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1. This neck amphorabelongsto the latest phaseof the geometricstyle, dated about 700 B.C.The subjects- mourningwomen on the neck, a processionof chariotsand horsemenon the body - reveal the function of the vase as a grave monument.In the drawingsomeprogressfrom the earlier geometricstyles can be observedin the silhouettes:the figuresare no longer quite so angular,and the eyes are now dots set in a reservedcircle. The lions on the shoulderpoint towardthe beginning of Orientalinfluences.Snakesare added in relief on the lip, the handles,and the shoulder. Height 305/ inches (77.7 cm.). Rogers Fund, 10.210.8

2. This monumentalneck amphorais one of the most importantAttic vases of the orientalizingperiod. Dated in the second quarterof the seventhcenturyB.C., it Style exemplifiesthe Black-and-White that takes its name from the profusionof added white introducednext to the black of the glaze. Little is left of the geometric traditions,except in the shape and great size of the vase, as well as in the disposition of the figureson the neck, shoulder,and body. This vase shows a definitedistinction betweenfront and back: all the figures are concentratedon the front, and the chief picturehas been expandedbeyond the meridiansfurnishedby the handles.The entire reverseis given over to the "new" curvilinearornaments. On the front Heraklesdispatchesthe centaurNessos, who has let go of the tree branchhe was carrying and sinks to his knees, pleading for mercy with both hands. Heraklesstrides calmly and confidently; with one hand he has seized the centaurby his long hair, the other holds the sword ready to strike. Some of the violence of this scene is conveyedby the movementof the hair and by the owl in flight. Behind Herakleshis chariotwaits patientlyfor the outcomeof the fight, but in front of the horsesa little man runsup almostas if afraid to miss the excitement.On the shoulderof the vase two horses with nicely combedhair are seen grazing. On the neck a lion, all its teeth bared, is attacking a fallow deer. Most of the background of the vase is filled by all kinds of ornaments,and on the groundline five spindly waterbirds look for food. Silhouetteand outline go side by side, and there is also much incision: the essentialsof the blackfigure techniqueare alreadyin use. Height 4234 inches (108.5 cm.). Rogers Fund, 11.210.1

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3. This krater,a bowl for mixing wine and water,is called a columnkratersince the handlesare like columnsthat support platforms.Of all the kratershapesit was the favoriteof Corinthianpotters.Unlike Attic glaze, Corinthianglaze did not always fuse properlywith the body of the vase and has often peeled off; for that reasonthe scene on the front is here shown in a drawing.The chief pictureson the shoulderare separatedby the handles,but the broadspace underthem is admirably filledby sirensthat spreadtheir wings, repeatingthe curvesof the handles.Both sirens look towardthe front of the vase, which shows the weddingprocessionof Paris and Helen. They are accompaniedby four Trojancoupleswearingfestive dress. Mostof them have their nameswritten beside them,and we read Daiphon, Hector, and Automedousa, Hippoi(?). The soliwarrioron the extremeright is tary Hippolytos,anotherson of Priam. He may be thoughtof as the vanguardof the four cavalrymenthat move at a slow pace on the reverseof the krater,each leading a void horse. In the zone below,which runs right aroundthe vase, a groupof a goat facing a pantheris repeatedfour times. A sphinx is paintedon top of each handle platform. Floralornamentsare kept to a minimum. By its shapeand figurestyle the vase is datedin the first quarterof the sixth century. Height 16 inches (40.6 cm.). Funds fromvariousdonors,27.116

4. This neck amphorahas been attributed to an anonymousChalcidianartist,called the Painterof the CambridgeHydria after workin the Fitzwilliam his best-known Museum,Cambridge.There is much in the decorationthat links his style to Corinthian models.Frontand back are again neatly dividedand the scenes,threesirens on the shoulderand a palmetteconfiguration betweentwo cocks below,displaya symmetrythatevokesheraldry.In the side views, however,we discoverthat the heraldicanimalson the body frieze are separatedby two men half-kneeling,halfrunning.One of them has turnedhis face towardus. Such frontalfaces are rare in archaicart and are intendedto be either frightening (as the gorgon'son the shield of Hippolytoson the Corinthianvase) or humorous. The vase is intact,and the Chalcidian glazerivalsthe Attic in its impeccable
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inches (29.2 cm.). Dodge Fund, 63.11.3

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5. Corinthianinfluencewas also felt in Athens and this drinkingcup is attributed to the C Painter (the C standingfor Corinthianizing). The gorgon in the tondoof the cup looks her most forbidding,with teeth bared and tongue,somewhatmisplaced,sticking out. The gorgon is both flying and running: the movementof her legs was no doubt thoughtof as increasing her speed. In the pictureson the outside (shown on the next page), Corinthianinfluenceis most noticeablein the distinct difference betweenthe subjects.On the front Achilles is pursuingTroilos, who had accompanied his sister Polyxena to a fountain house outside the walls of Troy. In her flight, Polyxena has droppedthe waterjar and a frightenedhare follows her. The eagle above portendsan omen, as did the owl on the Nessos amphora (Figure 2). The reverse showsfour horsemenriding up, as on the back of many a Corinthianwork, but they need not be connectedwith the other side. About 575 B.C. Height 51/8inches (13.0 cm.), diameter9% inches (24.5 cm.). Purchase,01.8.6

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Left: The exteriorof the drinkingcup attributedto the C Painter, discussedon the precedingpage 6 (above). This gorgon'shead - our third - decoratesthe top of a little standthat has the distinctionof being signed by a famous team of painterand potter,the Attic artists Kleitias and Ergotimos; they are best knownfrom their masterpiecein Florence namedthe "FrancoisVase" after its discoverer.Thoughsome of the earlier conventionsare maintained- baredteeth, beard,tonguestickingout - there are significantchanges: the serratedincisors (six in number) are flankedby tusks,and the tongue is correctlydrawnas protruding betweenthe teeth.The little space between the feline nose and the open mouthis filled with stubbleof a mustache,and the ears are pierced for earrings. In the eyes, the white rings surroundingthe pupils have now faded but this touch must originally have addedto the ferocity. About 570 B.C. Height 21/4inches (5.7 cm.), diameter396 inches (9.1 cm.). FletcherFund, 31.11.4

7. This very large mixing bowl - it holds nineteen gallonswhen filled to the neck depicts the returnof Hephaistosto Mt. Olympos.No fewer than twenty-seven satyrs and maenadsare shown in a frieze that continuesall the way aroundthe vase. The processionis accentedon one side by Dionysos, who seems to stand still, and on the otherside by Hephaistos,mountedon a donkey.Among the satyrs there are two that turn their face towardthe spectator; the othersare busy with their burdens of wineskins,grapes,grapevines,or ivy tendrils.One of them plays the flutes, anotherholds a drinkinghorn, and one has his tail pulled by a maenad. The animalsthat formed a secondary frieze on the Corinthiancolumnkraterare now relegatedto the top of the rim. Note also that the chief figuresextendwell below the equatorof the vase and, in fact, occupy the space of the shoulderzone and the subsidiary frieze. The handle platformsare decoratedwith gorgonheads. The kraterranksamong the acknowledged masterpiecesby Lydos, an Attic vase painter whose name is knownfrom two signatures.About one hundredvases are attributedto him, and there are, in addition, several hundred more that were painted in his manner,by his companions, and by his followers.The kraterin the MuseumshowsLydos at the height of his development,shortlyafter the middle of the sixth centuryB.C. inches (56.4 cm.) . Fletcher Height 223/16 31.11.11 Fund,

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8. This exceptionallyfine lekythos (or oil jug) by the AmasisPainter tells us in great detail aboutan importantaspect of the Athenianweddingceremony,the homecoming of the bride. Bride, groom,and best man are shownin the firstcart drawn by a team of donkeyswhile four guests follow in a mule cart. Severalother guests accompanythe processionon foot. The motherof the bridegroomawaits their arrival in the door of the bridegroom's house, whosewoodencolumnshave been freshly painted.Two torchesin the hands of the

mother-in-law indicate that it is evening or On the shouldera chorusof nighttime: nine girls performsa dance to the music of lyre and flutes. The Amasis Painter shuns traditional subjects,and his picturesare either loose groupingsof gods and heroesor show elsewhere.A comepisodesnot encountered to this lekythos,also in the panion piece Museum,has for its theme womenat the domesticoccupationof workingwool. Height 67/ inches (17.5 cm.). Purchase, WalterC. BakerGift, 56.11.1

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9. Exekias,to whomthis neck amphorais attributed,was bothpotterand painterand underhim Attic black-figurereachesits acme.The inventionof severalnew shapes like the eye cup and the calyx kratercan be creditedto him. Othershapes,like the neck amphora,are considerablytransformed.As painter,he is distinguishedby an extraordinary precisionof silhouette and of incised line. The latteris no longer used merelyto add detailsand to define overlappingforms: throughits skillfuluse Exekiasachievesthe effectof shading and hatchingthatresultsin a noticeablelightening of the heavy blackmasses.Note how the areasof black glaze on this vase are in perfectbalancewith the unglazedportions. The exact meaningof the subjectseludes us, becausethe figuresare not identified by inscribednamesor attributes.Since the womanin the chariotholds the reins while the man is a mere passenger,the scene resemblesthe representations Herakles of conductedby Athenato MountOlympos, and the youth playing the kitharamay well be Apollo.The subjectis repeatedon the reverse.A battlerages on the shoulderof the vase, which turnsback sharply. About540 B.C. Height 18/2 inches (47 cm.). RogersFund, 17.230.14

10. Fromthe second quarterof the sixth. centuryon, a special type of standardized neck amphorawas developedthat was awardedat the contestsof the Panathenaic festival in Athens.These vases contained one metretes (about forty-twoquarts) of olive oil grownin sacredolive groves in Attica. They show their officialcharacter by the pictureof a statueof Athena,patron of Athens,on the front. Athenastands in full armorbetweentwocolumnssurmounted by cocks. Alongsidethe left columnis the inscription"oneof the prizesfromAthens." Once the traditionof placing this subject on the front was established,artistshad little latitude for variations,but as they treatedthe image of Athena not as a statue but a living goddess,a certainfreedom in her dress and armorwas tolerated.The foot race on the reverserefers to the event for which the amphora (and the oil) was awarded.The five sprinters- four men and a youth- are somewhattelescopedto fit into the panel. The wealthof incised lines employedfor the musculaturereflectsthe interestin anatomythat becamea preoccupation with Greekartists.The heads, arms, abdomens,and legs are in strict profile, but the necks and chestsare shown in front view, with the transitionbetweenthe two aspectsnot yet mastered. The amphorahas been attributedto the EuphiletosPainter, namedafter an inscriptionpraising the boy Euphiletoson an amphorain London.The date is about 530 B.C. Height 241/2inches (62.2 cm.). Rogers Fund, 14.130.12

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vases 11. Severalof the earliestred-figured bear the signatureof the Athenianpotter Andokides;someof themarepaintedby an artistnamed,after the potter,theAndokides Painter. It has thereforebeen claimedthat the new techniquewas inventedby the AndokidesPainter.Mostof the vases decoratedby him are, like this one, panel amphoraeof the type refinedby Exekias: the flat handles are flangedand have ivy vines on their sides; the foot is in two degrees,and a fillet joins the base of the amphorawith the foot. For red-figurethe schemeof decorationhad to be modified slightly. Now that the backgroundof the scenesis black,the panel has to be separatedfirmlyfrom the rest of the vase; this is accomplished throughthe introduction bordersat the sides. of ornamental The amphorasigned by the potter Andokidesin the Museummay well be the earliestvase paintedby the Andokides Painter.Not contentwith introducingredfigure,the artisthas also attempted anothernovelty: he coveredthe sides of the mouthwith white slip and on this painted The a diminutivefrieze in black-figure. has not yet been technique white-ground perfected;here the black glaze has not fused properlywith the white groundand thushas flakedoff in some places. The greatadvantagesof red-figureover are black-figure immediatelymanifestas we look at the vase from a distanceand see how clearly the compositionstandsout. The subjectof the panel on the front is the strugglebetweenHeraklesand Apollo over the Delphictripod.Both are pulling with all their might, and each has an onlookerwho sides with him, without,however, takingpart. Next to Heraklesis Athena,and behindApollo is Artemis.The conflictwill only be settledby the arrival of Zeus: it mustbe imminent.This subject becamefamous throughthe pedimentof the Siphniantreasuryat Delphi, and there are details in the drawingof the vase that can be traceddirectlyto the Siphnian sculptures.On the reverseDionysos stands quietly in front of a maenadwho plays the krotala (somethinglike castanets), as a satyr approachessoftly on the left. While the principlesof red-figureare alreadyfully establishedon this vase, its refinementsare yet to come.Most of the inner markingsof the bodies are drawnin heavy relief lines ratherthan in thin lines of dilute glaze. Conversely,incision is still used as it was in black-figure,for details in the blackas on Athena'shelmet,her hair, that of Heraklesand Artemis,and, of course,for the contoursof all the heads. Also, purple-red,one of the accessory is colorsof black-figure, still employed:here it can be seen in the ivy leavesof Dionysos's vines, the cheekpieceof Athena'shelmet, the snakesof her gorgoneion,the stapleson the tripod, and Apollo'sarrowheads. Height 22% inches (57.5 cm.). Purchase,JosephPulitzer Bequest,63.11.6

12. Anotherartistwho is knownto have paintedfor the potterAndokidesis Psiax. He is knownnot only from a dozenvery fine red-figured vases but also from twice that many black-figured ones. It is Psiax whomustbe creditedwith havingadvanced the red-figured techniquebeyondthe achievementsof the AndokidesPainter. He was, aboveall, a moreskilled and enterprising draughtsmanwho did not shun difficultnew compositions.His cup in the Museumis one of the firstof its type drawnwithoutthe eyes made fashionable

by Exekias.Here he has attempteda fallen warriorseen from behind, which, except for the crest, is quite successful. Height 43/ inches (11.1 cm.), diameter 11/4 inches (28.6 cm.). RogersFund, 14.146.1

13. Although the new technique, Attic redfigure, had made its appearance about 530-525 B.C., many fine vases continued to be painted in the black-figure technique for at least one generation. The very height to which black-figure had risen under Exekias left its profound mark among artists trained in black-figure. The influence of Exekias, however, was not limited merely to technical refinements: many of his compositions became artistic currency, to be copied or developed. Ajax and Achilles playing at draughts during the siege at Troy are best known from a memorable amphora signed by Exekias and now in the Vatican. On this hydria (a water jar) painted fifteen or twenty years later, the same subject reappears with some modifications. Both heroes have identical armor, even to the devices on their shields. As their names are not given (the many inscriptions in the field are meaningless) we cannot tell who is Ajax and who is Achilles, nor do we know who is winning. Novel in this composition is the presence of Athena, who literally interferes: she has come to alert the Greek heroes to a Trojan attack on the Greek camp, and her left arm is raised in a gesture of alarm. For the moment the two Greeks are still unaware of her and continue with their game, but presently they will rise and don their shields and helmets. The picture on the shoulder is given over to a departure scene: one warrior walks off, looking round at his father of whom he has taken leave; another warrior is mounting a chariot. A relative, accompanied by a dog, sits in front of the horses. Attributed to an artist of the Leagros Group (named after a vase on which the young Leagros is praised as handsome); about 515 B.C. Height 215/16inches (54.1 cm.). Fletcher Fund, 56.171.29

14. Amongthe new shapesthat maketheir appearancein the last quarterof the sixth centuryis the psykter (wine-cooler). Wine was pouredinto this vessel, which was thenset into a kraterfilledwith snow or ice water; even when emptiedthe psykter floatedupright,the cylindricalstem serving as a keel. On psykterswithouthandles, such as this one attributedto Oltos,the scene runsright aroundthe vase: it must that a psykterwould often be remembered be seen spinningaroundin the krater after a cup had been filled from it. The eight figureshere are groupedin a pair and two threesomes,with each separation accentedby a verticalinscription.Most of the figuresare named; in additionthe vase itself speaksto the spectatorby saying "I have my mouthwide open"and "drink me,"and one of the athletesis labeled "he is going to jump."Athleteswere fast becominga favorite subjectin Attic vase painting and their popularitywas based in parton the opportunities they afforded for drawingthe nude body. The old schemeof combiningprofile and frontal views for differentparts of the body continues, but the transitionbetweenthe two aspectsbegins to be solved,with a hint of corporealperspective. Height 13%/inches (34.6 cm.). Rogers Fund, 10.210.18

15. This calyx krater (bowl for mixing wine and water) is signed by the potter Euxitheosand by the painter Euphronios. An inscriptionpraising the young Leagros helps to date it in the penultimatedecade of the sixth centuryB.C. It is therefore with the black-figured contemporary hydria of the LeagrosGroup (Figure 13) and the red-figuredpsykterby Oltos (Figure 14), but, as will be seen at a is glance, a vase painted by Euphronios superiorto most paintedby his contemporaries.Of black-figureconventionsonly the incision aroundthe black hair remains. The relief line is applied boldly and accurately; differentdilutionsof the glaze matterproducea range of colors fromlight ocher to deep brown; opaque red is used judiciously- for the blood gushingforth, for baldrics,the strapsof Hermes's petasos,the edges of crestson helmets,and for the inscriptions. But even more astonishingthan the virtuosity of the brushand the surenessof line is the grandiosedesign of the compositions. The handleson a calyx kratercall for a division betweenfront and back because,as the handles curl up, part of the wall behind them is always obscured. Handle areas are thereforetraditionally the place for ornaments;the palmetteconfigurationsdo not sufferfrom being partly hidden by the handle. The front and back of the vase contain two oblong picture fields, areas that have the advantageof being relativelyregular. For the front Euphronioschose a most majesticscene: an episodefrom the death of Sarpedon.When this Lycian prince and son of Zeus was killed by Patroklosbefore Troy, his father asked Apolloto remove him from the battlefield,to bathe his body, and to let the twin brothers,Sleep and Death, carry the dead hero to his homeland. Here Sarpedonstretchesall the way acrossthe front and, in being lifted by Sleep and Death, his torso turnstowardthe spectator.This to Euphroniosis the preferredview of the humanbody, since it gives him the opportunityto renderall those anatomicaldetails that he was the

firstto understandfully and to rendercorrectly.Others,like his rival Euthymides, may have paid moreattentionto drapery and difficultpositions,but he alone among articulatesthe struchis contemporaries tureof the humanbody in a harmonyof lines, many of themdrawnin dilute glaze and as gracefulas they are simple.While shadingproperis not yet practiced,the wings and the cuirassof Death contrast throughtheir multipledetail with the relativelyemptyareas of the helmetsand bodies; indeed,throughthis alternation betweenareaswith much detail and others withoutany, Euphroniosachievesthe same pictorialeffectas had Exekias.The fame of Euphroniosdoes not, of course,rest on this vase alone, but was based on such as masterpieces the Antaioskraterin the Louvre,the Geryoncup in Munich,and the Amazonkraterin Arezzo.The Museum's vase surpassesall of themthroughits magnificentcompositionand superior preservation. On the reverse,warriorsare shown donningtheir armsand armor; the central one is still almostnude. All the warriors are named,and while the namesare common in mythologyand Attic history,they do not indicateany knownevent or battle. No otherarmingscenes are knownby whereasthereare two by Euphronios, Euthymides. The combinationof Sleep and Death carryingthe body of Sarpedonwith an armingscene also occurson a contempocup rary red-figured signed by Pamphaios as potterand attributedto the Nikosthenes Painter; this workhas long been counted of as the earliestrepresentation Sarpedon in Attic art. It is now clear that the pictures on the cup were not createdby the NikosthenesPainter,but are his adaptationof whathe had learnedfrom this kraterby Euphronios. Height 18 inches (45.7 cm.), diameter
2111/l6 inches (55.15 cm.). Purchase, Gift

of Darius OgdenMills, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan,and Bequestof JosephH. Durkee, by exchange,1972. 11.10

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16. These two picturesof Heraklesand of Apollo occur on oppositesides of a tall, slenderneck amphoraattributedto the KleophradesPainter (named after the potterKleophrades). The story depicted is the same as on the amphoraby the Andokides Painter (Figure 11) : Herakleshas stolen the Delphic tripod and Apollotries to recapturehis property.By now the rigid schemeof framed panels is on its way out and the more inventive artiststry to reduce the traditionalcompositionsto fewer figures. The figuresthemselvesare placedon the vase in such a mannerthat the silhouette of the vase serves as the frame, obviating panels and their heavy borders.Apollo has not yet caught up with Herakles:on the vase itself, the distancebetweenthe two is emphasized.Heraklesis as sturdy as on the amphoraby the Andokides Painter but now there is some hesitationin his face with the half-openedlips and a greatertension in his body. By way of subtle contrastApollo strides calmly and confidently- not one of his long tressesis in disarray; his face is equally unperturbed,and the single gestureof the outstretchedright arm is one of silent command.There is somethingstatuesque in both figures,an impressionreinforced by the short ornamentalborderon which each stands,which resemblesthe plinth of a statue. The KleophradesPainter has always been countedas a pupil of Euthymidesand his earliestpanel amphoraedo, indeed, resemblethose by the earlier master.In the choice of his subjects,however,no direct links with the preservedworksby his teacherexist, and perhapshe took his inspirationfrom other artistsof the pioneer group, notably Euphronios. About 490-480 B.C. Height 185/ inches (47.3 cm.). RogersFund, 13.233

17. The painterof this amphorais called the Berlin Painter after his masterpiecein Berlin. He, like the KleophradesPainter, issues from the pioneer group,and as is often the case with Greekartists,his earliest vases are his best. The citharodeon the front is one of the most beautifully balancedfiguresin all vase painting. The youthfulmusician sings to his own accompaniment.His head is thrownback and his knees are slightly bent. That he is swaying with the music is furthershown by the undulatingdecorativesash attached to the kithara.On the opposite side of the amphoraa sternjudge listens and signals with his right hand. On this vase the frames are again absent and we do not even have a groundline, yet the figuresstand firmly (the judge on a somewhathigher level). Thanksto their skillful placing, thereis no unpleasant distortionwhen the vase is viewed straight on. About 490 B.C. Height 163/8 inches Fletcher Fund, 56.171.38 (41.5 cm.).

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18. As early as the second quarterof the sixth century,vases were decoratedwith scenesexcerptedfrom traditionalcompositions containingmany more figures; as we have seen, with the late archaicperiod single figurestakeon a new importance. This pictureof Ganymedewith hoop and gamecockis takenfrom a composition thatshowedZeusin pursuitof the handsomeTrojanprince.The boy runsas fast as he can, lookingaroundat his pursuer. Withoutthe knowledgeof fuller scenes that includeZeus,this picture wouldmean to us only a runningboy: in antiquity, however,the traditionof compositional typeswas so strongthat a mere excerpt evokedthe whole story. Attributedto the Pan Painter (named afterthe subjectof a vase in Boston); datedabout480-470 B.C. Height 61/2 inches (16.5 cm.). RogersFund, 23.160.55

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19. Satyrsand maenadsfigureprominentlyin the entourageof Dionysosand it is theirprerogativeto cavortwith a freedomand abandonseldomwitnessedin daily life. The masteryof the human anatomyin late archaicart led to bold in compositions which these companions of Dionysosare capturedin all their wild frenzy. On this cup, attributedto Makronand datedabout490-480 B.C., Dionysoshimself is not even shown,and the satyrsand maenadshave the vase to themselves. Makronoften painteddraperyas if it were transparent, revealinghis firm knowledge of anatomy.Here, arms and legs move in the rhythmof a dance, and the open hands,with fingersspreadapart,are often moreexpressivethan the faces. Above all, Makronis a masterof composition,and eventhe artificialcircle of the tondo looks naturalwhen filledwith his figures. Height 5 inches (12.7 cm.), diameter 11/4 inches (28.6 cm.). RogersFund, 06.1152

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20. Douris, to whomthis kylix has been attributed,is the third great cup painter of the late archaic period. He begins as a followerof Onesimos,who workedfor Euphronioswhen the latter had abandoned vase painting for potting.The careerof Douris is a long one, stretchingover thirty years that divide into four distinct phases. This cup is of the third, or middle, period in which his style is fully developed.The tondohas becomequite large (81/4inches), permittingthe figures to take on a size not readily found in cup tondosby other painters. His emphasisis on precise lines drawn with deliberateeconomy,and there is little overlapping.In this period he almost invariablyuses an exergue that lends stability to his seated and standing figures. The man's back, bared by the himation that has slipped from his shoulders,demonstratesthe ease with which three-quarter views are now rendered,and particularly successfulforeshorteningscan be seen in the open hands of the boy and of the man. The cup is dated about 480-470 B.C. Height 43/ inches (11.1 cm.), diameter 11 inches (29.9 cm.). Rogers Fund, 34 52.11.4

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21. The Brygos Painter takeshis name from cups signed on the handlesby the potterBrygos.Unlike Makron,who painted cups almostexclusively, the Brygos Painter also decoratedlekythoi, small neck amphorae,and a series of drinking cups like this one, the lower parts of which were moldedin the form of animal or human heads. The combinationof moldedand wheelmadepartscame to Athensfrom lonia in the second half of the sixth century B.C., and plastic vases, as they are called, continueto the very end of redfigure, both in Athenianand foreign workshops. The Brygos Painter has here chosen to depict two satyrs reclining back to back, as it were. One has made himself comfortableon a rock and plays the flutes; the other reclineson a wineskin and plays the krotala,looking aroundat his companion. Two full wineskinssuspendedin the backgroundassureus that the satyrswill not go thirsty.The sculpturedportionsbelow the wheelmademouthof the kantharos representtwo girls' faces, joined like a Janus-headbehind the ears. No other heads from this mold are known.The ivy wreathin their hair indicatesthat these girls would be quite at home in the world of the satyrs. About480 B.C. Height 73/4inches (19.7 cm.). RogersFund, 12.234.5

22. The BrygosPainter standsat the center of an artisticcircle that encompassesat least six painterswhosestyle approximates that of the masterand who are at times even his equal. Includedamongthem is the BriseisPainter,namedafter the figureof Briseison a cup in London.In many respectshe resemblesthe BrygosPainter, especiallyin his compositions,but his figuresare slendererand there is much restraintin their positionsand gestures.In quiet scenes,as on this cup featuring Theseus,the painter'sprevailingmood is mostappropriate.Here Theseus is bidding farewellto his father Poseidonand to the Nereidsas he preparesto leave the bottom of the sea. The gigantic Tritonis ready to carryhim back to the surface; Poseidon, with the simple gestureof his outstretched right arm, gives the order; the Nereids bid farewell, and the young boy is all eagerness to get back to his adventures.There is muchtendernessin this scene and Theseuslooks like a very light burdenbetweenTriton'smassivearms,which have not yet closedaroundhim. On the other side, Theseushas returnedto Athensafter his victoryover the Minotaur.He is greeted by Athenaand some of the grateful mothersof the victims intendedfor the Cretanmonster.He has unsheathedthe swordthat slew the Minotauras he tells his story. The shapeof the vase with its offsetlip and somewhatheavy foot is similar to Makron's kylix with satyrsand maenads (Figure 19), but it was probablypotted by Brygos. About480-475 B.C. Height 5%36 inches inches (30.7 (13.2 cm.), diameter121/8 cm.). Purchase,JosephPulitzerBequest, and Gift of E. D. BlakeVermeule,53.11.4, 1970.46

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23. The story of the Judgmentof Paris, thoughnot recountedin Homer,entersthe repertoryof Greekart quite early. Sixthshow Hermesconcenturyrepresentations ductingthe goddessesHera, Athena,and Aphroditeto a thoroughlyfrightened Paris who runs away and does not want to get involved.In mostof the early scenes Paris is beardedand fully grown.During the fifth century,the accentshifts. Paris becomesa young boy who is more surprisedthanfrightenedand the goddesses are well differentiated, thus hinting at the outcomeof the contest.This white-ground pyxis by the PenthesileaPainter (who takeshis name from the Amazonqueenon a cup in Munich) was a vase made for and used by women.Here Hermesexplainshis missionto a ratheramused-looking Paris, while the goddessespreparethemselvesfor the contest.Of the three,Athenaand Hera are in friendly conversation,whereas Aphroditestandssomewhatapartand addressesherselfto Eros.In his facial expressionthe latterhas much in common with Paris. The outcomeof the judgment was, of course,knownto everybodyin antiquity, and in such a picturethere was no all suspense.Hence the artistconcentrated his attentionon Aphrodite,the winner,and on Paris, who is still unawareof the ultiThis is one of the mateconsequences. earliestvases on which the white ground has been used to full advantage.The figures are drawnin glazeoutlines, but many of the garments,as well as the rock,are paintedin ceramiccolorsthat rangefrom light yellow to a rich brownishred. About470 B.C. Height 63/4inches (17.2 cm.). RogersFund, 07.286.36

24. The second quarterof the fifth century B.C. saw Athens embarkon an ambitious building programthat was to culminate later that centuryin the Periclean Acropolis.Two of the buildings, the Theseion and the Peisianakteion (also knownas the Painted Porch), had large panel paintings affixedto their walls, the workof Polygnotosfrom Thasos and the AthenianMikon.These worksinfluenced the decorationof some paintedvases, and this volute krateris our first example that dependson compositionsnot native to vases but borrowedfrom famous contemporaryworks.The chief picturehere is the legendarybattlebetweenthe Athenians and the Amazons.The Amazonsare drawn with a wealthof pictorial detail more at home on large-scalepaintings, and the frieze also introducesseverallevels, terrain lines with shrubsor flowers,as well as half-hiddenfigures.This is not the only battle of Atheniansand Amazonsto be depictedon big vases: other artistsof the same period, the second quarterof the fifth century,tried their hand at the subject,and all were in one way or anotherinfluenced by the paintings of Polygnotos and Mikon. The battlebetweenLapithsand centaurs on the neck instantlyrecalls the west pediment of the templeof Zeusat Olympia. Here most of the modelhas been recovered and allowscomparisons.Muchof the spirit of the pediment,but little of the individual details, comes throughon the vase; the artisthad perhapsnot gone to Olympiain person,but had gottenhis accountof the pedimentsecondhand.For the Amazonomachy, however,we can assumethat he knew the paintingsintimately; some details, such as the fallen Greekseen from behind with the undersideof the right foot showing, may well have been lifted from one of the big paintings. The Painter of the Woolly Satyrs,to whomthe volute krateris attributed,takes his name from the extraordinarycreatures on a bell kraterin Syracuse.About470460 B.C. Height 283/4inches (73.1 cm.). RogersFund, 07.286.84

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25. Not all classic vase painting insistson ambitiouscompositionsthat almostburst the frame of their vases. After the middle of the fifth centurya quieterstrain makes itself felt, which is in greaterharmonywith the limitationsof a vase's surface.By now the white-groundtechniquehad found its noblest expressionin a traditionof lekythoi destinedfor the tomb. Some of them show the grave marker,the dead, and the mourningsurvivors,but otherstake their scenes from daily life and thus commemoratethe dead in a subtlerfashion. The Achilles Painter to whom this lekythos is attributedtakeshis name from a memorableportraitof the Greekhero on an amphorain the Vatican. He paintedboth in the red-figuredtechniqueand, as in this work,on a white ground.The thin washesof differentcolors that originally coveredthe figureshave often faded, leaving the bare contoursor anatomicallines of the subjectsthat were painted in glaze; it is the beauty and purity of theselines that have made the Achilles Painter famous. Here a lady hands a bundleof clothes to a small maid: translatethese figures into a marblerelief and you have the essence of Attic grave reliefs that form our most importantbody of privateclassic sculpture. About440 B.C. Height 153A6 inches (38.6 cm.). Dodge Fund, 54.11.7

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26. Fromthe self-containedgrace of the classic style at its height, vase painting evolvesrapidly to a softnessand cloying sweetnessthat markthe beginningof a decline. The heroic elementhas long been neglected,and even in athleticscenesthe musclesand sinewsseem to have disappeared.In mythology,it is no longer the exploitsof a Theseusor Heraklesthat fire the imaginationbut episodesthat look curiouslyromantic.The scene on this tiny vase- two inches high - is the abduction of a girl that takesplace in the presence of Aphroditeand Eros.It is perhapsnot too far-fetchedto think of Paris abducting Helenwith the help of Aphrodite.From Sparta,the home of Menelaosand Helen, Paris musthave traveledby chariotto his ship at harborin Gytheion.The companion in front may be Aeneas,who accompanied Paris on his voyage, and the rocky ground visible here may indicatethe seashore. This vase and its companionpiece in Athensare attributednear the Eretria Painter.About420-410 B.C. Height 2 inches (5.1 cm.). Gift of AlastairB. Martin,1971.258.3

27. It is one of the happy conventionsof ancient art that the invisible gods can be shownright next to mortalstoiling on earth. Here a painter,his hair protectedby a workingman'scap, applieswax paint to a marblestatueof Herakles.To the left an assistantheats the tools in a charcoal brazier.The statue is no longer in the sculptor'sstudio but has alreadybeen put on display in or near a shrine, indicated by the column.The painting of statuesin the encaustictechniqueis knownfrom literary sources,but this is our first- and to date our only - representation the of process.From above,Zeus and a Nike watch; on the extremeright, Herakleshimself approacheson tiptoe so as not to disturb the painter.His face and gesture reveal somethingof the attitudeof an art critic at an exhibition. This vase, a columnkrater,was made in Apulia early in the fourthcenturyB.C. It has been attributedto the StatuePainter, namedafter this work.Height 20/4 inches (51.5 cm.). RogersFund, 50.11.4

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28. In the fourthcenturya type of comedy that burlesquedgods and heroes flourished in SouthernItaly and Sicily. The actors in these skits wore padded costumesand grotesquemasksand were called phlyakes; the same name was also applied to the plays. Phlyakes are often shownon South Italian vases, mostlypainted in the redfigure technique.On not many more than a dozenvases, however,these burlesque actorsappearin polychromepainted on the black glaze. The calyx kraterin the Museum is a particularly splendidexample of this rare class. Here a phlyax masquerades as a revelerwith an enormoustorch. He wears a skintightsleeved and trousered combinationand over it a shortpadded shirt that does not quite cover his simulated nudity. Overhis left arm he has drapedan oversizemantle: one has the impressionthat presentlyhe will trip over it. The vase has been attributedto the Apulian KonnakisGroup,so called after the name of a naked hag that is inscribed on a fragmentin Taranto.It is dated in the third quarterof the fourth centuryB.C. Height 12/8 inches (31.5 cm.). Rogers Fund, 51.11.2

29. The small Sicilian hill town of Centuripe has given its name to a type of polychromevase found in its ancientnecropolis. The techniqueof painting on thesevases has brokenradicallywith tradition: the colorsare no longer ceramic,added before the vase was fired, but are in tempera,applied after the vase left the kiln. Mostof the subjectson these vases- here we see four women- are takenfrom the cult of Dionysos,who occurs in some of the scenes. A line can be drawnfrom the Centuripe subjectsto such famouslater wall paintings as those in the Villa of the Mysteriesin Pompeii or the Aldobrandiniwedding in the Vatican. The fugitive characterof the painteddecorationrulesout the possibility that the vases were ever used; moreover, the lids are not detachableand the decoration is limited to one side. They must thereforehave been made exclusivelyfor the tomb, but as we knowpractically nothing of the cults or mysteriesof Sicily, the subjectsand their esotericmeaning cannotbe interpreted. A stylistic connectionhas been established with late red-figureand polychrome vases from the islandof Lipari, and this has helped to date the Centuripeware in the third centuryB.C., ratherthanlater as
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Index

1. Geometricneck amphora, about 700 B.C.

2. Orientalizing neck amphora, 675-650 B.C.

3. Corinthiancolumnkrater, 600-575 B.C.

4. Chalcidianneck amphora by the Painter of the CambridgeHydria, about540 B.C.

5. Drinking cup by the C Painter, about 575 B.C.


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6. Stand signed by Kleitiasand Ergotimos, about570 B.C.

7. Krater by Lydos, about550 B.C.

8. Lekythosby the AmasisPainter, about550 B.C.

9. Neck amphoraby Exekias, about 540 B.C.

10. Panathenaicneck amphora by the EuphiletosPainter, about530 B.C.

11. Panel amphora the AndokidesPainter, by signed by Andokides, about 525 B.C.

12. Kylix by Psiax, about 520 B.C.

13. Hydria by an artist of the LeagrosGroup, about 515 B.C.

14. Psykter by Oltos, about 520-510 B.C.

15. Calyxkrater signed by Euphronios and Euxitheos, about 515 B.C.

67

16. Neck amphora Painter, by the Kleophrades about490-480 B.C.

17. Amphoraby the BerlinPainter, about490 B.C.

18. Oinochoe by the Pan Painter, about 480-470 B.C.

19. Kylix by Makron, about490-480 B.C.

20. Kylix by Douris, about480-470 B.C.

21. Kantharosby the BrygosPainter, about480 B.C.

22. Kylix by the Briseis Painter, about480 B.C.

23. Pyxis by the PenthesileaPainter, about470 B.C.

24. Volutekrater by the Painterof the WoollySatyrs, about470-460 B.C.

25. Lekythosby the AchillesPainter, about440 B.C.

26. Egg-shapedvase by an artistnear the EretriaPainter, about420-410 B.C.

27. Apuliancolumnkrater by the StatuePainter, early 4th centuryB.C.

28. Gnathiancalyx krater by an artist of the ApulianKonnakisGroup, 350-325 B.C.

29. Centuripevase, 3rd centuryB.C.

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