
8.
What is insulation co-ordination?
The process of bringing the insulation strengths of electrical equipment and buses into
the proper relationship with expected overvoltage and with the characteristics of the
insulating media and surge protective devices to obtain an acceptable risk of failure.
9.
Define 50% and 100% flashes over voltage.
50% Flashover Voltage:
This is the voltage which has a probability of 50% flashover, when applied to a test
object. This is normally applied in impulse tests in which the loss of insulation
strength is temporary.
100% Flashover Voltage:
The voltage that causes a flashover at each of its applications under specified
conditions when applied to test objects is specified as hundred per cent flashover
voltage.

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10.
Differentiate flashover and puncture.
Flashover: It is a discharge over the surface of the insulation systems.
Puncture or Spark over: It is a discharge through the insulation systems. If the
insulation is solid, it could not able to regain its insulation strength after puncture.
11.
What are the different tests done on insulators?
- Type Test - To check the design features
- Routine Test - To check the quality of the individual test piece.
- High Voltage Tests Include
o Power frequency tests
o Impulse tests
12.
What is an isolator?
- It is an off-load or minimum current breaking mechanical switch.
- Explained according to IS:9921 Part-1, 1981.
- Interrupting small currents(0.5A): Capacitive currents of bushings, busbars etc.,
13.
What are the test conducted on isolators and circuit breakers?
The main tests conducted on the circuit breakers and isolator switches are
- Dielectric tests or overvoltage tests,
- Temperature rise tests,
- Mechanical tests, and
- Short circuit tests
14.
What is the test conducted on transformer?
- Induced Overvoltage Test
- Partial Discharge Tests
- Impulse Test
15.
What are partial discharges?
These are the discharges due to presence of void or any other inclusions inside of the
dielectrics. The partial discharges may not be suddenly bridge the electrode; but is
increasing with the duration of the operation.
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16.
What is the test conducted on surge arresters?
- Power frequency spark over test
- Impulse spark over test
- Residual voltage test
- Impulse current withstand test
17.
What is the test conducted on cables?
Different tests on cables are
- Mechanical tests like bending test, dripping and drainage test, and fire
resistance and corrosion tests
- Thermal duty tests
- Dielectric power factor tests
- Power frequency withstand voltage tests
- Impulse withstand voltage tests
- Partial discharge test
- Life expectancy tests
18.
Why is insulation coordination needed?
- To ensure the reliability & continuity of service
- To minimize the number of failures due to over voltages
- To minimize the cost of design, installation and operation
19.
State the principle that is followed in the insulation design of EHV and UHV
substations.
In EHV and UHV substations, the insulation design is mainly based on the
consideration of switching surges whereas in high voltage substations consider
lightning surges.
20.
Explain the reasons for conducting wet tests on high voltage apparatus and give
the specifications for the water used for wet tests.
The wet test is carried to satisfy the service condition of the HV apparatus. The test
object is subjected to spray of water with the following specifications:
- Precipitation Rate :310% (mm/min)
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- Direction of Spray : 45
0
to the vertical
- Conductivity : 100 micro-Siemens 10%
- Water Temperature : Ambient 15%
21.
What are the equipment and devices needed for conducting impulse test on HV
equipments?
- Impulse Generator
- Sphere Gap
- Potential Dividers
- Protection Gap
- Probes
- CRO
22. What do you mean by radio interference?
The power apparatus produces unwanted signals in the radio and high frequency
ranges. These are called radio interference.
23. State 2 standard tests to be conducted on HV Transformers.
Induced over voltage test and partial discharge test
24. What are the types of insulators?
- Pin type insulators
- Suspension type insulators
- Strain insulators
- Shackle insulators
- Stay insulators
25. Why is testing for overvoltage needed?
- High voltage testing of electrical apparatus is essential to ensure that the
electrical equipment is capable of withstanding the over voltages.
- The over voltages may be either due to natural causes like lightning or
switching or power frequency switching transients.
26. How is dry flash over test carried?
If the test is conducted under normal conditions without any rain or precipitation, it is
called dry flash over test.
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27. Explain Indian standards in high voltage testing.
According to Indian standard specification,
- Temperature : 27

C
- Pressure : 1013 millibars
- Absolute humidity : 17 gm/m
3


28. What are atmospheric correction factors?
- Air density correction factor
- Humidity correction factor.


PART-B
1. With a neat sketch explain the impulse testing on the power transformer.
2. Discuss the various test carried out in a circuit breaker at HV labs.
3. What are the different power frequency tests done on bushings? Mention the procedure
for testing.
4. Briefly discuss the various tests carried out the insulator
5. What is meant by insulation coordination? How are the protective devices choosen for
optimal insulation level in a power system?
6. Explain the terms:
(i) With stand voltage
(ii) Flash over voltage
(iii) 50% flash over voltage
(iv) Wet and dry power frequency tests as referred to HV testing.
7. Explain the following terms used in HV testing as per the standards :
(i) Disruptive discharge voltage
(ii) Creepage distance
(iii) Impulse voltage
(iv) 100% flash over voltage.

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8. (i) What are the tests conducted on circuit breakers and isolator switches?
Explain about any one of the tests.
(ii) What are different tests conducted on cables? Explain any one of
them.