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MATERIAL BALANCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL: We are required to produce 300 TPA of Poly Vinyl Alcohol

(PVA). This is equivalent to 1 TPD of PVA.

The following data was used in the material balance: COMPOUND Ethylene CH2=CH2 Acetic acid CH3COOH Oxygen O2 Vinyl Acetate CH3COO-CH=CH2 Water H2O Methanol CH3OH Sodium Hydroxide NaOH MOLECULAR WEIGHT 28 60 32 86 18 32 40

PACKED BED REACTOR: The Reaction taking place in the reactor is given as: CH2=CH2 + CH3COOH + 0.5O2 -------- CH2=CH-COOCH3 + H2O In this reaction, 10% of Ethylene is converted in Vinyl Acetae Monomer and 30% of acetic acid and 90% of Oxygen is consumed in the Process.

FROM STORAGE: Ethylene - 48.44 kg/hr Acetic acid- 325.74 kg/hr Oxygen- 249.32 kg/hr FROM RECYCLE: O2- 27.8 kg/hr Ethylene- 436.5 kg/hr CH3COOH- 713.44 kg/hr VAM- 48.5 kg/hr H2O- 10.152 kg/hr CH3COOH- 728 kg/hr O2-27.8 kg/hr Ethylene- 436.5 kg/hr

SUBSTANCE Ethylene Acetic acid Oxygen Water Vinyl Acetate Monomer

INLET(Kg/hr) 484.94 1039.18 277.12

OUTLET(Kg/hr) 436.5 728 27.8 10.152 48.5

GAS-LIQUID SEPARATOR: The gaseous substances are separated out from the liquids and the gas is collected at the top which is recycled back to the packed bed reactor and the liquid is collected at the bottom which is sent to the distillation column for separation of Vinyl Acetate Monomer.

O2- 27.8 kg/hr C2H4- 436.5 kg/hr VAM- 48.5 kg/hr H2O- 10.152 kg/hr CH3COOH- 728 kg/hr O2-27.8 kg/hr Ethylene- 436.5 kg/hr VAM- 48.5 kg/hr CH3COOH- 728 kg/hr H2O- 10.152 kg/hr SUBSTANCE VAM H2O CH3COOH Ethylene C2H4 INLET (kg/hr) 48.5 10.152 728 436.5 OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP TOP TOP TOP 436.5 BOTTOM 48.5 BOTTOM 10.152 BOTTOM 728 BOTTOM -

O2

27.8

TOP 27.8

BOTTOM -

SEPARATION COLUMN: VAM- 47.5205 kg/hr VAM- 48.5 kg/hr CH3COOH- 728 kg/hr H2O- 10.152 kg/hr CH3COOH- 14.56 kg/hr H2O- 9.95 kg/hr

VAM- 0.9795 kg/hr CH3COOH- 713.44 kg/hr H2O- 0.2 kg/hr

SUBSTANCE VAM CH3COOH H2O

INLET (kg/hr) 48.5 728 10.152

OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP 47.52 TOP 14.56 TOP 9.95 BOTTOM 0.9795 BOTTOM 713.44 BOTTOM 0.2

The Separation Column is carried with 98% efficiency, Vinyl Acetate Monomer is collected as a top product which is sent into the Pre-heater and Acetic acid is collected as a bottom product which is sent back as a recycle to packed bed reactor.

BASIS:- 1000Kg OF Poly Vinyl Alcohol per day is the processed capacity. RAW MATERIALS REQUIRED:Vinyl Acetate (Monomer) = 94.1Kg/hr Methonol (Solvent) =35.58 Kg/hr Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN- INITIATOR) = 8.2 Kg/hr Total = 138 Kg/hr

PRE-HEATER:

VAM - 47.5205 kg/hr VAM Recycle- 46.58kg/hr MeOH Fresh- 14.454 kg/hr MeOHRecycle- 21.126 kg/hr AIBN- 8.2 kg/hr

VAM- 94.11 kg/hr MeOH- 35.58 kg/hr AIBN- 8.2 kg/hr

SUBSTANCE VAM

INLET (kg/hr) 94.11

OUTLET (kg/hr) 94.11

MeOH AIBN

35.58 8.2

35.58 8.2

POLYMERIZATION REACTOR-1:It is assumed that 25% Conversion is taking place in Polymerization Reactor 1.

SUBSTANCE VAM PVA

INLET (kg/hr) 94.11

OUTLET (kg/hr) 70.575 23.525

MeOH AIBN

35.58 8.2

35.58 8.2

POLYMERIZATION REACTOR-2:In Reactor 2, it is assumed that 33% Conversion is taking place.

SUBSTANCE VAM PVA MeOH Initiator (AIBN)

INLET (kg/hr) 70.575 23.525 35.88 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) 47.05 47.05 35.88 8.2

MIXING CHAMBER:Here, Fresh Methanol is added to the Mixing Chamber from Methanol Reservoir.

SUBSTANCE PVA VAM MeOH Initiator (AIBN)

INLET (kg/hr) 47.05 47.05 50.829 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) 47.05 47.05 50.829 8.2

DISTILLATION COLUMN:The dilute solution from the mixing chamber is passed into the rectification column. Here, Methanol Vapors introduced at the bottom of the column from the methanol vaporisers.

Here, Vinyl Acetate Monomer obtained as a top product is recycled back into the preheater and bottom product is sent for further processing.

SUBSTANCE PVA VAM MeOH Initiator

INLET (kg/hr) 47.05 47.05 256.769 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP BOTTOM 47.05 TOP 46.5795 TOP 21.126 TOP BOTTOM 0.4705 BOTTOM 235.643 BOTTOM 8.2

METHANOL VAPORIZER:In this equipment, Methanol separated is sent back into the distillation column and the remaining products are sent into the saponifier for hydrolysing process.

SUBSTANCE VAM PVA MeOH Initiator

INLET (kg/hr) 0.4705 47.05 235.643 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP TOP TOP 205.94 TOP BOTTOM 0.4705 BOTTOM 47.05 BOTTOM 21.126 BOTTOM 8.2

SAPONIFIER:Here, Polyvinyl Alcohol is produced individually by two reactions i.e., 1. Reaction between Poly Vinyl Acetate and NaOH CH2-CH-O-C=O-CH3 + NaOH -------- NaC2H3O2 + CH2 =CH-OH 2. Reaction between Vinyl Acetate and Methanol CH2 -CH O-C=O-CH3 + CH3OH ------- CH2 = CH-OH + CH3COOCH3

SUBSTANCE VAM PVA PVOH MeOH NaOH Initiator

INLET (kg/hr) 0.4705 47.05 29.5847 5.125 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) 0.10228 0.10228 46.27 MeOHMIX-35.998 8.2

CRUSHER:Assuming no change in the input and output of the given equipment. Material In = Material Out

SUBSTANCE PVOH VAM MeOHMIX PVA Initiator

INLET (kg/hr) 46.27 0.10228 35.998 0.10228 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) 46.27 0.10228 35.998 0.10228 8.2

VACUUM FILTER:-

SUBSTANCE PVOH VAM MeOHMIX PVA Initiator

INLET (kg/hr) 46.27 0.10228 35.998 0.10228 8.2

OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP BOTTOM 1.0227 TOP 0.10228 TOP 11.12 TOP 45 TOP BOTTOM BOTTOM 24.875 BOTTOM BOTTOM 8.2

ROTARY DRUM DRIER:The Solvent Methanol present in PVA is removed with a stream of inert gas.

SUBSTANCE PVOH PVA VAM MeOH AIR

INLET (kg/hr) 45 0.10228 0.10228 11.12 56.83

OUTLET (kg/hr) TOP 44.59 TOP 0.10228 TOP 0.10228 TOP TOP BOTTOM 0.41 BOTTOM BOTTOM BOTTOM 11.12 BOTTOM 56.83