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GLOSSARY

Abbreviations
(Isl) refers mainly to Islamic buildings. (Bud) refers mainly to Buddhist buildings. (Hind) refers mainly to Hindu buildings. Terms relating specifically to Japanese architecture and construction are explained within the relevant chapters. Abacus. A slab forming the crowning member of a capital. In Greek Doric, square without chamfer or moulding. In Greek Ionic, thinner with ovolo moulding only. In Roman Ionic and Corinthian, the sides are hollowed on plan and have the angles cut off. In Romanesque, the abacus is deeper but projects less and is moulded with rounds and hollows, or merely chamfered on the lower edge. In Gothic, the circular or octagonal abacus was favoured in England, while the square or octagonal abacus is a French feature. Ablaq (Isl). Alternating courses of masonry in contrasting colours. Abutment. Solid masonry which resists the lateral pressure of an arch. Acanthus. A plant whose leaves, conventionally treated, form the lower portions of the Corinthian capital. Acropolis. Most ancient Greek cities were built on hills, the citadel on the summit being known as the acropolis, containing the principal temples and treasure-houses. Acroteria. Blocks resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment to support statuary or ornaments. Adobe. Sun-dried (i.e. unbaked) brick, often used as the core of a wall behind a facing of stone bricks. Adyton or adytum. The most sacred room of a Greek temple. Usually approached from the naos by a doorway. Aedicule. A small temple-like arrangement, originally limited to shrines, which became a common motif in the Classical system: columns or pilasters carry a pedimented entablature and enframe a niche or window. The term tabernacle sometimes is used to convey a similar meaning. In Hindu architecture an image or representation of a building (or shrine) used as an architectural element. Agora. The Greek equivalent of the Roman forum, a place of open-air assembly or market. Aisles. Lateral divisions parallel with the nave in a basilica or church. Alabaster. A very white, fine-grained, translucent, gypseous mineral, used to a small extent as a building material in the ancient Middle East, Greece, Rome the Eastern Empire of Byzantium and, nearer to our own day, by certain Victorian architects for its decorative qualities (and biblical associations). In Italy a technique was evolved many centuries ago (and still survives) of treating alabaster to simulate marble while there seems little doubt that in the past marble was often mistakenly described as alabaster. Alae. Small side extensions, alcoves or recesses opening from the atrium (or peristyle) of a Roman house. Alpa vimana (Hind). Basic form of shrine in south Indian temple architecture. Alure. An alley, walk or passage. A gallery behind a parapet. Amalaka (Hind). Myrobolan fruit; ribbed crowning member in north Indian temples. Ambo. A raised pulpit from which the Epistle and the Gospel were read in a Christian church. Ambry or aumbry. A cupboard or recess in a church to contain sacred vessels. Ambulatory. The cloister or covered passage around the east end of a church, behind the altar. Amorino. Diminutive of Amor, the Roman god of love, identified with the Greek Eros. Amorini were usually represented by Renaissance artists as cherubs. Amphi-antis. A temple with columns between antae (i.e. a recessed portico) at both ends. None such survives. Amphi-prostyle. A temple with a portico at both ends. Ancones. Consoles on either side of a doorway supporting a cornice. Also, projections left on blocks of stone such as drums of columns for use in hoisting and setting in position. Annulet. A small flat fillet encircling a column. It is repeated several times under the ovolo or echinus of the Doric capital.
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(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1714

GLOSSARY

Anta. A pilaster terminating the side wall of a Greek temple, with base and capital differing from those of adjacent columns; also seen in Egyptian temples. See Pilaster. Antefixae. Ornamental blocks, fixed vertically at regular intervals along the lower edge of a roof, to cover the ends of tiles. Anthemion. A honeysuckle or palmette ornament of several varieties, in cornices, neckings of Ionic capitals and elsewhere in Greek and Roman architecture. Antiquarian. The phase in western European Renaissance architecture, c. 17501830, when renewed inspiration was sought from ancient Greek and Roman and from mediaeval architecture. Its more specific manifestations were the Greek and Gothic Revivals (q.v.), both continuing further into the nineteenth century. Apodyterium. A room for undressing in a Roman bath-house. Apophyge. The cavetto or concave sweep at the top and bottom of the column shaft connecting it with the fillet. Apse. The circular or multangular termination of a church sanctuary, first applied to a Roman basilica. The apse is a Continental feature, and contrasts with the square termination of English Gothic churches. Apteral. A temple without columns on the sides. Arabesque. Surface decoration, light and fanciful in character, much used by Arabic artists, in elaborate continuations of lines. Applied also to the combination of flowing lines interwoven with flowers, fruit and figures as used by Renaissance artists. Araeostyle. A term used when the space between two columns is more than three diameters. Arcade. A range of arches supported on piers or columns, attached to or detached from the wall. Arch. A structure of wedge-shaped blocks over an opening, so disposed as to hold together when supported only from the sides. Arch-braced roof. See Collar-braced roof. Architrave. The beam or lowest division of the entablature, which extends from column to column. The term is also applied to the moulded frame round a door or window. Archivolt. The mouldings on the face of an arch, and following its contour. Arcuated. A building, building system or style of architecture, of which the principal constructive feature is the arch (e.g. Roman). See also Trabeated. Arris. The sharp edge formed by the meeting of two surfaces. Art Nouveau. A decorative movement in European architecture, heralded in the 1880s and flourishing 18931907, characterised by flowing and sinuous naturalistic ornament and avoidance of historical architectural traits. See also Jugendstil, Stile Liberty.

Asbestos. A fibrous mineral, which has high resistance to fire but is hazardous to health. Ashlar. Masonry of smooth squared stones in regular courses, in contradistinction to rubble work. Astragal. A small semicircular moulding, often ornamented with a bead or reel. Torus is the name applied to large mouldings of similar section. Astylar. A treatment of a facade without columns. Atlantes. Carved male figures serving as pillars, also called Telamones. Atrium. An apartment in a Roman house, forming an entrance hall or court, the roof open to the sky in the centre. Sometimes the rim of the roof aperture (compluvium) was supported by four or more columns. In Early Christian and later architecture, a forecourt. Attic. A term first applied in the Renaissance period to the upper storey of a building above the main cornice; also applied to rooms in a roof. Attic base. A base to a Classic column, so named by Vitruvius, and formed of upper and lower torus and scotia joined by fillets; it is the most usual of all column bases. Aumbry. See Ambry. Aureole. A quadrangular, circular, or elliptic halo or frame surrounding the figure of Christ, the Virgin, or certain saints. Also known as the mandorla or vesica piscis (q.v.). When a circular halo envelops only the head, it is called a nimbus. Azulejos. Tile covering for walls used during the eighteenth century in Latin America. Bab (Isl). Gateway. Bailey. Open area or court of a fortified castle. Baldac(c)hino. A canopy supported by columns, generally placed over an altar or tomb, also known as a cibonum. Ball-flower. The ornament of Decorated Gothic architecture, possibly from a flower form or a horse bell. Balloon frame. A method of light timber framing, long established in the United States for domestic buildings, in which the corner posts and studs (intermediate posts) are continuous from cill to roof plate, the joists carried on girts (ties) spiked to, or let into, the studs, and all these elements secured by simple nailing. Baluster. A pillar or column supporting a handrail or coping, a series forming a balustrade. Bangaldar roof (Hind). Roof with curved ridge and eaves, used in later Indian temples. Baptistery. A separate building to contain a font, for the baptismal rite. Bar tracery. See Tracery. Barbican. An outwork of a mediaeval castle, of which the object was to protect a drawbridge or the entrance. Barge board. A board fixed to the verge of a pitched roof.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

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Baroque. A term applied to Renaissance architecture beginning in Italy in the early seventeenth century with characteristic non-Roman expression, rich, bold and full of movement. Barrel vault. A continuous vault of semicircular section, used at most periods and in many countries from Roman times to the present. Also called a tunnel vault, wagonhead vault, or wagon vault. Bartizan. A small, overhanging turret. Bas-relief. Carving in low or shallow relief, on a background Base. The lower portion of any structure or architectural feature. Basement. The lowest stage of a building; also an underground storey. Basilica. A hall, with nave and aisles for the administration of justice. Basse-cour or base court. An inferior court or service yard, generally at the back of a house. Bath stone. Oolite building stone, not confined to the area of Bath, Somerset, used throughout English architectural history. Batter. A wall with an inclined face. Battlement. A parapet having a series of indentations or embrasures, between which are raised portions known as merlons Baulk-tie. A tie-beam joining the wall posts of a timber roof and serving also to prevent walls from spreading. See Tie-bar. Bays. Compartments into which the nave or roof of a building is divided. The term is also used for projecting windows. Bayt or beyt (Isl). A house or a building. Bead. A small cylindrical moulding often carved with an ornament resembling a string of beads. See Astragal. Beak-head. A Romanesque enrichment like a birds head and beak. Begunets. An ornamental string course of bricks on-edge laid in a triangular pattern. Belfry. A term generally applied to the upper room in a tower in which the bells are hung, and thus often to the tower itself. Bell capital. The solid part, core, or drum of a capital, especially of the Corinthian and Composite Orders or of a Corinthianesque character in French and English Gothic. So-called bell capitals, moulded and without foliate ornament, occur frequently in the mediaeval ecclesiastical architecture of both countries. Belvedere. A roofed but open-sided structure affording an extensive view, usually located at the roof-top of a dwelling but sometimes an independent building on an eminence in a landscape or garden. Bema. A raised stage reserved for the clergy in Early Christian churches; it forms the germ of the transept when expanded laterally in later architecture. Bhumija (Hind). One of the later, composite modes of Nagara (north Indian) temples.

Billet. A Norman moulding of short cylinders or square pieces at regular intervals. Bipedales. Tiles, 2 ft square, used by the Romans for bonding masonry. Birds beak. A moulding used in Greek architecture, which in section is thought to resemble the beak of a bird. Bit-hil ni. Syrian porched house. a Boss. A projecting ornament at the intersection of the ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted or flat. The term is also applied to the carved ends of weather mouldings of doors and windows. Bouleuterion. A Greek Senate building or council house. Bowtell. A Romanesque convex moulding (usually three-quarters of a circle in section) applied to an angle a form of roll moulding. Pointed bowtell is a roll moulding in which two faces meet in a blunt arris. Brace. In framed structures, a subsidiary member placed near and across the angle of two main members in order to stiffen them, as in carpentry roofs. Brace-moulding. See Bracket moulding. Bracket. A projecting member to support a weight, generally formed with scrolls or volutes; when carrying the upper members of a comice, brackets are generally termed modillions or consoles. See also Ancones. Bracket moulding (also called brace or double ogee). A late Gothic moulding consisting of two ogee mouldings with convex facings adjoining, resembling a printers brace or bracket. Branch tracery. A form of tracery characteristic of German Gothic, suggesting the branches of a tree. Brise-soleil. A screen to break the glare of sunshine upon windows. In recent architecture such screens often take the form of louvres (q.v.), and are usually made a permanent and effective part of the architecture. Broach spire. An octagonal spire rising without a parapet above a tower, with pyramidal forms at the angles of the tower, as in Early English churches. Broch. Vernacular term for a primitive Scottish fort. Brownstone. A brown sandstone found in New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and elsewhere. A popular building material in the nineteenth century in New York and the eastern United States. Buttress. A mass of masonry built against a wall to resist the pressure of an arch or vault. A flying buttress is an arch starting from a detached pier and abutting against a wall to take the thrust of the vaulting. Byzantine architecture. The style evolved at Constantinople (Byzantium, now Istanbul) in the fifth century, and still the style of the Eastern or Greek Church.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

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GLOSSARY

Cable. A Norman moulding enrichment like a twisted rope. Caen stone. A building stone from Caen, Normandy, sometimes used in the construction of English mediaeval buildings, despite difficulties of transport. Caisson. See Coffers. Caldarium or calidarium. A chamber with hot water baths in a Roman baths building. Camber. Slight rise or upward curve of an otherwise horizontal structure. Cames. Slender strips of lead, grooved at the sides for the reception of pieces of glass, in casement, stained glass and other types of window. Campanile. An Italian name for a bell-tower, generally detached from the main building. Cancelli. Low screen walls enclosing the choir in Early Christian churches, hence chancel (q.v.). Canephorae. Sculptured female figures bearing baskets on their heads. Cantoria. In the Renaissance the term was generally used to denote a singers gallery, often elaborately carved, in a major church. Capital. The crowning feature of a column or pilaster. Caravanserai (Isl). An inn or extensive enclosed courtyard for travellers arriving in a town. Carrara marble. A snow-white marble from the Carrara district of Tuscany, although the band of rock also extends far to the north of this area. It was the favoured medium of Michelangelo. It was known to the Romans as Luna. Caryatids. Sculptured female figures used as columns or supports. Casemate. A vaulted chamber contrived in the thickness of a fortress wall, usually with embrasures for defence. The term is often applied nowadays to other forms of armoured enclosure (e.g. gun-turret). Hence casemated, meaning strongly fortified. Casement. A wide hollow used in late Gothic, so called as it encased bunches of foliage. Casement window. A window of which the opening lights are hinged at the side and open in the manner of a door. Casino. A summer- or garden-house of ornamental character. Cast-iron. Iron shaped by pouring into moulds. Cast-iron was used to a rapidly increasing extent in building works from the late eighteenth century (e.g. the Iron Bridge, Coalbrookdale) until superseded by steel in the mid-nineteenth. Castellation. Fortifying a house and providing it with battlements. Caulicoli. The eight stalks supporting the volutes in the Corinthian capital. Cavetto. A simple concave moulding. Cella. The chief apartment of a temple, where the image of a god stood. Cenotaph. A sepulchral monument to a person buried elsewhere.

Chaines. Vertical strips of rusticated masonry rising between the horizontal string-mouldings and cornice of a building, and so dividing the facades into bays or panels. A popular mode of wall ornamentation in French seventeenth-century domestic architecture. Chaitya hall. A Buddhist barrel-vaulted hall of worship. Chajja (Hind). Stone canopy consisting of widely overhanging eaves, in Indian architecture. Chamfer. A diagonal cutting-off of an arris formed by two surfaces meeting at an angle. Hollow chamfer, the same but concave in form, like the cavetto. Chancel. The space for clergy and choir, separated by a screen from the body of a church, more usually referred to as the choir. Chantry. A small chapel, usually attached to a church, endowed with lands or by other means, for the maintenance of priests to sing or say mass for whomever the donor directs. Chapels. Places for worship, in churches, in honour of particular saints. Sometimes erected as separate buildings. Chapter house. The place of assembly for abbot, prior and members of a monastery, often reached from the cloisters. In England, it was usually polygonal on plan, with a vault resting on a central pillar, but sometimes oblong. Chatravalli (Bud). The umbrella ornament above a stupa (q.v.); sometimes crowned with a gilded finial. Chattri (Isl). Pavilion or kiosk with a parasol shaped domed roof. Chevet. A circular or polygonal apse when surrounded by an ambulatory, off which are chapels. Chevron. A zigzag moulding used in Romanesque architecture, and so called from a pair of rafters, which gave this form. Choir. See Chancel. Chunam. A kind of stucco containing burnt and ground seashells, and able to take polish resembling marble: used for rendering buildings in India over brick construction. Churrigueresque. An expression of Spanish Baroque architecture and sculpture associated with the Churriguera family of artists and architects, characterised by a lavish, even fantastic, but not inharmonious, decorative exuberance. In architecture a recurrent feature was the richly garlanded spiral column. Ciborium. See Baldacchino. Cimborio. The Spanish term for a lantern or raised structure above a roof admitting light into the interior. Cinquefoil. In tracery an arrangement of five foils or openings, terminating in cusps. Cladding. An outer veneer of various materials applied to a building facade.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

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Classical. The architecture originating in ancient Greece and Rome, the rules and forms of which were largely revived in the Renaissance in Europe and elsewhere. Classicism, a Classical idiom or style. Claustra. A term sometimes used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to describe panels, pierced with geometrical designs, as employed by the French architect Auguste Perret in certain of his reinforced concrete buildings. Clepsydra. A water-clock or instrument for measuring time by the discharge of water through a small opening. Clerestory, clere-story, clearstory or clear-storey. An upper stage in a building with windows above adjacent roofs; especially applied to this feature in a church. Cloisters. Covered passages round an open space or garth, connecting the church to the chapter house, refectory, and other parts of the monastery. They were generally south of the nave and west of the transept, probably to secure sunlight and warmth. Coemeteria. Underground burial places, in ancient Rome often taking the form of vaults each containing a number of interments in funerary receptacles. Coffers. Sunk panels, caissons or lacunaria formed in ceilings, vaults, and domes. Collar-braced roof. A logical development of the cruck-type timber frame (see Crucks) in which the principal rafters are raised upon walls (instead of rising from the ground) and linked close to the ridge by a short tie-beam (also called a collar-beam) to form an A-shaped truss or collar. When this collar is additionally stiffened underneath by braces extending from the principal rafters, the roof is described as arch-braced. Collar-purlin. A purlin (longitudinal member) laid centrally and stiffening the collars (see Collar-braced roof) of an open timber-framed roof, and supported by a crown-post rising from a tie-beam. If the roof was long, more than one crown-post (and, therefore, more than one tie-beam) might be needed. Column. A vertical support, generally consisting of base, circular shaft, and spreading capital. Compartment. A division or separate part of a building or of an element of a building (see Bays and Severy). Compluvium. A quadrangular opening in the atrium of a Roman house, towards which the roof sloped so as to throw the rainwater into a shallow cistern or impluvium in the floor. Composite. See Order. Concrete. A mixture of water, sand, stone and a binder (today generally Portland cement). The Romans used pozzolana in place of sand, and lime. Reinforced concrete, is concrete with a reinforcement of steel rods or mesh (often bamboo in eastern countries). Prestressed concrete is concrete in which cracking (an inherent characteristic) and tensile force

are counteracted by compressing it. Two principal methods are applied to achieve this, post-tensioning and pre-tensioning, both using bars or wires. Prestressed concrete is reliable and relatively economical for large spans (e.g. for factory buildings). In recent decades pre-cast concrete, in which various concrete elements are cast on-site or in a factory before assembly, has been much used for many building types. In board-marked concrete, made fashionable by Le Corbusier, a supposedly pleasing effect is created by leaving the marks of the wood shuttering on the exposed concrete. Among the many other methods of treating a concrete surface is bushhammering (usually on surfaces cast in situ), by which a roughened, rusticated appearance is attained with the aid of a bush hammer, a mechanically operated percussive tool. Conoid. Having the form of a cone. The term is usually applied to the lower part of a mediaeval vault where the ribs converge against the outer wall and form an approximation of an inverted half-cone or half-pyramid. Console. See Bracket. Coping. The capping or covering to a wall. Corbel. A block of stone, often elaborately carved or moulded, projecting from a wall, supporting the beams of a roof, floor, vault or other feature. Corbel table. A plain piece of projecting wall supported by a range of corbels and forming a parapet, generally crowned by a coping. Corbie gable or crow-step gable. A gable with stepped sides. Corinthian. See Order. Cornice. In Classic or Renaissance architecture, the crowning or upper portion of the entablature, also used for any crowning projection. Coro. In Spanish churches the choir, usually occupying two or more bays of the nave, the Capilla Mayor (comprising sanctuary, high altar and presbytery) filling the east end. Rejas (q.v.) often served as dividing screens. Corona. The square projection in the upper part of a cornice, having a deep vertical face, generally plain, and with its soffit or under-surface recessed so as to form a drip, which prevents water from running down the building. Corps de logis. That part of a substantial house which forrns a self-contained dwelling, i.e. without the service quarters (communs), stables, etc. Cortile. The Italian name for the internal court, surrounded by an arcade, in a palace or other edifice. Cosmati. The name given to craftsmen in mosaic and marble working in Rome in the twelfth to fourteenth centuries, many of whom belonged to a family of that name. Hence Cosmato work. Cour dhonneur. The finest, most handsome, court of a chateau or other great house, where visitors were formally received.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

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GLOSSARY

Cove, coving. A large hollow, forming part of an arch in section, joining the walls and ceiling of a room. Often decorated with coffering or other enrichment. Credence table. A small table or shelf near the altar, on which the Eucharistic elements were placed. Crenellation. An opening in the upper part of a parapet. Furnished with crenelles, or indentations. In Britain, a licence to crenellate was necessary before houses could be fortified. Crepidoma The steps forming the base of a columned Greek temple. Cresting. A light repeated ornarnent, incised or perforated, carried along the top of a wall or roof. Crocket. In Gothic architecture a projecting block or spur of stone carved with foliage to decorate the raking lines formed by angles of spires and canopies. Crois e. (1) Transept; (2) the French term for the e type of casement window preferred for the last three centuries in France; (3) crois e dogives = intere secting ribs of a vault. Rarely used in English. Cross vault or groin vault. Vaults characterised by arched diagonal arrises or groins, which are formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults. Crossing. Area at the intersection of nave, chancel and transepts. Crow-step gable. See Corbie gable. Crown-post. A post standing upright on the tie beam of a timber roof and by means of struts or braces giving support to a central collar-purlin and adjacent rafters but not reaching the apex of a roof as in the case of a king-post (q.v.). Crucks. Pairs of timbers, arched together and based near the ground, erected to form principals for the support of the roof and walls of timber-framed small houses: in use in the western half of England until the sixteenth century or later. Crypt. A space entirely or partly under a building; in churches generally beneath the chancel and used for burial in early times. Crypto-porticus. A passageway wholly or mainly below ground. Cubiculum. A bedroom in a Roman house, but sometimes used in a less specific sense to denote other rooms. Cunei. The wedge-shaped sections into which seats are divided by radiating passages in ancient theatres. Cupola. A spherical roof, placed like an inverted cup over a circular, square or multangular apartment. See Dome. Curtain wall. The logical outcome of skeleton frame construction, in which the external walls serve no load-bearing purpose, but are suspended on the face of a building like a curtain. Not to be confused with the curtain wall of mediaeval military architecture, denoting a defensive (usually outer) wall linking towers and gatehouses.

Cushion capital. A cubiform capital, the angles being progressively rounded off towards the lowest part. Cusp. The point formed by the intersection of the foils in Gothic tracery. Cyma, cymatium. See Sima, Simatium. Dado. The portion of a pedestal between its base and cornice. A term also applied to the lower portions of walls when decorated separately. Dais. A raised platform at the end of a mediaeval hall, where the master dined apart from his retainers; now applied to any raised portion of an apartment. Decastyle. A portico of ten columns. Deconstruction. A philosophic/semiological approach to reassesssing texts that acquired an architectural meaning during the 1980s, mainly due to the writings of the philosopher Jacques Derrida. The architectural consequence of the application of the theories of deconstruction was the apparent fragmentation of buildings forms, the rejection of the rightangle and curve in favour of the sharp acute angle and a general reversal or at least questioning of all principles of design and construction conventionally believed to be axiomatic. Decorated. The style of English Gothic architecture prevalent during the fourteenth century. Demi-columns. Columns semi-sunk into a wall. Dentils. Tooth-like blocks in Ionic and Corinthian cornices. Diaconicon. The vestry, or sacristy, in Early Christian churches. Diaper. A term probably derived from tapestry hangings of Ypres, and applied to any small pattern, such as lozenges or squares, repeated continuously over the wall surface. Diastyle. A term used when the space between two columns is three diameters. Diazoma. A horizontal passage dividing upper and lower levels of seats in an ancient theatre or amphitheatre. Die. The part of a podium or pedestal between its cap-mould and base. Dipteral. A temple having a double range of columns on each of its sides. Distyle in antis. A portico with two columns between antae. Diwan or divan (Isl). Formal reception chamber smoking room. Dodecastyle. A portico of twelve columns (rare). Dog-tooth. An ornament resembling a row of teeth especially occurring in Early English buildings. Dome. A convex covering, usually hemispherical or semi-elliptical over a circular or polygonal space. See also Cupola. Domical vault. Segmental masonry shells rising to a common apex over a polygonal, usually square, ground plan. Donjon. See Keep.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1719

Doric. See Order. Dormer. A window in a sloping roof, usually that of a sleeping-apartment, hence the name. Dosseret. A deep block sometimes placed above a Byzantine capital to support the wide voussoirs of the arch above. Dou. The notched timber block supporting the next higher bracket in the Chinese structural system employing multiple bracket arms, gong (q.v.). Double cone moulding. A characteristic Romanesque motif, formed by the continuous horizontal juxtaposition of cones, alternately base to base and vertex to vertex. Dravida (Hind). Architectural language of south Indian temple architecture Dripstone. In Gothic architecture, the projecting moulding over the heads of doorways, windows and archways to throw off rain; also known as hood moulding or, when rectangular, a label. Dromos. A long, uncovered narrow passage leading to an underground tholos or chamber tomb. Drum. The upright part below a dome or cupola, in which windows might be placed to light the central area of a building. Dutch gable. A shaped gable surmounted by a pediment. Early English. The style of English Gothic architecture prevalent during the thirteenth century. Eaves. The lower part of a roof projecting beyond the face of the wall. Echinus. The convex or projecting moulding, resembling the shell of a sea-urchin, which supports the abacus of the Greek Doric capital; sometimes painted with the egg and dart ornament. Egg and dart or egg and tongue. Alternating oval (see Ovolo) and pointed motifs, originating in Greece and widely applied to mouldings in the Renaissance Elizabethan. A term applied to English Early Renaissance architecture of the period 15581603. Embattled. Furnished with battlements: occasionally applied to an indented pattern on mouldings. Embrasure. An opening in a parapet between two merlons; the inward splaying of a door or window Encaustic. The art of mural painting in any way in which heat is used to fix the colours. Encaustic tiles. Ornamental tiles of different clays, producing colour patterns after burning. Used in the Middle Ages and revived in the 19th century. Entresol. See Mezzanine. English bond. Brickwork with alternate courses of stretchers and headers. Enneastyle. A portico of nine columns. Entablature. The upper part of an Order of architecture, comprising architrave, frieze and cornice, supported by a colonnade. Entasis. A swelling or curving outwards along the outline of a column shaft, designed to counteract the optical illusion which gives a shaft bounded

by straight lines the appearance of curving inwards. Ephebeion (ephebeum). A room connected with an ancient Greek or Roman gymnasium, or with the gymnasium element of a baths building. Eustyle. A term used when the space between two columns is 214 diameters. Exedra. In Greek buildings a recess or alcove with raised seat where the disputations of the learned took place. The Romans applied the term to any semicircular or rectangular recess with benches, and it is also applied to an apse or niche in a church. Extrados. The outer curve of an arch. Facade. The face or elevation of a building. Faience. Glazed earthenware, often ornamented, used for pottery or for building. Originally made at Faenza in Italy from about 1300. Fan vault. Vaulting peculiar to the Perpendicular period, in which all ribs have the same curve, and resemble the framework of a fan. Fascia. A vertical face of little projection, usually found in the architrave of an Order. The architrave of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders is divided into two or more such bands. Also, a board or plate covering the end of roof rafters. Feretory. A shrine for relics designed to be carried in processions. Fielded panels. Panels of which the surface is raised to the same plane as that of the enclosing frame. Fillet. A small flat band between mouldings to separate them from each other; also the uppermost member of a cornice. Finial. The upper portion of a pinnacle, bench end, or other architectural feature. Flamboyant. Tracery in which the bars of stonework form long wavy divisions like flames. Fl` che. A slender wooden spire upon a roof. e Flemish bond. Brickwork with alternate headers and stretchers in the same course. Fluting. The vertical channelling on the shaft of a column. Flying buttress. See Buttress. Foil. The small arc openings in Gothic tracery separated by cusps. Trefoil, quatrefoil, cinquefoil, etc., signify the number of foils. Folded slab. A development of the reinforced concrete thin slab, which has both aesthetic and structural advantages in spanning large halls and buildings of similar type, while also facilitating the provision of good natural and artificial lighting. So called because in section the resultant ribbed roof assumes the form of pleats or folds. Formeret. In a mediaeval vault, the half-rib against the wall, known in Britain as the wall rib. Formwork. Temporary casing of woodwork, within which concrete is moulded. Fortalice. A small fortification, often a tower.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1720

GLOSSARY

Forum. The public open space, for social, civic or market purposes, found in every Roman town. Fresco. The term originally applied to painting on a wall while the plaster is still wet, but is often used for any wall painting not in oil colours. Fret. An ornament in Classical or Renaissance architecture consisting of an assemblage of straight lines intersecting at right angles, and of various patterns. Sometimes called the key pattern. Frieze. The middle division of the Classical entablature. See Zoophorus. Frigidarium. An apartment in a Roman baths building equipped with a large, cold bath. Gable. The triangular portion of a wall, between the enclosing lines of a sloping roof. In Classical architecture it is called a pediment. Gadroon. One of a series of convex curves, like inverted fluting, used as an ornamental border. Galilee. A porch used as a chapel for penitents, etc., in some mediaeval churches. Gallery. A communicating passage or wide corridor for pictures and statues. An internal and external feature in mediaeval buildings. An upper storey for seats in a church. Garbhagriha (Hind).Womb-house; the sanctum, holy of holies in Indian temples.. Gargoyle. A projecting water-spout grotesquely carved to throw off water from the roof. Gavaksha (Hind). Cow eye; horseshoe arch gable motif in Indian temple architecture. Georgian. British Late Renaissance architecture of the period 17141830. Glyph. A carved vertical channel. See Triglyphs. Glyptotheca. A building to contain sculpture. Gong. In Chinese structure the bow-shaped or cranked bracket arms: the lower and shorter brackets support the upper longer ones at their end points on shaped blocks, dou (q.v.). Gopura (Hind). (Sanskrit equivalent of Tamil gopuram), barrel-roofed south Indian temple gateway. Gorge cornice. The characteristic hollow-and-roll moulding of an Egyptian cornice. Also found in Persian architecture. Gothic. The name generally given to the pointed style of mediaeval architecture prevalent in Western Europe from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries. Gothic Revival. A manifestation first evident in the mid-eighteenth century, but belonging principally to the nineteenth. The countries most affected were Britain, France and Germany and, less strongly, the USA. Greek Revival. Like the Gothic Revival, this had its beginnings in the mid-eighteenth century. In England it culminated in the 1820s and had concluded by 1840 (later in Scotland), while in France it similarly was at its most evident in the early nineteenth century. In Germany it endured to the mid-

nineteenth century. In the USA it was the especial characteristic of the architecture of the period 181560. Groin. The curved arris formed by the intersection of vaulting surfaces. Groin vault. See Cross vault. Guilloche. A circular interlaced ornament like net work, frequently used to ornament the torus moulding. Guttae. Small cones under the triglyphs and mutules of the Doric entablature. Gymnasium (gymnasion). In ancient Greece, a place for physical exercises and training, larger than the palaestra (q.v.). Gynaeceum. The womens apartments in a Greek (or Roman) house; also the womens gallery in a Byzantine church. Hagioscope. An oblique opening in a mediaeval church wall giving a view of the altar, sometimes known as a squint. Half-timber building. A building of timber posts, rails and struts, and interspaces filled with brick or other material, and sometimes plastered. Hall church. Church in which nave and aisles are of, or approximate to, equal height. Hall-keep. Early type of keep, rectangular in form, in which the great hall and private bed-chamber were placed side by side. Hammam (Isl). Bath. Hammer-beam roof. Late Gothic form of roof without a direct tie. Hara (Hind). Chain or necklace of pavilions in Indian temple architecture. Harem or haram (Isl). Private quarters of a house; sanctuary of a mosque. Hecatompedon. The name given to the naos of the Parthenon, Athens, inherited from a former temple of 566 BC upon the site, of which the length was exactly 100 Doric feet (1 Doric foot = 12.88 in) and the width 50 Doric feet. Helix. One of the 16 small volutes (helices) under the abacus of a Corinthian capital. Helm. Bulbous termination to the top of a tower, found principally in central and eastern Europe. Helm roof. Type of roof in which four faces rest diagonally between the gables and converge at the top. Hemicycle buttress. Half-moon-shaped buttress, sometimes very large, often masked by other masonry or designed to perform utilitarian tasks additional to its purely structural purpose, widely used by the Romans. Henostyle-in-antis. A portico with one column between antae. Heptastyle. A temple having seven columns on the front. Hermes. A Greek deity. A bust (Hermes, Herm or Term) on a square pedestal instead of a human body,

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1721

used in Classical times along highways and to mark boundaries, and decoratively in Roman and Renaissance times. Heroum. In Greek architecture, a small shrine or chapel dedicated to a semi-deified person or to the memory of a mortal. Hexastyle. A portico having a row of six columns. Hieron. The sacred enclosure surrounding a temple. Hippodrome. In ancient Greece, a course for horse and chariot racing, the equivalent of the Roman circus. Honeysuckle ornament. See Anthemion. Hood moulding. See Dripstone. Hoop-tie principle. A method developed in the Renaissance period, by which a pieced ring of timber, or a metal chain or hoop, binds the lower part of a dome or cupola to prevent splitting outwards or to minimise the burden on external buttresses having a similar purpose. Hypaethral. A building or temple without a roof or with a central space open to the sky. Hypocaust. A system of ducts by which heat from the furnace was distributed throughout the building. Hypogeum. In ancient times, all parts of a building underground. Hypostyle. A pillared hall in which the roof rests on columns. applied to the many-columned halls of Egyptian temples. Hypotrachelion. The channels or grooves beneath the trachelion at the junction of the capital and shaft of a column. See Trachelion. Iconostasis. A screen between nave and chancel of a Byzantine church. Imbrex. In Classical architecture, a roofing cover tile over the joint between flat or hollow tiles. Imbrication. An overlapping, as of one row of scalloped roofing tiles breaking joint with the next. Impluvium. In Greek and Roman houses, a shallow tank under the compluvium, or opening in the roof of an atrium. Impost. The member, usually formed of mouldings, on which an arch rests. In antis. A covered colonnade at the entrance to a building is in antis if recessed. See Prostyle. Incrustation. The facing of a wall surface, generally marble, with a decorative overlay. An Italian, predominantly Venetian, craft. Indent. A notch. Indented moulding. A moulding cut in the form of zigzag pointed notches. Intarsia. In furniture, a decorative inlay of various materials in another, usually wood. Inter-columniation. The space between the columns. Intrados. The inner curve of an arch. Ionic. See Order.

Insula. A block of flats in a Roman town. Irimoya gable. A traditional type of Japanese gable, placed vertically above the end walls and marked by roofs of varying pitch. Iwan (Isl). Roofed or vaulted hall (or recessed area of a room) open at one end. Jacobean. English Early Renaissance architecture of the period 160325. Jali (Hind). Net pattern grille. Jambs. The sides of doors and windows. The portion exposed outside the window-frame is the reveal. Jami masjid (Isl). Congregational mosque. Jarookha (Hind). Projecting aedicular balcony. Jub . The French equivalent of the English rood e screen between nave and chancel. Jugendstil. The movement in Germany contemporary with Art Nouveau (q.v.). Kalasa (Hind). See Sikhara. Kapota (Hind). Curved moulding, usually as a cornice, in Indian temple architecture. Keel moulding. A moulding like the keel of a ship formed of two ogee curves meeting in a sharp arris; used rounded in form in the fifteenth century. The word keel is also applied to the ogee form of arch. Keep. The inner great tower or donjon of a castle. Key pattern. See Fret. Keystone. The central stone of a semicircular arch, sometimes sculptured. Khan (Isl). Urban caravanserai (q.v.), inn for travellers arriving in a town. Kheker cresting. A decorative motif used by the Egyptians. Kibla or qibla (Isl). In a mosque the direction of Mecca: the kibla wall is marked by the mihrab (q.v.). King-post. A vertical post extending from the ridge to the centre of the tie-beam below. Kiosk. A light, open pavilion. Knapped flint. A traditional East Anglian craft of splitting flints, so that they present a smooth black surface on a wall face. The arrangement of knapped flints in patterns is sometimes called flushwork. Kokoshniki. Ornamental or blind gables, ogee shaped or semicircular, most often in two or three tiers around the dome of a Byzantine church. Kreshchaty vault. Method of vaulting a domed cruciform church without pillars, with a kind of basket vault over the arms of the cross, and segments of domical vaulting over the corner cells. Kuta (Hind). Peak: in north Indian temple architecture a pavilion with a pointed spire or shikhara; in south Indian temple architecture a square (occasionally circular, octagonal or stellate) pavilion, with domical roof.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1722

GLOSSARY

Kuta-stambha (Hind). Pillar form (usually embedded, as a pilaster) crowned by a kuta (q.v.). Label. See Dripstone. Laconicum. A dry sweating room in a Roman baths building. Lacunaria. See Coffers. Lancet arch. A sharp pointed arch, chiefly in use during the Early English period. Lantern. A construction, such as a tower, at the crossing of a church, rising above the neighbouring roofs and glazed at the sides. Lararium. A room or niche in a Roman house, in which the effigies of the household gods (lares) were placed. Later. A Roman unburnt brick Laths. See Stambhas. Latina (Hind). The basic unitary mode of Nagara (north Indian) shrine. Lavabo. Ritual washing-basin for celebrant; monastic washing-trough. Leaf and tongue. In Greek architectural ornament, a conventional motif of the sima reversa. Lesene. An undecorated pilaster without base or capital. Lich or lych gate. A covered gateway to a churchyard, forming a resting-place for a coffin where a portion of the burial service is often read. Lierne. A short intermediate rib in Gothic vaulting which does not rise from the impost and is not a ridge rib. Linenfold. A type of relief ornament, imitating folded linen, carved on the face of individual timber panels. Popular in the late fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. Lintel. The horizontal timber or stone, also known as the architrave, that spans an opening. Loculi. Recesses for corpses in Roman burial vaults. Loggia. A gallery behind an open arcade or colonnade. Long and short work. In Anglo-Saxon building, a method of laying the quoins or angles, in which the stone slabs are superposed vertically and horizontally in alternate courses. Louvre. A series of inclined slats in a vertical frame, allowing ventilation without admitting rain or direct sunlight; a roof ventilator embodying the principle. Sometimes applied to roof ventilators in general. Lucarne. A window in a sloping roof. See also Dormer. Luna marble. See Carrara. Lunette. A semicircular window or wall-panel let into the inner base of a concave vault or dome. See Thermal Window. Machicolation. A projecting wall or parapet allowing floor openings, through which molten lead, pitch, stones etc., were dropped on an enemy below.

Madrassa or madrassah (Arabic or Persian) or Medrese (Turkish). Collegiate mosque, theological college. Maeander. Running ornament in the form of a fret (q.v.) or key pattern. Makara (Bud). A type of stone console-shaped balustrade, usually at either end of a short flight of external steps. Maksura or maqsura (Isl). The sanctuary in an early mosque enclosed by a wooden latticed screen or pierced stonework. Mandapa (Hind). The hall, usually pillared, in Indian architecture. Mandorla. See Aureole. Mannerism. A term coined originally to describe the characteristics of the work of some sixteenthcentury Italian architects whose work was less rigidly governed by the stylist rules; later applied more widely to other similar European Renaissance buildings. Mansard roof. A roof with steep lower slope and flatter upper portion, named after Mansart. Also known as a gambrel roof. Marquise. A projecting canopy over an entrance door, often of metal and glass. Masjid (Isl). District mosque. Masjid-I Juma (Isl). Friday mosque. Masons mitre. The treatment in masonry and sometimes in joinery for mouldings meeting at right angles,when the diagonal mitre thus formed does not coincide with the joint, but is worked on the face of the one piece which is carried straight through and simply butts on the other. Mastaba. An ancient Egyptian, rectangular, flat topped, funerary mound, with battered (sloping) sides, covering a burial chamber below ground. Mathematical tiles. Brick tiles designed to imitate facing bricks. Maydan or meydan (Isl). Ceremonial open space or square. Meander fret. See Maeander. Mediaeval. A term taken to comprehend the Romanesque and Gothic periods of architectural development. Megaron. The principal room of an early Anatolian or Aegean house. Merlon. The upstanding part of an embattled parapet, between two crenelles or embrasure openings. Metope. The space between Doric triglyphs, sometimes left open in ancient examples; afterwards applied to the carved slab. Mezzanine. An intermediate floor formed within a lofty storey. Mihrab (Isl). Niche oriented towards Mecca. Minabar. The pulpit of a mosque. Minaret. A slender tower, rising above (or otherwise connected with) a mosque, from which the muezzin (crier) calls the faithful to prayer.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1723

Misericord. A hinged seat, made to turn up to afford support to a standing person, with the underside frequently grotesquely carved. Mitre. The term applied, especially in joinery, to the diagonal joint formed by the meeting of two mouldings at right angles. Modillion. See Bracket. Module. A measure of proportion, by which the parts of a Classical Order or building are regulated, being usually the diameter of a column immediately above its base, which is divided into sixty parts or minutes. Monopteral. A temple, usually circular, consisting of columns only. Mosaic. Decorative surfaces formed by small cubes of stone, glass and marble; much used in Hellenistic, Roman and later times for floors and wall decoration. Motte. The earthen conical mound of a castle; usually has a related bailey, thus a courtyard or ward. Mouldings. The contours given to projecting members. Mud jar. A Spanish Moslem under Christian rule. e A vernacular style of Spanish architecture, particularly of Aragon and Castile, of twelfth and sixteenth centuries, blending Muslim and Christian characteristics; its influence survived into the seventh century. Neo Mud jar is a perpetuation or revival of features e of the style in the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries in Latin America. Mulaprasada (Hind). Main shrine of a Nagara (north Indian) temple. Mullions. Vertical members dividing windows into different numbers of lights. Multivallate. Having more than one wall or rampart. Muqarnas (Isl). Small-scale ornamental corbelled brackets and niches forming concave three-dimensional segments decorating (especially) the soffits of arches or vaults: also called stalactites. Mushrabiyah (Isl). Window with lattice-work screen of elaborately turned or carved wood to admit air and light without loss of privacy. Mushroom construction. A system of reinforced concrete construction without beams, in which the floor-slabs are directly supported by columns flared at the top. Mutules. Projecting inclined blocks in Doric cornices, derived from the ends of wooden beams. Nagara (Hind). Architectural language of north Indian temple architecture. Nail-head. A Romanesque motif, carved in the form of a small pyramidal stud or nail-head. Naos. The principal chamber in a Greek temple, containing the statue of the deity. Narthex. A long arcaded entrance porch to a Christian basilican church, originally allocated to penitents.

Naumachia. A lake for the exhibition of sea fights, encircled by seats for spectators; sometimes refers to the spectacle itself. Nautilus shell. A decorative motif used by the Greeks, especially for the spiral of the Ionic volute. Nave. The western limb of a church, as opposed to the choir; also the central aisle of the basilican, mediaeval, or Renaissance church, as opposed to the side aisles. Necking. The space between the astragal of the shaft and the commencement of the capital proper in the Roman Doric. Necropolis. A burial ground. Newel. (1) The central shaft of a circular staircase; (2) also applied to the post into which the handrail is framed. Niche. A recess in a wall, hollowed like a shell, for a statue or ornament. Nimbus. See Aureole. Nook-shaft. A shaft set in the angle of a pier, a respond, a wall, or the jamb of a window or door. Norman. The style, also termed English Romanesque, of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Nymphaeum. A building in Classical architecture for plants, flowers and running water, ornamented with statues. Obelisk. A tall pillar of square section tapering upwards and ending in a pyramid. Octastyle. A portico with a range of eight columns. Odeion. A building, resembling a Greek theatre, designed for musical contests. Oecus. The main room of a Greek house, the successor of the megaron. Ogee. A moulding made up of a convex and concave curve. Also an arch of similar shape. Ogival. The traditional term in France for Gothic architecture. Not commonly used today. Opaion. A Greek term for a clerestory or top light. Opisthodomos. The rear porch of a temple. Opus. A work. Opus Alexandrinum. Mosaics inlaid in a stone or marble paving. Order. An Order in architecture comprises a column, with base (usually), shaft and capital, the whole supporting an entablature. The Greeks recognised three Orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Romans added the Tuscan and the Composite (the latter also known as Roman), while using the Greek Orders in modified form. The Greek Doric Order is unique in having no base to the column. The capital is plain; the shaft fluted. The Ionic Order is lighter, more elegant, than the Doric, with slim columns, generally fluted. It is principally distinguished by the volutes of its capital. The Corinthian Order has a bell-shaped capital, from which eight acanthus stalks (caulicoli) emerge to support the modest volutes. The

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1724

GLOSSARY

shaft is generally fluted. The Tuscan Order resembles the Doric but has a very plain entablature. The shaft is properly unfluted. The Composite (or Roman) Order combines the prominent volutes of the Ionic with the acanthus of the Corinthian on its capital, and is thus the most decorative. The shaft may be fluted or plain. Ordinates. Parallel chords of conic section (in relation to the bisecting diameter) describing an ellipse; a principle followed by Renaissance builders to adjust cross-vaults of equal height, but unequal span. Ordonnance. The disposition of the parts of the building. Oriel. A window corbelled out from the face of a wall by means of projecting stones. Orthostats. Courses of large squared stones at the base of a wall. Osiris pillars. Pillars incorporating the sculptured figure of Osiris, Egyptian God of Death and Resurrection. Ovolo. A convex moulding much used in Classics and Renaissance architecture, often carved with the egg and dart or egg and tongue. Pai-lou. A Chinese ceremonial gateway, erected in memory of an eminent person. Also found in Japan. Palaestra. A public building for the training of athletes. Palladian motif. An arched opening flanked by two smaller, square-headed openings. Palm vaulting. Similar to fan vaulting (q.v.). Palmette. See Anthemion. Panel. A compartment, sunk or raised, in walls, ceilings, doors, wainscoting etc. See also Coffer. Panjara (Hind). Cage; representation of a pavilion with a horseshoe gable as its roofing element, in south Indian temple architecture. Papyrus. Aquatic plant used by the Egyptians for a great variety of purposes, including the construction of primitive reed huts. A recurrent motif in Egyptian architectural sculpture. Parabolic vaulting. A thin shell covering, normally of reinforced concrete, of parabolic section (i.e. a shape made by cutting a cone parallel to one edge). Such structures are comparatively light, and not subject to tensional stresses under conditions of uniform loading. See Shell vaulting. Parapet. The portion of wall above the roof-gutter, sometimes battlemented. Also applied to the same feature, rising breast-high, in balconies, platforms and bridges. Parclose. A screen enclosing a chapel, as a shelter from draughts, or to prevent distraction to worshippers; also the screen around a tomb or shrine. Pargetting (pargeting, parging). Extemal ornamental plasterwork having raised, indented or tooled patterns; used from Tudor times onwards chiefly in East Anglia and the south-east of England.

Pastas or prostas. A vestibule in front of a Greek house, with a part of one side open to a forecourt. Pastophoria. Rooms of apses to the north and south of the main altar in Byzantine churches for use of the clergy and where vestments, etc. are kept or where the altar of preparation or offerings stands. Paterae. Flat circular ornaments which resemble the Classical saucers used for wine in sacrificial libations. Patio. A Spanish arcaded or colonnaded courtyard. Pavilion. A prominent structure, generally distinctive in character, marking the ends and centre of the facade of a major building. A similarly distinctive building linked by a wing to a main block. An ornamental building in a garden. Pavimentum. A pavement formed by pieces of tile marble, stone, flint or other material set in cement and consolidated by beating down with a rammer. Pedestal. A support for a column, statue or vase. It usually consists of a base, die and cornice or cap mould. Pediment. In Classical architecture, a triangular piece of wall above the entablature, enclosed by raking cornices. In Renaissance architecture used for any roof end, whether triangular, broken or semicircular. In Gothic, such features are known as gables. Pele-towers. Small square towers of massive construction, built in the border country between England and Scotland until the late Middle Ages. Pendant. An elongated boss projecting downward or suspended from a ceiling or roof. Pendentive. The term applied to the triangular curved overhanging surface by means of which a circular dome is supported over a square or polygonal compartment. Pentastyle. A temple front of five columns. Peribolus. The enclosing wall or colonnade surrounding a temenos or sacred enclosure, and hence sometimes applied to the enclosure itself. Peripteral. A term applied to an edifice surrounded by a single range of columns. Peristyle. A range of columns surrounding a court or temple. Perpendicular. A phase of English Gothic evolved from the Decorated style, and prevalent during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Perron. A landing or platform outside the portal of a domestic or public building, approached in a dignified way by a single or double flight of steps. Phamsana (Hind). Mode of Indian temple with pyramidal superstructure of tiered eaves-mouldings. Piano nobile. The principal floor of an Italian palace, raised one floor above ground level and containing the principal social apartments. Piazza. A public open place, surrounded by buildings: may vary in shape and in civic purpose. Picturesque. The term is used in a specialised sense to describe one of the attitudes of taste towards

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1725

architecture and landscape gardening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (c. 17851835); buildings and landscape were to have the controlled informality of a picture. Pier. A mass of masonry, as distinct from a column, from which an arch springs, in an arcade or bridge; also applied to the wall between doors and windows. The term is sometimes given to a pillar in Gothic architecture. Pilaster. A rectangular feature in the shape of a pillar, but projecting only about one-sixth of its breadth from a wall, and the same design as the Order with which it is used. See Anta. Pilotis. Posts on an unenclosed ground floor carrying a raised building. Pinacotheca. A building to contain painted pictures. Pinnacle. In Gothic architecture, a small turret-like termination on the top of buttresses, parapets, or elsewhere, often ornamented with bunches of foliage called crockets. Piscina. A stone basin in a niche near the altar, to receive the water in which the priest rinses the chalice. Also applied to the tank or fountain in Roman baths. Pis . Clay or earth mixed with gravel used for e building by being rammed between boards which are removed as pis hardens. e Plate tracery. See Tracery. Plateresque. A phase of Spanish Architecture of the later fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, an intricate style named after its likeness to silverwork. Plinth. The lowest square member of the base of a column; also applied to the projecting stepped or moulded base of any building. Plough-share twist. The irregular or winding surface in a vault, where the wall ribs, owing to the position of the clerestory windows, start at a higher level than the other ribs. Podium. A continuous pedestal; also the enclosing platform of the arena of an amphitheatre. Polychromy. A term originally applied to the art of decorative painting in many colours, extended to the colouring of sculpture to enhance naturalism, and very loosely used in an architectural context to describe the application of variegated materials to achieve brilliant or striking effects. As such, it is a characteristic of the High Victorian phase and of Art Nouveau (q.v.). Poppy-head. The ornamental termination of a bench-end, frequently carved with fleur-de-lis, animals or figures. Porphyry. A hard rock, red or purple in colour, used as a building stone or for sculpture, especially by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Portcullis. A heavy lattice grating of timber or iron, sliding in vertical grooves in the jambs of a portal of a defended building.

Portico. A colonnaded space forming an entrance or vestibule, with a roof supported on at least one side by columns. Porticus. In mediaeval architecture a vestibule, any colonnade as part of a church, a non-columnar side space or adjunct opening from the main body of a building but not actually a vestibule. Posticum. The Latin term for the rear porch of a temple. See Opisthodomos. Post-Modernism. A term which describes an architectural style or theory that is a criticism of orthodox modernism. The usual physical manifestation of this approach is an eclectic style mixing decorative elements of different periods, especially those of Western classical origin. These elements, robbed of their traditional meanings, are usually placed out of context and scale and used with an ironic intent. Post-Modernisn arose in the early 1970s and was pass within a decade. e Prakara (Hind). Enclosure wall of an Indian temple compound. Prato marble. A green marble from the district of Prato in Tuscany.. Presbytery. The space at the eastern end of a church for the clergy, but often applied to the whole sanctuary. Pronaos. The part of a temple in front of the naos, often synonymous with portico. Propylaeum (pl. propylaea). An important entrance gateway or vestibule, in front of a sacred enclosure. Proscenium. In ancient Greek theatres, a colonnade standing in front of the scene building (skene), the top of which eventually became the stage (logeion = a speaking place): thus all of the stage works in front of the ornamental back-stage. Nowadays, the term means only the frontispiece of the stage. Prostyle. An open portico of columns standing in front of a building. Prothesis. That part of a church where the credence table (q.v.) stands Prytaneion (prytaneum). The public hall and state dining room of a Greek city. Pseudo-dipteral. A temple which is planned as a dipteral building, i.e. two columns in depth around the naos, but from which the inner range is omitted. Pseudo-peripteral. A temple lacking a pteroma and having the flank columns attached to the temple walls. Pteroma. The space between the lateral walls of the naos of a temple and the peristyle columns. Pulpitum. A stone gallery or rood loft (q.v.) over the entrance to the choir of a cathedral or church. Pulvinated. A term applied to a frieze whose face is convex in profile. Pumice. Igneous rock derived from volcanic lava. As a building stone, it was used by the Romans and, later, is present in Byzantine and Romanesque work: it had the advantage of extreme lightness.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1726

GLOSSARY

Purbeck marble. A fine hard limestone from Purbeck, Dorset. Purlin. A horizontal beam in a roof, resting on the principal rafters and supporting the common rafters and roof covering. Pycnostyle. A term given when the space between two columns is l12 diameters. Pylon. A term applied to the mass of masonry with a central opening, forming a monumental entrance to Egyptian temples. Qasr (Isl). A castle, palace or mansion. Quadrangle. A broad enclosure or court, defined by buildings. Quadriga. A four-horsed chariot, in sculptured form, often surmounting a monument. Quadripartite vaulting. A vault in which each bay is divided by intersecting diagonal ribs into four parts. Quatrefoil. In tracery, a panel divided by cusps into four openings. Quincunx. An arrangement of five objects, one at each corner of a square, the other at the crossing of its diagonals. Quirk. A sharp V-shaped incision in a moulding, such as that flanking the Norman bowtell. Quoin. A term generally applied to the corner stones at the angles of buildings and hence to the angle itself. Rampart. Defensive earthen bank surrounding a castle, fortress or fortified city. May have a stone parapet. Rath. Hindu rock-cut temple, especially in south India. Rebate. A rectangular sinking, channel or groove cut longitudinally in a piece of timber to receive the edge of another, or a recess in the jambs of an opening to receive a door or window. Recursive. Repeating the same abstract organising principle, or design idea. Reeding. A series of convex mouldings of equal width, side by side: the inverse of fluting. The fluting of the lower third of column shafts was sometimes infilled with reeds to strengthen them. Refectory. The dining-hall in a monastery, convent or college. Regula. The short band, under the triglyphs, beneath the tenia of the Doric entablature, and to which the guttae are attached. Reja. An ornate iron grille or screen, a characteristic feature of Spanish church interiors. Reliquary. A light portable receptacle for sacred relics. Renaissance. The term applied to the reintroduction of Classical architecture all over Europe, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Rendering. Plaster or stucco applied to an external wall; a first coat of plaster internally.

Repouss work. Ornamental metalwork, hame mered into relief from the reverse side. Reredos. The screen, or ornamental work, rising behind the altar. Respond. A half-pillar at the end of an arcade Retable. A ledge or shelf behind an altar for holding vases or candles The Spanish retablo is a sumptuously ornate form of reredos. Retro-choir. The parts of a large church behind the high altar. Reveal. The surface at right angles to the face of a wall, at the side of an opening cut through it; known as a splay when cut diagonally. Especially applied to the part outside the window-frame. Rib. A projecting-band on a ceiling, vault or elsewhere. Ribat (Isl) Fortified monastery. Ridge. The apex of a sloping roof, running from end to end. Ringhiera. A balcony on the main front of an Italian mediaeval town hall from which decrees and public addresses were delivered. Riwaq (Isl). Colonnade, portico, aisle, usually one side of a courtyard; colonnaded or arcaded hall of a mosque. Rococo. A term applied to a type of Renaissance ornament in which rock-like forms, fantastic scrolls and crimped shells are worked up together in a profusion and confusion of detail often without organic coherence, but presenting a lavish display of decoration. Roll moulding. A plain round moulding. In mediaeval architecture, sometimes known as the bowtell (q.v.). Romanesque. The sty!e of architecture prevalent in western Europe from the ninth to the twelfth centuries. Rood loft. A raised gallery over the rood screen, a name given to the chancel screen when it supports the rood or large cross erected in many churches in mediaeval times. Reached by stairs in the chancel wall it was also used as a gallery for minstrels and singers on festival days. Rose window. See Wheel window. Rostrum. The plural rostra denoted the raised tribune in the Forum Romanum, from which orators addressed the people, and was so called because decorated with the prows of ships taken in war, as were rostral columns. Rotonda. A round building. Rubble. Stone walling of rough, undressed stones. Rustication. A method of forming stonework with roughened surfaces and recessed joints, principally employed in Renaissance buildings. Sahn (Isl). Courtyard of a mosque. Sanctuary. A holy or consecrated place. The most sacred part of a church or temple.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1727

Sarcophagus. Richly carved coffin. Sash window. A double-hung, usually wooden, glazed frame (or sash), designed to slide up and down in grooves with the aid of pulleys. S teri roof. A form of hipped roof, interrupted by a a smaller vertical part sometimes provided with windows. This low perpendicular break forms a middle portion between the lower part of the roof and its considerably smaller continuation above the break. It is characteristic of the great houses of the Swedish nobility and gentry of the seventh and eighteenth centuries. Scena. The back scene of an ancient theatre. Scholae. Places of leisure, which to the Classical mind meant places for learned conversation or instruction; hence lecture rooms of the philosophers. Scotia. The concave moulding between two torus mouldings in the base of a column, throwing a deep shadow. Screen. A partition or enclosure of iron, stone or wood, often carved; when separating choir from nave, it is termed the choir screen. See Chancel. Scroll moulding. A moulding resembling a scroll of paper, the end of which projects over the other part. Section. The representation of a building cut by a vertical plane, so as to show the construction. Sedilia. The seats for the priests, generally of masonry, in the south wall of the chancel. Severy. A compartment or bay of a vault. Sexpartite vaulting. A vault where each bay is divided into parts by the intersection of two diagonal ribs and one transverse rib. Sgraffito. A method of decoration by which an upper coat of white stucco is partially cut away to expose a dark undercoat and so form a design. Shaft. The portion of a column between base and capital; also applied in mediaeval architecture to a small column, as in a clustered pier, supporting a vaulting rib. Shala (Hind). Representation of a barrel-vaulted pavilion in south Indian temple architecture. Shastra (Hind). An Indian canonical text. Shastric (Hind). Pertaining to the shastras. Shekhari (Hind). One of the later composite modes of Nagara temple. Shell vaulting. A thin curved plate-like form of roofing, generally of reinforced concrete and often of striking elegance, widely used nowadays for spanning large halls. See Parabolic vaulting. Shikhara (Hind). Superstructure or spire of a north Indian temple. Shingle style. The cladding of external walls with shingles (wooden tiles) over a timber frame. Shrine. A sacred place or object, e.g. a receptacle for relics. Sikhara (Hind). The pyramidal roof form of a Hindu temple; either over the shrine or gateways.

Usually elaborately sculptured with human and animal figures. Sima. A moulding with an outline of two contrary curves either the cyma recta or cyma reversa. Simatium. The crowning member of a cornice generally in the form of a sima. Soffit. The ceiling or underside of any architectural member. Solar. A mediaeval term for a private chamber on the upper floor. Space frame. A frame which is three-dimensional and stable in all directions. Span. The distance between the supports of an arch, roof or beam. Spandrel. The triangular space enclosed by the curve of an arch, a vertical line from its springing, and a horizontal line through its apex. In modern architecture, an infill-panel below a window-frame in a curtain wall. Specus. The duct or channel of a Roman aqueduct, usually rectangular in section and lined with a water proofing of successive coatings of a hydraulic cement, and covered by stone slabs or by arched vaults. Spere (also speer or spur). A fixed timber screen, sometimes elaborately carved, shielding the entr ances of mediaeval houses and large halls. When directly attached to a roof-principal, the resultant structure became a spere-truss. Spina. The spine wall down the centre of an ancient hippodrome or circus. Spire. The tapering termination of a tower in Gothic or Renaissance architecture, which was the result of elongating an ordinary pyramidal or conical roof. Splay. The diagonal surface formed by the cutting away of a wall, as when an opening is wider inside than out or conversely. Springer. The lowest unit or voussoir of an arch, occurring just above the springing line. Squinch. A small arch, bracket or similar device built across each angle of a square or polygonal structure to form an octagon or other appropriate base for a dome or spire. Sometimes known as a squinch arch. Stalls. Divisions with fixed seats for the clergy and choir, often elaborately carved, with projecting elbows, misericords and canopies. Stambhas. Free-standing monumental pillars, characteristic of Buddhist architecture. Also called laths. Stanchion. A vertical steel support. Cast-iron was used until relatively cheap steel became available. Starling. The pointed mass of masonry projecting from the pier of a bridge, for breaking the force of the water, hence known as a cutwater. Steeple. The term applied to a tower crowned by a spire. Stele. An upright slab forming a Greek tombstone or carrying an inscription.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1728

GLOSSARY

Stellar vault. A vault in which the ribs compose a star-shaped pattern. Stepped gable. A gable with stepped sides, especially characteristic of the Netherlands. Stijl, de. A short-lived geometric-abstract movement in Holland (191731), which had a lasting influence on the development of modernist architecture and of industrial design. Stile Liberty. In Italy the contemporary equivalent of Art Nouveau (q.v.), named after the London store. Stilted arch. An arch having its springing higher than the line of impost mouldings, to which it is connected by vertical pieces of walling or stilts. Stoa. In Greek architecture, a portico or detached colonnade. Storey. The space between two floors. Strapwork. A type of relief ornament or cresting resembling studded leather straps, arranged in geometrical and sometimes interlaced patterns; much used in the early Renaissance architecture of Britain and the Low Countries. String course. A moulding or projecting course running horizontally along the face of a building. Stuart. A term applied to English Late Renaissance architecture of the period 16251702. Stucco. A fine quality of plaster, much used in Roman and Renaissance architecture for ornamental modelled work in low relief. In Britain, it was extensively employed in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as an economical medium for the modelling of external features, in lieu of stone. Stupa (Bud). An earth mound, usually dome shaped, forming a sacred Buddhist monument. Often faced with brickwork and/or rendered and painted white. Early examples were surrounded by a stone ceremonial fence with thoranas (q.v.) at the cardinal points. Stylobate. In Classical architecture, the upper step forming a platform on which a colonnade is placed. Collectively, the three steps of a Greek Doric temple constitute a crepidoma. Sudatorium. The sweating room in a Roman baths building. Systyle. A term used where the space between two columns is two diameters. Tabby. A form of concrete made from oyster shells. Tabernacle. A recess or receptacle usually above an altar to contain the eucharistic Host; also applied to a niche or arched canopy. Tabernacle work is the name given to elaborately carved niche and canopy work. Tablet-flower. A variation of the ball-flower ornament of Decorated Gothic architecture in the form of a four-petalled open flower.

Taenia or tenia. A flat projecting band capping the architrave of a Doric entablature. Tauf. Arabic for packed mud walling. The mud is mixed with straw to prevent cracking, and is laid by hand in courses. Each layer is left to dry before the next is added. Tegula. The Latin term for a large flat tile. Telamones. See Atlantes. Temenos. A sacred precinct in which stood a temple or other sanctuary. Tempera. In painting, the same as distemper. Tempietto. A small temple. The term is usually reserved for Renaissance and later buildings of an ornamental character, compact circular or templelike structures erected in the parks and gardens of country houses, although the most famous instance is Bramantes chapel in the cloisters of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome. Tepidarium. An apartment in a Roman baths building equipped with warm baths. Terracotta. Earth baked or burnt in moulds for use in construction and decoration, harder in quality than brick. Tessera. A small cube of stone, glass or marble, used in making mosaics. Tetrastyle. A portico of four columns. Thermal window. Semi-circular window, usually furnished within a pair of mullions, derived from widows set with barrel or groin vaults in Roman Baths, particularly in the Baths of Dioclesian, thus also called Dioclesian window. See Lunette. Tholos. The dome (cupola) of a circular building, hence the building itself. Thorana (Bud). Ceremonial gateway through the fence of a stupa (q.v.). Resembles a Chinese pai-lou or a Japanese torii. Thrust. The force exerted by inclined rafters or beams against a wall, or obliquely by the weight of an arch, vault or dome. Tie-bar. A beam, bar or rod which ties parts of a building together, and is subjected to tensile strain. Sometimes of wood, but usually of metal. Tie-bars are especially notable in Byzantine, Italian Gothic and Renaissance architecture to stiffen arcades or to contain the outward thrust of vaults. Tie-beam. Normally the lowest member of a roof truss, extending from wall-plate to wall-plate and primarily intended to prevent the walls from spreading. A secondary function may be to carry a king-post or crown-post. Tierceron. An intermediate rib between the main ribs of a Gothic vault. Torii. The characteristic entrance gateways to Shinto temples, comprising upright posts supporting beams. Torus. A large convex moulding, used principally in the bases of columns. See Astragal. Trabeated. A style of architecture such as the

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

GLOSSARY

1729

Greek, in which posts and beams form the main constructive features. See also Arcuated. Tracery. The ornamental patternwork in stone, filling the upper part of a Gothic window; it may be either plate or bar tracery. Plate tracery appears to have been cut out of a plate of stone, with special reference to the shape of the lights, whereas bar tracery was designed principally for the pleasing forms produced by combinations of geometrical fi gures. It is also applied to work of the same character in wood panelling. Trachelion. The neck of a Greek Doric column, between the annulets and the grooves or hypotrache lion. Transept. The part of a cruciform church, projecting at right angles to the main building. Transoms. The horizontal divisions or cross-bars of windows. Transverse rib. A rib which extends at right angles to the wall across a bay or other vaulted space. Travertine stone. A calcareous deposit from springs, yellowish in colour, used since Roman times as a building stone, especially in Italy where there are large accumulations. In modern architecture, often seen as a decorative facing material, in thin panels. Trefoil. In tracery, a panel divided by cusps into three openings. Triangulation. The principle of the design of a roof-truss, in which every panel or space enclosed by its members is triangular. Tribune. Platform inside a church, usually raised on columns and overlooking the interior; originally a raised platform in a Roman basilica, sometimes in a semicircular addition to the end of the building, thus also used as an alternative name for the apse in a basilican church. Triclinium. A Roman dining room with couches on three sides. Triforium. A shallow passage above the arches of nave and choir in a mediaeval church but below the clerestory and opening into the nave; sometimes called a triforium gallery when floored above the aisle vaults. Triglyphs. Blocks with vertical channels which form a distinguishing feature in the frieze of the Doric entablature. Tristyle-in-antis. A portico having three columns between antae. Trussed-rafter roof. A form of roof composed of pairs of rafters, closely spaced and without a ridge piece. To contain the outward thrust, the rafters were joined by collars and further stiffened by braces. Tudor. A term applied to English Late Gothic architecture of the period 14851558. Tufa. A building stone of rough or cellular texture, of volcanic or other origin (travertine may be described as calcareous tufa). Tunnel vault. See Barrel vault.

Turkish triangles (Isl). Small-scale faceted corbelling built up to serve the same purpose as a pendentive (q.v.) or for decorative purposes in the same way as muqarnas (q.v.). Turrets. Small towers, often containing stairs, and forming special features in mediaeval buildings. Tuscan. See Order. Tympanum. The triangular surface bounded by the sloping and horizontal cornices of a pediment; also the space enclosed between the lintel and the arch of a mediaeval doorway. Unctuaria. Rooms for oils, unguents, and various forms of treatment in Roman public baths. Undercroft. In mediaeval architecture, vaulted chambers upon which the principal rooms are sometimes raised. Vakif (Isl). Financial or property trust. Valabhi (Hind). Type of north Indian shrine with wagon-roof. Vault. An arched covering in stone or brick over any building. Velarium. A great awning drawn over Roman theatres and amphitheatres to protect spectators against the sun. Vesica piscis. A pointed oval form, so called from its shape. See Aureole. Vestibule. An ante-room to a larger apartment of a building. Vihara. A Buddhist monastery. Vimana (Hind). Main shrine of a Dravida (south Indian) temple. Vine ornament. Variations on the theme of the vine-leaf, a characteristic motif of the Gothic Decorated style. Volute. The scroll or spiral occurring in lonic, Corinthian and Composite capitals. Voussoirs. The truncated wedge-shaped blocks forming an arch. Wakf (Isl). See Vakif. Wagon or wagonhead vault. See Barrel vault. Waqf (Isl). Charitable endowment. Wave moulding. A typical moulding of the Decorated period consisting of a slight convexity flanked by hollows. Weathering. The slope given to offsets to buttresses and the upper surfaces of cornices and mouldings, to throw off rain. Westwork. A multistorey gallery at the west end of some German and Netherlandish churches, surmounted by towers or turrets. Wheel (or rose) window. A circular window, whose mullions converge like the spokes of a wheel.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.

1730

GLOSSARY

Zakomara. Semicircular gable usually corresponding to the shape of the vault in a Byzantine church, but sometimes used in a purely ornamental manner. Ziggurat or ziqqarat. A high pyramidal staged tower, of which the angles were oriented to the cardinal points, which formed an important element in ancient Mesopotamian temple complexes. the number of stages rose from one to seven in the course of time, and in the Assyrian version the stages were developed into a continuous inclined ramp, circulating the four sides in turn. Zigzag. See Chevron. Zoophorus. A frieze in which reliefs of animals are introduced.

Among the many sources consulted in revising and extending this glossary, the following works have been of especial value:
AHLSTRAND, J. R.

and others. Architektutermen. Lund, 1969. HARRIS, J. and LEVER, J. Illustrated Glossary of Architecture: 8501830. Rev. edn, London, 1969. LONGMORE, J. and MURAD, F. A Glossary of Arabic Architectural Terms. Bartlett School of Architecture and Planning, University College London, 1980. SCOTT, J. S. The Penguin Dictionary of Building. 3rd edn, Harmondsworth, 1984. . The Penguin Dictionary of Civil Engineering. 3rd edn, Harmondsworth, 1980.

(c) The Royal Institute of British Architects and the University of London. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) and the University of London are the joint trustees of Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture.