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DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR

PROJECT 2012

INTRODUCTION
The objective of the paper is to present a conceptual model of a microcontroller based variable electronic speed governor that can be implemented to control the speed of any vehicle depending on the local speed limit. The circuit is cost effective, efficient and easy to implement on already existing vehicles. Every city, town or a village, can be marked and divided into individual zones. The division depends upon the area under which the business, residential, and industrial regions come under. The central business district being a very busy traffic zone demands the least speed limit, with the residential and industrial zones having lesser traffic densities, the speed limits will vary accordingly.

Consider a city or town can be divided into physical zones which are classified according to different speed ranges. A transmitter is placed at all exit and entry points of the interface of any two zones that transmits a message signal at carrier frequency, indicating the upper limit value of the zones speed range into which the vehicle is entering at that moment, to the receiver which gives the message as an input to a preprogrammed microcontroller embedded within the automobile which compares the speed of the vehicle measured by a sensor at the maximum allowable speed and automatically regulates the speed of the vehicle. The speed of the vehicle can be varied by varying the duty cycle of the pulse input. The entire system is a low cost variable electronic speed governor, small in size and easy to assemble onto an existing vehicle without disturbing its present arrangement.

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DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR

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WORKING OF THE SYSTEM


The dynamic speed governor consist of mainly two parts:- the transmitter and receiver. The system is mainly based on micro controller technology for collecting data related to speed and transmits the data to the micro controller using RF communication. The micro controller analyses the transmitted data and takes appropriate decisions related to speed limit and control requirements. The dynamic speed governor will be needed in populated areas such as hospitals, malls and schools for regulating traffic. The RF transmitter of the system is mounted on the signal board and the micro controller of the transmitter part always sense the speed limit of the area for that the speed limit will be stored in the micro controller. The speed limit of the vehicle will be transmitted using RF transmitter to the approaching vehicles. An RF receiver is kept inside the vehicle and the receiver accepts the incoming signals and then feeds the limit of speed as an input to a comparator. An RPM meter is used to transform the mechanical rotational movement of the vehicle into an electrical signal and using this method the speed of the approaching vehicle can be detected. This calculated speed from the RPM meter is given to the next input pin of the comparator. At the comparator both speed given to the both input pin is compared and if the speed of the vehicle is greater than the speed limit the controller will reduce the speed of the vehicle to the limit by using PWM characteristic of the micro controller.

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DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR

PROJECT 2012

BLOCK DAIGRAM

Transmitter

RF 433MHz

DISPLAY
SPEED INFORMATION

KEYPAD ANTENNA

MICRO CONTROLLER

TRANSMITTER

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DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR

PROJECT 2012 GND

Receiver

RF 433MHz

SPEED DISPLAY

SPEED INFORMATION

ANTENA MOTOR DRIVER


MOTOR CONTROL

MICRO CONTROLLER SPEED DETECTOR

RECEIVER

RESET CLOCK

Fuel injecting solenoid

Solenoid valve driver

+5V

230V

SUPPLY

BATTE RY Page 4

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GND

DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR

PROJECT 2012

BLOCK DAIGRAM DESCRIPTION

Power Supply

These form an important equipment of any Electronics laboratory. Power supplies are essential for the testing and implementation of any useful electronic circuit. If power supplies are not available then the only way to provide power to a circuit is the battery. For long-term use and frequent manipulation these are not feasible. More over these are not as flexible as modern day power supplies. They do not provide for overload protection and thermal protection.

The following units form the backbone of any modern day power supply

1. 2. 3.

Full wave bridge rectifier Filter circuit Voltage regulator

In the case if modern power supplies, the required power is derived from the AC mains. For this at first the 230V/50 Hz is step down using a step down transformer. Then The AC voltage is converted to DC using a rectifier circuit. The bridge rectifier is considered the apt choice since it avoids the center-tapped transformer. The ripples from the rectifier output are removed by filtering. The filter can be any of the following:

1. 2. 3. 4.

L filter C filter LC filter CRC filter

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DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR And we use capacitive filtering.

PROJECT 2012

The function of the voltage regulator is to provide a stable DC voltage for powering other electronic circuits. The voltage regulator must be capable of providing substantial output current. They must provide a constant voltage regardless of changes in load current, temperature, and AC line voltage. Although voltage regulators can be designed using op amps, it is quicker and easier to use IC Voltage regulators. Furthermore, IC voltage regulators are versatile and relatively inexpensive and are available with features such as programmable output, current / voltage boosting, internal short circuit current limiting, thermal shut down, and floating operation for high voltage applications.

Voltage regulator may be classified as:

1. 2.

Series regulator Switching regulator

Series regulators use a power transistor connected in series between the unregulated DC input and the load. The output voltage is controlled by the continuous voltage drop-taking place across the series pass transistor. Since the transistor conducts in the active or the linear region, these regulators are also called linear regulators. Linear regulators may have fixed or variable output voltages and could be positive or negative. Voltage regulators such as the 78XX series and the IC 723 are commonly used.

Switching regulators operate the power transistor as a HF on/off switch, so that the power transistor does not conduct current continuously. This gives an improve efficiency over the series regulator. The IC 723 can be used as a switching regulator too.

With the advent of microelectronics, it is now possible to incorporate the complete circuit of a voltage regulator on a single monolithic silicon chip. These provide for high reliability, low cost, reduced size and excellent performance. The 78XX, 79XX families and DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 6

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IC723 are good examples of monolithic general-purpose regulators. Here we use the positive voltage regulators 78XX series. 78XX

The 78XX series of regulators are 3 terminal, positive fixed voltage regulators. There are 7 voltage options available like: 5V, 6V, 8V, 12V, 15V, 18V and 24V. The 79XX series are negative fixed voltage regulators. These regulators are available in two types of packages:

1. 2.

Metal Package (TO-3) Plastic Package (TO-220)

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Micro-Controller
Dynamic speed governor is based on the Atmel AT89C52 micro-controller. The 89C52 has 8K bytes of Flash internal program memory, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. With few discrete components for oscillator and reset, a complete micro-controller system can be implemented. All four ports are 8-bit bi-directional I/O ports. Port1, Port2 & Port3 has internal pull-up resistors. Port0 require external pull-up. The Port1 is used for interfacing to ADC0804. Eight lines of port1 are used as data lines. Three lines from Port 3 are used as control lines. Two lines of Port3 are used for controlling the multiplexer. The RXD and TXD lines from port3 are used for serial interface to the transceiver. Port2 lines are used for the phase angle control of the load. The AC mains zero crossing pulses are used to interrupt the controller through INT0 interrupt line. Features Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Downloadable Flash Memory SPI Serial Interface for Program Downloading Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles 2K Bytes EEPROM Endurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles 4V to 6V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Nine Interrupt Sources Programmable UART Serial Channel DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 8

DYNAMIC SPEED GOVERNOR SPI Serial Interface Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Programmable Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag Description

PROJECT 2012

The AT89S8252 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of downloadable Flash programmable and erasable read only memory and 2K bytes of EEPROM. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory

technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip downloadable Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial interface or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with downloadable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S8252 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S8252 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of downloadable Flash, 2K bytes of EEPROM, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, programmable watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S8252 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. The downloadable Flash can be changed a single byte at a time and is accessible through the SPI serial interface. Holding RESET active forces the SPI bus into a serial programming interface and allows the program memory to be written to or read from unless Lock Bit 2 has been activated. DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 9

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Reset Circuit
A power on reset circuit is provided for the proper initialization of the microcontroller. Reset of the micro-controller chip is accomplished by holding the RESET pin high for at least two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) while oscillator is running. The CPU responds by executing an internal reset. The internal reset is executed during the second cycle in which RESET is high and is repeated every cycle until RESET goes low. With the reset condition the processor is initialized and the program execution is started from address zeroAn automated reset can be obtained when VCC is turned on by connecting the RESET pin to a 8.2K resistor and 10uF capacitor When power comes on, the current through the resistor commences to charge the capacitor. The voltage at RESET is the difference between VCC and the capacitor voltage, and decreases from VCC as the capacitor charges. The larger the capacitor is, the more slowly the voltage at the RESET pin falls. The time required is the oscillator start up time plus 2 machine cycles. If the VCC rise-time is less than 1msec and the oscillator startup time does not exceed 10msec, a 10uF capacitor will provide a reliable power on reset.

Oscillator
XLT1 and XLT2 are the input and output of an inverting amplifier, which is used as a crystal oscillator in the Pierce configuration by connecting an external crystal. A 11.0592MHz crystal is selected which provides a internal cycle timing of approximately 1uSec (1MHz) which is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency. The clock generator divides the oscillator frequency by 2, and provides a twophase clock signal to the chip. The Phase1 signal is active during the first half of each clock period, and Phase2 signal is active during the second half of each clock period

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Relay Driver
The switching relays are activated by the micro-controller output lines using driver circuits. The micro-controller output lines have limited current drive capacity, so that driver stages are required for increasing the drive currents. Drive circuits provide sufficient drive signal for the output devices

LCD Display
The LCD display provides the display of the relevant information and status of the traffic light controller. The LCD display is a dual line 16-character display. 8 data lines and 3 control lines viz RS, R/W and E accomplishes the inter face to the LCD display. The LCD The display works from a single +5V supply. The LCD display is configured for 4 bit interface. Hence four data lines and three control lines are for the interface. The display is interface to the micro-controller through port0. The display has provision of backlit by the way of LEDs mounted at the back of the display for the visibility at dark condition. The display mounted on the front panel and is connected to the micro-controller board by means of a ribbon cable and connector.

Key Pad
The configuration and data entry keys are connected to the port1 of the micro-controller. There are 8 pushbutton switches. The switches are connected to individual port lines. By reading the port lines, key closure status is obtained. The port lines are internally pulled high to VCC, hence when the switch is open the port line will be read as high. For a closed switch, the port will be pulled low, hence a logic low will be read from the port. The push button switches are: MENU/SELECT, CANCEL/TEST, START/STOP, DAY/NIGHT, UP, DOWN, LEFT and RIGHT. These keys along with the LCD display provide a menu driven interface for the user. DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 11

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RF Transmitter
The RF transmitter is ST-TX01-ASK is an ASK Hybrid transmitter module. ST-TX01ASK is designed by the Saw Resonator, with an effective low cost, small size, and simple-to-use for design. Frequency Range is 315 / 433.92 MHZ. The transmitter operates from a supply voltage of 3~12V. Output Power is 4~16dBm .The transmitter is based on Saw filter resonance oscillator. Typical applications include Wireless security systems, Car alarm systems, Remote controls, Remote measurements, Sensor reporting etc.

RF Receiver
The ST-RX04-ASK is an ASK superheat receiver module with PLL synthesizer and crystal oscillator. Receiver Frequency is 315/433.92 MHZ The receiver Operating voltage is 5V. IF Frequency is 500k Typical sensitivity is -105dBm. Supply current: is 2.3mA. The ASK receiver is based on RX3400. The RX3400 is a low power ASK receiver IC which is fully compatible with the Mitel KESRX01 IC and is suitable for use in a variety of low power radio applications including remote keyless entry. The RX3400 is based on a singleconversion, super-heterodyne receiver architecture and incorporates an entire phase-locked loop (PLL) for precise local oscillator generation. In addition, the RX3400 provides an RSSI output.

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CIRCUIT DAIGRAM

TRANSMITTER
VCC VCC LC1 C1 100nF RP1 10K 4 5
40

16X2

LCD Display
VDD VEE 2 3 1

VCC

RS R/W
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 K1

U1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RXD TXD MUXA S1 AWR ARD S2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 P3.0/RXD P3.1/TXD P3.2/INTO P3.3/INT1 P3.4/TO P3.5/T1 P3.6/WR P3.7/RD RST

A1

Keypad
Menu/Select Cancel Up Down

6 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 29 30 31 P 1 T1 5 6 DE RS DRW DD4 DD5 DD6 DD7

VSS

R5 10K

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7

16

VCC

P0.0 P0.1 P0.2 P0.3 P0.4 P0.5 P0.6 P0.7 P2.7 P2.6 P2.5 P2.4 P2.3 P2.2 P2.1 P2.0 PSEN

VCC

Power Supply
+12V D1 1N4007 1 D2 1N4007 4 8 C3 C4 100uF 100nF C2 100nF C1 470uF/25V
2

15

VCC U1 LM7805
GND

C2 10uF/16V Y1 R1 8.2K C3 27pF 12MHz

19 18

GND

XTAL1 XTAL2 AT89C52

ALE/PROG EA/VPP

IN

OUT

230VAC
N

20

C4 27pF

Micro-Controller

9V-0-9V/1A

Rectifier Regulator

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RECIEVER

SPEED GOVERNER
VCC VCC

LCD Display
C1 100nF RP1 10K 4 5
40

VCC

LC1 RS R/W

16X2 VDD VEE


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 K1 A1

2 3 R5 1 10K

U1 EN1 EN2 IN1 IN2 IN3 IN4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 C2 10uF/16V Y1 R1 8.2K C3 27pF 12MHz AT89C52 C4 27pF 19 18 P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 P3.0/RXD P3.1/TXD P3.2/INTO P3.3/INT1 P3.4/TO P3.5/T1 P3.6/WR P3.7/RD RST

6 P0.0 P0.1 P0.2 P0.3 P0.4 P0.5 P0.6 P0.7 P2.7 P2.6 P2.5 P2.4 P2.3 P2.2 P2.1 P2.0 PSEN 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
1

DE RS DRW DD4 DD5 DD6 DD7

VCC

VSS

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7

16

RXD TXD MUXA S1 AWR ARD S2

+12V D1 1N4007 1 U1 LM7805


GND

15

VCC 3

VCC

IN

OUT

29 30 31 12V

XTAL2

GND

XTAL1

ALE/PROG EA/VPP

BT1 C2 100nF C1 470uF/25V

C3 C4 100uF 100nF

20

Micro-Controller

Regulator

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Relay
VCC +12V

S1

R4 4.7K S4 relay R8 10K Q8 BC547 Q4 TIP127

RF Receiver
RX1 RX433 GND+5V ANT GND DATA1 DATA2 +5V GND VCC

RF Transmitter
VCC TX1 TX433 R1 10K TP2 1 1 VCC Q2 BS170 3 2 TXD DATA VCC ANT GND R5 10K

TP1 1

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 1 2 3 Q1 BS170 RXD

1 2 3 4

VCC

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Motor Driver

+12V

VCC R1 10k R4 390 2 6 5 2 CNY 17-1 R7 STOP 2.2K Q2 BC547 C1 220uF 4 1 2 D1 R5 100K

3
R2 25K

U1 1

1N4148

R6 3 3 2

8
+ -

U2A 1 LM358 MG1 MOTOR DC Q1 TIP122

100K

C2 10uF

R8 2.2K

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CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

Power Supply

CON3 D2 1 2 3 J1 D3 LED 1N4007 R2 1.2K +12v 1


1000uF/25V

U1 LM7805C/TO220 IN
GND

+5 VCC OUT 3 C4 103 C1 100uF/16V

C3

C2 104

0
Figure 2.13 Circuit diagram of power supply

The above figure shows the power supply circuit. Input is given through DC adaptor. Diode IN4007 is to avoid the polarity inversion when plugging. LED is for displaying the status. Capacitive filters are used to eliminate ripples. 1000uF capacitor is electrolytic and 0.1uF is disc capacitor. The capacitor filter should be rated at a minimum of 1000uF for each amp of current drawn and at least twice the input voltage. The 0.1uF capacitor eliminates any high frequency pulses that could otherwise interfere with the operation of the regulator. Voltage regulators are very robust. They can withstand over-current draw due to short circuits and also over-heating. In both cases the regulator will shut down before damage occurs. The only way to destroy a regulator is to apply reverse voltage to its input. Reverse polarity destroys the regulator almost instantly. To avoid this possibility you should always use diode protection of the power supply. This is especially important when using nine volt battery supplies as it is common for people to 'test' the battery by connecting it one way and then the DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 17

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other. Even this short 'test' could destroy the regulator if a protection diode is not used. Generally a 1N4004, 1 amp power diode is connected in series with the power supply. If the supply is connected the wrong way around, the regulator will be protected from damage. The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid state electronic equipment. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The LM78XX series is available in an aluminum TO-3 package which will allow over 1.0A load current if adequate heat sinking is provided. Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal p ower dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided, the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating. Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM78XX series of regulators easy to use and minimize the number of external components. It is not necessary to bypass the output, although this does improve transient response. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply.

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RF Transmitter
The RF Transmitter is ideal for remote control applications where low cost and longer range is required. The transmitter operates from a 1.5 to 12v supply, making it ideal for battery-powered applications. The transmitter employs a SAW stabilized oscillator, ensuring accurate frequency control for best range performance. Output power and harmonic emissions are easy to control. The manufacturing friendly SMT style package and low cost make the RF module make it suitable for high volume applications.

RF Transmitter

General Features Low cost Small size Frequency range is 433.92 MHz Out put power 4 to 12 Dbm It uses ASK modulation It will transmit up to 100M

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RF Receiver
The RF Receiver we are using is ideal for short-range remote control applications where cost is a primary concern. The receiver module requires no external RF components except for the antenna. It generates virtually no emissions. The super regenerative design exhibits

exceptional sensitivity at a very low cost. A SAW filter can be added to the antenna input to improve selectivity for applications that require robust performance. The friendly SIP style package and low-cost make it suitable for high volume applications.

RF Receiver

General Features Low cost No external parts are required Receiver frequency 433 MHz Typical sensitivity 105 Dbm Supply current 2.3mA Operating voltage 5v Easy for application

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Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Relays are usuallly SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. For further information about switch contacts and the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. The coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. Relay coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil.

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The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT.

The relay's switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

Circuit symbol for a relay

Choosing a relay

You need to consider several features when choosing a relay: 1. Physical size and pin arrangement If you are choosing a relay for an existing PCB you will need to ensure that its dimensions and pin arrangement are suitable. You should find this information in the supplier's catalogue. 2. Coil voltage The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must suit the circuit powering the relay coil. Many relays have a coil rated for a 12V supply but 5V and 24V relays are also readily DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 22

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available. Some relays operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which is a little lower than their rated value. 3. Coil resistance The circuit must be able to supply the current required by the relay coil. You can use Ohm's law to calculate the current: supply voltage Relay coil current = coil resistance 4. For example: A 12V supply relay with a coil resistance of 400 passes a current of

30mA. This is OK for a 555 timer IC (maximum output current 200mA), but it is too much for most ICs and they will require a transistor to amplify the current. 5. Switch ratings (voltage and current) The relay's switch contacts must be suitable for the circuit they are to control. You will need to check the voltage and current ratings. Note that the voltage rating is usually higher for AC, for example: "5A at 24V DC or 125V AC". 6. Switch contact arrangement (SPDT, DPDT etc) Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO) or "double pole changeover" (DPCO). For further information please see the page on switches.

Protection diodes for relays

Transistors and ICs must be protected from the brief high voltage produced when a relay coil is switched off. The diagram shows how a signal diode (eg 1N4148) is connected 'backwards' across the relay coil to provide this protection. Current flowing through a relay coil creates a magnetic field which collapses suddenly when the current is switched off. The sudden collapse of the magnetic field induces a brief high voltage DEPT. OF EEE, SHMEC, KADAKKAL Page 23

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across the relay coil which is very likely to damage transistors and ICs. The protection diode allows the induced voltage to drive a brief current through the coil (and diode) so the magnetic field dies away quickly rather than instantly. This prevents the induced voltage becoming high enough to cause damage to transistors and ICs. .

LCD Module

The LCD module is a parallel interface sixteen pin module. The first three pins of LCD module are used for contrast adjusting. Here the first pin is connected to ground, second to the voltage supply and third to the variable resistor. The pins, seven to fourteen are data lines (D0 to D7). In this particular circuit the data lines D4 to D7 are used because the LCD driver

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available is 4 line data bus. 15th pin is connected to the 5 volt supply. Pin 4, 5, 6 are control pins, R/W, RS and enable respectively. 16th pin is connected to the ground through a transistor. The voltage from microcontrller turn on the transistor and it in turn turns on the LCD backlight .Resistor R9 controls the voltage supplied to the transistor. PINOUT LCD modules may have a parallel or serial interface. The module discussed here has a 14-pin parallel interface. The pin out for this module is shown below.

Enable (E) This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. When this line is low, the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When (E) line is high, the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds accordingly. Read/Write (R/W) This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and microcontroller. When it is low, data is written to the LCD. When it is high, data is read from the LCD. Register select (RS) with the help of this line, the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines. When it is low, an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high, a character is being written to the LCD. Contrast: A variable voltage applied to this pin controls the contrast. Use a potentiometer and adjust until you see the background.

DB0-DB7: Apply the data or commands to these pins. Reading data from the LCD is done in the same way, but control line R/W has to be high. When we send a high to the LCD, it will reset and wait for instructions. Typical instructions sent to LCD display after a reset are: turning on a display, turning on a cursor and writing characters from left to right. When the LCD is initialized, it is ready to continue receiving data or instructions. If it receives a character, it will write it on the display and move the cursor one space to the right. The Cursor marks the next location where a character will be written. When we want to write a string of characters, first we need to set up the starting address, and then send one character at a time. Characters that can be shown on the display are stored in data display (DD) RAM. The size of DDRAM is 80 bytes.

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The LCD display also possesses 64 bytes of Character-Generator (CG) RAM. This memory is used for characters defined by the user. Data in CG RAM is represented as an 8bit character bit-map. Each character takes up 8 bytes of CG RAM, so the total number of characters, which the user can define, is eight. In order to read in the character bit-map to the LCD display, we must first set the CG RAM address to starting point (usually 0), and then write data to the display.

MECHANICAL DESIGN
A lot of aspects has to be considered towards the mechanical development of the of the product. The following are the main aspects to be considered: Aesthetics - is the feeling generated which concerns the form, color, texture and finish built into the product. Ergonomics - is concerned with the man-machine relationship. It emphasizes the basic requirement like safety, reliability, ease of handling etc. Function - is the usefulness of the product Cabinet The main aspect to be considered is the exterior appearance, contributed by the cabinet. Being well aware of the limitations of the resources and the time a simple geometric design of rectangular with sloped front panel shape is adopted. A compact size is selected because the unit is to be handy and portable. The size of the cabinet is fixed to be 140mm x 120mm x 55mm, to accommodate the PCBs, and power transformer. The cabinet is fabricated using black plastic sheets and the shape is achieved by gluing together different pieces of appropriate size, on the inside. One LED indicators are provided on the left side of the front panel for power status indication.
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FLOWCHART
Serial Reception - Sio Interrupt Service Routine

SERIAL

READ RECEIVE DATA REGISTER


YES

RX_STATE =0?
NO

YES

RX_CHAR = #?
NO

RX_STATE= 1

RX_STATE= 0 RX_STATE =1?


NO YES

RX_CHAR = S?
NO

YES

RX_STATE= 2

RX_STATE= 0 RX_STATE =2?


NO YES

RX_CHAR = G?
NO

YES

RX_STATE= 3 RX_COUNT = 0 RX_STATE= 0

RX_STATE = 3?

NO

RX_COUNT < RX_MAX?


YES

NO

WRITE RX_CHAR TO RX BUFFER

INCREMENT RX_COUNT

RX_COUNT < RX_MAX?


YES

NO

SET NEW RX FLAG

RX_STATE=0

RETURN

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Send Speed

SEND SPEED

DISABLE SERIAL INTERRUPT

SEND PREAMPLE (AA AA AA AA)

SEND #

SEND S

SEND G

SEND ADDRESS

SEND SPEED

ENABLE SERIAL INTERRUPT

END

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ADVANTAGES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Increased Road Safety. overcome the problem of heavy traffic and children accidents at school Zones Automatic switching of Max Speed Limit on the Highways. Accurate Speed switching based on vehicle location. Smooth speed switch over: Vehicle moving from High Speed Zone to Low Speed Zone or vice versa changes speed smoothly without vehicle jerks.

6. 7.

Suitable for Passenger / Commercial Vehicles. No Recurring expenses (Monthly Charges) required due to No GSM/ GPRS Module used for any communication with external world / device.

8.

Geographical Database with Set Speed is embedded in the Map Memory of ECU.

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DISADVANTAGES

1. It is difficult to use in heavy vehicles like bus, lorry etc.

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CONCLUSION
The new speed limiting system presented in this project combines several pioneering techniques that integrate wireless technologies in order to implement a reliable speed control system. This proposed system can be easily implemented near different populated areas. The power of the proposed system lies in its flexibility and capability of development with little hardware changes such as changing the speed limits and speed control methods using the software of the base station in negligible amount of time. The proposed system is based on microcontroller technology for collecting data related to speed and transmitting it through a transceiver to a base station that analyzes the transmitted data and takes appropriate decisions related to speed limit and control requirements. This experience has encouraged us to learn more about upcoming trends and technologies and thereby adding our bumble knowledge and experience about the vast ocean of electronics.

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REFFERENCES

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