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CIRCLE 03
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ARCHITECTURAL
R E C 0
08.2009
R o
On the Cover: Lts Btlins , I ~ s Docks by Att/itr! !tun I\'ouvt/, photo by Ro/"nd H"lbt .
Clockwi se from top: TIot Art Instilutt ofChimgo- Th .. Mo,/w, Wing. photo byChl/ck Char;
Fosed';";'s Fly-Fly lump; R"y K " p ~ , FATA, plwto by!t!fC",w;',.
News
19 Work to begin on Louis Kahn's New York City park
22 Architects get a slice of stimulus pie
Depa rtrnents
15 Editorial: Framing the Image
16 Letters
29 Archrecord2: The emerging architect
l3 Critique: A new architectural education by Midmd SQrkill
37 Books: Looking at contemporary China
39 Practice Matters: Understanding megatrends byB./. Novitski
116 Dates & Events
128 Backpaqe: Reader's Gallery
Features
42 An Untiung Modernist Maliter by Rober/Ivy, FA/A
A talk with Ray Kapp .. , FAiA, touches on the <H, hitcct's past and future.
Projects
46 Le5 Baln5 de5 Dock5, France by S,l111 Ameiar
Atelier> Jean Nouvel
A dazzling ncw aquat ic centcr belps a dreary narbor town reinvent itself.
52 The Artln5tltute of Chicago, illinois by /(}sephirlf Minuril/o
Rfnzo Piarw Building IVorbllOp
Not just anothcr museum, t be Modern Wing soars as a civic space.
60 Museum of Islamic Art, Doha by Paula Vein
T.M. PciArcliitcct
Combining traditional Islamic forms with tbe language of Modcrnism.
66 Art Gallery of Ontario, Canada byCliJford A. PflJmm
Ge/iry Imerna/iQllal
An addition and renovation creates a new look while revealing history.
BUilding Types Study 891
73 Introduction: Health Care by SIU''''"C SUpilfll'
74 Ospedale dell' Angelo, Italy by P,Wid Deitz
Emilio A mblHZ & A5S0ciiltes
107
78 Jacobi Medical Center, The Bronx, Hew York by Suz<l/I/leSreplinJs
Pci Cobb Freed & Parmers
82 Methodist Stone Oak Hospital, Texas by Ch<!Tles Lillll, I'AIA
HOK
Archltectura Technology
~
86 An End In Sight for a Centurle5-0ld Building Project? (
by Jo,cp/,i"e Milluril/o
Checking in on construction efforts at Barcelona's Sagrada Familia church.
Light r1g
94 Marni, Hew York City by Lilld" C. Lnll2
Syb<!Tite
99 Chapel of the Evangelical Academy, Germany by Michael Du",i,"(
gmp
103 Char No.4, Brooklyn, Hew York byBel/,B",,,,,,e
Bermal! Horn Stllilio
107 Euroluce IIghtinljl show by '"sephille 1'4j""lil/" t)
Products
111 Roofinljl by Rila (;"Ii'lell" Orrell
114 Product Briefs by Riw C,uinel/" Orrell
120 Reader Service
'J Expanded coverage of Projects. Building Types St udies. and Webonly feat ures can be found at archltectura/record.com.
08.09 Archilut"ml Raord 9
architecturalre
08.2009
On the Web r.l
This month on t he Web,
we have several new additions
related to our print coverage,
including video tours of
Ray Kappe's house
and The Art Institute
of ChicaIJo's Modern Wing,
as well as a Web-exclusive
Frank Gehry interview.
Reader Photo: This imllgeoi" hOllse;n SOIogm",le. Sp,,;n, by HR Delign
is 0<" of more fh,m 2,000 remler-submil1e,/ imliges in ARCHITECTURAL
RECORD') online gnllerie).
Online Only
Record TV
Art Institute ofChkago director
James Cuno takes us on a video tour
flfthe museum's new HCllzo l'iano-
designed Modern Wing.




Green Project Database
Search thorough, JaIl -rich case
studies of sustainable buildings
published in RECORD'S sister
publication, Green501jrce magazine.
Expanded Coverage
House of the Month
Shaped like a cl uster ofharnacles,
this house in Yokohama, Japan, by
Torafu Architect s, doesn't exactly
blend in with its neighbors.
F"eatures Project Por tfolio AR2
Read an extended interview with We speak with Frank Gehry, Ar t When times arc tough, creativity
revered Californ ia architect Ray Gallery of Ontario director Matlhew sparks- at least fo r two fir ms. Meet
Kappe, take a video tour of his home, Teitc1ball m, and others involved New York Cily's Tacklebox and
and view photographs of his work. with the AGO's new building. Detroit's M l/dtw.
(from top righl. Itftto rig/,t): SubmitltJ by "J,m,;s"; C> Clwr/ts G. Young, [',tfmclivt Dtsig"
GrcenSource maguzint; Duici Ano; /tff Corwi,,; courttsy AGO RfsourctslSnm II'tuvt r: TMkltbox; C> Mdrk Burry
Your Comments
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Framing the Image
Editorial
F
orgeneratiollsoJAmericnn architects (gl'lIl'rrltioIlS, 1101 years),
lu/ills SilllllI/mr idealized the buill world. Born ill 1910, and active
rmlil rreflllly, Shuillum's eye framed (ssl'lIlial archilecluml imag-
ery alld recorded il for the world. His p'lSsing all !Illy 15 marks II
shift ill how we appreciarc arc/litee/llre todayand sllggesls we pailsI' /0 ref/eer
0/1 II reh ital II ral photography.
First, /lIliIIS. This irrepressible personality, lacking/orilla/training
ill either architeclllre or photography, butwilh (/11 upwelling enthusiasm
for good architecture, formd his calling when he saw Richard Net1lra's
California hOllsf> in 1936. Shulmlln 5ubseqllclltly IIUls/cret! the craft of the
architectural photograph, /Ising the basics, none more than light . [n his
iconic images, real and artificiallightingfill space /ike ether, allowing 115
to imagille ill two dimellSiollS how Ihree-dimensional realily feels. Lighl
paillts surfaces; highlights del ails; provides S/rOI'g, shadowy comraSI, and
coIIseqllelllly provides depth and mass.
Architects love the faclthal in Shlilman '5 best black-aud-white pictures,
the architectural elemenls, crisp as fresh chipboard, pop from the page. At the
sallie time, he invariably and iUit'lItioually sels Ihe work deeply in Ihe cOlltext
of its (!lSlIally) SOllthem California setting. /na Shulmat' photograph, we
kllow exactly wllere we lire, whether perched high ill the Hollywood Hills
above Laurel Cauyon Boulevard- scene of his riveting, dramillic image for
Arts and Architecture magazine of Case Study House Number 22, byar-
chitect Pierre Koelligfor Carlolfll mul Buck Slah! ill 1960}- or lIrchitectrlfe
melded into the landscape, where walls between i lllerior lind exterior disap-
pear iu a color image- lis ill Richard Nelllra's Samuel and Luella Maslou
hOllse, iu RilIlcho Mirage, California, of 1962.
By enhancillg our apprecialiou of the depth of field, the photograpller
managed to eugage us beyond the picture plane. The basics offore-, middle-,
alld backgrollnd, so lHunbingly simple as a principle, yet often overlooked,
establish a kind of perspective reminiscelll of Ihe crafl of qualtrocelllo Ilalian
paimers. Who (tin overlook the Iwin chairs at Net/Ira's Edgar Kaufmmlll
hOllse in Palm Sprillgs of 1946- 47, the glowillg hOllse bellind the pool shot
through with /igh/at midrange, lind the IlIInbering insistellce of the dark
1II0imtaius behiud? Greal archi/eclllre; great image.
Craft lay i,l tile photograpller's allentiOlt to (lela ii, 1I0t leaving the basics
to chance. For the Koenig hOllse, Sh'lllIIan opened his lellS on Ihe cosmos
of the Los Augeles night for 7.S miulltes with his 4xS camera, al the same
time Ihala flash highlighted two women slallliing iuside Ihe primary space.
Serendipity came from the repealed reflectioll of a hangillg orb that stepped
into space, multiplyillg the spatial effect with that of time : The image
ascends from the literal to the metaphorical or philosophical. Craft laid the
By Robert Ivy, FAIA
grouudwork that chance compoulUled; historically, /llI/ch art has relied on
sllch formulation.
Shulman's work described the work of ordillary, good, lIml grelll ilrchi-
leets, for a variety of media, but none more emphatically than Ihe midcen-
tllry architeclllral jOllfllals, incilldillg ,HIC/IIT/iCTURA r. ""COII). His clientele
included a who's who of practitioners itl his own backyard, from Frank
Lloyd Wright, Richard Neutra, RIIi/olph Schindler, Charles Eames, Eero
Saarillen, Alberl Frey, Harwell Hallliltou Harris, lohll Laraner, alld Mies
van der Rohe. His own photographs described Ihe flowering of colllemporary
American architecture, ill/ rodllcillg liS 10 it th rough his lens. Shulmau was
1101 alolle. His peers included the late Marvin Rand ill SOli them California,
the Hedrich Blessingfirm ill Chicago, Ballhazar Korab ill Detroit, alld Ihe
late Ezra 8toller ill New York.
Today, architectural photographers contitllle to do what /rIIiIiS did,
though with sOllie challges. Most have jettison((i the 4xS for digital cameras,
Iilking milltiple pictllres of the same scene, rather thall relying onthe slilged
ShOl, which lIlighllilke three hours to execute. Like architects, IIImlY travel
beyond their home territories, foJ/owillg tile trail of contemporary work as far
as Olller Mongolia, if Iillelll hilS built there. They know the llirpor/5 well.
Today's archifectural photographers cOlltilwe to idealize architeclrlfe,
but sOllletimes catch the elllire urban or rural SCelll', inc/llding Ihe stuff that
lIlakes up real life, inclilding wires and people and cars allil potholes. They
shoot, allllost eXc/llsiwly i,1 color, broadcasl thei r work eiectrolliclIlly, iIIld
e-maillheir illlagesto cliellts and publications, whether lIlagazines or books.
They see a large volullle of lIew work, and shoot multiple projecls.
Seeillg constitll/es a form of /IIaking. Like Julius Shulmilll, /wan Bmw
alld Tilllothy HllfSley, Roland Hlllbealld Christiall Richtns, Peter AarOIl,
A III II KlIrchmer, mill leff Goldberg (ICt as our srlfrogates. They travel for us,
see the new architeclllre, and remake the world each mOllth. \Ve kllow con-
temporary (Jrchitecture first throllgll their eyes. As long as there are joumals
or mOllographs or lVeb siles, we IIl'ed Iheir curalorial expertise, to catch the
shot, to clloose the best, alld describe the wor/.:. How this highly refilled crafl
will evolve, as we transition toward new technologies, including three-
dimensiOllalllledia, relllaillslo be seC/!. Ollce seC/!, will we appreciate this
wo rld as fuily liS we have enjoyed it til rough eyes of ,ulirls Shulman? Ever
optimistic abollt the next gelleration, he would have laughed away
the doubt.
08.09 Archifutuwl Raoul 15
Letters
Drawinq on languaqe adaptation and preservation in your
June 2009 issue. With the exception
of Arizona, which has had legisla
tion in place for the past six years to
mandate a study of the potential to
is about any lack of commitment to architecture looks like something
amplifying diversity. Why would mi- Mussolini would have ordered over
norities, who presumably have had the telephone."
more difficulty with upward mobility, Christopher Adams
want to chance a commitment to a Via e-mail
I just finished reading Robert Ivy,
rAIA's July editorial, "Drawing, ca.
2009" [page 15]. How welcome to
see something in praise of nuance. I
think it was Ricoeur who wrote with
particular incisiveness about how,
despite some arguments for 50-
called "scientific language," words
actually have multiple meanings that
continually change. Might the rich-
ness of real language be akin to the
richness of real drawing? Ivy's edito
rial hits all the right notes - notes
that seem to be growing more and
more faint as the screeches, clank-
ing, and high-frequency whirring
sounds of so much else grow louder.
Todd Phillips, AlA
extend the life of existing government profession that is, ultimately, likely
Middleburg, Va.
RecyclinlJ content
buildings before they can be replaced,
I can think of no other legislation in
the U.S. that is really holistically en-
gaged in this important concep\.lsn't
it about time that they were?
J.A.J. Anderson
Phoenix
It's the economics, stupid
In response t o Ted Landsmark's May
essay, "Prescriptions for Change"
[page 801,1 oller the following: The
lack of diversity in the practice of
architecture is about a lack of com
mitment to our profession to build
a stable, vital , and financially remu
Congrats on the wonderful articles on nerative profession far more than it
to yield a relatively low return on
investment. so to speak?
Theodore L. Grabarz, AlA
Bridgeport, Conn.
A final dilJ
Knocking lincoln Center has been
almost a cottage industry since t he
day it opened, and Martin Filler's
June Critique, "After 50 years,
lincoln Center still offers plenty to
criticize" [page 371, adds a few more
choice stories. Still, I think the best
and briefest comment was Pauline
Kael's, in a review of a film festival
there: "I always find it depressing to
go to anything at lincoln Center. Its
Corrections
The caption identifying the photo on
the July cover indicated the wrong
project. The project pictured is the
Promenade Samuel-de Champlain
in Quebec by Daoust Lestage,
Williams Asselin Ackaoui, and Option
Amenagement, not the Inujima
Art Project. Wendy Evans Joseph
Architecture should have been credited
for the design of the installation for
the exhibition Fran/{ Lloyd Wright:
From Within Outward in the July
Exhibitions column [page 431, and in
the Critique in the same issue [page 33].
Send letters to rivy@mcqraw-hill.com.
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CIRCLE 14
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Record News
Inside the News
p.20 Rogers at center of debate
p.22 Stimulus funds put to work
p24 Longtime publisher dies
For daily updates:
architectura/record.com/news
Pitt's Make It Right unveils new designs
On July 1, actor Brad Pitt's organiza-
tion Make It Right (MIR) released 14
new designs thai will be among the
150 houses reconstructed in the
Lower Ninth Ward 01 New Orleans in
the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
A duplex bV Los
Anqel es-based
GRAfT Is amonq
the 14 new deslqns.
With this second
round 01 schematics.
MIR is offering residents
t he opportunity to
rebuild affordable du-
plexes in addition to the single-family
schemes introduced in 2007. "We
always wanted to expand the design
catalog, and doubles is a typology
that's used throughout New Orleans
and the Lower Ninth Ward," says MIR
Work to begin on long-delayed Louis Kahn park
After decades of false starts, one
of architect Louis Kahn'S final
works. a 4.5-acre park in New York
City to honor President Franklin D.
Roosevelt. is scheduled 10 break
ground Ihis month.
Called Four Freedoms Park.
Ihe memorial will be built on the
southern tip of Roosevelt Island. a
2-mile-long sliver of land in the East
River. Kahn designed the project
shorlly before he died in 1974.
who trained as an architect. "We're
definitely moving forward."
The park's dartshaped design
features stone-paved promenades
that edge a sloping lawn fringed
with linden trees. At the tip will sit a
3.600-squarefoot enclosure ringed
with 28 t all granile blocks inscribed
with snippets of the famous "Four
executive director Tom Darden. Its
a demand we were eager to meet. ..
The duplexes are by 14 archi
tecture firms. including eight that
are new to the MIR program. The
studios include Atelier Hitoshi Abe.
Sild Design. Billes. buildingstudio.
BNIM. Constructs. Elemental. Gehry
Partners. GRAFT. Kappe Architects.
MVRDV. Pugh + Scarpa. Waggonner
& Ball Architects. and William
McDonough + Partners (a longtime
consultant to MIR and responsible
for its Cradle-to-Cradle criteria).
Most of the new designs
feature pareddown geometries that
Freedoms" speech. which Roosevelt
gave to Congress in 1941.
harmonize with traditional regional
expression. Exceptions. such as the
schemes created by buildingstudio
and GRAFT. take on a sleeker appear
ance. while MVRDV's splayed houses
and the angular asymmetry of Pugh +
Scarpa's design are more exuberant.
For the most part. the designs have
flexible floor plans. forge a close rela-
tionship with street life. and integrate
outdoor and landscaped spaces with
architecture. MIR expects to break
ground on two duplexes this month.
DavidSokol
r:1 View onl ine.
in that design." says Broches.
whose firm helped draft the original
Though some steps in the construction documents in 1975.
enclosure will give way to accessibil - (Funding woes scuttled the project in
ity ramps to bring il up to snuff with the 1970s; a revival of the scheme
modern codes. the end result will be in the 1990s met political resistance.)
remarkably similar to Kahn's original. The first phase entails construc
says Paul Broches. AlA. a principal tion of the enclosure and adjoining
at Mitchell!Giurgola Architects. the sculpture court. Phases two and three
lead architect. "We wanted 10 retain. still await funding.
as literally as possible. everything The park would be Kahn's
premier project in New York City. in
a state with just two of them: Temple
Beth EI. in Chappaqua. and First
Unitarian Church. in Rochester. It will
also be the first Roosevelt memorial
in New York. the president's native
state. which would please Kahn.
who designed housing projects in
Philadelphia during the Depression
through Rooseveltcreated jobs
programs. says Sue Ann Kahn. the
architect's daughter. My father was
supported by the W.P.A .... Kahn says.
1 remember listening to reports of
Roosevelt's death on the radio dur-
ing dinner." c.J. Hughes
On June 25. the nine-member
board of the Roosevelt Island
Operating Corporation. which runs
the island. voted 7 to 1 in favor of the
proposal. with one member nol pres-
ent. Plus. the $45 million project has
secured the $14.7 million in public and
private money it needs for the first
phase of construction. along with the
two-dozen necessar y approvals from
IS city. state. and federal agencies.
says Gina Pollara. who is supervising
the project on behalf of the Franklin
and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute. the
sponsor. 'Tm thrilled; says Pollara. Four Freedoms Park will be built on Roosevelt Island In the East River. I:J View addi tionat imaQes ont ine.
08.09 Arc/,ilaiurai Record 19
I Record News
Lord Rogers vs.
Prince Charles
Tile British architect Richard
Rogers recently made head-
lines when he lambasted Prince
Charles for meddling in the
democratic planning process,
Specifically, Lord Roqers was
displeased with the prince's
involvement in scuttling one of
his major commissions, Chelsea
Barracks, which called for a
series of glass-and-steel build-
ings in west London. The prince,
a traditionalist, reportedly
contacted the project's principal
backer, the Emir of Oatar, to
express his disappointment in
the design. Soon after, Roqers's
plan was scrapped. Here, two
prominent U.K. critics share
their views on the controversy.
Pro Prince Charles
BV Meredith EtheringtowSmith
day, Christopher Wren. In fact, a legion
of residents was against the plan.
This wasn't a Modernist-versus-
Traditional debate, as ROQers and his
allies tried to t urn it into. It was more ba-
sic than that. The 118'foot-high towers-
mini skyscrapers - would have cut out
sunlight. The plan was far too dense,
housing 3,000 new people with no
infrastructure to support them. Current
narrow roads would have had to take
1.500 more vehicles. and there were no
streets in the Rogers development to
reduce the strain. Open spaces? Hardly.
Only 1.3 acres on the 13.5acre site.
Not enough residents' parking, limited
public transport. The advocacy organi-
zation Chelsea Barracks Action Group
had very good local-interest points.
But the rationale, and a petition
with SO,OOO-plus signatures, were
not good enough for Westminster
Planning, which was about to rubber
stamp the Rogers plan. At the last
minute Prince Charles stepped in,
putting forward his own candidate,
the traditionalist Quinlan Terry. The
prince told the site's owner, Qatar Diar,
a development company controlled
by the Qatari royal family, he thought
Rogers's plan was "unsympathetic"
and "unsuit able" and "would clash
with the architecture of the area." All
hell immediately broke loose in the
starchitect establishment.
Himself a resident of Chelsea,
where he lives in twoearlyl9th-cent ury
houses that he has completely gutted,
Lord Rogers told a British newspaper
that the prince's intervention was an
unconstitutional abuse of power. The
royal family is not meant toair its pojiti-
There was jubilation among the locals cal views publicly, so in trying to turn
buying organic vegetables in the the turn'down into a political debate,
Chelsea farmers' Market in London Lord Rogers was playing a shrewd end,
as news spread that the Qatari royal game. It did not work. In spite of a stern
family had sacked starchitect Richard letter to The Times - signed by Frank
Rogers and canceled his scheme for Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Norman Foster. and
Chelsea Barracks because - it was Renzo Piano- decrying Charles's "pri '
said - of a letter Prince Charles had vate comments and behindthe-scenes
written to the Emir of Qatar express' lobbying," the residents of Chelsea are
ing his disquiet at the plan. breathing great sighs of relief. Anything,
To read in English newspapers visitors to the farmers' market said, will
about the resulting storm is to mis' be better for the neighborhood.
takenly think that Prince Charles was And Lord Rogers? A bad loser.
alone and old'fogeyish in his concern "I think [Prince Charles] pursues
about Rogers's steel towers and their these topics because he is looking
relationship with the adjacent Royal for a job," Rogers reportedly said.
Hospital, built by that Modernist of his " He is actually an unemployed indio
20 ArchilWumlRtcord 08.09
Roqers's deslqn f or the Chel sea Barracks In London Incited fi erce debat e.
vi dual, which says something about redesign -landscaped open space.
the state of the royal family." The detailing looked promising, but the
scheme was not exacllygreat.
Meredith Etherington-Smith, former So when I support Rogers, it is for
Art Review editor, is editor in chief of other reasons. I believe, lor instance,
Christie's Publications. that when the site is redesigned (a
plum consultancy r o ~ for the Prince's
Pro Lord Rogers Foundat ion, though unpaid) the
By Hugh Pearman required density will be reduced. The W
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foundation's director. Hank Dittmar,
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The Chelsea Barracks farrago has already hinted at this. Overdensity
,
in london - Prince versus l ord, was the real problem in the first place.
,
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Charles versus Rogers - is more That goes back to the colossal price of
w

about density than style. And now the site - E1 billion, pre-credit crunch-
<

that the brief has changed, Rogers which the developers obviously wanted
"
deserves a second chance. to claw back. The protests, and reports
,
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I am anti-Charles because I do of the protests, confused the matter of


not believe that important decisions style with the matter of density.
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which is what happened here. Those several architects involved, will be pro' "

who say it was the local protestors who duced on a different brief than the one
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defeated Rogers are deluded. Without given to Rogers. The developers will be
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Charles's intervention, this project. prepared to take a hit on unit numbers
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which already had been heavily modi in order to avoid further controversy.

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fied in response to local opinion, would It wi ll thus not be fair to compare the

not have been withdrawn. Rogers project with its replacement.
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But being anti'Charles does not There is an a'S'{ way to test this.


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mean I am full of praise for the Rogers Once the new brief is drawn up. let
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design. Lord Rogers said it isone of Rogers be invited to resubmit along
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the best things his office has produced. with other architects. Let's see how he
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done far better architecture than this. in this debate, that would be a fair and
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His ofOce is not particularly noted for equitable way to move forward. But will
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he designs "affordable" homes as well hates Rogers. Rogers hates the prince.
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as the upmarket stuff. At Chelsea, his It's as simple and as crude as that. >
,
way of achieving the high densities de-
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manded resulted in a rather diagram' Hugh Pearman is architecture critic

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matic series of long slabs and stumpy for The Sunday Times in London and
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towers plus - following an early 2009 editor of the RIBA Journal.
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CIRCLE 1S
I Record News
. , - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ~ - - ~ - - ~ ~
Architects get a slice of stimulus pie
The "shovel-ready" focus 01 projects Homeland Security headquarters
funded under the American Recovery project at SI. Elizabeth's campus in
and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has Washington, D.C. Meanwhile, the
provided limited stimulus to the firm is also using its existing indefj
design community at large. Many nile delivery/indefinite quantity con-
architects say they have yet to feel a tracts with agencies, such as the U.s.
boost. Still, firms with well -established General Services Administration, to
experience in the public sector are sweep up smaller renovation and
finding opportunities, whether it be energY'upgrade projects, according
the revival of stalled projects or en- to Ardura.
tirely new commissions. For some, the HOK of St. Louis also is aiming
ARRA is keeping their practice afloat. at a broad range of work. Vice chair-
man Clark Davis, FAIA, says the firm
Ready to go expects to pick up multiple contracts
"Our federal practice is swamped; for small renovation jobs in markets
says Gus Ardura, HDR Architecture's where it has established relation-
national director for federal practice. ships with agencies, such as Florida,
State, local, and private are down, where it works with the Department
but weve been able to shift a lot of our of Veterans Affairs. "If we have an
focus over to federal." The Omaha- 1010 contract and a team in place;
based firm was selected to be part of he says, "we II be ready to help them
the new $500 million Department of get this work done:
22 Archi/tcluml RUQrd 08.09
HOK is also targeting the
transportation sector, as well as
science and technology jobs through
the Department of Energy and the
National Institutes of Health (NIH).
This spring, the firm helped several
universities prepare grant proposals
them. By early May, the firm was
already working on energyupgrade
and renovation projects for five au-
thorities. Typically, this type of work
accounts for 20 percent of his firm's
workload; this year he expects it to be
up by 65 percent.
for stimulus funding available through This will be the biggest year
NIH. in the hopes that those ellorts we'll ever have since I started in
wilitranslate into new commissions. business on my own in 1979," says
Transit work
Although the bulk of the $50 billion
in transportation funding will go to
roads and bridges, there are oppor-
tunities for architects. For instance,
HOK was selected to create an auto-
mated peoplemover system planned
for Phoenix Sky Harbor International
Airport, which Davis says will receive
stimulus funding.
In other cases, shelved trans-
portation work is being dusted off
by design firms. RATIO Architects of
Indianapolis was called in this spring
to work on construction documents
for a multi modal facility in Normal,
Illinois, that had been put on hold.
The company is also looking to play
a role in some stimulus-funded road
projects. As portions of Interstate 69
are developed in Indiana with stimu-
lus funds, RATIO is hoping to provide
urban-planning services.
"We'd be a subcontractor to an
Childers, who recently added a fourth
architect at his seven-person office.
Beyond the stimulus, we're not tak
ing any more new work."
It's a similar situation at Jones-
Zander in Grenada, Mississippi. Partner
Robert Zander, AlA, says his firm
is already working with six housing
authorities around the state on interior
renovations, roof replacements, and
energy-efficiency upgrades. About
half of our work is HUD housing
improvement jobs annually, but with
the work we're picking up from the
recovery act. I expect [revenues from
HUD projects] to be lBO percent over
last year," s;x-.rs Zander, pastpresident
of the Mississippi Chapter of AlA.
Although onceshelved projects ac-
count for about 10 percent of Zander's
work, the balance is coming from proj-
ects that had been scheduled for 2010
and beyond, but are being accelerated
totake advantage of the ARRA.
engineer, so it's somewhat tangential Downside to upturn
stuff for us," says Bill Browne, Jr., fAIA, While keeping designers busy now,
president of RATIO. "In this economy, some are concerned that speeding up
we're looking for different kinds of op- these publicflousing projects may leave
portunities that might not have been fewer opportunities on the horiZon.
front and center before, but you've got Wayne Stogner, president of
to find things to keep you busy." Stogner Architecture in Rockingham,
Housing boost
With $4 billion in grant money avail-
able through the U.S. Department
of Housing and Urban Development
(HUD), states are accelerating their
capital plans and reviving deferred
projects. This is good news for mom-
North Carolina, says he fears that
as projects are moved up to a 2009
start, additional projects may not be
added to future capital-improvement
plans. This year, his 11-person firm
was able to hire one additional staffer
and keep two others that would have
otherwise been laid off due to the
and-pop shops, as public housing is slumped private market. But that
one of the first sectors to feed work could soon change.
to smaller architecture firms. "ll"s good to have these proj
Glen Childers, founding principal ects, but they aren't very profitable,
of ChildersChilders, Architects & certainly not like the private jobs; he
Associates in Ada, Oklahoma, has says. "Were glad to have the work,
worked with 10 housing authori- but if the market doesntturn around,
ties around the state since 1991 and we could be sitting here in six months
expects togain work through all of saying, 'Now what?" Bruce Buckley
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I Record News
Bernard Zimmerman, outspoken architect, dies
cofounded the Los Angeles Institute
of Architecture and Design, and he
helped launch L.A..'s Architecture
+ Design Museum. As a curator, he
organized a number of exhibitions on
the work of Los Angeles architects
and designers, including New Blood
101 at the Pacific Design Center. In
1991, he founded the annual Masters
Bernard Zimmerman, fAIA, wore 01 Architecture lecture series at the
many hat s in the Southern California Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
architectural community, He was an He was president of Zimmerman
architect, planner, educator, preser- Architects & Planners. He had previ-
vationist. mentor, and curator. But ously been associated with Richard
friends and colleagues say he will be Neutra Architects, Welton Beckett &
best remembered as the conscience of Associates, Victor Gruen Associates,
his profession, a passionate advocate and several other Los Angeles firms.
for architecture and design who wasn't As a preservationist. he was i n v ~ v e d in
shy about voicing opinions about what efforts to save a number of threatened
he loved and what he loathed. Los Angeles landmarks, including the
Zimmerman died June 4 at Hollywood Sign, the Schindler House,
his Los Angeles home after a long and Watts Towers. In 1999, he was
illness. He was 79. honored with a Lifetime Achievement
"He was utterly convinced of Award from AlA Los Angeles.
the rightness of a stringent brand of Architect Joe Addo recalls his
Modernism - its social as well as its friend and colleague as an "activist
formal principles - and didn't hold architect" who believed the purpose
back from chastising any designer of architectur e was to change the
he felt had fallen short of its ideals," world. He was contemptuous of
says Frances Anderton, host of DnA: architects whose work didn't live up
Design and Architecture, a monthly to his ideals. "Bernard always went to
program on Santa Monica public the heart of the matter," Addo says.
radio station KCRW. "He'd ask, 'Why does this building look
Zimmerman helped found the the way it does? What is it doing for
architecture department at California society?'" Architect Ray Kappe, FAIA,
State Polytechnic University, in
Pomona, and he taught there for
more than 30 years. In 2001, he
a longtime friend, adds, "He was al -
w;:t.{s in everybody's face. But his main
cause was good design." Oavid Hill
Zimmerman's work i ncludes the Leland & Mll rill n Zei dler Resi dence (1962).
2:4 Arc/littet"mIRa ",,108.09
Remembering Blake Hughes, a noble publisher
Blake Hughes, a longtime publisher
at McGraw-Hill- most notably of
ARCHIT(CTURAL R(CORD magazine,
which he headed from 1968 to
1981- died in Charleston, South
Carolina, on June 11. He was 94.
Hughes was known in inter-
national planning circles for his
particular concern with the housing
and infrastructure problems of
developing countries. During
his years at R(CORD, he founded
lieutenant. received a commendation
from the Secretary of the Navy, and
the International Architectural was decorated for his service to the
Foundation, which he led from 1973 Soviet Union with its Order of the
to 1978. The organization was dedi- Fatherland War.
cated to alleviating living conditions At McGraw-Hili, he was
in Third World slums, as addressed publisher of Houseand Home and
in an ambitious design competition Housing magazines before becoming
it sponsored for Greater Manila, publisher of AR(:HITECTURAl RECORO,
which won admiration among spe' where he also launched Architectural
cia lists but was never implemented Record Books, a highly successful
by the regime of Philippines imprint that issued an extensive se-
president Ferdinand Marcos, who ries of illustrated books on domestic
preferred to build more grandiose architecture, as well as anthologies
monument s to his rule. of writings first published in the
Hughes was born in New York magazine. These included essays
City on June 24,1914, to Ferdinand by the architecture and social critic
Holme Hughes and Inez de Cordova Lewis Mumford, and Frank Lloyd
Hughes, and graduated from Wright's nine-part "In the Cause of
Dartmouth College, where he was Architecture" series, which RECORD
elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1936. had commissioned during a low point
He then received a degree from the in the architect's career in 1927.
Sorboone, and studied business A trustee of Trinity College in
administ ration at Dartmouth's Amos Maine from 196510 1975, Hughes is
Tuck School and Columbia University. survived by his wife, Betty; a daugh"
He served in the U.S, Navy ter, Diane Young, of Red Lodge,
from 1940 to 1945, and during Montana; a son, Brian, of Houston;
World War II rose to the rank of and six grandchildren. Martin Filler
RECORD NEWS NOTED
Caroline Baumann has been
named the acting director of the
Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt.
National Design Museum, in
New York City. She replaces Paul
Warwick Thompson, who has taken
a job as rector at London's Royal
College of Art.
Jeffrey L. Bruce, a Missouri'
based landscape architect, is the
new chairman of Green Roofs for
Healthy Cities. The Toronto'based
group, founded in 1999, aims to
increase awareness about the eco'
nomic, social, and environmental
benefits of "living architecture."
The AlA is accepting proposals
through September 1 for its Upjohn
Research Inttlatlve, a program
that provides funding for applied
research projects. Four grants, be'
tween $15,000 and $30,000, will
be awarded. Visit aia.org/practicing/
research/ for more information.
C
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I Record News Online
r:l RUd lht complete ver sions o' these stor ies. alonQ wi t h dai ly from media sour ces arOl,lnd I he world. al
arc hlt ectur.I,ecord.com/n'''I.
It appears that frank Gehry is finding fertile
ground in New Orleans. In addition to designing
a duplex for Brad Pitt's Make It R10ht project,
Gehry has teamed with urban planner and ar tist.
Robert Tannen, t o create a modular shotgun
house (above). The duo's concept. dubbed Mod
Gun, is an expansion of a one-room. emergency'
housing prototype that Tannen designed in 2008
as an alternative to the typical F'EMA trai ler.
Shawn Kennedy
On July 8, the AlA Chicago foundation an-
nounced that Chicago-based David Woodhouse
Architects has won a competition to create a
memorial for Daniel Burnham. The project is part
of the Burnham Plan Centennial Celebration
honoring the legacy of Burnham and his 1909 Plan
of Chicago, Ihe first comprehensive planning docu-
design a temporMy pavilion. The Japan-based
SANAA designed this year's installalion; it opened
on July 12 and will be up through October 19.
A/eksandr Bierig
Amanda Levete, the former wile and business
partner 01 the late Czech architect Jan Kaplicky,
has formed a new firm that will carryon the
eKploratory spirit of their celebrated ruture
Systems office. The U.K.-based Amanda Lente
Architects has 35 employees and commissions
ranging from the new
l ondon headquart ers
for Rupert Murdoch's
media empire to a
mammoth IUKury hotel
and shopping mall in
Bangkok, Thailand
(left). David Dillon
r&s Partners, a Dallas-based firm that special-
izes in the design of educational, recreational, and
religious projects, has merged with SmilhGroup. No
jobs will be eliminated allhe 4Qperson Texas firm,
ment guiding the growth of an American city. While wtlich was founded in 1962 as FIsher and Spillman
the memorial still needs public approval. it Is slaled Archite<ls. Jenna M. McKnight
to be bui lt on Chicago's Museum Campus, just
north of Burnham's r ield Museum. Mae Ryan On June 29, the AlA, along with the International
Code Council and the American Society for Testing
r ueled by programs begun in the Great Depression, and Materials, announced their intent to create an
sprawl has been the dominant mode of residen- International Green Construction Code. The new
tial development in the US. for decades_ But the code aims to cover all aspects of sustainability in
current recession and credit freeze, coupled with the built environment, from rooling to ventilation
high-energy prices, have prompted a reassessment. strategies, drawi ng from existing standards to ere-
Ted Smalley Bowen ate one universal code. Bruce BuckleV
The AlA is regaining
stewardship of a nation-
al architectural trea-
sure; the 21O-year-old
Octagon building (left)
in Washington, D.C.ln
an agreement announced on July 9, the build-
ing's current owner, the American Architectural
four'ldat lon, will transfer the deed 10 AlA Legacy,
the nonprofit arm of the inst itute. The AAr will
remain in the three'story brick building for the
foreseeable future. Jenna M. McKnight
Each year, the Serpentine Gallery in London's
Kensington Gardens invites an internationall y
known architect with no prior work in the U.K. to
After showing gains in recent months, Ihe
Architectural Billings Index dropped t o 37.7 in
June. The inquiries score was 53.8. " It appears as
though we have not yet reached the bottom of this
construction downturn," says Kermit Baker, the
AlA's chiel economist. Jenna M. McKniOht
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CIRCLE 19
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The emerging architect
archrecord2
---
3.1 Phillip Lim, New
York City, 2007 Tliis
),ooO-5</llIIre-/ool
bOil rique juxtaposes
old and new, inc/udes
II C011li111101l$ wall of
s/lIcked oak flooring,
II douhle-lldg/If lower
sllOwroom reac/Jed by
II wncrete stair, wllite
laruinate SIIrfaces, and II
cast-iron railing.
Tacklebox
Finding the tools to create enticing environs for the art and design worl d, and then some
Growing up in Roanoke, Virginia, Jeremy Barbour says architecture was never on his radar. Now the
principal of three-year-old New York City-based firm Tacklebox, as well as a teacher at Columbia's School
01 Architecture (where he received his master's) and Parsons The New School For Design, he lives and
breathes it. He credits one professor in particular for taking him from experimenting with architecture to
obsessed. "I took a class at Virginia Tech with Pia Sarpaneva," says Barbour, "and she really inspired me to
understand that the possibilities with architecture, despite the parameters, were endless."
'.
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If one professor put him on the path to design,
it was the whole educational experience that kept
him going. "The reality is that I never wanted to leave
school," says Barbour. "But I couldn't afford to stay
there." Barbour did st ay in New York City, and ended
up working for two small firms in succession. "I knew I
wanted to eventually work for myself, though. I wanted
to be in the position to set up my own constraints."
As luck would have it. a fashion designer friend
needed a small apartment renovation. Bar bour
jumped off the diving board, as he says, and took on
the project under the name Tacklebox. "For me: he
says, "your tacklebox is the place you keep your tools.
It seemed fitting."
His next project, the flagship bout ique for cloth-
ing designer Phillip Lim in New York City's SoHo, really
launched Tacklebox into the design realm. "If I had
known who he waS,1 would have been too nervous," says Barbour,
who admits that Lim didn't really know who Barbour was, either,
but trusted him. "He's opened a lew stores around the world
now," Barbour notes, "and he always hires untested architects to
design them.lthink he appreciates that spark of creativity that
comes with just starting out. For me, he said, 'This is your project
don't mess it up:" The shop, with its wall of stacked flooring, rna
chined and precisely placed, juxtaposed wi t h old SoHo elements,
such as a cast-iron railing and whi te plaster walls, is just the right
venue to feature Lim's Modern yet classic design aesthetic.
"I've been so lucky to have clients in the design world," says
Barbour, noting that such clients often believe in the vision of an-
other creative person, and trust it. He mentions a current project
a small shop in Red Hook, Brooklyn, for a couple of soap manufac-
08.09 Architutural Ruoul 29
1/1
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I archrecord2
A poster for 11 conference
on Ihe lOrllllnniversary
of rllt' fall of the Berlin
lVall shows IlIt image
of conslruaion cmnes
cropped by Il yellow
bant!, IIIue/llike II
lempomry wall around
a blli/ding sile (above).
30 Architu luml Ru or" 08.09
lurers who call their business Saipua. "They do everything by hand, and inspired by that. I've created a box
within a box for them where they can play." Knowing people in the New York design world has given Barbour
another edge. Despite the fact that Tacklebox, which has employed as many as five people but is currently
down to two, is working on a couple of commercial projects, it hasn't been enough work to keep Barbour
busy during the economic downturn of the past year. "I found myself with some time on my hands, so I took
a look at what I had around me, and who I could collaborate with," he says about rummaging in his prover'
bial tacklebox. Barbour found that he had an in with the design press, and a talented artist friend who,like
Barbour, was interested in "finding the surprising in the commonplace." With Andrew Woodrum, Barbour
started an accessories business called Box and Flea. "We make silk'screened bags and accessories that are
Palimpsest, New York City, unbullt
A co"slmcted field of "esle,i II nilS
bll/mlces Ihe verliwlily of liIis dllnce-
performllnce splICe (ent fY""IY, left).
Performers lind audience interaCI in
lliis volume of sllspen,ied movement.
Ml/dtw
Mixing architect ure and graphics
both useful and beautiful." Will Box and Flea bring Barbour away
from architecture? "Not a chance," he insists, saying that the ac-
cessories line is a "meditative thing to work on on the weekends.
First and foremost, it's architecture that gets me up in the morn-
ing." In fact, he says that by making the rounds with his Box and
Flea products, he's met potential clients in other designers and
store owners. A useful box of tackle, indeed. Ingrid Spencer
Detroit-based architectural designer Christian Unverzagt was doing
interdisciplinary work before he knew t he phrase. As a skateboard-
ing teenager in the 1980s. he says, "We hod 10 create our own
landscape, so I would design and build backyard ramps. And I would
design the flyers to raise money for them. I was producing a brand."
The do-il-all-yourself attitude accompanied him to
academe. In his senior year at the University of Michigan College of Architecture and Urban Planning,
Unverzagt coedited the in-house journal Dimensions and learned typography from a fellow staller. The
following year, 1995, the college launched the Michigan Architecture Papers (MAP), which documents
important annual lect ures. Unverzagt , st ill living in Ann Arbor, served as t he founding designer. Even
during a five-year stint in Los Angeles - he would return as a member of the facul t y in 1999 - he has
always had some involvement in that book series, and today he serves as t he advisor to Dimensions
and creat ive director of the coll ege, renamed for donor A. Alfred Taubman also in 1999. "For me, print
work, whether it was a poster or a book, was an oppor t unity to get something made," Unverzagt says of
incorporating graphic work into his career. "The material quality of the paper, the ink, the manufacturing
process -there was a desire to learn from people who could make t he sluff, I was figuring oul where I
could int ervene, and it set a tone for working with fabricators later on."
As at Taubman College, Unverzagt embraces graphic design at M1/dt w, t he studio he founded wi t h
now-Iormer-par tner Chris Benfield in 1999. MAP 10: Diller + Scofidio, printed in 2004, represents one
high point of Unverzagt's materialist approach to
graphic design. The imposition, or the folding of
a press sheet, inspired Unverzagt to design MAP
10 as a press sheet rather than a book; it can be
unfolded and read according to each user's wishes.
Unverzagt bridges the disciplines, too. MlI
dtw's first architecture project, a Detroit radio
station's reception and conference spaces built
entirely by hand, demonstrates that fearless at-
titude to fabrication. The renovat ion 01 the local
at hlet ic facility Nort hwest Activities Center centers
on an intuitive wayfinding system requiring only red
For Pekoe & Joe, II wli paint and pictograms, while a more recent transformat ion of a Kentucky Fried
in IVaterford, /.--lidligan , Chicken into the cafe Pekoe & Joe included the new company's graphic identity.
MI/dtw transformed To architect s considering leveraging themselves by working in relaled
II former KFC (left) disciplines, Unverzagt will point out that typography is intrinsicall y linked to
inlo a modun social architectural drawing (think of labeling). In that vein, he explains, "We dont just
hub (abow), complete ask,ls this an architecture project or a graphics project? We try t o use design to
witli brand identity (md explore certain issues, and to add value to our clients' missions:' David Sokol
graphic element, ,uch II,
,ignage and mellll>. I:J For more work by these desiQners visit. architecturatrecord.comJarchrecord2.

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Connect the dots: Dubai, labor,
urbanism, sustainability, and the
education of architects
Earlier this year, I was in the
Emirates to give a lecture and
was invited to visit the school of
archi tecture where one of my hosts
taugh\. Segregated by gender, the
place was a Foucault fantasy made
concrete. On one side of the build"
ing lay the st udios and classrooms
for women students and on the
other - in mirror image - the rooms
for the men. Between them were
faculty offices, all 01 which had t wo
doors, one to each side. The dean -
natty in Armani - explained to me
(as if the whole thing made sense)
thaI the office doors were locked on
t he women's side on Mondays and
those on the men's opened so mal e
students could enter lor meetings.
On Tuesdays, the configuration
was reversed. When my colleague
proposed an academic exchange, I
demurred, unwilling t o contemplate
the discriminatory logistics.
In June - t he 40th anniver-
sary of my college graduation - I
thought back to those halcyon days
and remembered that one of t he
reasons I chose the college I did
was for its "co-educat ion." As a
progressive-minded teen, I thought
it was absurd that places like Yale
and Princeton were simply for boys:
I couldn't imagine living in such a
weird environment for four years,
marinating in a pool of upper-crust
testosterone. This recollection ar-
rested my bien pensant liberal bile
at the Gulf school's setup, reminding
me t hat it wasn't long ago that our
Contributing editor Michael Sorkin
direct, the Ijrban de,ign program at
City College of New York.
Critique
By Michael Sorkin
No, this Is not a model; It's the view from a hlqh-rlse hot el of a sprawllnq
new development In Oubal where odd Juxtapositions abound.
most prestigious universities were depressing. The bubble has burst
predicated on an even more extreme in a big way and craning towers-
form of gender separation. A litlle including a fairly fabulous-looking
of my self-righteousness ebbed, not rendition of the world's tallest
at the thing itself but at the idea that - stand incomplet e and empty,
such an arrangement was cast in blowing zillions of BTUs to keep the
stone and intractabl e. Indeed, we use square miles of carpet cool to off
such notions to demonize the Muslim gas undisturbed. And yet , down t he
other, as unsusceptible to change, road in Abu Dhabi, Masdar city rises,
forever fixed in its ways. as lavish an experiment in urban
sustainability as any on earth.
The bubble has burst While the planetary implica-
The Gulf states offer profligate tions of the region's potlatch of
lessons in uneven rates of mod-
ernization and change and serve
as a mus.eum of the weird cultural
forms that come from their extreme
hybridity: The Guggenheim and
the mosque; the megamall and the
burka. You know the drill. Dubai is,
of course, the locus classicus of this
over-the-top style, and my recent
visit was both jawdropping and
(mostly) antisustainable practices
are clear, the fallout from the crash
has far sadder implications. The
economies of the Gulf are enabled
by imported labor, and most of these
states have populations that are at
least 80 percent foreign. And when
jobs disappear, so must their hold
ers. Weve all read the tales about
the laidoff expats abandoning their
---
leveraged Mercedes in the airport
parking lot as they split for home.
The story making the rounds during
my visit was about the Bangladeshis
and other South Asians who form
the backbone of the construction
industry and who work in conditions
of near servitude. Made redundant
in massive numbers, many are too
humiliated and desperate to let their
home villages - dependent on their
regular remittances to survive-
know that they are unemployed and
are too fearful to reappear empty
handed. While it may be an urban
legend, the tale being told was about
workers standing by the highway,
waiting for the approach of a fast and
expensive car, and throwing them-
selves under the wheels in the hope
that some of the insurance might
find its way back to their families.
Intimate links
I repeat this story not to belabor the
cruelties of the Guif"s capitofeudal
system but t o evoke its ragingly
complex dynamism, the intimate
links so visible between culture,
environment, development, and
human success. The segregated
architect ure school in t he midst of
the most fabulous display on the
planet of what currently passes for
architectural "invention; and the
downside miseries this volatility en-
genders, suggest more fundamental
issues for the condition of architec-
ture, how we conceive of it, and how
we convey its values. This is not a
random collection of observations
raised to clarity by the designated
weirdness of this particular place,
but a summary of the expanded site
08.09 Arc/,j/aluml RUG"I 33
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design and planning: it stands, in
theory, for a more holist ic view 01 t he
equipment of anyone who aspires
to take an active role in shaping the
environment and the indispensability planet. One solution is to give each
of an integrated perspective in think" student entering a school 01 design
of architecture's production: educa" planning, and landscape. These ing about projects that exceed the a common grounding on which to
lion, finance, construction, culture, ossified rigidities seem increasingly architectural scale. And it suggests build later specialization. This would
place, sustainabilitv, history, politics. incapable of coming to grips with a strategy of inclusion, rather than include rigorous introductions to the
We have not moved swiftly the real state of the planet. an endless consideration of what the environment and natural systems,
enough to embody such conscious- There are some small signs disciplines are not. Still, from the per- deep immersion in the social and
ness and knowledge in architectural of movement, especially in the spective of education, it feels a little economic modes of production of
education, and Dubai stands as stirrings of fungibility on the part of like rearranging the deck chairs while the built world, and a vivid ground-
a particularly clear object les' planning and landscape. Although preserving distinctions that have ing in the global histories of physical
son in our own confusion: This is I run a program in urban design, I outlived their usefulness. As environ- responses to the question of habita'
an environment designed by the have a fundamental disbelief in any mentalism becomes more and more tion at every scale.
world's best and brightest. and for
many, a paradigm of global inevi-
tableness. The fetish for form that
has characterized the profession
and the schools for the past few
decades has slighted much more
urgent matters, and it will come
as no surprise to regular readers
of this column that issues of the
environment and social justice
(linked inextricably) are those I feel
must foreground both the ideology
and the pedagogy of contemporary
architecture. Just as gender-segre'
unitary discourse of the city and try the central authority for all design,
to offer access to many. Originally why retain any boundaries at all? New kinds of schools
conceived as a way of recuperat- I've been dreaming about a Providing this foundation will take
ing physical design from a planning school of design that takes the unity, time. Just as so many undergraduate
profession that had fallen in thrall to not the autonomy, of disciplines architecture programs are formulae
the social sciences, urban design is as its predicate. a way of opening for fundamental illiteracy (too much
often taught simply as big building the field to the real possibility of time spent learning structures and
and fixates excessively on his- its diversity. Our boldest experi- CAD, none on Shakespeare, Oceanic
THE OSSIFIED RIGIDITIES OF ARCHITECTURAL
EDUCATION ARE UNABLE TO COME TO GRIPS
WITH THE REAL STATE OF THE PLANET.
art. or The Tale of Genji), so this reo
form of the design curriculum carries
risks. If the years devoted to educa-
tion aren't expanded, then some'
thing crucial must be eliminated. Or
we can begin to think that design
gated education must be inter- toric patterns. But urbanism's most ments haven't gotten us too far. education might be dedicated to
rogated, so the received organi- desperate needs devolve on the The Bauhaus focused. in varying producing activists who are prepared
zational formats of architectural new morphologies of sustainability degrees, on social production but either to step into the design environ-
education need to be questioned and equity that an exponentially retained disciplinary compartments ment in a literate and engaged way
and revised. Having taught in doz- urbanizing world so urgently needs. and continued to see architecture as or to continue to deepen a particular
ens of schools and visited hundreds, The urban population increases at the eternal mother. It had indifferent specialization. I don't argue that the
I remain struck by the antique the rate of a million people a week ideas about the city and virtually professions must die as autonomous
model of the design disciplines that and, to me at least, that means that nothing to say about the environ- pursuits. rather that we recognize-
still informs education: variations we need to create numerous new men!. More idiosyncratic, home- with new kinds of degrees and new
on the trivium of architecture. cities on an urgent basis, cities that grown experiments like Taliesin or kinds of schools - their deep com-
34 Arc/littCI"mIRu",,108.09
are able to provide Arcosanti also fixated too much on mon basis and the need for new and
for themselves and the leading role of architecture (and refreshed syntheses.
provide rich lives to the infallibility of their particular Received writ prescribes isolat-
diverse populations. popes), and were passionately un' ing the men from the women at that
The emergence of scientific, though they did have deep school in the Gulf without any partic-
"landscape urbanism" commitments to craft and the earth. ularly satisfying arguments - beyond
as a position, if not a Alas, architecture's historic and dan' obedience or human frailty - and so
discipline, is a hopeful gerous conflation of megalomania does it keep our own practices and
sign. Not simply does with the big scale led them to social people apart. Witness the appalling
the conceit represent and organizational dead ends. state of the earth; we clearly need to
the rejection of a hard Our divided professions educate designers differently. This
boundary between the tenaciously guard their turf and will mean focusing on what brings us
practices of landscape look disdainfully at neighboring together rather than what keeps us
architecture and urban disciplines. How tiresome this is! apart. Designers should be equipped
Oubal (left) presents
visitors with a stlll-
evol ving skyline
of the lat est and
sometimes craziest
architectural forms.
While I am not suggesting that each with the knowledge of what makes
designer be an impossibly learned a building sustainable, what drives
polymath, I am arguing that the construction workers to despair,
common ethical and environmental what makes the city humane. what
basis for design is becoming more deepens our connection to the land-
and more apparent and more and scape. what gives us a sense of real
more urgently part of the necessary connection to each other. _
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CIRCLE 24
Three ways of looking at
contemporary China
In the Chi nese City: Perspectives
on the Transmutations of an Em-
plre, by rrederic Edelmann, Barce'
lona: Actar, 2008, 300 pages, $50.
Architecture of Modern China:
A Historical Critique, by Jianfei Zhu.
New York: Routledge, 2009,
336 pages, $63.
Caochanqdi: Beijinq Inside Out,
by Robert Manqurian, Mary-Ann Ray,
Pi Li, Darien Williams. Hong Kong:
Timezone 8, 2009, 389 pages, $40.
Books
Whi le the content may
have worked as an exhibition
- its previous incarnation
- it raises more questions
than it answers as a bound
volume. Statements like,
"In fact, urban planning is a
new concept for the Middle
Kingdom," makesinolo-
gists wince (that term was
last used seriously in the
19th century, when China
was part of the "Orient"), Did the
author intend to produce this exotic
distance? Jianfei Zhu's 2004 book
from different time lones and dist inct Chinese Spatial Strategies: Imperial
epistemologies, these three recent Beijing 1420-1911 confirms that
books narrate China's experiments urban planning had been advancing
with architecture and city building. in China since the formation of its
Jianfei Zhu, addressing China's oldest imperial cities. Edelmann's
continuing search for meaningfUl collection erects a theoretical
architecture from Melbourne, blends facade to validate generalizations
Iheory with the insight 01 a local. by non'China experts. But just lor
Edelmann presents glimpses 01 the added legitimacy, there are a few
different moving parts that make up specialists thrown in, and their foot-
China's urban culture. Mangurian and noted chapters with references to
Ray, et ai, set up shop in an urban vil- Chinese source materials stand out.
lage and let the city speak for itself. Zhu's Architecture of Modern
Defining China is not unlike China: A Historical Critique is sell-
being lost and asking for directions described as "a formalized response
until you get close to your destina- to this demand to know and explain
lion. Each of these books asks ques' the phenomenon that is modern
tions, but whom do they ask, and do Chinese architecture." Consisting
they ask the right questions? of essays developed since the
Edelmann's guiding query is, 1990s, Zhu's book concludes that
"What is the real China?" as op- the modernity of the West played
posed to what he defines as the "in- a pivotal role in that of China,
accessible" China promulgated by but emphasizes how modernity's
sinologists. They put this question to transformative powers affected
like'minded thinkers all interested in China in site-specific terms. Aptly,
Ihe illusive "reaL" The question the Zhu weaves throughout his text
reader should ask is, what are the traces of Oeleuze and Guattari's A
credentials of t hese contributors? Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and
Should we Google them? Schizophrenia (1987), a critique
--
of modernity. Zhu employs their
conception of nomadism to demo
onstrate how discrete changes in
notions of spatial perception and
materialization emerge to express
broader shifts within the intricate
fabric of Chinese culture.
The rewards for getting through
all this theory are the charts at the
end of the book. As Zhu writes, "The
intention here .. , is to visualize and
spatialize history .... " Translation:
These are really cool graphs. They
brilliantly clarify tendencies particular
to modern Chinese architecture-
evidence of an alternative Modernism
we are just beginning tounderstand.
Caochangdi: 8eijing Inside Out
is a perfect example. like SOD-plus
other urban villages in and around
Beijing, Caochangdi exists and
thrives under the radar of planning
authorities. According to residents
of the vill age, the authors included,
this precarious floating city within a
city is the perfect locale to build your
dream house. This is the informal
China, which, by the way, is not new
to Chinese urbanity. Many 01 these
urban villages were historically
semiautonomous and slightly out-
side the gaze of officialdom. With the
---
introduction of market policies under
Oeng Xiaoping in the 1980s, many of
these areas reverted to their more
spont aneous natures. Mangurian
and Ray, et al, conclude, while living
in this "shadow city" (Neuwirth
2006), that it may "contain the DNA
for creative and unexpected alterna-
tives to the normat ive forms 01 city
growth and change."
A chapter entitled "Mounds"
tells the story of the piles of dirt,
sand, and gravel that make up
Caochangdi. Junkspace is so 1990s.
Welcome to moundspace: All of
Caochangdi is one giant construction
site. When the authors reposition our
gaze away from Architecture, they
reveal multiple architectures - often
informal and built without permits.
Someday soon this epoch of con-
stant construction will be over; the
mounds will be gone. We still have no
idea what the end result will be, what
the architecture will look like, or even
how architecture as a profession will
be involved. Mangurian, Ray, et ai, as
architects, have largely documented
the complete absence of professional
architecture, stressing the more
prevalent. informal street architec-
ture of the people. Guy Horton
08.09 Archi/u/uml Ruonl 37
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Understanding megatrends
helps firms plan for the future
Practice Matters
By B.J_ Novitski
---
"II's tough to make predictions, firms. Fully one third 01
especially aboullhe future," wisely loday's AEC workforce
opined Baseball Hall of Farner Yogi are 50 or older, Kogan
Berra. In these days of economic reports. In the next
turmoil, construction industry 15 years, those in the
observers may wish they had made 55 to 64-year age
better predictions. Might there have range will increase
been ways t o avoid the downturn, by nearly 50 percent,
or at least mitigate its effect on
architecture firms? According to
Mclean, Virginia-based consul-
tant Raymond Kogan, AlA, looking
ahead by projecting major industry
trends can help firms avoid being
fatally blindsided by future events.
Better yet, anticipating what's com-
ing can reveal new opportunities
for profitable work.
Most of the trends that Kogan
suggests firms should be al ert for
are driven by demographic factors.
Looking at population statistics,
while those in the
33- to 54year range
will decrease by 6
percent. Exacerbating
this boomer bulge is
the fact that younger
architects are usually
the first to be laid off
during recessions, and
others are shying away
from the relatively low-
paid profession. Some
of the entry-level work,
traditionally the do
sible or pro bono work.
Ironically, it is just this
pool of potential future
leaders that is suf-
fering the most from
current layoffs.
To tap the under-
appreciated pool of
talented women for
advancement. a firm
would do well to note
gender differences un-
covered by the "Future
Leaders Focus," a
survey conducted by
the humanresources
consulting firm HR
Advisors Group. While
men are motivated by
pay rate, a 40lK plan,
and the opportunity
for ownership, the sur-
both at home and abroad, can yield main of interns, has been relegated fit. Equally disruptive, he says, is vey found women care more about
insights about how to run your prac- to overseas drafting factories. leadership falling to a committee. coworkers, the commute, paid time
tice and where your next job might Consequently, there's a smaller pool To avoid these problems, cur- off, office amenities, and schedule
come from. For instance, if you know of well-trained, midcareer architects rent firm leaders should think ahead flexibility. To make a firm attractive
there was a baby boom 60 years ready to take the helm when today's to developing the skills in junior staff for future women leaders, then, it
ago, you can guess there will soon be boomer principals retire. that will ensure the future of the may need to consider what benefits
retirements in your firm and a higher And the younger architects firm. Sometimes this might involve it offers workers.
demand for elder housing. (But have not necessarily been encour a decision to skip a generation and
some trends Kogan advises firms to aged to develop business and target the youngest individuals for Changing opportunit ies
become familiar with depend less on leadership skills. Kogan observes: leadership development. In addition Just as firm principals are retiring,
population changes - sust ainability, "A founder-principal may be an to explicitly budgeting time and so too are millions of other baby
integrated project delivery, and
building information modeling.)
Changing firms
On the home front there are dis-
turbing statistics about the demo-
graphic makeup of U.s. architecture
B./. Novitski about architt"ctllmi
pmctice alld She call be
rcached at bjll@e[II.org.
entrepreneurial person who has money for training, such a program
held things pretty close to the vest requires an understanding of what
and hasn't done an adequate job makes the younger generations
of grooming successors: One re- tick [see "Making the Most of Your
course is to sell the firm; another is Firm's Millennials," RECORD, August
to hire an outsider to lead the firm. 2008, page 65]. To make a firm at-
But putting the reins of power in the tractive for young people to inherit,
hands of someone not familiar with there may need to be shifts toward
the firm can be risky. Kogan knows greater technical sophistication,
of firms that hired a c.E.0. from the sustainable design as the norm, and
outside who turned out to be a poor a commitment to socially respon-
boomers. Many of them, who popu-
lated sprawling suburbs while raising
families, are choosing to relinquish
maintenance-intensive suburbia
and commuteintensive lifestyles in
favor of urban living. Inner cities all
over the country are experiencing
gentrification, and architects are
finding work redeveloping formerly
industrial areas, such as the Pearl
District in Portland, Oregon, adding
08.09 Arc/,italumi Record 39
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I Practice Matters
industrialized nations, the greatest
growth can be expected in develop-
ing countries. The key to finding in-
ternational job prospects in a global
ways, and who works where will
depend, in part, on how fast various
countries recover from the current
recession. Kogan is beginning to
attractive upscale lofts and con- Southern California megaregion, for economy, according to Kogan, is to see foreign-funded public-private
dominiums. This shift of the older instance, will stretch continuously find those places where population partnership projects in the United
population into the urban cores will from San Diego to San l uis Obispo. growth and available resources States. For instance, a county court-
also require an increase in health- Except for the Great lakes and intersect. China has a very low birth house in California is being funded
care support and assisted-living Northeast regions, populations will rate due to its one-child policy, while by a deep-pocketed foreign investor
facilities. This might suggest a firm concentrate in the south and west. India's remains high. He expects and designed by an American
will find more future work in geron- The National Committee for America future opportunities to be found in architecture firm. On completion,
tological facilities than in schools. At 2050 is predicting about 130 million Mumbai and Delhi, not Shanghai or the developer will lease the building
the same time, large'scale retailers additional Americans by then, chal- Beijing. Support for U.S. architects to the county government. "As long
are beginning to abandon suburban lenging architects and planners to interested in breaking into overseas as local and state governments are
malls and "'big boxes," which will cry make thoughHulland'use decisions work is available from the AlA's short on funds, it will be an expedi-
out for creative repurposing. that will respond to future popula' International Committee and the ent way for them to get things built,"
The organization America tion pressures while protecting the International Union of Architects. Kogan explains.
2050 has identified eleven "mega- environment. Firms looking ahead Even firms working strictly on In advising clients, Kogan
regions" in the United States where to this future landscape might want domestic projects can be affected encourages a long view on how
they predict most of the nation's to hone their skills in high'density, by globalization. Kogan reports a changing world will affect their
population and economic growth sustainable design, for instance. that about one in five firms have firm. He says: "Too many firms tend
will be concentrated over the next outsourced low'cost, low-level work
40 years. Rural life will become Chanqinq the qlobe offshore, primarily to accommodate
increasingly rare as cities expand, The global population is also becom- workload fluctuations. Might there
blurring boundaries between them, ing more urban. Last year, for the be a future danger of clients looking
and forming "'large networks of first time in human history, over abroad for higher-level services
metropolitan regions, each covering half of all people lived in cities. But as well? The global exchange of
thousands of square miles." The because the birth rate is dropping in architectural services works both
to keep their heads in the sand.
Some have been blindsided by this
economic downturn. lifting your
head up and looking at these major
trends is not only a self-protection
mechanism, but it allows you to see
and capitalize on opportunities." _
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BY ROBERT IVY, FAIA
Ask who has built the essential Southern
California house, and the answer for many
Cali fornia architects will be Ray Kappe. His
own 1967 home in Pacific Palisades consists
of seven levels perched on a hillside with a
funning stream, capt uring the air and light of
a green canyon sited blocks from the ocean.
I met the 1951 graduate of the University of
California at Berkeley and his wife Shelly on a
spring day to talk about Kappe's remarkable
career, which has combined residential
architecture, urban deSign, education, and
the pragmatics of design and construction.
Kappe has served as a mentor to
generations of California architects through
his role as a teacher and educational leader.
Despite not havinq planned to become a
teacher, he founded two architectural
proqrams: California PolytechniC State
UniverSity (Cal Poly) at Pomona, where he
started the architecture department in 1968;
and SCI-Arc, the Los Anqeles school that he
initiated in 1972 and headed until 1987.
After a career of achievement -
which, for Kappe, includes the AIA/ACSA
42 ArchireClur<> / Record 08.09
RECORD's editor in chief Robert Ivy talks wi th
Ray Kappe, FAIA, a master of Cal ifornia
Mldcentury Modernism who has shown
resilience In recent years, adapt ing to advances
In prefabrication and sustainable bUilding
1990 Topaz Medal - his restless mind
continues to produce new work. With
LivinqHomes, Kappe has designed the fi r st
modular, prefabricated LEED Platinum
house, built in 2006. Other Kappe desiqns
for LivingHomes have followed. He has also
taken part in Brad Pitt's "Make It Riqht"
proqram for the Ninth Ward in New Orleans.
(The following interview was edited by
contributing editor Andrea Oppenheimer
Dean, who expanded the transcript after
follow-up telephone talks with Kappe.)
Was prefabbing the LEED-Platinum house your
Idea, or was It part 01 a UvlngHomes concept?
RAY KAPPE The prefab and modular ideas
were mine. We've got another dozen houses,
simi lar to the one in Santa Monica, ready to qo
but held up by planninq agencies.
What about the Santa Monica house's costs?
They seem pretty high.
RK I only do the preliminary desiqn. Someone
else calls around for materials, which I
incorporate into my desiqn and approve.
According to LivinqHomes, the ecofriendly
features added about 20 percent to the
S250-per-square-foot cost of the house. But
the prefab construction reduced stick-built
building costs by 20 to 30 percent. Prefab
also offers savings in construction time, which
means money. But the only way prefab can
become really economicallycompelitive is if
you build in larqe volumes.
People are beginnlnq to equate prefab and green
construction. Is prefab inherently green?
RK When you build in the factory, you have
much less waste of materials than in on-site
construction. It's possible to have better
quality control, and there can be fewer risks
to the laborers.
How did you first become Interested in
modular design and the ability to replicate
architecture?
RK I was always interested in multiple housing,
and so when I started my own practice in 1953,
it was about Irying to figure out systems that
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would be more economical. I was just building
responsible architecture. I was one of a group
of young architects who were out to change
the mentality of people after World War II. We
were more interested in doinq new things
than competing with each other. Those were
di fferent times.
I was more involved with construc-
tion than many architects, and with subcon-
t ractors. The AlA frowned on it, arguing t hat
if you handled both design and construction
you couldn't give t he client adequate
service. I t houqht just the opposite. Design-
build places you closer to the process.
How did the environmental movement of
the '70s affect the design of your houses?
RK Under the prescriptive standards here
in California, initially you could only have a
20 percent ratio of glass to floor area. My
houses had 60to 70 percent glass and hardly
any insulation. As a test, I asked some of the
owners to save energy bills for a year, and I
found my houses were more energy efficient
than louver houses wit h much less glass.
In the seminal 1965 Kappe House, staggered exterior
massing (bottom left) reflects a complex interior that
rigorously divides spaces Into different programmatic
zone s (left and below). Thi s articulated openness,
combined with climate and site sensitivity, embodies
Kappe's particular genre of " warm" Modernism.
I experimented wi t h building
envi ronmentally responsible houses that
were almost opposite f rom the one'mentality
type you find in New Mexico and Arizona,
where they built into the ground with thick
walls. They all looked alike. I was buildi ng on
different terrain; I rotated various por tions
and used active solar inqredients with a
passive solar system. DeSigning energy-
conserving buildings didn't really change the
look of my buildings. I was just buildi ng
responsible architecture; that's t he way I
always felt about it.
Can you describe the process of starting the
program at Cal Poly and founding SCI-Arc?
RK I had been teaching at USC for a couple
of years by 1967 when Bernard Zimmerman,
a landscape architect at Cal Poly, asked me
to start an architecture proqram there. I
figured I'd be t here for five years; I had no
intention of making a career of education.
I'm a pragmatist. I don't spend a lot of time
contemplating what I'm going to do next. I
just liked the idea of setti ng up a program
and seei nq what would happen.
The program, as I set it up, had
landscape pl anning in architecture, and we
taught the two disciplines toget her. I thought
architects should understand the land and the
environment better. I brought Thorn Mayne
and Jim St afford on to teach that approach.
later, when we were moving in that direction,
Thorn insisted you can't do good design and
energy stuff at the same time. Today, of
course, he's come full circle.
You left Cal Poly in a dustup with the dean in
'72 and founded SCI-Arc. What were your
original goals for SCI-Arc?
RK When the dean asked me to resign from
Cal Poly in '72 - after I called him a liar and
worse - it caused a brouhaha at the school.
The faculty had meetings with the students
and decided, "Why not start our own school?"
It was like a happening. Of the 350 students,
150 signed up for what we at fi r st called the
New School. Once t he parents got wind of
things, that number dropped to 50, but by the
fall 25 more students - who were interested in
08.09 Ar<hireclI4Tl!1 Recoul 43
a free, open school- had signed up.
I wasn't a crazy maverick. I wanted
to encourage invention, exploration, and
criticism so that students would create better
prOjects. I threw out the usual curriculum and
tried to see what it would be li ke if we started
wide open. During the first few years, the
school explored social and behavioral aspects
of architecture and architectural education.
You have to find your own center. It's important to do
architecture that's comfortable for you, that you feel is a
part of you, not what someone else is doing.
Did the school evolve from the oriQinal Qoals?
AK I'd say that in two years it evolved back to
a fairly normal program. I found that people
go back into their old ways. At the beginning,
I thought I had a group that could become
interested in the things I cared about: urban
issues, number one; technology, of course;
and envi ronmental-response concerns. And
that worked great for about eight years,
until Postmodernism started to dominate
architecture. Some of our faculty, Eric Moss
and Thom Mayne, jumped ship, and then it
became a battle because I wasn't willing to
go that way. By the late '80s, I felt I wasn't
going to win the fight and didn't want to
head a school that I no longer believed in,
so I stepped down as director. I continued
to teach there and at USC, which was more
interested in urban issues than SCI-Arc.
LookinQ back on your career today, do you
have reQrets, unfulfilled desires?
AK I'm essentially totally content. jf I weren't,
I'd be crazy. But timing is everything, and
unfortunately for our firm, 1980 was a killer.
Our city took a turn away from planning
and urban design toward just wanting
implementation. So as a planning firm, we no
longer had work. We'd done a gymnasium for
Loyola University, which was also stopped.
That project would probably have moved us
into bigger-scale work. And by 1981, we broke
up the firm. I could do houses on my own, but
I was never able to get the one building type I
wanted to do, community buildings.
As an observer of the current architectural
world, do you see any Qreat failinQs?
AK I don't think we've ever had as great
Oeslqned f or Llvi ngHomes founder St eve Glenn,
thi s house was built over ei ght hours on April
13th, 2006, from 11 pref abric at ed modules - each
welqhlng an average of 10,000 pounds.
44 ArchireCIU'tl/ Record 08.09
designers as we do now. But in a capitalist
society, I don't think you can get great planning.
I wish we had the hand of a strong
planner to create cities that are just slightly
differentiated yet have an excitement about
them. That's something they do well in Holland
and the Scandinavian countries. Thorn Mayne
is doing some planning stuff at UCLA, but the
solutions are li ke the old Soviet Union.
We've qot two streams today: systems
thinkinq and form-making. What's your
thinking about the latter?
RK To me, form without all the other aspects
isn't total architecture. What bothered
me about Post modernism was not that it
criticized Modernism, but that its responses
weren't good enough. Now, we're going
through a similar process. )t's too much
"me, me, me." Everyone wants to be a prima
donna, to have a big idea - because who
pays attention to small ideas? I think that's
our biggest problem. Frank Gehry is what I
call an additive formalist, by which I mean he
does a dumb building inside and attaches a
piece of something on the outside. Why would
you want to create huge waste just to make
a building do odd formal things? Buildings
li ke his just don't grab me the way those of
masters like Corb, Wright. and Aalto do.
Forced by necessity, the world Is cominq
around to your way of thinkinq aqain.
You' ve been able to fuse form-maklnQ and
environmental concerns. What advice would
you have for younq architects today?
RK You have to find your own center.
It's important to do architecture that's
comfortable for you, that you feel is a part of
you, not what someone else is doing. The green
.,j thing should be a given in the design process.
The dollar shouldn't be the driving force of
your work; it should be a residual. _
View extensive Cldditional material online
at archi tectura I recor d.com/features,
including:
Extended interview text.
A slide show mapping Kappe's career.
E ~ c e r p t from a forthcoming Checkerboard
Productions documentary on his work.
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08.09 Rutml 4"
By Sarah Amelar
P
assengers arriving oy ferry or ocean liner in the French port
of l e Havre have, for decades, sat isfied the urge to step on
t he gas pedal and speed away. This ancient industrial har-
oor, along t he English Channel, has long had a reputation as
a dreary, gritty place. After the city's devastat ion in World War II, it was
reouilt on a tight hudget, largely by architect Auguste Perret, adhering
to his famous dictum: Concrete is beautiful." Despite Perret's talents,
travelers- on trans-Atlantic crossings or en route between the U.K. and
Paris or elsewhere on the Conti nent- rarely felt inspired to linger.
But that may be changing. With the cit y's diminished role as
a ferry transfer point since the Chunnel 's completion, and the obsoles-
cence of ib aging port infrastructure, le Havre has been energetically
reinvent ing itself. The current revitalization aims to t ransform some of
France's oldest docks into a leisure, cultural, and residenti al district, wi t h
both new const ruction and the adapt ive reuse of low-lying warehouses.
On and near le Havre's historic Quai de La Reunion, once
aromatic with coffee cargo, will be two anchor projects by Ateliers Jean
Arciliteclllre writer Sara II Amelllr is a contributing editor at RECORD.
48 Architectural Record 08.09
A. Les Bailll de, Dock>
6. Sea alld SU5laitlllbie
Developlllcm Cellla
The poured-in-place
concrete building, clad
In grldded gun-metal-
graV precast panel s,
echoes the scale and
simple massing 01 the
surrounding struc-
tures. OnlV the playful
openings hint at the
Interior milieu.
1. wbby
2. AqHeoHs spa
,.
Olympic-size
lap pool
4. L<'isIITe pools
s. Solarium
6. Plllyarca
7. Childrell', pools
8. Chllllgillgilrea
9. lI'al<'Tslid,'
Nouvel. The Sea and Sustainable Development Center, anticipated for
2010, will feature a 328-foot-tall tower, and exhibition spaces devoted to
the historic, economic, and environmental significance of this maritime
regi on. It will also house a meteorol ogical station and a restaurant with
panoramic views. But the architect 's companion project, l es Bains des
Docks, directly across an inlet, is already finished, and with spectacular
results- truly, as the French would say, a tour de force.
The $29 mi ll ion les Bains des Docks aquatic center, reimagi nes
the concept of a public pool. On the exterior, the boxy precast-concrete
shell, painted gun-metal gray, echoes the scale and simple massing of
surrounding warehouses. Only the playful composition of rectangular
apertures hints at an interior transcending the ordinary or functional.
Inside the front door and up a run of blanched terrazzo steps,
the pure white interior- animated by daylight, water, and a quasi -
Cubist composi tion of bl ocky three-dimensional forms - hegins to
reveal itself, and the effect is dazzli ng. Beyond the reception desk, atop
the entry stairs, you catch your first ohlique glimpse of a pool, behind
glass. The ultra-white interior (flowing seamlessly into protected exte-
rior spaces within the enveloping shell) features mosaic floors, ceilings,
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and walls of20-by-20-millimeter (about '/. inch) vitreous t iles. These
luminously tra nslucent p(lte de verre squares establish spat ial cont inu-
ity and a module for the 92,570-square-foot building: No t ile was cut.
The same sma ll -scale grid textures the exterior cladding, which
Nouvel originally intended to leave pale and unpigmented. Rut proto-
type panels quickly convinced him "to accentuate the [exterior/interior]
contrast, exploiting the particular and surprising light ofLe Havre," says
Mirco Tardio, principal project architect. The resul ting, dark-skinned
monolith evokes a geode-its stony exterior hiding a partially hollowed
inner realm, lined in geometric crystals.
The radiant , double-height reception zone leads to changing
areas, equally whi te and bathed in sunlight, confirming the initial im-
pression: Miraculously missing are the famil iar traits of public pools-
booming echoes; reeking chlorine; and grungy, windowless, inst itut ion-
al locker rooms. Instead, Nouvel took poetic inspiration from natural
lagoons and Roman baths, offeri ng myriad ways to experience water.
Once you've relinquished your shoes, suited up for swimming,
and crossed the disinfecting-footbath threshold, you're ready to explore
the possibilities. Les Bains offers three major opt ions: recreat ional pools,
. . . :.. .

- -
a
The Ollly splashes of refleetlllq the sky.
eolor ill the III-white Fille qeysers spout
Illterior eome ill water III this lOlle.
the ehlldrell's area Outdoors, I rushlllq
(right) alld with the waterfall (above) of-

blue east of wlter fers hydro-masslge.
-
-
I
an aqueous spa, and dry cardio-fitness areas.
The sequence unfolds through spaces inhabited by water, light,
shadow, and moving bathers. Water and swimmers flow from inside out
and back agai n. An Olympic-size pool- open 10 the sky and surrounded
by ti led decks and walls carved with cubic niches and apertures to tht'
dock lands- offers outdoor use year-round. (In wimer, a warm-water
channel wafts swimmers between indoors and out. ) A waterfall, a superb
hydro-massage, rushes into another outdoor pool.
Inside, following the Roman model, a dozen different options
exist : hot and cold baths, whirlpools, S:lUnas, a Turkish bath, fountains,
sprays, soot hing ~ r a i n , " turbulent jets, and pools spilling into one anoth-
er. r n the area for children and families, a hidden, t ortuous slide offers an
exhilarating plunge, wh ile nearby, a veil of water surrounds a pool, and
fine geysers shoot up from a floor. Here, the only splashes of color appear:
wall , ceiling, and floor cushions resembling giant Starburst chews.
Nouvel's team carefully limited reverberation. Glossy,
stretched-fabric ceilings of varying heights mute noise, as does the
blocky geometry, articulating inti mately scaled areas. Mostly you hear
sounds of water: trick!i ng, gush ing, roaring, trilling, or lapping.
Les Bains appeals simultaneously to the senses of sound, touch,
and sight. Shafts of sunlight filter in, flicker off the water and shi ny ceil-
SO Archi!ectur,,1 Record 08.09
-
A stretched, shiny
white membrane,
forming dropped ceil-
Ings of varylnq heights
(top left), provides
acoustic absorption.
The blocky spatial
composition, creat-
Ing Intimat ely scaled
zones, In the spa area
(left) and throuqhout
the interior, also limits
sound reverberation. A
transparent film, bear-
Ing patterns of light
fIIckerlnq across water,
lines some skylights,
castlnq livel y shadows
on the int erior sur-
faces (top rlqht).
ings, and refract through the translucent tiles. (Nighttime illumination
subtly glows from underwater or semihidden sources overhead.) Sight
lines and apertures offer oblique views between pools, to the sky, or out
to the dock and harbor. In this sanctum of sereni ty, you never lose touch
with the outside world.
But lest you think you've died and gone to swimming heaven, a
few glitches remain. Maintenance of all -white spaces poses obvious chal-
lenges- especially wi th 700 to 2,000 users daily. In high-t ra ffic zones,
not all underfoot grout is pristine, and some floor tiles have come loose.
(Nouvel's and the center's teams are currentl y devising solutions,)
That said, the experience here is extraordinary- firmly an-
chored in Le Havre, yet luring you to float blissfully away. _
ProJed: Les Bains dn Docks,
Le Hav re, France
Architect: Ateliers Jean Nouvel-
Mirw Tardio, lulie Femamlez,
FdixMedina
ConSUltants: SERO (engineering);
AIK/Yann Kersalf (exterior /igllting);
AVEL (acollsrics)
SOURCES
Windows: Pilkington
Mosaic tiles: Trend
fJ To commenl on t llis projed and rat e it . 90 to archltecturalrecord.com/projects.
EO [I"l
By Josephine Minutillo
H
ere we go again- another art museum, another building by
Renw Piano. Wi t h the completion of the Broad Contem-
porary Art Museum in Los Angeles last year and plans for
an overhaul of the Harvard Art /"Iuseum in Boston and a
new branch of the Whitney Museum in New York City proceeding,
the Pritzker Pri ze- winner has enjoyed a near monopoly among archi -
tects for the highly coveted building type, especially here in the U.S. So
much so that interest in the buildings themselves has begun to wane.
Ten years in the making, the new wing at The Art Institute of Chicago
has been caught in the middle oftha! dwindling enthusiasm. Commis-
sioned in 1999, the same )'ear Piano was hired for the High Museum
expansi on in Atlanta [RECORD, November 2005, page 130[, the /"Iod-
ern Wing fi nally opened its doors in May. But given the sheer sizc o(i t,
and its prime location between t he Art Institute's landmark structure
on Michigan A\'enue and the public paradise of Millennium Park, the
new wing is not just another building.
Originally intended as a sma ll addi t ion on t he southern end
of the museum's site, as plans for Millennium Park firmed up, the
building's locat ion shifted to Monroe Street, across from the new civic
center and direcdy facing the Pritzker Pavilion, Frank Gehry's billow-
ing outdoor concert venue. "Having seen the Menil Collection and his
other museums, we knew Piano could make great spaces for art," re-
calls James Wood, the Art Institute's former director. "But he also had
a record as a planner beyond individual buildings . The r., 'lodern Wing
needs to bind the Art Insti tute to the heart of the city."
Along with the move came a much grander bui lding scope,
more than tripling in size, to 264,000 square fe et of pristine galleries
and a sprawling education center, housed within a series of boxy, gl azed
volumes beneath Piano's familiar, natural -light diffusing canopy, or
"flying carpet." Opposite the sculpture terrace and upscale, rooftop res
taurant (amusingly called Terzo PiaI/O, a nod to the archi tect and Italia 11
for third floor), the Nichols Bridgeway- the firs t large-scale footbridge
designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop (RPBW)-reinforces the
visual connection to Millennium Park wi t h a physical access.
RPRW also creates a st rong connection to the historic build-
ings- the original structure designed by the Boston firm Shepley,
Rutan and Coolidge for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposi tion, and
later additions- pulling off a seamless interior t ransition bet ween old
and new despite vast differences ill material and scale. On the exterior,
the new wing's Classicized Modernism pays homage to the Beaux-A rts
building without upstaging it.
Museumgoers who enjoy losing themselves in the art, and in
the museum itself, are best advised to visit the older buildings, whose
galleries were completely reorganized and thoughtfully renovated with
the expansion. Piano's highly rational, modular galleries are too com-
partmentalized to allow for that sort of aimless wandering. But the new
building does take cues from its predecessors. The atrium like Griffin
Court matches, in spirit at least, the Grand Staircase that welcomes
visi tors at the Michigan Avenue entrance. [t far surpasses it, though, in
breadth. Running the length of the new building, the soaring, double-
height, skylit volume serves as the main artery of the Modern Wing, pro-
viding access to first-floor galleries, visitor services, the museum store,
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The Modern Wing's
luminous box sits di-
rectly across from the
uuberant architecture
01 Millennium Park
(site plan, opposite),
and Is dominated by
Its " flylnq carpet "
canopy (opposite,
bottom). The slivery,
trell is of
Gehry' s
Pavilion Is visible from
Inside Grlll in Court
(above). The
double' helqht space 15
the main artery of the
new building (left), Its
staircase the preferred
means o'accen to
upper floors (far left).
08.09 ArchiluI"",1 Rrco''/ 55
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SECTION "'A,


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THIRD flOOR

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SECOND FLOOR
GROUND r LOOR
..
The Prlh:ker Garden
leatures I specially
commissioned sculpture
by Ell sworth Kelly on
Its south wall (rIQht).
The "tlylnq carpet"
rests atop the thIrd
floor' s qlass cellln". Its
aluminum blades, run-
nln" ent-west above
li nd beyond the main
yolumes, act to dlflun
natural IIqht (below).
1 . SI,,'el
...lff/Illa
2. Griffin Coun
3 . Eductl/,,,,, 'Iller
4. MIlSf!!1TI Store
5. Coallbugg<lg" ciu'ck

Spaid/ cxlJibilhms
7. PrilZker Glmle"
e. A,eJr ilul ure&
D('sign gll/lcrieJ

COl/'eIfJporl/ry
Arl gill/t'rirs
10. Cr:mfere"u rooms
11. Cl,lfe
12. Terzo Pill"" ',SlIll/nUlI
13. Sculpw,<,,..rrIJU
14. Nichols Bridgr .. '<1,
15. E",opt''''' Modrm
Art gilll""es
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The Modern Wing: Where a Familiar Type Soars ByBla"'aml,
Renzo Piano's Modern Wing at the conditions of function, scale, and sile, The Modern Wing uses the same
Arllnstitute of Chicago isn't simply which in Chicago includes a choice Indiana limestone that faces all of
the best new building to hit Chicago spot across from Millennium Park, the the Art Institute's earlier structures.
in years. It represents the triumph 01 city's new town square. Millennium including its 1893 Beaux-Arts building,
a type -the art museum with parallel Park is packed with attention-getting yet it is clearly in tension with them - a
masonry walls, generous expanses architecture and public sculpture, temple, yes, but it Modern temple
of glass, and an oversailing roof that including Frank Gehry's exuberant of steel, aluminum, and glass. Piano
serves as a louvered sunshade for gal- Pritzker Pavilion and its headdress of demonstrates equal skill in addressing
leries below. When Piano introduced stainless steel. The last thing the park the Pritzker Pavilion and its dome-
this type at his Beyeler Foundation needed was another self-aggrandizing like trellis, equipped with suspended
Museum near Basel, Switzerland, in wow" building on its borders. Instead, speakers, that sails over a great lawn.
1997, it was overshadowed by the Piano wisely endeavored to produce Against Gehry's umbrella for sound,"
hoopla surrounding frank Gehrys an accumulation of ever-shifting, sen-
Modernism and that of Mies van der
Rohe, but the comparison breaks
down inside the Modern Wing. Piano
doesn't do Miesian universal space. He
particularizes his interior, whether it
be the Modern Wing's skyli!. streetlike
atrium, the main galleries devoted to
European Modern and contemporary
art, or the architecture and design gal
leries, which boast more square foot
age than their counterparts at New
York's Museum of Modern Art. The
eruption of titanium in Bilbao. Yet time sory delights - a journey that would
has revealed the 8eyeler model to be ward off museum fatigue byentranc-
PIANO'S GENIUS IS TO ADAPT HIS BUILDING TYPE TO
DISTINCT CONDITIONS OF FUNCTION, SCALE, AND SITE.
both durable and flexible. It has now ing the viewer at every step.
winningly reappeared in his diminutive That journey begins with the he juxtaposes his own 'umbrella for result is a splendid showcase, in which
Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas as Modern Wing's handsome propor- sight." The result is not a starchitect architecture's presence is always felt.
well as the large-scale Modern Wing, lions and exquisite details, from smackdown, as some commentators but never dominates. The natural light,
which, at an imposing 264,000 square its 'flying carpet" of light-filtering, have characterized it. but a genu- ever changing due to shifting weather
feet. makes the Art Institute the na aluminum blades to the pencilshaped ine dialogue between 21st-century conditions, is the Modern Wing's glory,
tions second-largest art museum. steel columns that support the roof. masters. It makesa vibrant civic place continuing the Art Institute's century-
These similar bul distinct itera- like other Piano buildings of this where just five years ago there was old tradition of exhibiting works of art
tions, which efforllessly synthesize type, the Modern Wing reads as an nothing but commuter railroad tracks, in diffuse natural light. True, as Piano
Classical repose and Modern trans- X-ray that reveals its structure and a surface parking lot. and an undistin- and his clients have acknowledged,
lucency, naturally offend critics for its contents. Here, Piano simultane- guished rear entrance to the museum. the light and other aspects of the wing
whom architecture is a neverending ously channels - and writes a new Piano seals the connection with a gen- need "tuning: But the Modern Wings
quest lor novel shapes. But Piano is chapter in - the interrelated Chicago tly sloping, 620loot-long pedestrian exemplary adaptation of an existing
unafraid 10 reuse and reimagine his traditions of structural expressionism bridge that leads visitors directly from type evokes Herman Melville's poem
type. His genius is to adapt it todistinct and curtain-wall transparency. And he Millennium Park to the wing's popular Greek Architecture: Not magnitude,
proves equally adept at negotiating rooftop restaurant. not lavishness/But form - the Site;/
Blair Kamill i, the Chicago Tribune', and knitting together the disparate Many critics have rightly noted a Not innovating willfulness/But rever-
architecture critic. architectural statements around him. similarity between Piano's Classicizing ence for the Archetype."
08.09 Arc/,i/ulumi Ru ",,1 57
and the 20,OOO-square-foot education center, which replaces a basement
one half its size. A suspended staircase-whose all -glass railings make
it appear to float within the immense space-seems to be the preferred
means of access to the second- and third-floor gal leries, though the ride
in the glass-enclosed elevator offers views over the Pritzker Garden. an
outdoor seating area.
Despite the heavy traffic through these spaces in the weeks fol -
lowing the opening, t he A'lodern Wing achieves all unexpected serenity,
due in part to its acoust ical strengths, but more t.han that, to an overall
design that seems effortless in its simplicity. Circulation, on the other
hand, is not always as effortless. Those arriving via the footbridge de
scend three flights by escalator to enter the museum through t he tight
coat-check area. From the opposite end, wi t h no direct access between
the third-floor galleries and t he sculpture terrace and restaurant, \isi
tors are forced to travel back down through Griffin Court and up a sin-
gle elevator, which, given early crowds, can lead to a wait.
Most visitors, however, are in no hurry to leave those third-
floor galleries, the highlight ofthe new building. It is here that the fly-
ing carpet works its magic. Beneath this canopy of aluminum blades
designed to capture north light, the Brancusis, Picassos, and Giacomet-
tis on display glow within a luminous box. The veiled translucency-
a scrim hovers beneath the glass ceiling- imbues these spaces with
a celestial aura, even on overcast days or during a downfall, though
these canopies evolved due to increased attention to sustainability. "That
was not as much of a focus years ago, and some of the earlier galleries
experience heat gain." Though the Modern \\ling is seeking LEED Silver
certification, it has drawn criticism for not being green enough, espe-
cially for an architect, and a ci ty, known for their sustainable practices.
Visitors have expressed their aversion to the vertical shades, which the
museum has so far kept drawn over the glass walls unt il evening hours.
Where the Modern Wing succeeds most, like Millennium Park
across the street, is as a civic space. At S300 million, it may, sadly, be t he
last of its kind fora while. And as different as the Modern Wing is from
Piano's first museum- Paris's revolutionary Pompidou Center, designed
with Richard Rogers- it plays a similar role as a magnet for the masses.
Even the Nichols Bridgeway, which when seen from afar may appear as
an awkward appendage or an afterthought, has its merits. Generously
scaled, the experience of walking over it is a thrilling one in Chicago,
with incredible views of Lake Michigan and the city's famous skyli ne. Its
muscular profile, together with the templelike building, is a fitting addi-
tion to that skyline, responding to Chicago's rich architectural heri tage,
and setting the stage for its future .
Project: Tire Art Imtitute ojChicago- ligilling, acoustical); GllSlllfton
Tile Modern IVing, Chicago Gurlrrie Nie/wl (l andscape)
Architect: Rc,rzo Piano Br,i/ding
according to Piano, "the sun gives it life." lVorksllOp-Renzo Piano. Hon. FAIA, SOURCES
Piano has incorporated lightfiltering canopies in many of his {oost Mool/mijzen, partnef$
museums, including such small art galleries as the one atop his Lingotto Architect of record: 1111eracrive
Factory Conversion in Turin, Italy, its flying carpet perhaps most simi- Design, 1'1(.
lar to the one at the Modern VO/ing. "The advantage in Chicago is that Consuttants: Arup (structural ,
the city was laid OUI accordi ng to the cardinal di.rections; nor th is true
Curtllin Willi: JosejGartnc r GmbH
Celllnqs: Armstrong
F'urnlshlnqs: Fritz H,l11scn; U,rijor;
Po/tro/Ill Frau; Vitm; RPBIV Design
north," Piano says. He also admits that other changes in the design of .l Tocommenton thisprojectandraleit.Qoloarchitecluralrecord.com!proJecl .
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Pllno relus to the
third-lloor sculpture
turlce, opposite
the restaurant , as
I piIUI, or glther -
Ing spice (right ). The
second-lioor galleries
feature severll work s
by Gerhlrd Richter
(opposite), Including
Wom,n Oescendln9
the St, /reese (1965),
which Is set ,gllnst
the north Ilcade's
double-glass w,1I (op-
posite). A s crim over
the third-lloor giller-
Its IIIters In n,tUrll
light below the glass
roo'ind lI ylng clfpet
(below right).
08.09 59
I. M. Pei pairs Islam c tradl Ion 1\11 m L. I
Modernism In the Museum of Islamic Art '""' lora
for an opulent collection of art and artifacts

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By Paula Deitz
.'t::J--....A....-t
=
$ITE PLAN
1. MI/ s"um of Islamic Art
2. E"trm,ubriilgc
3. E"ITm,cc plaza
4. p""j"WItI cow
The Museum of Islamic Art sits
on an artifici al Island connected
to the mainland by bridges (op-
posite and left). A peninsula curls
around the building (above).
U
nlike the heads of neighboring cities along the Arabian Gulf
on the architectural fast track to build office buildings and
iconic cultural institutions, t he Qatari Royal family, headed
by the Emir, His Highness Hamad bin Khalifa ai -Thall i, has
been deliberate in the planning of its emirate. The capital city of Doha is
a patchwork of old quarters with a traditional bazaar, or souk; neighbor-
hoods from the 1960s: and an emerging commercial district with glit-
tering towers. Finally, there are patches of dusty desert, the terrain that
served its disappearing Bedouin culture before the country's newfound
wealth in naTUral gas.
When leoh Ming Pei's Museum of Islamic Art was inaugurated
last fa ll in Doha, the occasion was more than a star-studded event of
celebrities from the art and auction world. In her opening remarks as
chai rman of the Qatar Museums Authority, the Emir's daughter, Her
Excellency Sheikha Al h-Iayassa bi nt Hamad bin Khali fa al -Thani,
dressed in a traditional black abara and shayia (robe and head scarf),
elucidated the museum's mission as an investment in the education of
Qataris through the investigation of Islamic culture throughout the
world. Those in at tendance felt the pulse of a cultu ral renaissance that
joined a rich past with a hopeful future.
With this mission, t he museum had set aside t he original
choice of Lebanese architect Rasem Badran, made by a jury in 1997.
It offered the commission to I.M. Pei, who had been recommended
by the general manager of t he Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Luis Mon-
real. From the beginning, Pei says, he conceived of this new venture
as completing a triumvirate of his museums that required specific
cultural allusions because of their locations. The other two examples
are the 1997 Miho Museum in Shiga, japan, configured like a hilltop
village, and the 2006 Suzhou Museum in his family's ancestral city of
Paula Deitz is editor of The Hudson Review. Her book Of Gardens : Selected
Essays is fortllcomirlgfrom the Urliversity ofPerlrlsy/varlill Press.
08.09 Arc/jittetum! Ruord 61

1. Enrr.wC(' brii/g,'
2. Mrilllll
3. GI,I/err
4. MI,i" slilirc,ut'
S. Mrillm brilfg<,
6. ReswllrulII
7. E,llIcu,io" wing
"
SECTION A.-A.
fifTH fLOOR
SECONO fLOOR
8 . Aui/ilOr;uIII
9 . Cenlral (Our/ya rd
10. Areai/"
11 . \1'<,sleour,)'Urd
12. OffiC('
13. Pru)'er r(>(lm
14. Boa' dock
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Inside the atrium,
tight pours through In
oculus Ind QUtters off
the tlceted stai nless
steellinlnq I dome
(opposite, middle).
In Pel's Ql!ometrlc
proqresslon, the
oct.gonal perimeter
of the clrCUllr dome Is
$upported bV penden-
tlvn (right) above I
dram,t lc horltshoe-
shaped central stelr-
elISe (opposite, top).
An Ire.de (opposite,
bottom) connects the
main building with a
two-story study and
education center,
part of the museum',
scholarlv mInion to
enqilqt In research.
J
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.-
On the north side of
the atrium, a 14S-f oot
hlQh Qlass wall (left
and above) looks
out t o the West Say
from each l evel 01 the
museum. To t he side
01 t hf lIve-story mu-
stUrn proper, I wl ter
terrace wIth spoutl nQ
lountalns (opposI t e,
above mIddle), evokes
a MUQhal Qarden and
also oilers views
across the Gut!. The
library and educI-
tlon center (opposIte,
mIddle) helps lullitl
the museum's didactic
qoal , while 1S solemn,
luxurIous qallerles
house more than SOO
opulent works Irom the
permanent collect Ion
(opposI t e, bottom).
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SUZhOll, China [ RECOR!), May 2007, page 186], rendered in the tradi -
tional whitewash with gray granite roof ti les. In both cases, he built up
the walls \'ol umetrical1y into the geometric forms characteristic orhis
archi tecture, at least since the East Building of the Nat ional Gallery in
\Vashington, D.C. (1978).
Pei conducted an extensive geographic search for the essence
of Islamic archi tecture only to discover the wide range of regional dif-
ferences separating, for example, the Grand Mosque in C6rdoba, Spain
(begun in the Rlh century), from the mosque in Fatehpur Sikri in India
(completed in 1574) . Finally, in the arcaded courtyard of the Mosque of
Ahmad Ibn Tulun in Cairo, he found inspiration in the 13th-century
domed ablution fountain with its arched base that steps up in severe
block forms, where sharp angles are delineated by sunlight and shadow.
Presented with suggested along Doha's Corniche,
or headland, along t he Gulf, Pei feared the possible encroachment of t he
city. He ultimately established the museum 195 feet from t he mainland
on an artificial island connected to the shore by three bridges. Shortly
after the island was created in December 200), construction of the con-
crete structure began, and it was finis hed in late 2008. The museum
was financed by the Qatar Petroleum Engineering Department, and the
Qatar r.Iuseums Authorit y oversees its management.
The 376,740-square-fool building's formation of angular vol -
umes hiding a central dome within a tower gives the impression of a great
fortress separated from land by a narrow moat. To complete the setting,
Pei extended the Corniche into the Gulf, and the resulting landfill appears
as a jutting crescent that embraces the museum. It also provides a prom-
enade complete with an avenue of palm trees and other tropical flora.
With all their angularity, the museum's bloc1s of creamy
French limestone reflect blinding sunlight, contrasting with deep shad
ows that shift continually throughout the day. As with his buildings in
Japan and China, Pei has successfull y married motifs of indigenous
architecture to his cl ea n monu mental Modernist style.
Placed around the perimeter of the museum's central atrium,
the first suite of galleries displays objects according to genre: calligraphy,
ceramics, metal, glass, ivory, scientific instruments, textiles, and precious
stones. I n the second sui te, the displays are organized geograph ica ll y and
historically to demonstrate the influential sweep of Islamic culture in
a journey through three continents- from Cordoba to Samarkand-
from the 7th to the 19th century. The objects glow against surfaces of
gray porphyry stone and Louro Faya, a Brazilian lacewood that has been
bush hammered and treated to give it a metallic appearance.
The secret to Pei's creativity in his later years is the nonagene
ria n's abiding curiosi ty and his selectivity as a means of ongoing personal
growth through new challenges. Within this context, he has designed a
museum that is both internationa l in scope and design and local with
respect to architectural customs inherent in the indoor/outdoor mani -
festations of Islam ic design. Each clement expresses the strength of his
design concept to incorporate experiences from the past into a vision
for Qatar's future. Is this Pei's last building? Don't bet on it .
ProJed: MllSellff1 of Islmllir Arl,
Doha, Qatar
Architect: I.M. Pei Archilect-
i.M. Pei, FAIA, Hiro,/,i Okamoto,
AlA, Perry Chin, Toh TSlln Lim, A lA,
A,/ihan Demirtas, project team
Consultants: Leslie E. Robcrt-
son Associates (uri/cturIll); jean-
MichellVilmolte (gallery design);
Fisher Marantz SIOIII' (lig/lt ing)
SOURCES
limestone: FrIlliupierre
Glass: Saint Gobain; Shinko Gla
I:l To comment 00 t his project and rate it. QO to archltecturalrecord.comfproJects.
08.09 Archittclural Ruor<l 65
Frank Gehry transforms the
66 Architectural Reeo,,1 08.09
Art Gallery of Ontario r), r> by
rediscoverinQ his (and its) past
By Clifford A. Pearson
A
t the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO), Frank Gehry
plays hockey with architecture, turning it into a
game of speed and balance. From a curving glass
entry facade that catches the motion of streetcars
trundling along Dundas Street to a switchback ramp in the
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lobby and then a corkscrew stair in the museum's central
courtyard, Gehry- a hockey fan- gets things moving, slows them
down, then picks them up again. At the same ti me, his extreme makeover
of the venerable Toronto inst itution reasserts the original 1918 building's
north- south axis as a stabilizing force and the primary path for visitors
to follow as they enter the museum and orient themselves.
Gehry's first building in the city where he was born and grew
up (he has done a couple of interiors t here, too), the AGO brings the
notion of time and memory into subtle play. The architect's maternal
grandparents lived just a couple of blocks away, and he often played
in Grange Park adjacent to the museum. He vividly remembers his
first visi t to the AGO (then called the Art Gallery of Toronto) when he
was eight years old and speaks fondly of seeing a John Marin seascape
in Walker Court, the colonnaded space at the center of the museum's
original building, by Darling & Pearson. Over the years, though, the
prominence of Walker Court in the overa ll scheme had diminished
as the museum expanded piecemeal. [n an expansion that opened in
1993, Barton r,.[yers moved the museum's main entry to the east side of
the block, away from the historic axis running through Walker Court
and the Grange, the 19th-century mansion that served as the institu-
tion's first home. While the Myers design brought the entrance close
to the busy intersection of Dundas and McCaul Streets, it introduced
,
1
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N JOM.
The two ends of the new Dundas
Street facade (opposite) offer pl aces
to hanQ banners. Thi s curvlnQ Qlass,
steel, and wood elevation addresses
the scal e of houses across the
street (below). A "barnacle" stair
cantil evers off the f acade overl ook-
InQ GranQe Park (left).
1. AGO
2. Grlwge Park
3. O.lIario Coll<1;e of Art & Desigt!
a new circulation pattern that was
less direct and more confusing.
One ofGehry's first decisions was
to return the museum's entry se-
quence to the axis he remembers
from his childhood, albei t one
that now starts at an entirely new Dundas St reet facade and lobby.
By bending wood in various ways throughout the project,
the architect evokes in an abstract way the feeling of hockey sticks and
the boards that envelop every rink's skating surface. His new Dundas
Street elevation stretches over the sidewalk to embrac.e pedestrians
in a two-story-high glass, steel, and wood canopy that frames views
of the houses across the street and curves overhead to bring the sky
into the composition. At the east and west ends of the building, Gehry
off" pieces of the canopy to interrupt the 450-foot-long expanse
and create surfaces angled toward the street intersections that can be
used for banners announcing exhibi t ions . A lthough the facade's web of
curving, glue-laminated-wood beams injects a dynamic note onto the
street, the exposed structure has a rugged, decidedly Canadian, quality
to it. Nothing precious here. wanted to create a proscenium experi-
ence," says Gehry, describing how the entry canopy frames views of
the scenery and action along Dundas Street. The sweeping facade cer-
tainly engages the fabric of the city in a way that earlier incarnations of
the AGO never did, but the narrow concrete steps and Jack of benches
make sitting and lingering here less ent icing than it could be.
In his initial scheme for the project, Gehry envisioned a series
of towers on Dundas Street housing most of the new gallery spaces.
08.09 Architu tum/ Rfcord 67
A switchback ramp model gallery (bottom site. It rises through
dominates the entry lelt). A corkscrew stair a new gins roof over
lobby (left) ilnd offers (below) was fabricated Walker Court (op-
opportunities to peek In pieces at Oil factory. poslte), the hi storic
down to the slllp- then assembled on- heart of the museum.
1. Lobby 5. \Valker Court
2. Coatchcck 6. Exhibition
3. Relail 7. Gratlge HOll$c
4. Re$ia'''<ltll B. SCI/Ip/Hr" gallay
,
,
SECTION A-A fOURTH fLOOR

GROUND flOOR SECOND fLOOR
68 Archirectur,,1 Record 08.09
Architutuml Ruoul

I
But this design proved too expensive, so he created the curving fa -
cade- which reviewers and locals alike have greeted with cheers- and
added a large gallery block on the back of the bui lding, fitting steel
columns through the existing structure and stacking new floors above
t he old ones . On the second floor of the long front addi t ion, he cre-
ated a sO-foot -high sculpture gallery that serves as one of the museum's
wow" moments. Douglas fir louvers run along t he top portion of the
curving wood ribs, creating an animated play of light and structure.
Gehry wants the louvers to come all the way down to the floor to make
the space less pompous," but the museum likes the way they are now
because they reveal more of the double layer of wood elements shaping
the Dundas Street facade and allow extra light to enter from the norlh.
The 88,000 square-foot lower on the back of the building
looms over the diminutive redbrick Grange, establishing a juxtaposi
tion of scales and materials that is a bit jarring at first. Gehry says he
"painted" his blocky new structure with blue-tit anium cladding, which
"works beautifully on gray days." And he massed his tower so it roughly
matches the height of Will Alsop's addition to the Ontario College of
Art & Design [RECOIW, August 2004, page 1241 hovering on the east side
of Grange Park. Along with an apartment tower to t he south and the
Alsop building, the Gehry tower does indeed help define t he park at a
bigger, more urban scale and works better the longer you look at it.
I nside the new Dundas Street addition, Gehry designed a lobby
with a snaking accessibility ramp made of 5-foot-h igh panels of Douglas
fir. With the ramp, he not only turned a necessity into an attraction, but
offered visitors walking on it sneak pecks into ga l!eries one story below
where donor Kenneth Thomson's collection of ship models is displayed
70 Archiucruml Recor<l 08.09
.-
Gehry took dill erent
approaches to designing
galleries lor contempo-
rary art and those lor
the Thomson coll ection
01 European art. In the
new south tower, he used
height and daylight to
shape spaces for Modern
art (near I nd far left).
for the European Irt, he
renovlted old glil eri es,
creating Intimate rooms
(top left).
in Gehry-designed vitrines. In Walker Court, Gehry covered the space
with a new glass roof and used the daylight to direct visitors through the
museum. He also inserted a mezzanine level around the court to pro-
vide access to temporary exhibit ion spaces and galleries for Thomson's
colleclion of Canadian art (his European art co!iec.tion is on the ground
floor) . Walking from the second to fift h floors, visitors take a wood-clad
corkscrew slair that ascends right t hrough the court's glass roof and is
suspended from the new tower on the back of t he museum. To connect
the top two floors, Gehry designed a curving "barnacle" stair that can-
tilevers out from the sOUlh face of the tower and offers dramatic views
of the park. "Frank created a journey through the building," slates Mat -
thewTeite1baum, the AGO'sdirector and C.E.o. "His design is about the
experience of moving from one space to another." Rather than grabbing
attention just with its forms (both inside and out), the AGO seduces by
creat ing an athletic tension between motion and repose. _
Project: Art Gallery orOntario,
Toronto, Carmda
Architect: Gehry lnternational-
Frank Gellry, FAIA, desigrl parmer;
Brian Aamotll, AlA, parmer in
charge; Craig lVebb, AlA, parmer,
project doigner; Jeffrey lValler, project
architect, marmger
Engineers: Hakrow Yolle, (,tmaural);
H.H. Ang/ls (medmnical); Mulvey
+ Banani (electrical); n.v. Anderson
(civil); Brook Van Dalcn (facade)
General contractor: EilisDon
SOURCES
Glan curtain wall:Antamcx
Gla:rlng: Guardian; Pilkington; Virawn
Glue'lamlnated wood: Strzrctllriam
'l Read ao interview about t he AGO with frank Gehrv at archlt ectutl l record.com/proJeets.
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SCULPTURE GALLERY DETAIL
e2.(T.
,. ,\40IOriud Yirl)'1
roller shade
z. GI,U' /amiuatcd
Douglas fir beam
3. Glass-mul-all<mi""m
curlai" wall Willi
gilliam mul/iOlls
4. Paimc<igypmr/l
wallboard
5. Glu/am iwader
6. Gilliam l1Iuliioll
7. Gilliam radial support
8. Douglas fir /puYers
9. Glass-aud-all< lIIilllllll
curlai" wall Willi
gilliam mul/iolls
'0.
Gill/am aud
all/mil/um wffil
11. Triple-glazed
alumiuum slOrcirollf
A 50-loot-high sculp-
ture gallerv (right)
runs the length of the
second floor overlook-
Ing Dundas Street.
'".
08.09 Arcl,iu,/uml Ru ard 71
we
started
with the
elevator
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CIRCLE 28
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HEALTH CARE
New Road to Wellville
The principles of evidence-based health-care design have improved
the architecture and ambience of many different hospitals completed
in recent years_ The recession could alter that
OSPEDALE DELL'ANGELO
Venice, Italy
Emilio A mb<l$Z & Associates and
Sl11dio Altieri llave designed II
hospital in Wllicil Imlilscaping
for an IIIriuIII lind rile exterior
terraces rest/Irs in II literally green
arC/lircelllre for IIUll/1! care.
.JACOBI MEDICAL CENTER,
AMBULATORY CARE
BUILDING
The Bronx, New York
I'd Cobb Freed, led by design
parmer Tan Bader, brillgs dramatic
arC/lircelllre will! light and
views 10 II 1955 il1$tiwrimwl serri /rg.
METHODIST STONE OAK
HOSPITAL
San Antonio, Texas
HOK's srrongly rectilinear
design recalls early AJodernist
architecture wllile adjuring
to current goals for creating
contempomry, IlOme/ike ",rting,.
By Suzanne Stephens
U
ntil late last fall, the health-care industry needed and want-
ed architecture: According to World Health Design maga-
zine, some $200 billion was planned for the next \0 years
in the U.S. alone. t..IcGraw-Hill Construction's forecasting
department reports that 54 million square feet of hospital construc-
tion was initiated in 200l!. But then came you-know-what. Now with
the recession, estimates for hospital construction in 2009 show an 18
percent dedine-to 44 million square feet.
As projects get canceled and go on hold, or plans are pared
down, architects and medical professionals fea r that the current t rends
in improved heahh-ca re design could be jettisoned.
These trends result from the increased adoption of evidence-
based design in recent yea rs, where stud ies undertaken by health-care
professionals working with archi tects and designers have determined
significant features that positively affect the health of the hospital pa-
tient- and the morale of the staff. The findings are hardly surprising
to those who have spent any time in hospitals: For example, housing
two or more patients in rooms separated only by curtains not only
c.ontributes to the spread of germs but also adds to the patients' stress,
lac.k of sleep, a nd depression. Furthermore, patients get wel l faster in
settings with ample daylight and view, in addition to privacy, little
noise, a I1d such practical considerations as placing sinks near patient's
beds to facili tate hand-washing by the staff.
Interestingly, some of thi s research benefits from that un-
dertaken by the hospitality industry, as Roz Cama points out in
Evidence -Btlsed HetlllhCllre Design (Wiley, 2009) . Hotels have in-
creasingly studied means to reduce travelers' stress through design,
which might explain why some hospitals are looking more like ho-
tels these days.
The selection of hospitals on the following pages and on our
Web site generally adheres in spirit if not in actual methodology to
principles of evidence-based health-care design promulgated by such
U.S. organizat ions as the Center for Heal t h Design and the American
I nstitute of A rchitecture's Academy of A rchitecture for Healt h. Wit h
the plethora of scientific studies, it has been easier to pro\'e the \'alue
of arch iteclure in fostering patients' well -being. I n spi te of the reces-
sion, we shou ld remember t hat patients who get well faster ultimately
cost less to the health-care system.
r::J View live addit ional health-care project s at Irchltec.turllrecorcl.com/bts,
08,09 ArchjltOumi Ruord 73
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One: Ospedale dell'Angelo
Venice, Italy
Architect: Emilio Ambllsz &
Associates-Emilio Ambll5z,
principal; Peter Norris, projeCl
mmwgu; Bradley IV/zitermore,
desigllieam
Architect of re cord: Stlldiv
Altieri-Lums Fornari, L,j w Cenmi,
Gii/lio Altieri, Valentina Altieri,
Alessandro A.fe/of/o, Francesco Viero,
Chiam Urso, Gill/in Andreotti, design
team
Client: Regioni' VClleto
En9lnll!ll! r: Swdio Vitalialli
(sfrucwral); GEMMO (electrica/)
Contractor: Asfa/di, Mantol'llni,
Mattioli (civil engirleering); DCAM
(/UJlIsteei strllalm); Cori/ioli (hospital
steel,mumre)
Size: /,265,000 sqlUlrI' feet
Cost: $697 milliol!
SOURCES
Glass, steel , and aluminum lor
atrium skyll9ht: TeleYIl
Metal-and-91ISs cur tain wall:
Nove/is; Pernlilsteeiisa Group
I:J Rate project and access Mditional
sources at
74 ArchilfClumlRtcorti 05.09
Emilio Ambasz & Associates and Studio Altieri turn to nature and
the sun for an innovative hospital environment.
By Paula Deitz
Atthetime that Alvar Aalto completed ry specializing in eye transplants and
the Paimio Sanatorium in a forested stemcell research, which is located
area of Finland in 1933, sunshine and on a corner of the property (see
fresh air offered the only known cure www.architecturalrecord.com).
for tuberculosis patients. Hence Aalto
designed the narrow terraces facing Solution
east for those afflicted with this disease. Unlike urban hospitals, Ospedale
Even though medical care now relies on dell'Angelo stands isolated in a
pharmacological or surgical treat ments landscaped park of its own, with its
for a range of illnesses, exposure to striking, seven-story, slanted-glass
nature, including landscaping, is again facade sheltering an interior palm
considered both a physical and psycho court. Circumnavigated by ring roads,
logical boost for hospital patients. the par k includes two lakes for runoff
Owing to Emilio Ambasz's water and irrigation, and merges wi t h
long-st anding reputat ion for fusing the building's bermed perimeters
architecture and landscape into that obliterate sounds of nearby
a single entity, it made sense that trains for those convalescing within.
the Argent ina-born architect would Oncea visitor passes through the
design (in associat ion with t he Studio
Altieri) a green hospital near Venice,
Italy - the Ospedale dell'Angelo (the
Guardian Angel's Hospital) in Mestre.
ProQram
The development consortium
Regione Veneto undertook the proj-
ect with the expectation that in time it
would recap its investment and hand
the 1,Z65,OOO-square-foot hospital
over to the regional government. The
building, with 335 double-occupancy
rooms and 10 single ones, sought
to provide a sense of optimum
well "being to its patients, plus offer
sophisticated research and techno-
logical services. Complementing the
hospital is the Banca dell"Occhio (Eye
Bank), an ophthalmologicallaborato
Pallia Deitz wrote "Machine in tile
Garden," for JlECORV'5 July i55ue.
Venetian-red entrance facade of the
main hospital, he or she arrives in the
garden among island beds bisected
by a serpentine wood walkway. Like its
19th-century predecessors, Ambasz's
winter garden is also a social space: an
urban piazza, with a shop, restaurant,
and chapel on the ground floor, and
a balcony walkway above leading to
the open waiting room for outpatient
services. Luxurious plantings (nonal-
lergic) - including palm and banana
trees, magnolias, begonias, geraniums,
ferns, and variegated grasses - create
a moist fraqrance perceptible even on
the balcony and in the waiting room.
An inverted ziggurat section
allows floors of patient rooms facing
southwest to overlook this interior
landscape, while additional rooms
on the northeast side are edged
by planted balconies arranged in a
stepped-back formation. The patient
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The Interior atrium which depicts the
(below) can be seen hospital's northeast
""
7'
at the lar rlqht of facade with Its
SITE Pl /l. '-!
the renderlnq (aboye), terraced balconies.
08.09 Arc/,i/relumi Record 75
THIRD f LOOR
On the
taln ,11 .", .. "i
atrium (belowl. On the
remal nln, lac
pati ent rooms,
76 ArchilfClumlRtcortl 05.09
SECTION A .. A 0 JO H .
~
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

9.
10.
11.
Atrium
Visitors lobby
Pati,'tI/ rooms
Do(/Or$' Qff iccs
Heallil -cafe Slaff
Opcratiflg room$
Staff par/ciflg
Lo""ge
Family iOUflgC
SmallauiHm
Terrace
The atrium' s
Qround level (left),
partially covered
by an undulatlnQ
balcony, contains
dlaQnostic and
treatment services.
Many patient rooms
overlook the atrium
(above). The approach
to the hospital (below)
Is throuQh an openlnQ
In the bermed base.
rooms occupy opposite sides of a sensors, are placed at the bottom and Commentary
central core housing operating and top of the glazed facade. Given that hospitals usually maintain
treatment rooms and punctuated In all of the patient rooms, full' basic design standards to fulfill their
by small, skylighted interior atriums. height window wailS are fitted with a mission, Ospedale dell'Angelo has
Framed in steel and precast concrete, "smart glass" system that regulates gone beyond that, taking a major
these floors sit on a platform of ventilation and heat dispersion. The step forward in connecting its
poured-in-place concrete containing windows not only suffuse the rooms patients with the natural world. But
car parking, administration, operating with natural light, but allOW patients while patients luxuriate in daylight
rooms, and laboratories. to look out on the atrium's palm trees and green surroundings,the doc'
The 66Q'foot'long southwest or the cotoneaster and yellOW prim- tors' own offices, tucked under the
facade, dubbed the "glass sail," is com' rose on the ederior balconies, five levels of patient rooms, are
posed of 11,000 trapezoidal panes of Fostering this sort of direct somewhat in the dark, according to
different dimensions, held in aluminum relationship between patients and Dr, Marcato,
frames over a gridded steel structure, horticulture, says Dr, Giorgia Marcato, In addition, the plantings of
To save on energy by making the most director of medicine for the hospital, the palm court. selected locally for
of natural ventilation, 700 mechanized can both diminish pain and reduce the variety and long-term survival, could
openings, coonected to temperature duration of hospital stays, be more attractive if arranged like
underplantings in a forest rather
than garden swaths of one plant
after another, For that matter, the
surrounding park is a lost opportu-
nity, with only sparse plantings of
individual trees and no overall de-
sign, Although the site was originally
completely rural, since construction
began, signs of commercial buildup
are increasing,
Still, decades after Emilio
Ambasz exhibited his Arcadian
Berm House at the Houses for Sale
show in New York City's Leo Castelli
Gallery in 1980, this large'scale work
expresses his architectural goal "to
give poetic form to the pragmatic," _
08,09 Arc/iitreluml Ru oul 77
Two: Jacobi Medical Center
Ambulatory Care Building
The Bronx, New York
Architect: Pei Cobb Freed 6-
Parfnus-Ian Bailer, FAlA, design
parwer in charge; Midwe/ D. Flynn,
FAIA, technology parmer; George
Miller, FAIA, managemerlt partner;
Ivan Kreitman, AlA, project manager,
Kerry S/leeiwn, Tom Woo, AlA,
Kevin Forrester, lVoosang Yoo, fian
Hei, Sabrina Zimmfrtlhlll, team
Associate architect: daSilVil
Arcililects-C/wrie, Calcagni, AlA,
principal; Slim/! Romano, Pmd
IVlJilSon, tellm
Cli ent: New York City Healill and
Hospital s Corporation
Enqlnll!l!rs: Edwards 6- Zuck (m/elp);
Ysme! A. Seilwk (s/mctllrai);
Mllser Rllliedge Corl5ldting
Engineers (geotechnical); Dewberry-
Goodkind (ci vil)
Consultants : Medical Planning
Researc/llnternllfionai (medical);
Renfro Design Group (ligllting);
Cerami & Associates (aCOUSTical)
Size: 119,650 sqllare feet, piljs 14,750
square feer (renomted space)
Cost: $49 million
SOURCES
Exposed st eel trusses:
Lintell Steel CompallY
Met al- and- ql alS curtai n wall .
aluminum frames: Zimmcor
Masonry ext erior claddlnq:
Glen-Gery Brick
SlIyl1qht: Architectural Skylight
GlalS (curtain wall): Viraco1l
I:J Rate project and access Mditional
sources at
78 A,chi/tcluml Rtco,d 08.09
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners creates a liqht,
eleqant ambience for a winq of a larqe city hospital.
By Suzanne Stephens
Although Pei Cobb freed & Partners
is not established as a specialist in
hospital design, it has been making
significant incursions into the field.
Its Bellevue Hospital Ambulatory
Care Building [RECORD, October 2006,
page 146] demonstrated how the
firm's sense of material and crall and
exploitation of daylight contributes
immeasurably to an ollen nonde-
script building type. Now the firm's
expansion of the Jacobi Medical
by the New York City Department and its orthogonal plan, Pei Cobb
of Hospitals, which commissioned freed introduced certain curvilinear
architects Pomerance and Breines elements to vary somewhat the
to design a 1,640,OOO-square' unremitting rectilinear geometry. In
foot hospital in 1955, a generically addit ion toa segmented barrel-vaulted
Modern, white'brick facility, softened atrium, Bader and his team designed a
by a parklike setting of (now) mature slightly bowed glossy curtain wall for
trees. Then in 2006, Cannon Design the entrance facade, which imparts
added a 365,000-square'foot a soigne glamour faintly evocative of
inpatient building (Phase I) on the 1950s South American hotels. Its low' [
east. Soon after, Pei Cobb Freed glass sheathes the three upper floors
tackled the opposite end, completing of the new wing, stopping above the
a design (Phase II) for an ambulatory' ground level, where an open-air porch
care wing on the west in 200B, is tucked under the overhang. Defined
Proqram
The program called for 215 clinical
examination rooms and lBtreatment
rooms, plus reception areas, wait ing
rooms, medical stations, and related
support spaces. They would be housed
in a new 119,650'square-foot addi-
tion, with another 14,750 square feet
renovated where t he new wing con-
nects to the older building. To foster
the smoot h connection between new
and old construction, the architects
avoided changes in floor heights.
Solution
by massive piloli reminiscent of Le
Cor busier's Unite projects, the porch/
walkway offers visitors an expansive
place to fraternize in warm weather.
Inside, creamy beige travertine
walls and terrazzo floors dominate
the ground-floor lobby and continue
into the glazed atrium overlooking
the garden. The at rium's four bowed
trusses and increasingly dense, frit-
ted glass (for solar protection) gener'
ate a certain visual dynamism: The
trusses' inner and out er chords seem
t o converge as they arc upward from
their pinnings at the base to sliding
connections at the top_
Center in The Bronx, New York, offers The design team,led by Pei Cobb The interior garden, edged on
one side by the beige brick wall of the
new wing and on the opposite by the
1955 building, provides the main focus
for t he at rium and "relieves the sense
of confinement from being between
two buildings" says Bader. The
inclusion of this interior open space
also affords t he rear of the new wing
ample daylight and views. The wing
itself, a steelframe structure wi t h
a compelling example of hospital Freed partner Ian Bader, FAIA, placed
architecture t hat defers to precepts the ambulatory-care functions in a
of evidence-based design. four-story elongated bar in front of
The largest public hospital in the the existing building, leaving space for
borough, the J acobi Medical Center an interior garden. On the south edge
occupies a 64-acre site on the Pelham of the garden. a curved. skylighted
Parkway that was once the home of atrium, square in plan, provides a
the fashionable Morris Park Racetrack. ground-floor link from the new wing
Long after fire destroyed its grand- to the 1955 hospital. While adhering
stands,the property was purchased to the original Modernist vocabulary
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08.09 Arc/iitreluml Ruoul 79
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Although the
clinical modules 01
examination lind
consulting rooms
(below) are embedded

I
SECTION A-A
within the new wing,
many medical stations
(above) have vi ews
and dayliqht along Its
east el evation.
1. Emrrmce Ye>libule
2. G.-tlnal racp/;"t!
3. lI'"it;"garc'u
4. Alrium
5. Exam "'Q",
6. Office
a. Mediwl5/arion
9. Upper level
wa;tiflg area
-LIn Jj cr. l I

. [1 CE.il..1 Ul


TyPIC .... L flOOR
GROUND flOOR
concrete' on-metal'deck floor plates,
can be flexibly partitioned and ar-
ranged in clinical modules. Al t hough
li t tle daylight permeates interior
examination rooms and certain medi
cal stations, patients are only there
briefly, and the staff has constant ac-
cess to the glazed perimeter spaces.
Commentary
The Pei Cobb Freed expansion to the
Jacobi Medical Center offers a sleek
new visage to the community and pro-
vides luminous, immaculate spaces
for the visitors and staff who spend so
much time there. To be sure, the new
wing cannot change the bulky gestalt
of the entire 2,125,OOO-square' foot
complex, a problem endemic to ever-
expanding hospitals. Similarly, the
garden, enclosed by the new and old
wings, cries out for the fully developed
landscaping seen in the grounds out-
side. Still, owing to the ample daylight
and view, along with the generous use
of creamy traver t ine and terrazzo,
the place is a far cry from a municipal
hospital. (The shock comes in passing
through the atrium into the old build-
ing, where dar k, subwayHke corridors
and gloomy six-bed rooms await.)
The leitmotif of curves, starting
with a bowed facade, continuing
inside to the reception desks, then
reappearing as a partial barrel vault
in the at rium, comes to an end with
the zinc barrel'vaulted roof atop the
wing. It could be one motif too many,
except the actual experience of the
building doesnt force this perception.
Calm, clarity, and elegance reign._
The curved glass
atrium links the new
wing (leU) to the 1955
building. A bronze
family group, Untitled,
by to4l1ton Hebald
(1952), dating to the
hospital's early days,
Is mounted on the wall
above access to the
old structure (right).
A marble bas relief by
Donald De Lue (1954),
another historic artifact
(below), is set Into the
atrium's east wall.
08.09 A"hilUlu",1 Rtcord 81
Three: Methodist stone Oak Hospital
San Antonio, Texas
HOK and its clients took advantage of a rare opportunity to improve
patient care - building a new hospital on a greenfield site.
Architect: HOK- Charles Siconolfi,
AlA, principal in charge; KenneTh
Drucker, FA lA, design direcfor;
Arnold Lee, AlA, project designer;
Chris Korsll, project director; Michael
M,lnw, AlA, project archifect;
Michael TllOma, AlA, project
mmwger; Georgine Tlesco, mediwi
plnnnu; Rerwldo Pe55oll, Rika
G,lnIlWIII1, interior design
Client: Met/wdist Hea/ll,care
System of San Antonio Ilnd Hospifal
Corporatiorl of Ameri[ll
Enqlneers: CCRD (mle/p);
Slmcflmll Design Group (slnKtllrai);
Littlejohn Engineering (civil)
General contractor: SkaHl ka
Size: 400,000 gross ,quare feel
Construction cost: S I /0 million
By Charles Linn, FAIA
When a t axi driver said of Methodist
St one Oak Hospital, "It's a very
Modernist building, reminds me of
some things Mies did at the Bauhaus"
(par ticul arly when he did not have
a clue as to the occupation of his
passenger), it was obvious HOK had
succeeded in giving the new hospi tal
curb appeal. But facades are easy. It
was far more difficult totransform
what goes on behind its gl ass, raw
dam ashlar stone, and brick surface.
Program
The architecture of hospitals must
acknowledge and accommodate user
demographics, the latest trends in
the way that care is given, and staff
recruitment and retention. HOK won
this project when the Healthcare
Corporation of America and the
SOURCES Methodist Healthcare System of San
Acoustlul cel1ln9s: Armsfrong Antonio held a competition for "the
Glass: Viricon hospital 01 the future." The firm's
Windows: Kawneer entry was based on several key
Masonry: Glen-Guy Brick ideas. One was that in a region where
Metal panels: Reynobond patients have many health' care facili-
Paints and stains: Benjarllin Moore; ties to choose from, and salaries for
S/lerwin Williams skilled nurses and health'care workers
Resilient floorln,,: Arm>lrong are very competitive, spending the
Solid surfadn,,: Dupont Corian money to provide a work and treat-
Wooden doors: VT ment facility that is distinctly pleasant
Entrances: Staliley compared to other hospi tals, and also
Locknts and closers: Aosa Abloy convenienlly located, would yield a
LI"htln,,: Cooper competitive edge well worth the in-
PaneUnq: Marlife; illferlam vestment. From a financial and opera-
Ornamental metal: Forms + Surfaces tional perspective, the building would
EleVitors: Otis offer patients more treatment options
I:J Rate project and acceH Mditi onal
sources at
82 08.09
than most hospitals, lease doctors of-
fice space, and be extremely compact
and efficient to run.
Entries for Individual medical departments along a dayllt concourse aid pa-
tient orientation. Each department has It s own reception and waltlnq area.
SolutJon The layout of the building is
According to Stone Oak C.E.O. Dean straightforward. A canopy at the main
Alexander, " People want their health entrance - where valets await should
care to be in more intimate settings you wish to have your car parked-
and close to where they live:' Stone covers two entries. One leads to a
Oak's site, several miles north of medical office wing. This convenience
central San Antonio, was chosen was added to attract top physicians
because it is a growth area, and ide- who are the gatekeepers for many
ally located near the intersection of of the hospital's patients. The second
a highway leading out of downtown entry leads to the patient-care wing,
and a loop road circling the city. where admissions take place for those
At 132 beds. this steel-framed who have come for procedures that will
hosp4tal is 01 a modest size for the require at least an overnight stay, or for
region (another nearby is being less-invasive procedures, which take
expanded to 700). Yet it is a complete a day or less. This kind of ambulatory
acute-care facility with cardiology, treatment is quite profitable, yet over
general surgery and neurosurgery, time most hospitals have stopped
oncology, obstetrics and gynecology, offering it: Stone Oak endeavors to
and a large emergency department. reverse the trend. The emergency de-
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08.09 Ar(hituturdl Raord 83
fOURTH fLOOR
,.
,\faitl rtl/"wee
2. Enlmnee 10 medical-
office bHiidifig
3. En"y lobby
4. Paril'1II s<"fyices
COtlCOHrSe
s. Raeplion areas
6. S'lrgery
7. Diag.lOs/ics/imagifig
8. Emcrg,'nCJ' room
9. Services
'0.
COHr/yard
".
D;";"g roOlIl
12. Admillislrilliofl
(medical office
...Ci
Cilnted headwillis In
IrL
rooms i1l1ow piltients
to hilve better eve
contilct with nurses
In corridors i1nd views
outside. Mlnlmlzlnq
the dlstilnce between

bed i1nd bilth reduces
slips i1nd Iilil s. A

hilnd-wilshlnq sink Is
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PATIENT ROOM
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Char/iug ,m'a
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Rat/rroom
Privalt'room
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Rarpliotl
lI'ailillg room
Bridge /0 medical-
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GROUND fLOOR
84 ArchilWuml Record 08.09
partment has its own entrance at the
rear of the building. This location is not
to diminish the importance of the ER:
Approximately two thirds of the pa.
tients who are admitted to the hospital
come in through there, but placing it at
the back separates ambulance access
from pedestrian and parking lot traffic.
Patients who come into the
main entrance to be admitted or for
ambulatory care find themselves in a
twostory, glass-enclosed concourse
that runs the length of the patient-care
wing. Each medical department has its
own check-in area, and wood-trimmed,
small-scale waiting rooms avoid the
airport-terminal feel common to
mega hospitals. The ambulatory care,
surgical, and ER suites are clustered
beyond these public spaces, allowing
such things as imaging equipment
to be shared. This organization also
reduces the time patients and staff
spend moving between departments.
Obstetrics is located on the
second floor, accessed via a dedicated
elevator. Its waiting area occupies a
balcony that overlooks the concourse,
allowing it to be spacious and daylit
while remaining private. Extremely
compact patient rooms are located
on the floors above. Their unusual,
canted-headwall design allows patients
to easily see outdoors and to make eye
contact with staff walking the single-
loaded corridors. The small distance
between the bed and bath minimizes
the risk of falls; charting and hand-
washing are isolated from the patient
bed. All of the patient rooms at Stone
Oak are private.
Commentary
One of the first things one notices here
is that the flooring is not inlaid with
color-coded directional arrows, a sign
at other hospitals that there are prob-
ably lost patients wandering aroond-
possibly doctors, too. The designers of
most other medical buildings, while at
tempting to elicit comfort by borrow-
ing from the hotel industry, have erred
toward the mauve plastic laminate of
Days Inns as opposed to the textiles
of the Plaza. That is not the case here.
Stone Oaks warmth and clear layout
help to banish anxiety, every hospital
visitor's constant companion, and that
is one good measure of its success. _
/
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PAVING
----------+---8Y WAUSAU TIL
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www. ausaupaving.com
CIRCLE 29 J
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An End in Sight for a Centuries-Old Building Project?
IN RECENT YEARS, RAMPED-UP EFFORTS AND STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY HAVE
SPED UP CONSTRUCTION AT BARCELONA'S FAMOUSLY UNFINISHED SAGRADA FAMiliA CHURCH
By Josephine Mlnutillo
C
hartres Cathedral's imposing spires,
rising heroica ll y above the wheat
fields in the count ryside southwest
of Paris, arc a testament to the inter-
minable const ruction that went into Medieval
chuTches. While t he shorter spire was begun
in the 12t h century, its taller, more flamboy-
ant neighbor was not completed until some
400 years later. The campaniles of Barcelona's
Sagrada FamHia (Holy Family) church are
equally impressive, and along with the cranes
that hover above them, represent the most vis-
ible elements of an unmissabJe construction
site in the center of a bustling metropoJis- a
unique, modern-day example of a complex
building more than 125 years in the making.
Unlike Romanesque and Gothic ca-
thedrals, in which the master builder remains
largely unknown, the Sagrada Familia is the
vision of one very well -known archi tect- the
eccentric Catalan Antoni Gaudi , whose Mod-
ernislil buildings created a sensation in fin -
de-sircle Barcelona. But much like Chartres,
which battled destructive fires on numerous occasions, construction
of the Sagrada Familia suffered huge setbacks during the devastating
Spanish Civil War in the decade after Gaudf's death in a streetcar ac-
cident in 1926. Crucial drawings and building models were lost during
the conflict, making Gaudi's ultimate vision for the temple less clear for
his successors. Efforts to interpret that vision have been the source of
controversy ever since. (Manifestos are presented every few years urg-
inga halt to construction, claiming the building as it exists today is just
a caricature ofGaudi's work.)
While progress on t he building in the decades that followed
may have seemed slow, less than \0 percent of the planned church had
actually been built during Gaudi's lifetime.
(The first stone was laid in 1882, a year before
Gaudi was appointed architect. ) The continu-
ation of construction depended on several fac-
tors, not least of all funding. As an expiatory
church, the Sagrada Familia relies entirely on
private donations; no money is received from
the government or Catholic Church. When
more towers began to rise, slowly revealing
what would beGaudi's most radical design, t he
construction site gained increasing appeal as a
tourist destination. The donat ions of a steady
stream of visitors- nearly 2.5 million annu-
ally- coupled with advances in construct ion
technology, have brought astonishing progress
to the building in recent years.
Among the technological advances is
a "file-to-factory" construction system. Since
the usual trinity of plan, section, and elevat ion
was not sufficient to translate Gaudi's unusual
forms to the stone masons who would create
the building elements by hand, intricate scale
models were needed to iHust rate the compo-
nents' irregular structure and fanciful shapes. Today, complex com-
pUler drawings feed information to a stone-cutting machine a nd other
fabricators, thus elim inating one of the most time-consuming aspects
of t he building's earlier construction.
But the surviving pieces of those early models proved invaluable
for determining- beyond a doubt, in the opinion of somc-Gaudi 's au-
dacious design. KIf the Casa Mila had been left half-built and the models
partially destroyed, there would be no hope whatsoever to restore it ac-
cording to Gaudf's wishes because it was a free-form building," says Mark
Burry, referring to Gaudf's famous apartment complex in Barcelona's Eix-
ample district, begun in 1905. Burry, a professor at the Royal Melbourne
CONTINUING EOUCATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Use the followillg ienruillg objec-
tives to fows yor/( swdy wllife renriillg this
mOlllh's ARCHITECTURAL RECORD/AlA
COlltilll/iug E(iIlCa/ioll article. To cam oue
AlA iwruillg lmit, illCildi/lg olle hOllr
of helilth, slifety, mitt weifllre credit, tum
to page 92 alld follow the imtructiolls.
86 Ardli ttcturaIRu",,1 08.09
Afler reading this artic/e, 1'011 should be IIble to: 3. Describe reccllt techll%giwl adwlllccs-
1. Describe how Gllru/i 's earlier arc/,itectllral ill both desigll Il /Id collstructiol/ - thllt
projects iuJ1uellced his design for the Sagrada have expeililed blliidi /Ig progress 011 the
Familia church. 51lgradll Fmllilill.
2. Become fllmilillr with the lmiqrle design of 4. Describe the differelll tools used by wr-
the 5agrada Fllmilill church, mrd chllrch relit builders of the 51lgmda rll/ni/ill to
Ilrclritecture ill gel/emi, ilrciudil/g specific carry ow Gnudi's visioll for the bllilding.
termillology for wlrious splices.
,
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The S;,qrada Familia's
towers are amonq the
tall est In Barcelon;,
(opposite). Gaudi used
hanqlnq models to
determine the reversed
catenary structure lor
the Colonia Giiell ch;, '
pel, Incorpor;,tlnq his
IIndlnqs In the deslqns
lor the Saqrad;, Famill;,
(above). A drawlnq by
Lluis Bonet , one 01
the architects ch;,rqed
with reconstructlnq
Gaudi' s model s alter
they were burned dur-
Inq the Sp;,nlsh Civil
War, shows his vision
lor the church (below).
The hyperbololds 01 the
nave celllnq use tradl'
tlon;,1 Catalan v;,ultlnQ
techniques (rlqht).
Institute of Technology (RMrT). in Australia. has written and lectured
extensively on the Sagrada Famil ia. His involvement with the project be-
gan 30 years ago, when in a student thesis project he himself questioned
the contemporary builders' authority to continue construction.
Acc.ording to Burry, Gaudi began to use a codex of very rich ge-
ometries in his last years. Some model fragments contain important in-
formation, like the intersection of three surfaces, or triple points. Enough
of these triple points exist, along with photographic documentation of
lost models, to provide strong evidence for the fi nal design. Gaudi came
up with a language which allows us to readily assim ilate the role of his
successors," Burry explains. rfhe hadn't used this language, we would
have been inventing for ourselves, and the cri t icism that the building gets
from timeto time would be valid. But what has been built after his deat h
has come directly from this evidence, so there's no question of its being
somebody else's interpretat ion of what Gaud! would have done."
Up until the early 1980s, architectural work at the Sagrada
Familia was overseen by former collaborators ofGaudi's, who were well
past retirement age by then. The current head architect, Jordi Bonet, was
also privy to firsthand accounts of Gaudi's design process from his fa-
ther, Lluis, another collaborator. But Bonet says that kind of intimate
knowledge ofthe project is not necessary to continue with construction
in the future. "Gaud! knew it would be impossible to finish the church
wi thin his lifetime," Bonet explains. "So he developed a new architecture
that was different from his previous work. It is a synthesis ofform and
08.09 Ar(hituturdl Raord 87
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st ructure based on geometry. A nd because geometry is an exact science.
we can build it today precisely the way Gaudi pictured it in his head."
Gaud! did, however, draw on the knowledge he gained from
earlier projects: in part icular, the crypt for the Colonia Gilell cha-
pel, another unfinished religious structure built for a worker's village
outside Barcelona. It was for this project that Gaud! developed his fa-
mous hanging model - one of the firs t known adaptive or parametric
models- using small bags of birdshot attached to an adjustable web
of string. His inventi on allowed gravity to inform the st ruct ural de -
sign. But while Gaud! created the somewhat irregular, circular plan
for this chapel, he had to work wi t hin a Gothic Revival Latin Cross
plan already in place at the Sagrada Familia. "If you liberated the de-
sign to allow gravity to truly inform it, it wouldn't necessarily conform
to bays of equal length, and the proporti onal system of the Sagrada
Familia would ha\'e been compromised, says Burry. "But Gaudi used
the same principle, relying on the
static resolution offorces. The les-
sons he learned from the Colonia
Gilell chapel were applied to the
Sagrada Familia to the extent that
the columns, where possible, arc
aligned to take forces axially, and
that accounts for the branching.
It also accounts for the
fact that none of the columns in
t he Sagrada Familia are com-
pletely vertica l. Even the soaring,
t reelike columns that run the
lengt h of the central nave (reach-
ing heights of close to 150 feet )
are slightly inclined. While none
of these columns were built be-
fore Gaud!'s death, existing plas -
ter models show Gaudi's experiments wi t h counter-rotated columns
(whose profile transforms from circular to square to star-shaped
along its length) and structural trees (whose upper branches carry
and distri bute the load from the vaults, thus eliminat ing the need
for exterior buttressing like most Gothic cathedrals). Just prior to
branching, the column forms a node, or knot, which is based on a va -
riet y of forms varying from ellipsoids to more abstract formations.
The columns' upper branches also serve to connect with the
ceiling vaults in a novel way. "Gaudi sought a cont inuity between the
colu m ns and vaults in parabolic and spiral colu m n forms," says lordi
Faul!, assistant head a rchitec!. "He d id not ach ieve this with total suc-
cess unt il he created the counter- rotated double-helix and adopted
t he hyperboloid for the skyl ights of the vaults ." The vault is orga nized
in concentric circles around a large central hyperboloid which is 13
feet in diameter. Columns and skylights alternate in these concentric
circles. In planning the vault s of the central nave, which were built
during the 1990s, Gaudi used regular surfaces based on hyperboloi ds
to form the oculi and capitals, and hyperbolic paraboloids for the
t ransi t ional elements between them.
The hyperboloid is one of several ruled surfaces- surfaces, like
cones and cylinders, generated by connecting line segments between
corresponding points- Gaudi employed at the Sagrada l;amilia. (Simi-
lar geometries can be found at Colonia Gilell, where he used hyperbolic
paraboloids extensively.) But Gaud! was working without precedent,
never having seen a building wi t h a significant array of ruled surfaces.
He also did not explain in sufficient detail how he intended to trans-
88 08.09
Architectural director
Jordl Bonet , Whose fa-
ther, Lluls, collaborated
with Gaudl, oversees
desl"n and construc-
tion (above left). The
building site comprises
an entire block within
Barcelona's El xampl e,
the 19th-century exten-
sion of the city (above).
late them into built form, leaving his succes-
sors with a substantial challenge- one that has
been met by the use of parametric modeling.
The Sagrada Familia's incorpora-
ti on of such complex forms lent itself to the
emerging digital technology of the late 1980s,
an undertaking spearheaded by Professor
Burry. "Trying to draw Gaudi buildings is a
very thankless task," Burry says from experi-
enc.e. "\ have bec.ome the only person on the
project to work on both analog drawings and
digital modeli ng."
The first digital model was produced in 1989, but architectural
software proved insufficient for resolving Gaudi's interweaving geom-
etries. By the next year- and concurrently with Frank Gehry's offi ce-
Burry's team was creating models using advanced surfacing software
designed for the aeronautical industry. (Today, the team of architects
-.
-..





A model 01 the trllo-
rlum was made with
sophisticated para-
metric deslqn software
(top lelt). A colomn's
qeometry transforms
115 It ascends (middle
left). Wood lormwork
Is used In construction
of the apse skylight
(top right). Larqe steel
pieces Ire placed at
the base 01 the apse
tower (left). A render-
Inq shows the hyper-
bololds of the nave's
celllnq (right).
08.09 Auhituturdl Raord 89
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90 08.09
Proposlt ls lor a hlqh-
speed rail line to
run directl y below
the church (above)
have sparked heat ed
controversy. Also
controversi al are the
sculptures by Josep
Marla Sublrachs on
the PaSSion Facade
(l eft), construction of
which beqan in 1954.
Their cont emporary
st yle is In sharp con-
trast to the Nativity
Facade sculpture, ex-
ecuted mostly durinq
Gaudi's lifetime.
558FT/110M
394FT/120M
and engineers in Barcelona uses a combina-
tion of programs including CAT1A, Rhino, and
Ivlechanical Desktop by Autodesk, and several
of Rurry's Melbourne-based collaborators at
the Spatia! Information Archi tecture Labora-
tory at RMIT use Gehry Technologies' Digital
Project. ) Used early on as a time-saver in the
process of "reverse engineering," flexible mod-
eling software later provided all opportunity to
experiment iteratively, backtracking and direc-
tion-changing with relative ease, and allowed
the ready assembly of libraries of parts. The Sa-
grada Familia was also one of the first projects
to ex periment with rapid prototyping, but it is a
combination of digital and physical models, as
well as sketches, that inform design even today.
The building mater ials currently used
are in keepi ng with t hose selected by Gaud!.
They include stone columns and windows
(made with granite, basalt, porph)'ry, and stone
from the nearby MontjuIc), vaults of exposed
reinforced concrete and flat brick (made using a
traditional Catal an technique of superimposed
layers of mortared tile and brick), stone roofs,
and Veneti an-glass mosaics. Steel-reinforced,
high-resistance concrete allows some of the
larger columns to be built according to Gaudi's
design while meeting current regu lations.
The models were traditionally made
of gypsum plaster, but more recently have also
been mechanically produced using polysty-
rene or polyu retha ne. Polyester and fiberglass
are also used for making molds . The formwork
for t he large hyperbolic paraboloids is made
of a metal skeleton that is subsequently lined
with medium-densi ty-fiberboard paneling.
The metal for mwork for the smaller parabo-
loids is covered with a combi nation of epoxy
resins and sand. The skylight hyperboloids are
produced with wooden ribs.
Despite 7,000 daily visitors, many
of these elements are fabr icated onsite and hoisted into position by
both trad itiona l methods and specially created machinery. While there
are those who are concerned for the safety of visitors, concern for t he
safety of the buildi ng has arisen recent ly since the Spanish govern
SUPPORTERS OF THE SAGRADA FAMILIA
CALL PLANS TO BUILD A HIGH-SPEED RAIL
LINE BELOW THE CHURCH RECKLESS.
ment approved plans to build a high-speed rail line linking Madrid and
Barcelona. That line would pass below grade near the church founda-
tions (already flanked by t wo subway lines). New controversy has since
erupted over the already much-debated building.
According to Bonet and his supporters, boring tunnels for the
new train would almost certai n ly wreak ha\'oc on the building; he calls
the plan to have a train run so close to its structure irresponsible and
reckless. Just this past March, a similar construction project for a metro
line in Cologne, Germany, is said to have caused the devastating col -
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THE BUSINESS OF


















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EDUCATION
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lapse of t he city's archives build-
ing, resulting in the loss of life
and irreplaceable historic docu-
ments, and generating discussion
throughout Europe about such
construct ion projects.
Al t hough the Sagrada
Familia was included on UNES-
CO's Jist of World Heritage Sites,
the World Heritage Commit-
tee, which mel this summer in
Seville, Spain, went against rec-
ommendations from the inter-
national Council on Monuments
and Sites and decided not to place
the building on its endangered
The ceillnq 15 highlighted with green list, saying it was not in danger of
and gold Vendian-gIns mosai cs. suffering damage from construc-
tion of the rail line. Though bor-
ing has not started, preliminary work has begun just a mile away from
the church as the debate continues in Spanish courts .
, .... ,
. '.


AlA/ARCHITECTURAL RECORD
CONTINUING EDUCATION
INSTRUCTIONS
Read the anicle "An End in Sight for a CenturiesOld Building
using the learning objectives provided.
Complete the questions below, then fill in your answers on the next page.
Fill out and submit the A lA/CES education reporting fo.m on the next
page or tah the test online at continuingeducation.construction.com
to receive one AlA learning unit.
QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following does the Sagrada Familia have in common
with most Medieval churches?
a. its architect is unknown
b. its construction has spanned centuries
c. its construction began during the Middle Ages
d. none of the above
2. Which of the following occurred at the Sagrada Famllia during
Gaudi's lifetime?
a. the nave columns were ereCled
b. 20 percent of the overall construction was completed
c. sculpture on the Nativity Facade was under way
d. none of the above
3. AI! of the following have sped up church construction except which?
a. consistent fu nding
b. redrawn plans, sections, and elevations
c. a file- to-factory building process
d. increased tourism
4. Which earlier Gaudi design most inflnenced the Sagrada Familia?
a. Casa Mila
b. Casa Bat l!6
c. Colonia Gudl chapel
d. Palau Giiell
92 Ard,j'tclumIRuvnI08.09
While controversies persist, one lingering question remains:
Wiil the building ever be complete? Gaud! nsed to say t hat hi s client
"was in no hurr y. In the decades following Gaudi's death, t he running
joke was that the Sagrada Familia would get finished "in 10 years." But
now there arc rea l dates. For the past several years, const ruction has
been going on in every part of the building, and has reached a point
where t here does in fact seem to be a light at the end of the tunnel.
Plans call for all interior spaces to be completed and domes
sealed by this time next year. The finished, 48,000-square-foot en-
closure would make it possible to open the church for worship. But
much work is still left to be done. The biggest project yet to he under-
taken is the construction of additional towers- taller than exist ing
ones- including an enormous, 550-foot -tall central one (that would
exceed in height most high-rise buildings in the city), and the Glor y
Facade (t he last of the three facades ). Still, if you ask the current
team if the Sagrada Familia will ever get finished, their answer is a
resounding yes . A potential target date may even be set- 2026, the
centennial ofGaudi's death. _
r:l To take this test online and for more continui ng education, as well as sources,
white papers, and products, go to archltecturalrecord.comJt ech .
s. Which ofth("" following is true of the plan for the Sagrada Familia?
a. it is a Latin Cross
b. its form was determined bcfor("" Gaud i became the architect
c. the nav("" is flanked by tr(""elike columns
d. al!oftheabove
6. Gaudi's structural innovation s inclnde all (""xcept which?
a. the use of param<""lric models
b. incl ined columns
c. structural tr(""cs
d. rdnforced-concrete columns
7. The Sagrada Familia has all of t he following building dements in com-
mon with most Golhic and Gothic Revival church(""s except which?
a. soaring ceiling heights
b. a central nave
c. exterior buttressing
d. a rich sculptural program
8. Which is not an (""xample of a ruled surfac(""?
a. a cone
b. a hyperboloid
c. a sphere
d. a hyperbolic paraboloid
9. A tradit ional Catalan building technique incor porating layns of
brick and tile was used for which element?
a. cln(""storywindows
b. vaults
c. columns
d. formwork
10. Which facade is the last to be built?
a. the Nativity Facade
b. the Passion Facade
c. the Glory Facade
d. the Sacramenta! Facade
AlA/ARCHITECTURAl RECORD CONTINUING EDUCATION
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cont i nuingcducation. const ruct ion.com. A mini mum ",ore of80% i, required to earn credit.
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ARCHITECTURAL
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- - ----- ----- ---
SMALL SPACES
ting
'4
Marni, New York City
Sybllr;, ..

Chapel of the Evanqelical
Academy, Germany
gmp
103 Char No. 4, Brooklyn, N.Y.
BernI/in Horn Sludio
107 Liqhtinq products
According to IIghttng designer Howard Brandston, ':<\ system for achieving any
objecttve should be tailored to the realities of the problem. We can overdesign
too easily, when simpliCity and attention to the Immediate objectIVe IS all that
IS reqUired." Such an economy of means Informs the unique lighting schemes
that follow - all for cramped quarters. DeSigned by architects, these simple yet
bold solutions not only Illuminate and visually "open" the long, narrow spaces
effectively, they are essential to the architectonic quality of each one. linda C.lentz
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The top-floor celUnQ
of the Milldlson Avenue
Millrnl boutique Is
domlnillted bV lillrQe-SCillle
Qeometrlc luminillires
(opposite iII nd rlQht J_
Subtle iIIlterilltlons to the
French Neocl illssicilll-
stvle bulldlnQ illilow for ill
Qllmpse Inside (below).
Sybarite designs a gallerylike setting for the new
Marni Madison Avenue shop in New York City
By Linda C. Lentz
C
olor, text ure, a refined yet offbeat sense of materiality, and
above all, a subtle irreverence are staple elements of fashion
designer Consuelo Castiglioni's collections for Marni, the
upscale r-, 'l ilanese label she founded in 1994 with her husband,
Gianni, the company's C.E.O_ A favorite of confident, creative women,
Castiglioni's exuberant designs are intended to reflect her customers'
persona and style as much as her own. Likewise, the 38 independent
and the numerous shop-in-shop Marni reta il outlets worldwide- de-
signed by Castiglioni in collaboration with the London-based architec-
tural firm Sybari te- speak to both the brand's image and the locales in
which the stores reside.
Completed in April, Marni's second New York City flagship
store occupies a former ar t-gallery space on the first two floors of a five-
floor town house (circa 1900) on East 67th Street, just wesl of Madison
Avenue and close to some of the city's most exclusive boutiques and galler-
ies. Picking up on the neighborhood's verve, Castiglioni and the architects
created a styl ized interpretation of a modern art gallery- for clothingand
accessories- leaving the building's I;rench Neoclassical- facade virtually
intact. The only exterior alterations- replacing a small display window
and t raditional paneled door with full -height glass versions- provide
passersby with a glimpse of what's inside. These contemporary elements
also supplement the daylight from three existing casement windows on
the second floor above a newly devised 2-story lobby entrance.
Castig I ion i 's eclectic aesthetic informs t he i nterior oft he quirky,
2,700-square-foot split-level shop. Intentionally rough, roller-painted
white swaths on drywall contrast wi th a delicate lilac carpel and folded,
origami-inspired white lacquered-steel panels that meander along the
walls and behind various displays. Dynamic polished-stainless-steel
racks undulate throughout the space. Meanwhile, light acts as one of
the driving forces behind the entire design. Architect Simon Mitchel l,
Sybarite's director, notes that he
decided from the start to respond
to the 88-by-lS-foot, multilevel
space by creating large geometric
shapes in Jight and opening up the
stofe with structural cutouts.
Demolishing an exist-
ing stair enabled Mitchell and his
design team to make a diagonal
incision between the two floors to
create a nearly IS-foot -high foyer.
A duster of diaphanous fiberglass
mannequins sporting Castiglioni's
whimsica l ensembles floats in
this double-height space, which is
toplit by the first offour super-size ceiling luminaires t hat brighten and
visually expand the upper floor. The designers used the same device in
the back of the shop, where a treelike clothes rack on the first floor rises
through a trapezoidal hole beneath a giant illuminated circle. Glass
knee walls, ranging from 30 to 37 inches high, border these openings
and line the stair to maintain the desired sense of openness.
Carved into the cei Ii ng, t he large luminai res are custom fab -
rications wi t h warm 2700K fluorescent T5 and T8 lamps installed in
the plenum and staggered in plan at least 12 inches above a formable,
nonfl ammable slretch ceiling material chosen for its light weight,
translucence, and ability to cover expansive areas. Chamfered edg-
es around thc perimeters produce fine shadow lines that define the
forms etched within the fla t ceiling. Downstairs, similar but smaller
round fixtures, in \'arying diameters, are fi tted with opalescent glass
diffusers set flush with t he ceiling. The lighting on both levels emits
08.09 Archittctural Ru ortl 95
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96 ArchilulumlRmml08.09
Track-mounted
PAR30 haloqen
lamps are installed
around a circular
fluorescent lumlnalre
and adjacent to the
stair to hlQhllqht
a
I ...
Individual Items (left
and bottom).
round luminaires
with opalescent qlass
diffusers illuminate
the flr st ' floor
qallerles (above).
a pleasing theatrical glow with a good color
rendering and a minimum of shadows .
"FJuorescents are getting much bel-
ter," says Mitchell. In addition to improved
color temperatures, they generate less heat,
he notes. So the deep, narrow shop, with
only three operable windows, requires less air-
conditioning than is typical for an establish-
ment wi t h such a configurat ion, reducing
operating costs already lowered because th is
cooler light source consumes less energy than
its incandescent counter parts.
The designers did use incandescent
lamps where they wanted sparkle and finely
tuned direction. We have only about 35 halo-
gen lights in the entire shop," says Mitchell.
These include PAR30 down lights on a t rack
system adjacent to the stairs that direct light to the treads, the tiers of
handbags along the opposite wall, and the path between them. The same
fixtu res ring the circular fluorescent luminaire upstairs to highlight the
garments hung on the stainless-steel rai l that surrounds the trapezoidal
cutout in the floor. In addition, 20-walt dichroic halogen spots cast a
gentle glow on lingerie displayed in sumptuous leat her-lined boxes.
The project's successful lighting scheme supplies surpris-
ingly even and glare-free illumination, providing an artful , \'ibrant
backdrop for the shop's fashionable merchandise. "I love this light,"
says Castig!ioni. "It's like daylight," she adds. "And it gives a freshness
to this new boutique." .
ProJed: j\Jarni, New York City SOURCES
Archlted: Sybarite- Simon Mitchell, Llr;lhtlnll: Lig/lling Service, Ine.
Torquil Mdnto,/i, Giorgia Cllrmici (downlight jixtlne, ); Barri,ol
ArchItect 01 record: Studio (,tretch cei/illg material)
Mor>ll - Dolwto Savoie Furnlshlnlls: Sybarite (de,ign);
Gener. 1 contr.dor: Mod, j, Soozar (fabriwtion )
Tiezzi, Leather: mpplied by Marni
Walter Morini (uphol,tery, di,play boxe5)
i

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gmp pares the Chapel of the Evangelical Academy
to its luminous core in Hofgeismar, Germany
By Michael Dumiak
W
ilh nine offi ces in Germany and abroad, von Ger bn
Marg und Partners (gmp) is known for such major ar-
chitect ural works as the Berlin Central Station (2006)
and numerous other buildi ngs and developments
throughout Europe, Asia, and South Africa. But its recent renova-
t ion of a simple seminary chapel for the Evangelical Academy in
Hofgeismar, Germany- a sleepy town some 137 miles northeast of
Frankfurt- demonstrates that this international firm also produces
modest projects with equal attention to detail. A small jewel, t his
serene, 650-square-foot single chamber is striking in its utter mate-
ria lity and translucence.
Located on the grou nd floor of the 230-year-old academy's li-
brary and dormitory buiJding- a former spa dating from 1770- this
3IY,-by- 13Y,-foot space within a space serves as a Quiet room for teach-
ing and reflection, enveloped by luminous, ir idescent ceiling and wall
surfaces, illuminated from behind. There are no windows visible from
within it, and no distractions. One docs not .notice the rolling Hessian
!
A cl ever backliqhtlnq syst em Install ed behind r ecycl ed-glass-ceramic
Michael Dumiak i, a Beriin-ba,ed freelance writer for fI fCU/I/). panel s envelops the chapel In a warm, ethereal glow (top and above).
08.09 Archittctural Ruord 99
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hills outside or the people stroll -
ing along the wooded campus
talking among the 18th-century
dormitoriesand classrooms. More
specifically, one docs not notice
that the new chapel was built in-
side a preexisting one on a newly
erected, freestanding steel struc-
tural frame- a kind of cage set on
a concrete base.
According to gmp co-
founder A'leinhard von Gerbn,
"The main idea was to make a box
within a box: to take away every-
thing that was existing, and to dis-
turb normal sensory reactions."
Von Gerkan and gmp project
leader Joachim Zais achieved this
tern backing the panels casts an ethereal glow that dominates the space.
To create it, the architects specified t wo discreet sources of
light. These arc installed about 10 inches behind the glass. surround-
ing- not obst ructing- the existing windows. The firs t light source is
a series of incandescent tubes t hat line the internal steel frame, mask-
ing its skeleton from view. Indeed, the only evidence of the structure
is an set of thin horizontal ribs, which secure the glass
panels. The second source is composed of an array of 950 incandes -
cent, 25-watt A-lamps, the sockets bolted to iron sheets fitted into
the frame, behind the glass . The panels tilt open on the walls and
can be removed from the ceiling 10 facilitat e swapping out the lamps
and to allow for natural ventilation at the windows. Floor-mounted
wall washers lining the perimeter around the base of t he wood walls
highlight the rich brown finish .
by honing the sanctuary to what The translucent panels tilt open In
they deemed to be its essence: a front of existing windows (above).
When illuminated, the chapel is wrapped in a homogeneous
bright light that radiates a spiritual warmth appropriate for the room's
function. "It is smooth and inviting, totally different from the light
coming in from the oUisideor anywhere else," von Gerkan says. "And it
is extraordinary for the people assembling there." .
Minimalist rectilinear volume Project: Chapel of rile Evangelical
surfaced with two disparate materials- bOlh lust rous, yet humble- in Acadcmy. Hofgeimwr. Germmly
dialogue. So the floor and three walls merge, simply clad in phenol- Architect: von Gcrkan. Marg lind
resin-coated birch-plywood sheets normally used for concrete form Partners (gmp) - Meinlwrd vml Ger-
boards. The suspended ceiling and adjacent wall- which appear to kml.loacilim Zais. dcsign;
float, covering the building's exterior windows from inside- are fitted Monika van Vrrgill. design team
with jade-hued, recycled-glass-ceramic panels reinforced by light - General contractor:
permeable, glass fiber honeycomb boards. An illgenious lighting sys- Dell/scile \Verbriillell Hel/erau
----------
SOURCES
Glass: / Iuit,parf
(Srme//lran glass ceramic)
Wood: Carl Glitz
(collcreteform boards)
Lighting: Osram
(Linestra illcandescen/ tubes)
Chairs:; Frirz Hanscn
When a hole in our ceilin or wall ...

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Our & fixtures are plaster/glass-
fiber castings. When installed, they blend into the
surtace and appear to be a custom built drywall
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NATIONAL BUILDING MUSEUM
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Berman Horn Studio distills the essence of Southern
comfort at Char No.4, a bourbon bar and restaurant
By Beth Broome
S
mith Street, in Brooklyn, New York'sCarrolJ Gardens neigh-
borhood, has evolved over the course of the past decade
from a rugged urban commercial strip peppered with fam-
ily shoe stores, bodegas, and windowless Italian social dubs,
to the area's restaurant row, playing host to a mix of both serious
and theme -heavy establishments, from top-ranked restaurants run
by ambitious chefs to a tiki bar named the Zombie Hut. When Sean
Josephs, a sommelier, and Michael Tsoumpas, a bourbon collector,
decided in 2007 to open a bourbon bar and restaurant sen'ing refi ned
comfort food in a 19th-century row house here, they approached the
Manhattan-based firm Berman Horn Studio and expressed t heir de-
sire for an environment influenced by the Sout hern whiskey-making
tradi t ion. Unlike some of their neighbors, however, the restaurateurs
wished to accomplish t his with a light touch, wi t hout being overtly
referent ial or kitsc.h.
In the springof2008, the two owners and the design partners,
Brad Horn and Maria Berman, headed down to Kentucky, commonly
known as bourbon's birthplace, to explore the Bluegrass State's urban
enclaves and rural scenery and visit a couple of dist illeries . "We became
inspired by the landscapes and the textures and colors of the process of
dist illat ion," says Horn, "and decided our design should capture that
spirit." Named Char
No.4 after the pract ice
of burning the insides
of oak bourbon barrels
prior to aging (with No.
4 being the most intense
level of charring), the
restaurant opened in
September 2008. Ab-
stract references begin
on the facade, which is
cl ad in water-jet-cut steel that resembles barrel staves, and continue
inside- enhanced by a rich aroma rising from a basement smoker- to
a palette of warm materials, such as the oatmeal-colored grass cloth
that lines the walls and alludes to grain mash .
Lighting became a central architectural element for the
project, largely because t he long and narrow, 1,1 OO-square -foot space
was not conducive to creati ng sepa rate zones of int imacy. "It was not
a n afterthough t," says Horn. ~ Much of our design ciTCU laled around
the lighting," adds Berman. '"'It allowed us to create a space that's
bigger than its size."
08. 09 Archiru tuw/ Ru ord 103
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Inspired by the geom-
etry of bourbon barrels, the team
came up with an abstraction of
their shape, based on their actual
dimensions, and repeated the cy-
lindrical fOTn1 (36 inches tall and
24 inches in diameter) over and
over in the front bar area with 32
custom pendants made of craft
paper mounted on Mylar and il -
luminated by iOO-watt incandes-
cent A-lamps on dimmers. This
sculptural a rrangement continues
the datum of the lower-ceilinged
back dining room and the soffit
that runs around the perimeter
of the front room, equalizing the
difference in height between t he
lighting elements are the LEOs that illuminate walnut shelves behind
t he bar displaying Char No.4 's piece de resistance: more than 150 whis-
keys (t hat started out as one of the owners' personal collect ion). Horn
and Berman, who did not work with a lighting designer, note that they
experimented with a range of LED intensities and sizes to get the de-
sired effect: a somewhat cool quality of light that cont rasts with the
golden luminescence of the incandescent fixtures and highlights the
subtle variat ions in color among the array of bottles.
A soft amber IIqht floods the space.
Berman Horn Studio's deft handling of simple materials
and its creat ion of a lighting scheme that performs on multiple lev-
els responds- in a language that is firmly contemporary while being
respectful of the location's traditional roots- to the owners' desire to
subtly capture the spirit of Southern comfort while meeting the chal-
lenges of the small, almost cavelike space. I n the agi ng process, it is the
charring of the barrels that produces bourbon's rich amber hue. Here,
t he designers have employed controlled light ing focused on the honey-
toned part of the visible spectrum to harness the drink's essence and
flood Char No. 4 in its warm glow .
two spaces. Using the fixtures to create a soft ceiling," the designers
give diners a sense of the soaring, 16-foot height of the bar area while Project: Char No.4, Brooklyn.
not oppressing them. This soft ceiling also acts as a baffle between the New York
lively restaurant and the apartments direct ly above, and bathes the Archi tect: Berman Hom Stlldio-
space in a tawny light that bounces off bronze-tinted mirrors. Brad Hom, Maria Berman, parwers;
Custom brass sconces illuminated by 40-watt incandescent Perry Randazzo, imem
A-lamps are mounted at eye level adjacent to the bar in the front and a
little lower alongside seating in the dining room at the back, and refer- SOURCES
ence the pendants. More overtly historic than their larger counterpa rts, Lighting: Broome Lampshade
the sconces use a paper wi th a smaller-scaled grain. The third and final (pemlam fabricat ion); Olllmpill
Record

CALL FOR ENTRIES
Submi ssion deadline: October 30, 2009
The editors of A RCHITECTURA L RECORD announce the 2010 Record Houses
awards program. Entry is open to any architect registered in the u.s. or abroad.
Recognizing that current economic constraints influence residential design,
the editors of Record Houses will pay particular attention to modest scale
and design, and simplicity of approach. Sustainability remains a significant
criterion in evaluating Record Houses. Also of particular interest are projects
that incorporate innovation in program, building technology, materials,
and form. Projects must be built and inhabited. They may be single-family
dwellings or multifamily housing complexes, totally new construction or
renovated and adaptive reuse projects.
5f11dio (wall-sconce fabrication )
Paints and stains:
Benjami'l Moore
Grass cloth wall coverinQ:
Dong/l ia
Whiskey di splay: Mafl Crane
Custom woodwork: Karl Glal'(
Seating: Marais Stool and Kyoto
C/wir,from De5ig'l \fithi,l Reach
2010
ARCHITECTURAL
RECORD
The fee is U.S. $65 per submission; please make checks or money orders
payable to ARCHITECTURAL RECORD (sorry, we cannot accept credit cards or wire
transfers). Please download the official entry form from architecturalrecord.
com/cal14entries and send with the submission. Email questions to
jane _ko lleen y@mcgraw-hill.com.
ARCHITECTURAL
RECORD
En"yy Efficient
CFl CMH
15 LED
delraylighling .com
CIRCLE 34 CIRCLE 35






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FOR BEST REPUTATION ...
JOIN THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS.
,
.' .
it.



Being a member of the AlA tells your clients that you belong to an association
whose members uphold the highest standards of quality, ethics, and professional
responsibility. As the voice of the architectural profession, the AlA works to
build public awareness of the value of good design and the expertise of its
architect members.
When you join the AlA, you immediately become part of a collective voice
of more than 83,CXXJ design professionals, working to influence policy making
and enhance the importance of architecture in your community.
WE ASKED A SIMPLE QUESTI ON. "WHY ARE YOU A MEMBER?"
THERE ARE 83.000 POSSIBLE ANSWERS. HERE ARE TWO.
"I t h j ~ that the day I was eI!Mlted from Associate rnernrer toM:hitect
member was the equivalent i1 any other proIessm 01 VttIeo yoo have
'made the grade.' Mtwgh tectricaIIy it was the state exam that
got me to that 0v0, II-. atjUty to put 'AlA' behnd my name really
tid mean a lot. ArlII <Xr'I" ttW1k I'm able i1 thaI respect.'
VIrgil Green, AlA -Member Since 1978
"When I'm meeOOJ a ~ t i a I client. they want to krow !hat I'm qualified.
One of the ttlrgs that gives them cootidln:e Is when they see my
buslress carel. Allhe eOO 01 my name, n says 'AJA. ' AOO 'NA' means
to them, not ooly am I a registered Il'Ofessicml, txJt I'm a highly QUalHIOO
registered prnfessiooal. AOO that I am interested i'1 ~
my o>itts and tatents conti100Wi.'
Louis B. Smith, Jr., AlA -Member Sinca 1985
Become the next Architect in Action. Become a member of the AlA.
www.aia.org/join_today
800-242-3837
TilE ,'cllERlCAl\ [\STlTlITE
OF ARCHITECTS


Lighting Products
1 Taklnq flJqht Luoovica and Rol)erto
Palomba wanted to express lightness of a
different kind in their design for Foscarini's
Fly-Fly. Thewi ngs of this suspension lamp
appear weightless as they hang from
ultrathin cords, One 30Q-watt halogen
bulb provides 360-0",gre", illumination
beneath the larqe polycarbonate diffuser,
which isalsoav<lilable in orange. DOC
Demus Desk}n Collection, New York City.
wwwJoscarini.wm cIRcLE200
2 Makin!) waves Vases is a modular
suspension lamp by German designers
Jehs+Laub for Nemo. The stacked.
opal -blown-qlass element s are available
in several diameters forvarious
configur<ltions. Ughtology, Chicago.
www.nemO.Cdssina.it cI RcLE201
3 Heavenly body Ross Lovegrove's
conCl:>pt for Cosmic Angel was 10 capture
the r ippli ng effect of air rolli ng over a t hin
sheet. The6'-long undulati ng surface
{ aptures and di stribut es light from
optional sources either aboV or below the
surface (or bot h). Also in smaller
floor. table. and suspension versions.and
as a wall mounted fi xture that uses OLEO
technology. Artemide. New York
www.artemide.us cIRCLE202
4 Tube top Tu.be Two is among the
latest designs from German light ing
innovator Ingo Maurer. Inspired by an
earlier chandelier he designed. called
Tu.be. the 22" high table version is
composed of live aluminum tubes and
steel. A ball joi nt makes it possible to turn
and tilt the lamp in all di reclions.l nqo
Maurer. New York City. www.ingo maurer.
com CIRCU: 203
5 Breakin; the mold Phi lippe Starck
has designed a number of memorable
luminaires for Flos. His latest is KRay. a
sculptural fidure that defies conventional
notions of table lamps. unusual
shape is formed from injection molded
polycarbonate. The halogen light source
is screened by an opalescent glass filter.
Available in gloss white or gloss black.
Centro Modern Furnishings. St. Louis.
www.tlos.com CIRCLE 204

The biennial
alongside Milan' s
luminai res were on
that were way out W,re. Jo;"ph"'''1''''I"o

I'J View more [rom Euroluce at
is April
,
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GETTING TO ZERO.
Architects. engineers and their clients continue in their quest to achieve net-zero
energy buildings - a feat requiring both great design skill, and technical sophistication.
The 2009 Innovation Conference will continue to build upon the ideas introduced at
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include engineering fundamentals, groundbreaking case studies and more of the new
technologies that will help the professi on get to zero.
Register today for the Net-Zero Energy Buildings Conference II to explore what it will
take to fulfill the worldwide mandate for ultrn-energy-efficient architecture. We'll
study topics such as micro smart-grids, the new generation of super-effi cient HVAC
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vegetated surtaces for air purifi cation, and more.
CASE STUDY PRESENTATIONS Will INCLUDE:
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:0: MechoShade Systems
It TheAfdoitKt .. ..
Image Credit: Center for Architecture Science and Ecology:
A collaborntion of Rensselaer Plllytechnic Institute & Skidmore,
Owings and MerrililLP

ARCOM
The Ieadef ,n spec,tal_
www.arcomnel.comlar
For 40 years, MasterSpec has been the leading industry resource for efficiently producing
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,
AIA
-.. . '1"'11
Product Focus Roofing
Our roundup includes an architectural fabric that was a highlight
of this year's Wimbledon match, the latest photovoltaic and
cool roof products. and a roof hatch that Is claimed to be 250
times more efficient t han standard models. Ri ta Catinella Orrell
r
Ai r .ented InrouQh
RidQe Ii RidQe lile.

Hiplile,
field tile,
Active tile.
Clockwise from left;
Approximately 300
square feet 01 Sole
Power Tiles were used
on this residence
in Bermuda Dunes,
California; the curved
dtsiqn of the til es
allows for qreater
air circulation under
and around them;
II detail of the
bulldlmHnteqrated
photovoltalc tll n.
A new curved photovoltaic-tile option energizes a centuries-old roofing style
The liming was serendipitous last "barrel-style" tiles are specifically
September when SRS Energy direc- designed for installation in sleep
tor of marketing Abby feinstein slope roofs alongside US Tile's Iradi-
contacted US Tile to determine tional clay rooling, and are offered
the company's interest in adding a as an upgrade to a traditional rooling
solar option to its line of Mission- purchase. In addition to applications
style clay tiles. "We were evaluating in new construction, the tile has po'
several different roofing manufac' tential in historic ret rofits that want
turers to work with, while they were to promote sustainability without
also evaluating solar people to work compromising aesthetics.
with," says Feinstein. Just one week In addition to their seamless
later, SRS Energy paid a visit to integration into the roof line, the tiles
US Tile's headquarters in Corona, employ cut ting-edge amorphous
California, and the partnership for silicon thin-film technology embed'
the Sole Power Tile was born. ded into the tile manufactured by
Launched last May at the AlA Uni-Solar. "They produce triple-
EKPO in San Francisco, Sole Power
Ti le is the first building'integrated
photovoltaic roofing product in the
U.s. designed for curved roofing
systems. The electricitY'generating
junction silicon - three layers of
semiconductor material," explains
Feinstein. "Each layer absorbs a
different spectrum of light, so overall
their technology can convert a
broader spectrum of light into
electricity. It makes our tiles less picky
about the spectrumollight that can
be converted." The t echnology adds
about 10 to 15 percent more energy
per year than incumbent crystal-
line-silicon panels of the same rated
power; however, it takes up more
square footage. The system also
utilizes a ridge vent and 3 inches of
airflow beneath the tiles to keep
them cooler during peak sun hours.
The blue Sole Power tiles
measure32'/ . " wide K 18" long and
weigh 240 pounds per 100 square
feet. They are constructed with
durable performance polymers com'
manly used in outdoor applications
such as car bumpers. The UL-listed
tiles have been rigorously tested by
SRS Energy under harsh conditions
including longterm UV stability,
colorfastness, wind'resistance, and
other durability issues; they are cur'
renlly undergoing t esting to match
US Tile's potability certifications.
Currently available in select
West Coast markets, a national
rollout for the tiles is planned to
star t in Spring 2010, followed by an
introduction into foreign markets.
In the meantime, Feinstein says that
SRS is already developing new solar
roofing products in additional styles
and profiles. US Tile, powered by SRS
Energy, Philadelphia. www.ustile.com.
www.srsenergycomCIRCLE205
1:1 for more circle item
numbers on Reader Service Card or ijO to
archlt ecturalrecor d.com/products.
08.09 Archiruturd/ Rtcord 111
Products Roofing
... More efficient hatch According
to Bilco, its new thermally enhanced roof
hatch is more than 250 percent more energy
efficient than standard models. Designed with a
fully insulated cover and curb, the hatch features
a 2" polyisocyanurate thermal insulation board
with an R-value of 12. The specially designed [PDM
Turnkey solar system
fusionSOlar from Custom-Bilt Metals is
a more affordable rooftop solar-power
system integrated within a standing-
seam met al roof. Sheet-metal and
roofing professionals are able to install
the standing-seam roof j ust as they
would a standard metal roof, eliminat ing
the need for a specialized solar installer.
The wstem visually blends in without
penetrations in the roof and aChieves
a higher relative efficiency under high
temperatures and low light than solar
glass. Custom-Bilt Metals, Chino, Calif.
www.custombillmetals.com CI RC LE 20 8
finger-type gasket ensures a positive
seal between the cover and
curb. The hatch is fabricated
from aluminum that is milled
primarily from recycled content.
The Bilco Company, New Haven.
www,bilco_comcIRcLE206
... Wlnnlnq roof Roger federer's historic win at last month's Wimbledon took place
under a new retractable roof made of Gore Tenara archite(\ ural fabric. Selected for its
translucence, durability, and ability to flex and fold without wear, approximately 5,200
square meters of the fabric was integrated into the concertina-design roof. Two styles
of fabric were used: one allowing 20 percent light transmission and the other allowing
40 percent. W. L. Gore &. Associates, Elkton, Md. www.lenarafabric.com CI RCLE 207
Darker cool shinqles
CerlainTeed's Landmarll Solaris shingles
feature roofing granules that reflect
solar energy and radiale heat far better
than traditional asphalt roofing shingles,
says Ihe manufacturer. While traditional
coohoofing products are limiled to a
white color, the Landmark Solaris color
palette leatures five rich brown and dark
wilhstand up to 130-miles-
per-hour winds while
installed with CertainTeed
starler products and hiW
... Reflective membrane Ideal for
projects where fully adhered membrane
systems are specified, Firestone's
RubberGard EcoWhite EPDM is available
in a 60-mil overall thickness for UL- and
fM-rated systems, and exceeds ASTM
0-4637 standards. When tested in
accordance with the Cool Roof Rating
Council program, the membrane's
initial solar reflectance is .80 and its
solar reflectance index is 99, making
it one of the industry's most reflective
white membranes. Firestone Building
Products Company, Indianapolis. 1'.'1'.'1'.'.
firestonebpco.com CIRCLE 209
... Supportinq role SilverD.1ck Solar, an offshool from the roof-screen speCialists at and-ridge accessories.
RoofScreen Mfg .. offers an engineered raCking solution that utilizes slronger malerials CerlainTeed, Valley Forge,
to span longer dislances, creating fewer penetrations. Compatible with nearly all PV Pa.www.certainleed.com
modules, the system mounts to commercial rooftops by way of a patented watertight CIRCLE 211
attachment system. lis modular design - consisting of just five components and three
fasteners - allows it to easily span over rooftop protrusions such as pipes, fans, ducts,
and skylights. Silverback Solar, Santa Cr uz, Calif. www.silverD.1CkSolar.comCIRCLE 210
112 Archi,r,'urdIRtcord 08.09
r:l f or more information, circle item numbers on Reader Service Card or <)0 to
archl t ectur al recor d.com/ product s.
Product Briefs
... Sunken surfacft Philippe StarCk adds a kitchen sink to his extensive design
portfolio wit h Ouravi t 's Starck K. The (eramic sink's large basin (16' 1, " x 12 '/." x 7';''')
juts out of the rectangular ceramic form. This basin is connected to an extensive,
smooth draining surface by way of a recess that protects against overflow. When the
water level reaches the recess, the excess water cascades onto the draining surface
and into the drai n. Duravit USA, Dul uth, Ga. www.duravit.comcI RcLE212
114 ArchittCluml Record 08.09
.. ,. Cool cab launched at the AlA
show in May and awarded a 2008
Good Design Award, the Kone Design
Collection is a new series of interior
elevator cab design offerings that focus
on lighti ng, wall, and ceiling schemes,
as well as next generation signalization
and regenerative drive technology.
Designed by architects and based on
Kone's 2006 Four Seasons Concept,
the Design Collection comes i n colored
laminate, wood laminate, stainless steel ,
or glass. Car-operating panels available
in full 'height and midheight. Kone,
Moli ne. III. www.kone.com CIRCLE214
I'J For more information. circle item
on Reader Service Card or QO to
,)rchl t ectural record.com/product s.
.. Refreshing change Recently
installed on the campus at Uc. Berkeley,
the Hydration Station isn't a drinking
fountain,lJut an entirely new water-
dispensing category_ Eliminating the
waste associated with bottled water,
the Smirecessed dispenser supplies
NSF-certified filtration in a touch-free
hygienic design that accommodates a
variety of water containers. The unit
uses antimicrObial additives to key
plastic compon(mts to protect them from
mold and mildew build-up. Haws, Sparks,
Nev, www.slayhydrated,nelcIRCLE2.13
hydration
. .. ... "<> ..

.. Transatlantic tiles Made from aircraft al umi num retrieved from decimated
military sites, Bio-luminum tiles, from surfaci ngs manufacturer Coveri ngsETC, are
both 100 percent recycled and 100 percent recyclable. Airplane parts are melted
into blocks and then sliced to (reate a lightweight tile with a textured surface i n 3"
x 12", 6" x 12", and 3" x 6" dimensions. Appropriate for both indoor and outdoor
claddi ng applications. CoveringsETC, Miami. www.coveringsetc.com CtRCLE215
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Adding to its roster of
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Robert A.M. Stern Designs has part nered
with Haddonstone to create two new lines
of ornamental garden urns. Appropriate for
both formal and romantic gardens, as well as
interior use, t he Athenian collection includes tall.
medium, and low urns (and their bases) in two designs (Athenian Bowl shown), inspired
by t he pure forms 01 Art Deco or Art Moderne ornaments of the ear ly 20th century.
Haddonstone. Pueblo, Colo. www.haddonstone.com c tRcLE216
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Dates & Events
New and Upcoming
Exhibitions
Ron Arad: No Discipline
New York City
August 2-0ctober 19, 2009
Over the past 25 years, the influential architect
and designer Ron Arad has produced a wide array
of innovative works, including a crystal and LED
chandelier, carbon-fiber armchairs, and polyure-
thane bottle racks. This exhibition, the first major
retrospective of Arad's design work in the United
States. presents some 140 pieces, including de-
sign objects, architectural models, and videos. At
MaMA. For more information, call (212/708-9400
or visit moma.arg.
Ongoing Exhibitions
Design Hiqh
London
Through August 30, 2009
A collaborative exhibition featuring some of the
most important and innovative artists in the field
of contemporary design. The show addresses
tensions bet ween crall and fine ar t. At the Louise
Blouin Foundation. Call +44 (0)20 798509620
or visit www.ltbfoundation.org.
Unbundlinq the Housinq Crisis:
Investiqations, Interpolations,
Interventions, Instlqations
Minneapolis
Through September 5, 2009
This thematic exhibition brings together artists,
architects, designers, scientists, and writers in
response to the housing foreclosure crisis and
its effects on communities and families. At Form
+ Content Gallery. For more information, call
612/436-1151 or visit www.iormandcontent.org.
Green Community
Washlnqton, D.C.
Through October 25, 2009
The organizers of this exhibition argue that
the health of our communities, our planet. and
ourselves depends on how we plan, design,
and construct the world between our buildings.
Green Community explores the origins of
our precarious ecological situation and
introduces communities large and small where
citizens, political leaders, planning and design
professionals, developers, and government
agencies are working together for a more
sustainable future. At the National Building
Museum. For more information, call 202/272
244B or visit www.nbm.org.
Lectures, Conferences,
and Symposia
Devil in the White City Bus Tour
Chicaqo
August 4. 9, 13. 23. and September J, 6. 2009
This bus tour and slide presentation is
based on Erik Larson's bestselling novel
that chronicles the 1893 World's Columbian
Exposition and the emergence of America's
first mass murderer. Call 312/922-3432 or visit
www.architecture.org.
Cityscape Dubai World Architecture
Conqress: A Survival Guide for
Architects, Recession, and Recovery
Dubai
October 5-7, 2009
In this international conference, architects and
developers from around the world will discuss
loday's rapidly changing economy and what is
Can your roof
irrigate your landscape?
On proiec!. Sysko H"nnessy combines the
but minds with superior t"chnology to creote
highperformonce solulions _ for the built
environment, th" humon environment ond the
globol environment we 011 .hore.
To I"orn more, Sy.ko.com/Wotering-Ccn.
CIRCLE 38

S),SKA J JENNESS)'

on the horizon for recovery. Call +9714 335-2437
or visit www.cityscape.ae/wac.
Urban Waterfronts 27:
Sustainable Solutions
Seattle
October 22-24. 2009
Providing a comprehensive and in-depth view
into quality developments in waterfront cities, the
conference's ultimate goal is to assist communi -
ties and professions in making the wisest and
best long-term uses of waterfront resources for
maximum public benefit. Call 202/337-0356 or
visit www.waterfrontcenter.org.
Desi!)nin!) Learnin!) Environments
to Rebuild Urban America
New York City
October 23-25, 2009
Design professionals and educators will explore
common ground and emerge wi t h strategies to
creale learning environments thai are both prac-
tical and inspiring. Visit www.aia.org/cae.
GreenBuild International Conference
and Expo
Phoenix
November 11-13, 2009
GreenBuild is the world's largest conference and
expo dedicated to green building. Thousands
of building professionals from all over come
together for three days of educational sessions.
renowned speakers. green-building tours. special
seminars. and networking events. For more infor-
mation. visit www.greenbuildexpo.org.
Competitions
Design It: Shelter Competition
Deadline: August 23. 2009
A global. online initiative that invites the public
and professionals to use Google Earth and
Google SketchUp to create and submit designs
for virtual 3D shelters for a location of their
choice. For additional information. visit www.
guggenheim.org/shelter.
First Annual Uncharted Waters
Design Competition
Deadline: August 31. 2009
Open to residential and commercial interior
designers, the competition seeks to recognize
and reward an interior designer who has pushed
the boundaries of interior design. For more
information. visit www.cifialusa.com.
Ultra-tee
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Design a great looking cabl e raili ng with Ult ra-tec cable and
hardware - economi cal, easy to install, virtuall y mai ntenance free,
and made of recycled materials!
Contact us today to learn how easy it is to design a cable railing you
and your cli ent will be proud of.
Distributed throughout
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CIRCLE 39
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MAKE YOUR
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VIA AIR TRAM ./
ij
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
PORTLAND, OREGON
Often rated among the
greenest and most livable
cities in the U.s., Portland
has a variety of public
transportation opt ions.
Buses, trolleys, and even
air trams provide a versatile
transit network that is a
sustainable al ternative to
-..
,GREEN
COMMUNITY
OPEN THROUGH OCTOBER 2009
an exhibiti on at the
NATIONAL BUILDING MUSEUM
Washington, DC
401 F Street NW Wl.sbJ nitolL DC 1[((11 I 202.272.2448
WW\II.NBM,orQ I Re.Jline Metro, ..ocl c ary Square
om",.r Medi.
MeGraw Hili
CONSTRucTION
Le.d Spomor-
P.rto.,
Jia
I Dates & Events
Up to 35
Deadline: September 7, 2009
Architects up to 35 years old are called on to sub-
mit proposals for the construction of an afford'
able student-housing complex in Kerameikos and
Metaxourgeio (KM), an area in the historic center
of Athens, Greece. The aim of the competition is to
encourage creativity among the next generation
of designers while supporting architectural re-
search and the implementation of contemporary
architecture projects in Greece. The competition
seeks designs exploring new ideas on urbanism
and housing. Visit www.upt035.com.
The Deutsche Bank Urban Al)e Award
Deadline: September 11, 2009
This award recogni zes cr eat ive solutions to t he
problems and oppor tunities that face more t han
hall of the world's population that now lives in cit-
ies. Accordingly, it focuses on projects that ben-
efit communities and local residents by improving
their urban environments. For more information,
visi t www.urbanage.nel.
The AlA Diversity Rec09nition
Pro9ram Call lor Submission5
Deadline: September 16. 2009
The program seeks exemplary efforts to diversify
the architecture profession. The jury will select
up to 12 submissions each year as diversity best
practices. For more information on the program,
call 202/626-7352 or visit www. aia.org.
BSA Research Granb in Architecture
Application deadline: September 1B, 2009
Designed to expand the architectural knowledge
base, grants may be awarded to individuals, col-
laborative teams, students, or organizat ions and
institutions. Visit www.architects.org/grants.
Advanced Architecture Contest
Deadline: September 2B, 2009
Under the theme of "Self ' sufficient Cities;' the
third annual International Architecture Contest
emphasizes the importance of innovation for
future environments. The jury will look for
compelling innovations that reflect the ecological
and technological needs of our future. Visit www.
advancedarchitecturecontest .org.
E-mail information two months in advance to
sebastian_howard@mcgraw-hill.com.Formore
listin<}s. visit architecturalrecord.com/news/events.
October 9-11
2009 AlA, California Council
Monterey Design Conference
Asilomar Conference Grounds
Pacific Grove, CA
In this moment of change and transition,
join us in Monterey to Rethink perceptions
and priorities.
Share what has been accomplished while
recognizing the need to Renew ideas
and commitment.
Come to Monterey as an opportunity to
Reboot in order to help shape the future.
Registrat ion now available at www.aiacc.org
additional information
CONTACT: EVENTS@AIACC.ORG
OR 916A48.9082
t
In

new
oot
rethink renew reboot
Featured Speakers:
DAN BISHOP
>Due ION EO:;I( Nf.R, MAO MEN
NEIL DENARI, AlA
"Ell M. u E N A ~ J ARC I E .... S
FRANCINE HOUSEN, HON. FAIA
11 (ANOO A HITECTEN
RICK JOY, AlA
ICK eVARt I ~ S
STEPHEN LUONI, ASSOC. AlA
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
..)MMUNITY 01 c:.1l:JN LI:.NTER
HOM MAYNE, FAIA
OF:. HOS
NADER TEHRANI
I FIC OA INC.
GILLES SAUCIER
AUC ER & PERRO ......... E ARCHITECT
AZUYO SEJIMA
\NAA
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1
MECHANICAl5YSTEMS, HVAC. PLUMBING
SOLAR HOT WATER
WR I G
Hellodyne Sollr HOi Wiler
Heliodyne. Solar Hot Water since
1976. Innovative design, superb
product lines. Made in the USA.
Produd Appllullon:
Commercial: Fenway Park,
Boston. MA
Commercial: Stanford University,
Palo Alto, CA
Single family to residential
developments
Perform. nce D. t.:
(olle(tors with sleek design and
outstanding durability
Unique plug & play (omponents lor
ease 01 installation
www.heliodyne.com
888.878.8750
(onlld : Alexandra Wexler elrde "'9
ROOfiNG, SIDING, THERMAL & MOISTURE PROTECTION
SUSTAINABLE METAL ROOFING & WAll SYSTEMS
WRI G INEW
f.bral, Int.
Fabral, a premier supplier of metal
roofing and wall systems. brings a
new vision to arthitectural metal with
a new array of specialty colors and
finishes on aluminum.
PerfOrminCe Diti:
The natural beauty of aluminum in
a wide range of (olor tints
Semitransparent clear coats and
extraordinary metallits
Iridescent finishes that combine
the reflection and oflight
Varying patina, natural wood,
stone, and nature-inspired des igns
www.labral.com
800.884.4484
Conlid: Donna Berryhill
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SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
COLUMNS, BAlUSTRADES & CORNICES
An:hltedural Columns &
B.ludr.des by Melton Classlu
Melton Classics provides the
design professicmal with an exten-
sive palate of architectural columns.
balustrades, cornices, and millwork.
They invite you to (all their experi
eneed to assist
V<!U with the ideal products for your
design. application. and budget.
Columns are available in fiberglass,
synthetic stone, GfRC, and wood.
Their 80plus durable maintenance
free balustrades feel substantial yet
have reduced weight. Also. ask about
their low.maintenance fiberglass and
polyurethane cornices and millwork.
www.Melton(lassics.com
800.9633060
Contact: Mike Grimmell
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PRODUCT SPOTLIGHTS
COPPER CHIMNEY POTS
S$$ "
Europe.n Copper
A UL-lisled.l0o% recyclable
chimney pots fit all leading fireplace
systems.
ProductAppUutlon:
Utiu Place, Tulsa, OK
(ada Hall Preparatory School .
Tulsa, OK
Private residence, Tuls3, OK
hrfo'IIIanu Oall :
ULlisted for both masonry and
pre-engineered fireplaces
Certified by OM"'I Testing
Laboratories
www,europeancopperthimneypots,(Om
800391.(l014
(ontICI: Pat Keegan
SAUNAS
..
flnlandi. Siuna PTocIuds.lnt.
.. They manufacture authentic
saunas. no infrareds. They offer
precut packages, modular rooms.
and heaters.
Product AppUutlan:
Any available space
Residential Or commercial
New construction or remodeling
Perform,n", O",:
Uses l in, x 4in. pane ling
four all-dear we ste rn
softwoods
www.flnlandiasauna.com
800.354.3342
(onllel, Tim Atkinson or
Reino
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WRI G INEW
IUlwall Corporation
is a unique varialion on
Kalwall translucent wall systems, bul
wilh vertical emphasis to increase
ae sthetic options.
Product AppUuUon,
Can be supplied in panels to Son.
wide and 10-11. high, minimizing the
number 01 joints
Performanc., Di ll '
U'value options Irom .53 to ,10
Ught t ransmission 013% to 50%
Shading coefficients from 1.0 to
under 0.4
www.kalwall .com
800.258.9777
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SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
CUSTOM TRANSLUCENT CANOPIES
,
(pt D'yUshtlnslnc.
CPt canopy systems provide
excellent shelter and allow glarelree
davlight into Ihe area below.
Produd Appllutlon,
HolidaV Inn entrV canopy,
Tallahassee. FL
p.,rforma nce Data:
Attractive Pe ntaglas Nano'Cell
glazing system is affordable
Suitable lor green construdion
requiring l EW ce rtification
Tested as new after.o years of
South Florida e xposure
Maintenancefree
www.cpidaylighting.com
800.7596985
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SUN CONTROL DEVICES
WI I G
Ruskin Air .. Sound Control
Custom-built extruded aluminum
sun control devices. unlimited designs
with Kynar or anodize finishes.
Pradud A"Uu tion:
K21 lieath Care Pavilion,
Warsaw, IN
War Memoria l Library, Daly City, CA
Maryland Heights Government Ctr.,
Sl.louiS,MO
Performa nce Dl tl:
SSAFH8 specification sheet
SSl8H specification sheet
www.ruskin.com
816.761 .7476
(on1Kt: John $ens & James Livingston
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GUIDE TO ENERGY-SAVING TECHNOLOGY
BPPIPDfI G
AZON
.... Thermal barriers lor energy-
saving windows and constructing
effiCient aluminum fenestration.
Produds lnturecl: Warm-Light
insulating glass spacer and Azon
structura l thermal barriers for
windows and glazing
Also conllins:
Projed ca se studies
Window and glazing material
performance
The role of thermal barriefs in
fenestration
SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
Clrde '15
SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
Clrc" 'n
DOORS, WINDOWS
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=
www.warmedge.com
800.788.5942
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CI,( le '19
POSITIONS VACANT
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BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY
CONFIDENTIAL CLEARI NGHOUSE FOR
MERGERS & ACQUIS ITI ONS
Strogoff Consulting offers confidential introduCiions
hetween prospective Imyers and sellers. develops val -
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Michael Strogoff, AlA, III 866.:l7UJ6" Of viiI!
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CONmIucTION
Good Design
is Gooel Business
The 3rd Biannual 2009 BusinessWeek/Architectural Record China Awards
CALL FOR ENTRIES
This program honors architects and clients who best utilize design to achieve strategic
business and ci vic objecti ves in projects in China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. Submissions
should show measurable benefits of the project's design on the client 's business or mission.
Deadline: September 15
For instructions and to download the entry form, visit architecturalrecord.com/ caIl4entries.
ARCHITECTURAL
RECORO
I;ttmilii@m'
McGrQw Hllf comptMlln
Reader's Gallery
To share images in our galleries,
visit architecturalrecord.com and
cl ick on Community.
Andra Miliacca, AlA, took this photo of Santiago Clbtr;;lva's I-.Iilw;;!uke( Art Museum and
submitted it to our online galleries. MiliaccJ, a Detroit-area architect, shot the from a low vantage
point to capture both its full height and the liquid sheen ofthe floor. of the clements that needed to
be seen together to describe the space were visible," she says, adding. slow times, [
have turned to photography as creative expression. In this recent downturn, [started a photo blog with
commentary in the form of haiku for each photo, and I began going on photo excursions to feed the bing."
128 Archite<lumlRrcord 08.09