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EVALUATION OF BERAING LOSSES A CASE STUDY AT

SIX MONTHS TRAINING REPORT


SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)

PARMOD KUMAR
(ROLL NO.81202114069) DECEMBER 2011

SUBMITTED BY

PUNJAB COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, LALRU MANDI (MOHALI)

PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, JALANDHAR PUNJAB, INDIA

PUNJAB COLLEGE OF ENGG. & TECH., LALRU MANDI

CANDIDATE'S DECLARATION
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented entitled ANALYSIS & EVALUATION AT ESCORT LTD.(HARYANA)in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree of B.Tech. (Mechnaical engg,.) submitted in the Department of Mechanical Engg. At Punjab College, lalru under Punjab Techanical univ name.. is an authentic record of my own work carried out during a period from Jan, 2010 to Dec, 2011 under the supervision of Mr Deepak khanna.The matter presented in this training has not been submitted by me in any other University / Institute for the award of b.techDegree. Parmodkumar This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/our knowledge

Er. .
Associate Professor Deptt of Mechanical Engg.

Dr..
Former Director P.C.E.T .institute Technology ...Engineering College,LALRU

The B.TECH Viva-Voce Examination of .... NAME.................. has been held on ____________ and accepted Signature of supervisor(s) Signature of Examiner

Er. BEANT SINGH


Assistant Professor & Head, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg. Pcet,lalru (LALRU)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that training entitled ANALYSIS & Upgradtion in Escort Ltd. (Haryana) submitted by Mr.Parmod kumar in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Branch. Of Punjab Techanical University, Jalandhar is a record of students own work carried out under our supervision and guidance. To the best of our knowledge, this training has not been submitted in part or full elsewhere in any other University or Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

SUPERVISORS (Er. ) (Dr. )

COUNTERSIGNED Er........................
Assistant Professor & Head, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg. Pcet,lalru

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am highly thankful to the Director,...Engineering College, lalru, for his patronage and rendering great help to me for completing the present training. I am also thankful to Er. Asstt Prof. and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering ,pcet, for rendering constant guidance and encouragement in the matter of completion of training Besides I pay my thanks from the core of my heart to my guides Er.R, Associate Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering, pcet, and Dr. ., ..institute of Technology ;pcet for their valuable guidance from time to time which help me to carry out this uphill task. In absence of their guidance perhaps it might have rendered helpless. I will remain obliged to them for whole of my life. The help in completion the present training is also attributable to Er.Beant singh, Astt.Prof, PCET, Lalru for their guidance and Mr. RAVISH RATHOR (HR), Escort Co. Ltd......which goes a long way to complete the work. I thankfully acknowledge their help. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr.DEEPAK KHANNA, Warranty Manager, and my friends Mr.UMED SINGH ,MAHINDER SINGH from Escort Co. Ltd, Faridabad who have not only permitted me to carry out this work in their company but have also provided all facilities for successful completion of my training I am also thankful to other faculty members of Mechanical Engineering Department of pcet for their intellectual support throughout the course of this work. Finally indebted to all whosoever have contributed in this training work.

Parmod kumar

PREFACE
WITH IMMENSE SINCERITY AND PLEASURE I HAVE COMPLETED MY TRAINING AT WELL-DEVELOPED PLANT WITH LATEST TECHNOLOGY OF ESCORTS LIMITED. THE PURPOSE OF TRAINING IS TO TAKE ONE TECHNICALLY SOUND AND WORK EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY. IT HELPS ONE TO GET THE REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE OF MANPOWER, ACTUAL WORK REQUIREMENT, INDUSTRIAL AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS. THE EXPERIENCE AT THE INDUSTRY DEALING WITH SUPERVISORS AND ACTUAL WORK ENVIRONMENT GAVE ME SOME PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE WITH RESPECT TO WHAT WE HAVE STUDIED THEORETICALLY FROM THE CURRICULUM BOOKS. THIS SIX WEEKS TRAINING GAVE ME SOME KNOWLEDGE OF THE THINGS STATED ABOVE OF THE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND WE HAVE UTILIZED THE SAME TO THE BEST OF MY EFFORTS.

OBJECTIVES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING


The main objective of semester project is to enable the students to: Expose them to the industrial environment which cannot be simulated in the classrooms. Apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations and to appreciate the limitations and knowledge gained in the classrooms. Appreciate the importance of discipline, punctuality, team work, sense of responsibility, value of time & money and dignity of labor. Formalise with various materials, process products and their applications along with relevant aspects of quality control and shop floor management. Learn the operation of special plant and machinery. Appreciate the need for co-ordination efforts of various persons at different levels in achieving set goals and targets. Understand the scope, functions and job responsibility in industry. Appreciate the need for scientific and practical approach to problem solving. Get exposed to current technological developments relevant to subject area to which training pertains. Understand the social, economic and administrative considerations that influence the working of industrial organization. Appreciate research and development, improvements and innovations, expansion and diversification and modernization being planned and carried out in an industry.

PROCEDURE OF WARRANTY

When we can sale the tractors to the dealers then the TSM can be handled it each one. TSM have 2 to 10 dealers if dealers have any problem in the tractors if there are some small problems like horn not working the problem can be solved by TSM( territory saler manager) at dealers place and if such big problem then company sent the claim from to the dealer then he can fill the form and the original copy can be sent to warranty department with the duplicate copy of claim form and he can also send letters .in this letter he can define the problem and the parts can come to warranty department then at a gate pall the warranty number can be denoted and the security can sent the parts in and the assistance mangers can check the engine. They can check such like engine in wty. And not an old engine ant then the engine to the engine workshop and the engine can be properly checked or part can be replace and short out the problem then the problem of engine can be tested and then send it to the dealer and this process is called RTV( return to vendor) and also the cost of packing and transport can be mentioned and taken from the vendor. Then the report can be sent by finance and the waste material or waste parts can be counted and that can be collected by scrap dealers.

WARRANTY CLAIM FORM AND REPORT


PRODUCT: MODEL:
In this column the things which have warranty like tractors etc In this column the name of the tractor is put like F1-60, FT-45,FT-35.

HOURS: In hours we can put the hours that is in the tractors can run how many hours
like the tractors can run only 345 hours then put this value ti the hours column.

DLR CODE: The dealer code is given by the company to the dealer. When dealer is
filled the dea;er code. And dealer code is different for different dealer.

TR SL NO.

This is denoted for tractor serial no. and the tractor have different serial

no. and put on the tractor.

APPLICATION NO: If we can joint any thing in the application we can use this
application code.

IMPLIMET CODE: We can have any work in the place so we have code, that
code is known as implement no.

JOB CARD NO

When dealer can saw the problem and customer is put on a sheet ,

this sheet is job card sheet and sheet number can be put, then we call that sheet as job card no.

ENGINE NO. Number on the can be put and every engine have a separate number.

DATE OF PDI. Pre delivery inspection before sale called date of PDI JOB DATE: When the dealer can be prefer the problem , then job card can done
after claim.

AGG..NO. Aggregate number can be number. In this column , number is put on the
damange parts.

DATE OF INSTALLATION:
called as date of instalaation.

Dealer ship can sale the tractor in which date

FIRST INTIMATION DATE: The first intimation date is defined as the date
the in which the tractor is drawn . the customer cant go to the company for that day he can inform that date.

DEALERS NAME AND ADDRESS: The name of the dealer and address
is mentioned

CUSTOMERS NAME AND ADDRESS:


the address is mentioned.

The name of the customer and

CAUSAL FAILED PARTS DETAILED: Causal have like a fist problem,


nut problem, can be lose and the other problem.

CONSEQUENTIAL : Then after causal the main problem is come out i.e.
consequential.

FINISH CODE:

The code of parts which have failed called finished code.

DEFECT CODE: Company can make a different code for different product and
defect. These code is known as defect code.

SERVICE RECORD

TRANSIT: During transport any part is broken or filled , the transport form is filled.

FAILED PARTS DISPATCHED DETAILS VIA.: Dealership can send


the failed parts in detailed to the company.

RP NO./G.R.NO./POST PARCEL: In this part can send by which type.

TSM: It can make the SCR( service concerned repart).

CLAIM DISPOSAL: Dealer can send the claim desposal can done by company.

GR.NO : Godown Receipt no.

DINIEND: Process in which time.

COMPANY PROFILE

INTRODUCTION Escorts ltd. is one of the pioneer manufacturer and exporter of Agri Machineries. The company manufactures and exports Tractors and Tractor Parts, Diesel Engines, Gears, Shafts, Gear boxes, Engine blocks, Crankshafts, Cylinder Heads, Connecting rods and Spindles. They also offer brakes, couplers, shock absorbers, rail fastening systems, composite brake blocks and vulcanized rubber parts. The company through their subsidiaries operates in the ITES and financial services sectors. HISTORY Escorts ltd. was incorporated in the year 1944 as Escorts Agents ltd. in

Lahore. In the year 1951 Escorts established Indias first private institute of Farm Mechanization at Delhi and in year 1953 Escorts (Agents ltd.) and Escorts ( Agriculture and Machines) ltd. merged to form Escorts Agents Pvt. Ltd. the company was converted into a public limited company in December 1959 and subsequently the name was changed to Escorts Ltd. in January 1960.

In year 1961, Escorts Tractors ltd. made a technical and financial joint

venture with the global giant Ford Motor Company, USA for manufacturing Ford Tractors in India. And in February 1, 1971, the first tractor FORD 3000 rolled out of the factory. 1n 1977, the company set up their first independent R&D center namely Escorts Scientific Research Center at Faridabad. Also, they set up their second plant at Bangalore for manufacturing piston assemblies. In 1979, they made collaboration with JCB Excavators Ltd., UK for manufacturing of Excavators. In 1980, the company forayed into healthcare and set up Escorts Hospital and Research Center in Faridabad. In 1984, company signed an agreement with the Japanese bike giant Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles with Yamaha technology. Also, they made collaboration with Jeumont Schneider of France and Dynapac of Sweden to manufacture EPABX systems and vibratory road compactors respectively. In 1997, the company made a joint venture agreement with New Holland and launched Farmtrac Tractor. Also, they made a joint venture with First Pacific Company of Hong Kong and formed Escotel Mobile Communications. In 1998, the company launched Powertrac tractors. They signed a MoU with Long Manufacturing Company of USA for setting up a joint venture in USA. 1n 1999, the company signed a MoU with a Polish Company POL-MOT for assembling, manufacturing and marketing of Farm Machinery. In September 1999, they set up a subsidiary namely, Escosoft Technologies Ltd. in the Information Technology Sector. During the year 2001-02, the company sold their 26% shareholdings in Yamaha Motors Escorts Ltd. they entered into an agreement with Claas KgaA, Germany, their joint venture partner in Escorts Claas Ltd. for sale of their 60% equity in the joint venture for a consideration of Euro 13.2 million. During the year, Escorts Heart and Super Speciality Institute Ltd., Escorts Heart Centre Ltd., Automatrix India Pvt Ltd and Escorts Research and Development Ltd. became the subsidiary companies.

In January 2004, the company entered into an agreement with Idea In September 2005, the company entered into an agreement with Fortis

Cellular Ltd. to divest their share in Escorts Telecommunication Ltd. Healthcare Ltd to divest their shares in Escort Heart Institute and Research Centre Ltd for a consideration of Rs 520 crore. During the year 2005-06, tha company set up a new manufacturing facility in Rudrapur, Uttrakhand for manufacturing of new range of railway equipment. The company sold their stake in in the software companies and all divested 49% stake in joint venture, Carraro India Ltd. in which the company is getting out of all the unrelated business and to remain focused on the three core businesses. During the year 2006-07, the company embarked on entering into the manufacturing of shock absorbers for commercial vehicles. Throughout the evolution of Escorts, technology has always been its greatest ally for growth. In the over six decades of their inception, Escorts has been much more than just being one of the Indias largest engineering companies. It has been a harbinger of new technologies, a prime mover on the industrial front, at every stage introducing products and technologies that help take the country forward in key growth areas. Over a million tractors and over 16,000 construction and material handling equipments that have rolled out from the facilities of Escorts, complemented by a highly satisfied customer base, are testimony to the manufacturing excellence of Escorts. Following the globally accepted best manufacturing practices with relentless focus on research and development, Escorts is today in the league of premier corporate entities in India. Technological and business collaboration with world leaders all over the years, globally competitive indigenous engineering capabilities, over 1600 sales and service outlets and footprints in over 40 countries have been instrumental in making Escorts the Indian multinational. Today, when the world is looking at India as an outsourcing destination, Escorts is rightly placed to be the dependable outsourcing partner of worlds leading engineering corporations looking at outsourcing manufacture of engines, transmissions,

gears, hydraulics, implements and attachments to tractors and shock absorbers for heavy trailers and armoured tanks. In todays Global Market Place, Escort is fast on the path of an internal transformation, which will help it to be a key driver of manufacturing excellence in the global arena.

ESCORTS (AGRI MACHINERY GROUP) Background In 1960, Escorts set up the strategic Agri Machinery Group (AMG) to venture into tractors. In 1965, the company rolled out its first batch of tractors under the brand name of Escort. In 1969, a separate company Escorts Tractors Ltd., was established with equity participation of Ford Motor Co., Basildon, UK for the manufacturing of Ford agricultural tractors in India. In 1996, Escorts Tractors Ltd. formally merged with the parent company Escorts Ltd. Technologies

Escorts AMG has three recognized and well accepted tractor brands, which are on distinct and separate technology platforms. Farmtrac: World class premium tractors, with single reduction and epicyclic reduction transmissions from 34 to 75 hp. Powertrac: Utility and Value-for-money tractors, offering straight axle and hubreduction tractors from 34 to 55 hp. Indias No. 1 economy range-engineered to give spectacular diesel economy.

Escort: Economy tractors having hub-reduction transmission and twin cylinder engines from 27 to 35 hp. Pioneering brand of tractors introduced by Escorts with unbeatable advantages. INTERNATIONAL SUBSIDIARIES Escorts AMG has two international subsidiaries. Farmtrac North America LLC in USA Farmtrac Tractors Europe Sp.z.o.o. in Poland. SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS Company is having good image in the market. Always able to deliver the product in time. Excellent distributorship network across India. The use of latest technology. Good quality standards of production. Provide better services all the time.

WEAKNESSES High prices as compared to the market

OPPORTUNITIES The growing domestic demand for food grains and agri products promises a India being a major exporter of grains and other Agri products can increase very good future for companys core business. demand both for domestic and international market resulting more sale in this sector especially TRACTORS. Government upliftment towards the loan waiver scheme can also help the New technologies are invented for the production of the tractors which can Government launching new schemes for the farmers to buy latest farmers to attract towards the tractors. help the company to produce tractors at a much cheaper rate and in less time. technologies for their farming techniques. So this sector is having wide scope to enhance its sales which results in an increase in its market share. THREATS The sales of tractors are seasonal according to the requirement of the Even now, the farmers are unaware about the schemes and the upliftment Many of the farmers are illiterates and does not know the various uses of farmers. made by the government. tractors.

LITERATURE REVIEW India is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture in India is unique in its characteristics, where over 250 crops are cultivated in its varied agro-climatic regions, unlike 25-30 crops grown in many of the developed nations of the world. Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the Indian economy contributing 18.5 percent of national income, approximately 25 percent of Indias GDP, about 18 percent of total exports, supporting two-thirds of the work force and employ about 62 percent of the population. Tractors are part of agricultural machinery industry and forms an integral part of farm mechanization and plays a very crucial role in increasing productivity. Tractor is used for multitude of uses, it is used in agriculture for both land reclamation and for carrying out cultivation of various crops. It is also employed for carrying out various operations related to raising of crops by attaching suitable implements and to provide the necessary energy for performing various crop production operation involved in the production of agricultural crops. Tractors are capital intensive, labour displaying used as a mode of transport, in electricity generation, in construction industry and for haulage operation.

As a Green Revolution in the sixties, the total food grain production increased from a mere 50.8 million tonnes during 1950-51 to 217 million tonnes in 2009-10 and productivity increased from 522 kg/ha to more than 1,500 kg/ha. The increase in production of food grains was possible as a result of adoption of quality seeds, higher dose of fertilizer and plant protection chemicals. Irrigation played a major role in increasing the productivity. Increased cropping intensity and higher quantity of inputs can no longer be effectively managed by animal power alone and, therefore, farmers adopted tractors, irrigation pumps, harvesters and power threshers extensively.

HISTORY At the time of independence the level of mechanization was low so the government started investing in establishing agricultural research farms and colleges and large scale irrigational schemes to improve the situation. The five year plans during the 1950s and 1960s aggressively promoted rural mechanization through joint ventures and tie-ups between industrialists and international tractor manufacturers. Tractor came to India through imports and later on the manufacturing started with the help of foreign collaborators the manufacturing process started in the year 1961-62. Despite the aggressiveness the production of tractors grew slowly in the first three decades. The history of tractors in India can be described in following phases: 1945 to 1960 War surplus tractors and bulldozers were imported for land reclamation and cultivation in mid 1940s. In1947 Central and State Tractor Organizations were set up to develop and promote the supply and use of tractors in agriculture and till 1960, the demand was met entirely through imports. There were 8,500 tractors in use in 1951, 20,000 in 1955 and 37,000 by 1960. 1961 to 1970 Home production began in 1961 with five manufacturers producing a total of 880 units per year. By 1965 this had increased to over 5,000 units per year and the tractors in use had risen to over 52,000. By 1970 annual production had exceeded 20,000 with over 1,46,000 units working in the country. 1971 to 1980 Six new manufacturers were established during this period although three companies (Kirloskar Tractors, Harsha Tractors and Pittie Tractors) did not survive. Escorts Ltd. began local manufacturing of Ford tractors in 1971 in joint

collaboration with Ford, UK and total production climbed steadily to 33,000 in 1975 reaching 71,000 by 1980. 1981 to 1990 Five new manufacturers began production during this period but only one among them survived due to increased competition in the market place. By 1985 annual production exceeded 75,000 units per year and by 1990 it crossed the mark of 1,40,000 units when the total in use was about 1.2 million. Then India-which was a net importer till seventies became the exporter in the 1980s mainly to the African countries. 1991 to 1997 Since 1992, obtaining of the license was not necessary for the tractor manufacturing in India. Annual production exceeded 255,000 units and the national tractor population had passed the two million mark. India now emerged a one of the world leaders in the tractor production. 1997 to 1999 Five new manufacturers have started production since 1997. In 1998 Bajaj Tempo, already well established in the motor industry, began tractor production in Pune. In April of the same year New Holland Tractor (India) Ltd launched production of 70 hp tractors with matching equipment. The company made a $US 75 million initial investment in a state of the art plant at Greater Noida in Uttar Pradesh state with an initial capacity of 35000 units per year. Larsen and Toubro have established a joint venture with John Deere, USA for the manufacture of 35-65 hp tractors at a plant in Pune, Maharashtra and Greeves Ltd will produce Same tractors under similar arrangements with Same Deutz Fahr of Italy. Looking to South American export markets Mahindra and Mahindra are also developing a joint venture with Case for tractors in the 60-200 hp range.

1999 to present Facing market saturation in the traditional markets of the North West (Punjab, Haryana and eastern Uttar Pradesh) tractors sales began a slow and slight decline. By 2002 sales went below 200,000. Manufacturers headed towards the eastern and southern India markets in an attempt to reverse the decline, and began exploring the potential for overseas markets. But sales remained in a slump. By 2004, once again there was a slight increase in sales due to stronger and national and to some extent international markets. But by 2006 sales once again were down to 216,000 and now in 2007-08 have slid further to just over 200,000. 1

Present Scenario Indias gross cropped area which is 42 percent of the total geographical area is next only to Unites States of America and Russia along with fragmented land holdings has helped India to become the largest tractor market in the world. But because of its very low penetration level in India as compared to the world standards it drops to the eighth position in terms of total tractor in use. Also the penetration levels are not uniform throughout the country. While the northern region is now almost saturated in terms of new tractor sales, the southern region is still under penetrated. The medium horse power category tractors, 31-40 HP, are the most popular in the country and fastest growing segment. Indian tractor industry is comparatively young as compared to the world standards and has expanded at a spectacular pace during last four decades. Consequently, it now occupies a place of pride in Indias automobile industry. U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and only a few Western European countries exceed the current production of tractors in India but in terms of growth, Indias growth are unmatched even with countries of long history of tractor manufacturing. About 20 percent of worlds tractor production occurs in India only. The spectacular achievement reflects the maturity and dynamism of tractor manufacturers and also the policies adopted by the government to enable it to effectively meet the demand. The tractor industry in India has made a significant progress in terms of production and capacity as well as indigenization of technology. It is a typical sector where both imported technology and indigenous developed technology have developed towards meeting the overall national requirements. In India tractor industry has played a vital role in the development.

SOME RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS

Won a major export order from the Government of Ghana worth $8.5 million. This order is for the supply Escort's Farmtrac range of tractors and other farm mechanisation implements Currently, Escorts commands 80 percent market share in Ghana.

Its wholly owned subsidiary, Escorts Agri Machinery Inc., USA, has acquired 100% equity in the Polish company, Farmtrac Tractors Europe.

NEW KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE GAINED SO FAR


N E W K N O W L E D G E

Machining of resting pads on the cylinder block. These are made so that the job can be placed horizontally on the machine and thus prevent taper. The concept of manufacturing holes. These are two holes drilled, hole milled and then reamed to very high tolerances. These play a very important role in the location and alignment of the other operations that are performed on the casting. All the fixtures of the subsequent operations have two locator pins one diamond and the other round which go into these manufacturing holes and after this the job is other clamped hydraulically or mechanically. Hence if the orientation of these holes is slightly deviated, the locations of the subsequent operations will also he deviated and the casting becomes scrap. Engines without cylinder liners. Most of the engine designs are such that they have cast cylinder bores which are machined to very fine tolerances and they do not make use of cylinder lining. In due course if the bore wears off the bore is machined (boring is done) and then a liner is fitted. GPM (general purpose machines) and SPM (special purpose machines). Machining centers; they do high speed wet machining. They make use of carbide tip tools. Palletization is also done here, in this while one job is being machined the other is fixed to the pallet, this saves setup time and increases productivity Honing: this process creates diamond shaped pattern on the cylinder bore and gives very fine tolerances. These patterns retain the oil thus reducing the friction between the piston and cylinder.

Broaching: had a look at horizontal surface broach. Different special purpose gauges. Some of them are: 1. air gauge {to check the dia) 2. plug gauge (to check the dia) 3. brush pin type gauge (to check the depth) 4. qualifying gauge {to check the distance between the manufacturing holes) 5. balance testing (for connecting rods) 6. centre distance (con rod) 7. bend (con rod) 8. twist (con rod) The different steps in the assembly of engine. Timing of injectors during assembly. Study of injector and its testing against choking, desired pressure and dripping. Fuel pumps study (in line pump), the function of governor, plunger and cam in the fuel injector pump.

Professional Practices
Attendance is compulsory. One has to be on time and cannot leave the compound before 4:30 pm Cannot leave the company once in without a gate pass Trainees have to follow a dress code. Shoes are a must. Material procurement is done through the material gate with proper receipt and checking is done of person leaving after work. Time for lunch and tea is fixed in between nothing is served

All the electrical appliances like fans and desert coolers are not left The different jobs are tested at regular intervals during machining to Anything that goes on the line is reported by the worker to the floor Manager Various safety norms are followed to prevent any accidents

running without purpose. get a quality product

SOME COLLABORATION
Carraro India Limited (CIL) is a joinventure between Escorts

Limited and Carraro SpA of Italy. Long Agribusiness LLC in the USA is a joint venture between Escorts Limited through its subsidiary Escorts Agri Machinery Incorporation. Escorts Limited has now acquired a majority equity holding in the company and it is now in the process of being renamed Farmtrac North America Incorporation. Polmot Escorts Spoolka Z.o.o, which is a joint venture between Escorts and Polmot Holding SA, a Polish company for the assembly and marketing, tractors in Central and Eastern Europe has already sold around 1000 tractors in Poland and other countries. Polmot Escorts Spolka Z.O.O, which is currently in the process of changing its name to Farmtrac Europe, will hence lead to increased exports, by becoming a supply base for whole of the European Union in order to achieve a significant growth in exports to new countries in the current year.

ESCORTS PRODUCT PROFILE


Escorts came into being with a vision that was natured by Mr. Hari Nanda and Late Mr. Yudi Nanda. The foundation of Escorts Limited was laid in the formation of Escorts (agents) Ltd on 17th October, 1944 and of Escorts (Agriculture and machines) Ltd. in 1948. These two were later merged in 1953 to form Escorts agents Pvt. Ltd. The companys incorporation in its present name, Escorts Ltd. was affected on 19th January, 1960 Having initially started with a franchise with Westing House Domestic Appliances, it has come a long way in manufacturing and marketing a range of products. It has pioneered farm mechanization in India through import and distribution of agriculture tractors. The manufacturing operation commenced in 1954 since then the following range of new products been produced in the country.

AGRI MACHINERY GROUP R&D


Modern Research and Development Centre of Agri Machinery Group Escorts Agri Machinery Group (AMG) has invested over US$ 7.5 million in a state-of the-art Research and Development Centre. Virtual prototypes of components and aggregate assemblies are made and assembled on computer workstations using 3D technology. The performance is checked on computers using simulation techniques thus saving a lot of time for the end-user as welt as low-development costs The R&D Centre uses advanced 3D modeling, analysis and simulation software for engines, transmissions and vehicles Physical prototypes are then extensively tested for performance, durability and reliability. Facilities include a high-technology engine laboratory featuring fully computerised beds with online control, data acquisition and analysis. Engine emissions tested for meeting the Bharat TREM norms, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) norms and European (Euro) norms. Additional capabilities of the engine lab are engine performance, durability, reliability, tribology and fluid dynamics studies an advanced vehicle-testing laboratory includes fatigue-testing dynamometer testing for chassis and power-take-off and smooth as well as torture test tracks. Other facilities include Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) Lab. Metrology Lab., and Materials Engineering Lab. Product styling is earned out in a computerized virtual environment, which is supported by a model-making shop for physical prototypes.

Product Range
The products are manufactured in a world class manufacturing plants, under the supervision of skilled professionals. Care is taken to use the latest technology available and is subjected to stringent quality tests in order to produce flawless products comparable to international standards. Our Quality Control Department always tests the incoming raw materials and outgoing finished products for their quality, and only after they meet the required criterion are they sent to the next process. We are the manufacturer and exporter of the following product range:

ESCORT range of Agricultural Tractors


MPT Jawan - 25 HP: 2 Cylinder 2wd Multi Purpose Tractor

Escort 335 Josh - 35 HP: 2 Cylinder 2wd tractor

POWERTRAC range of Agricultural Tractors


Powertrac 434
- 34 HP:

3 Cylinder 2wd tractor

Powertrac 439

- 39 HP:

3 Cylinder 2wd tractor

Powertrac 445

- 43 HP: 3 Cylinder 2wd tractor (Power Steering optional)

Powertrac 455

- 53 HP:

3 Cylinder 2wd tractor (Power Steering optional)

TRAINING PROGRAMME
The training programme included the observation of following:-

Cylinder Block machining Cylinder head machining Connecting rod machining Engine assembly Engine testing

This is followed by a project on which we are working at present.

on

Engine Production Unit (EPU)


Dpartment in Engine Production Unit:-

1. Head cell 2. Connecting rod cell 3. Engine Block Cell 4. Engine Assembly Cell

CONNECTING ROD
It is engine part. It is made by casting material. It is connected to the piston and crank shaft and transfer motion, reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. In tractor engine there are three pistons used and three connecting rods connect to piston.

Weight Small Head Side Cranking Side Length

: : : :

2180 gm 800 gm 1380 gm 25 inches

Head Cell
It is the cover of engine made by casting. It is attached to the cylinder block of the Tractor Engine.

There are many works on head casting as given below:

1. Upper facing work (on vertical milling machine) 2. Drilling on Radial Drilling M/c 3. Rear Face Milling 4. Front Face Milling 5. Intex Face Triple Milling Machine 6. Exort Fact - Triple milling machine 7. Drilling 8. Exort Face Drilling Horizontal Drilling Mounting Hole.

Inspection and Calibration Lab


There are many measuring instrument to measure and calibration by the standard size weight, angles, length material approved by the R & D Section. In lab the instruments which also check time to time by the Indian government lab and other authorized labs. There are many measuring and calibrating instrument as given below:1. Profile Projector It is instrument to check the angles in degree or minutes. It is manufactured by MITUTOYO, Japan. 2. Floating Carriage Dia Measuring Machine It is used to measure the length in mm. Its range is : 0 100 mm 3. Center Bench It is also measuring instrument to check the run out of the shaft in micrometer. 4. Manual Comparator To check accuracy 0.00005 (All dimensions for Ford Tractors in inches) 5. Pluck Gauge To check the accuracy of Dia. 6. Flush Pin Gauge 7. Air Pluck Gauge

Assembly Block Cell


There are many stages for completing the Engine Assembly. These stages are:

Stage I (Interim cylinder head assembly)

In the first stage the cylinder block which is cleaned and washed and in which the washers and dowel are fitted using loctite is taken. In this cylinder block, installation of main bearing cap is there in which mount bearing cap assembly and tighter the main bearing cap bolt to specified torque. Upper and lower half bearings must be from the same supplier. Then there is

Stage II (Cam shaft assembly)

In the second stage the crankshaft gear installation in which the properly cleaned crankshaft gear assembles with key. After that the camshaft gear tappet and push rod installation is there in which by keeping the cylinder block in upside down assemble he tappets, ensure that tappet bore and tappet are pre lubricated with engine oil and check in cam bore keeping the block in upside down position, do not hammer the camshaft while assembly. Ensure free rotation of cam shaft. Assemble camshaft thrust plate and ring. Pushrod will assembled after fitment of cylinder head.

Stage III (FI pump assembly)

Fuel Injection Pump is assembled on cylinder block. Fuel injection pump is mounted on timing and gear housing with given hardware which is attached to cylinder block with tightening torque 25 N-m. The function of fuel injection pump is to inject the fuel to the engine.

In the third stage also the installation of gear fitment.

Four gears are used: 1. Camshaft Gear 2. Ideal Gear 3. Timing Gear 4. Crank Gear (All gears are helical)

Stage IV (Piston Con rod assembly)

In the fourth stage the installation of piston which lubricates the liner with engine oil. Insert piston-connecting rod assembly into the cylinder liner using proper ring compression tool such that the arrow marked on piston top is pointed towards timing gear end of the engine. Ensure proper fitment of big bearing shells. Connecting rods and bolts threads must be cleaned and oiled. After lacing the connecting rod bearing cap in right orientation ensure uniform tightening of connecting rod bolts to a torque of 6.5 7.5 kgm. Ensure the free rotation of engine after assembly of pistons. Check projection of piston top writ cylinder block face.

Stage V (TG cover assembly)

In the fifth stage the turning gear cover is mounted on the timing gear housing to provide a sealed type cover. There is an inspection plate on turning gear cover for adjusting the turning of pump. Turning gear cover is mounted to protect the gear from dirt and dust.

Stage VI (cylinder Head Assembly)

In the sixth stage the cylinder head assembly is there in which ensure the proper cleaning of cylinder head make sure that there are no dirt, dust, abrasive particles. Ensure the proper fitments of valve stem seal on valve guide using special tool. Ensure proper fitment of valves in the valve guide utmost valve guide to avoid damage of the seal tip by cotter groove of the valve. There are pairs of inlet and outlet valves attached on the cylinder head in which the inlet valve is of larger diameter and outlet valve is of smaller diameter. Then ensure the proper fitment of valve spring, disc and pressed with the help of rocker arm. Then the intake and exhaust is mounted on the two ends of cylinder head. Intake is made up of aluminum. Intake s through which the air enters into the engine and through exhaust hot air comes out of the engine. Cylinder head is tight on the cylinder block.

Stage VII (Rocker arm assembly)

In the seventh stage the rocker arm assembly is performed in this while preparing rocker shaft assembly ensure that the front mark on rocker shaft is towards timing gear end of engine. Ensure the fitment washer on either side of each rocker arm. Ensure tappet clearance in cold condition as follows: Inlet valve 0.3 mm Exhaust Valve 0.4 mm

Stage VIII (cylinder head cover assembly)

In the eighth stage the cylinder head cover is mounted on the cylinder head. Ensure the proper cleaning of cylinder head make sure that there are no dust. Ensure the cylinder head gasket of specified thickness for identification on part.

Stage IX (bell housing assembly)

In the ninth stage the bell housing is mount on he engine in which the fly wheel is mounted which helps in the working of engine.

Stage X (Lubricating oil pump assembly)

In the tenth stage the lubrication oil pump is mounted on the engine through which oil get filtered before entering the cylinder. Then the alternator is mounted on engine which helps in charging the battery and then stator is mounted on the engine which helps in starting the engine.

Stage XI
In the eleventh and last stage the transmission is attached to the engine. Now the tractor engine is completed.

Engine Testing
Fill the lubricating oil of 13 liters to 17 liters Drive the final assembly with electric motor connecting the input shaft which it. Hot test to be performed in accordance with the engine hot test specifications release separately. Performance and oil economy test to be performed in accordance with appropriate specifications. Injection timings are mentioned in respective hot test specification. Test Specification:RPM 2100 Temperature 16C - 30C 31C - 45C 1200 16C - 30C 31C - 45C Specified Torque 91.5 98.5 107 111 seconds 89.5 96.0 104.0 116.0 166 174 seconds 102.0 112.5 Time

TYPE OF ENGINE TESTS


4.1) FULL THROTTLE PERFORMANCE TEST
This test is performed to find out the performance of the engine when the throttle is at its maximum position. First the engine is warmed up till the temperature of the lubricating oil reaches 80 C. The throttle is set at the maximum position and rpm of the engine is decreased by applying load on the engine through dynamometer. Parameters recorded are torque, speed, power, fuel consumption, BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption), Smoke level, Temperature of oil and Temperature of test cell (ambient temperature).

4.2) PART THROTTLE PERFORMANCE TEST


This test is performed to find out the performance of the engine when the throttle is at various intermediate positions. During this test, engine speed (RPM) is kept fixed and load on the engine is decreased. But the speed increases with decrease in load. In order to keep the speed constant the throttle was decreased. The test is performed at rated speed, Intermediate speed & peak torque speed. Parameters recorded are the same as above.

4.3) GOVERNING TEST


This test is performed at high idle speed, rated speed and an intermediate speed.RPM is decreased in steps of 20 and it is observed at what RPM maximum power is obtained. For a good RPM engine, the difference between maximum power and the RPM at which the test is being performed should not be more than 100-120 RPM.

4.4) FRICTIONAL HORSE POWER TEST


This test is performed to find out the power lost in the engine due to friction. In this test the fuel supply to the engine is cutoff and the engine is rotated in the opposite direction with the help of a special dynamometer known as motoring dynamometer. The power required to do so is known as frictional horse power.

4.5) ENDURANCE TEST


This test is done to estimate the life of the engine. This test is generally performed on a new engine or an engine with some part modified. The test procedure depends on type of modification done. A new engine is run continuously for 3000 hours. After every 40 hours engine oil is checked, every 100 hours FTP test is done and in every 500 hours engine oil is checked.

4.6) EMISSION TEST


This test is performed to analyze the exhaust gases given out by the engine under various conditions. The amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter are measured in ppm. The software converts these values to g/KWh. These values are compared with emission norms set by the government. For tractors parameters are measured at 8 points-at rated RPM 4 points are taken(full load,75% of full load,50% of full load,10% of full load),at peak torque RPM 3 points are taken(full load,75% of full load,50% of full load),at low idle speed 1 point is taken at no load. For car engines 13 points are taken whereas for genset engines 5 points are taken.

100% 75% 50% 10%

MODE : 5 MODE : 6 MODE : 7

MODE : 1 MODE : 2 MODE : 3 MODE : 4

Load No Load

MODE : 8 Low Idiling speed Peak Torque speed Rated speed

Speed
Weighatage Factor - 15% Weighatage Factor - 10%

Figure 4.1 8 Mode Emission cycle

4.7) INDISET TEST


The setup for this test consists of four units crank detection module(CDM) that measures the crank angle, pickup that measures the pressure at pump end or cylinder as required, transducer that measures cylinder pressure and a special injector nozzle that has sensors to measure the needle lift. These units send signals to the indimeter that is connected to a computer which records and displays the reading. It is mainly conducted to know

Duration of injection. Dynamic start of injection. Peak combustion pressure. Gas entry inside the nozzle. Secondary injection. Injector needle lift w.r.t crank angle. Rate of pressure rise. The result comes in the form of diagram as shown in figure3.2 1) Combustion pressure as a function of deg crank angle. 2) Needle lift as a function of deg crank angle. 3) Line pressure as a function of deg crank angle.

5.1) ENGINE TEST CELL LAYOUT Figure 5.1 Engine Test Cell Layout No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

EQUIPMENT
Dynamometer Test Engine Smoke Meter Fuel meter Air mass flow meter Blow by Meter

DESCRIPTION
Device used to put variable external load on the engine The engine to be tested Measures the amount of smoke in exhaust Measures the amount of fuel input to the engine Measures the mass of air taken in by the engine Vapors of engine oil constitute the blow by gasses. Blow by meter measures these gasses. Varies the throttle from low idle position to high position speed Measures the particulate matter in the exhaust Maintains the temperature and pressure of water input to engine for cooling Maintains the temperature and pressure of engine oil input to engine for lubrication Controls the exhaust back pressure (pressure exerted on the valves by the exhaust when it faces restrictions in the silencer). If the back pressure is more smoke will be more.

7 8 9 10 11 12

Throttle Actuator Particulate Meter Cable Boom Water Conditioner Lube oil Conditioner Exhaust back pressure controller

13 14 15

Intake air conditioner PUMA 5 Controller Control room computer

Maintains the temperature and pressure of air input to engine for combustion Electronic device which controls all units Displays various parameters about the engine in real time during the test as recorded by the instruments Measures and displays Cylinder pressure injector pin lift duration and injection pressure during indiset test Analyzes exhaust gas for levels of gasses like NOX, CO etc Prints out the result

16

Indiset

17 18 19 20

Smart Sample Controller Exhaust Gas Analyzer Host computer Printer

DEFAULTS IN ENGINE

1. The main default is come from lubricant.

2 Piston seej

3. Crank joint/ Seej

4. Oil gallery seej

5. Water gallery seej

6. Over heating. 7. Break and damage is also the fault in engine.

PARTS IN CYLINDER HEAD 1. Valve

2. Rocker arm 3. Cam lift 4. Tappet. 5. Cam shaft 6. Push rode, etc. PARTS IN CYLINDER BLOCK 1. Piston. 2. Piston rings. 3. Cylinders 4. Connecting rod 5. Combustion chamber between cylinder head and cylinder block 6. Oil gallery 7. Water gallery 8. Cam shaft 9. Crank shaft.

ABREVIATIONS

1) NOx 2) HC 3) CO 4) PM 5) ID 6) SOI 7) SOC 8) EGR 9) BSFC 10) SOF 11) CRT 13) IVC 14) LLR 15) DV 16) FIP 17) ACS

- Oxides of Nitrogen - Hydrocarbons - Carbon monoxide - Particulate matter - Ignition delay - Start of Injection - Start of combustion - Exhaust gas recirculation - Brake specific fuel consumption - Soluble Organic Fraction -Continuous Regenerative Trap -Inlet Valve Closure -Light Load Retard -Delivery Valve - Fuel Injection Pump -Air Conditioning System

12) BT 3A -Bharat Trem 3A

Conclusion

As my training comes to end here in Escorts Tractor, I would like to share my experience with you. Now I realize the importance of training & practical applications. During my Engineering Course, I always wonder about theoretical knowledge, which are seeking, would ever be implemented practically. But after my industrial training at Escorts Tractor, I can say that have been put to good to use. It was the result of the training only that I got to see the object in real, practical use, which I had only read about & seen as 2-D objects in the books. These 6 weeks of training gave me a chance to get exposed to the industry culture & work environment these 6 weeks at escorts tractor were learning experience all the way. Here I must mention that learning experience all the way here was due to the full co-operation of the management, staff which helped me in gaining whatever knowledge I gained today about the production improvement & the assembly of tractors. According to me industrial training helped me in the following ways: It gives us a chance to come across the industrial culture. It tunes and modifies the attitude and always keeps you in learning and inspiring mood. It helps in developing skills for a particular field. In the end, I would like to conclude that the training is an essential part of the education program. We are pursuing theoretical knowledge which is indeed and a must to have a foundation.