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Unit 5 Vocabulary Ulysses S.

Grant - Union and Republican hero - Served two terms 1868-1876 - Signed 15th Amendment Jay Cooke - Financier of railroads and during Civil War - Triggered Panic of 1837 Chester A. Arthur - Republican member of Stalwart faction Horatio Seymour - Governor of New York 1853-1854, 1863-1864 - Grants Democratic opponent, losing election of 1868 Roscoe Conkling - Machine Republican leading Stalwart faction - Opponent of Half Breeds led by James Blaine Winfield S. Hancock - Democrat nominee for election of 1880 Jim Fisk Partnered with Jay Gould in a speculation operation that sent the United States into a financial panic, and ended with the 1869 Black Friday in which a premium over face value on gold Double Eagles fell from 62% to 35%. James G. Blaine Republican nominee in the 1884 presidential election who lost narrowly against Grover Cleveland, and later became Secretary of State for Benjamin Harrison. His biggest influence was over foreign policy. Charles J. Guiteau Assassinated President James Garfield and got executed. Jay Gould Partnered with Jim Fisk to screw over the United States economy. Rutherford B. Hayes 19th president (1877-1881) who tried and failed to establish racial equality in the South, dealt with the Great Railroad Strike (1877), and dissolved conflict over greenbacks and silver coinage. Grover Cleveland : Grover Cleveland was a democrat who served 2 terms as president (1885-1889 & 1893-1897). He was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1860 to 1912. His second term coincided with the Panic of 1893, a severe national depression that Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic party, opening the way for Republican landslides in 1894 and 1896. Thomas Nast : Thomas Nast was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist who is considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon". Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version the political symbols of both major United States political parties: the Republican elephant and the Democratic donkey and Uncle Sam. Samuel Tilden : Samuel Tilden was the Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, one of the most controversial American elections of the 19th century. He was a

Bourbon Democrat. During the 1876 presidential election, Tilden won the popular vote over his Republican opponent, Rutherford B. Hayes. . But the result in the Electoral College was in question because the states of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina each sent two sets of Electoral Votes to Congress. Tilden had won 184 Electoral Votes, but needed 185 to win the Presidency. The Republicans boldly claimed the election Benjamin Harrison : Harrison: 23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating Democraticincumbent Grover Cleveland. His administration is most remembered for economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. He was defeated by Cleveland in his bid for re-election in 1892. Horace Greeley : Horace Greeley was an American newspaper editor, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, a reformer, and a politician. His New York Tribunewas America's most influential newspaper from the 1840s to the 1870s and "established Greeley's reputation as the greatest editor of his day. Greeley used it to promote the Whigand Republican parties, as well as opposition to slavery and a host of reforms ranging fromvegetarianism to socialism. James A. Garfield : James Abram Garfield was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death on September 19, 1881,[1] a brief 200 days in office. He represented the Republican in his bid for presidency. Because he spent so little time as President, Garfield accomplished very little. In his inaugural address, Garfield outlined a desire for Civil Service Reform which was eventually passed by his successor Chester A. Arthur. His presidency was cut short after he was shot by Charles J. Guiteau while entering a railroad station in Washington D.C. on July 2, 1881. Liberal Republicans : The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was a political party that was organized in Cincinnati in May 1872, to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters. The Liberal Republican Party vanished immediately after the election. cheap money : ???Money that has very little value due to government making too much money. Value of money drops and becomes less.??? contraction : A contraction is a period of economic decline or negative growth. i have no moooney. Gilded Age : In American history, the Gilded Age refers to substantial growth in population in the United States and extravagant displays of wealth and excess of America's upper class during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century (1865-1901). A period in American history during the 1870s characterized by political corruption and materialism. hard\sound money : Hard money policies are those which are opposed to fiat currency and thus in support of a specie standard, usually gold or silver. Hard currency or strong currency, in economics, refers to a globally traded currency that can serve as a reliable and stable store of value.

Resumption- the act of taking again or recovering something given up or lost Spoils system- America used the spoils system. The party that won would appoint people as rewards. Reform of this system was brought up when President Garfield was killed for the supposed problems of the spoils system. Ohio Idea- an idea by poor Midwesterners during the US presidential election of 1868 to redeem federal war bonds in United States dollars, also known as greenbacks, rather than gold. Resumption Act- called for the secretary of the Treasury to redeem legal-tender notes. The bill also called for reducing the greenbacks in circulation to $300 million and for replacing the fractional paper currency (shinplasters) with silver coins as rapidly as possible. Stalwart- said by Blaine to Republicans who refused to give up their hostility to and distrust of the South. bloody shirt- waving the bloody shirt meant expressing concerns of real substance, facing the real problems. Crime of 73- The Fourth Coinage Act was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver. Western mining interests and others who wanted silver in circulation years later labeled this measure the Crime of '73. Gold became the only metallic standard in the United States. Half-Breed- applied to the moderate faction of the Republican Party. They backed Hayes' lenient treatment of the South and supported moderate civil service reform. Blaine was leader of the group. Tweed Ring- a word for the sign of corruption when a man named Boss Tweed used a citys wealth corruptly. Bland-Allison Act- Allison of Iowa agreed on the terms of what became the Bland-Allison Act: The U.S. Treasury was instructed to purchase between $2 million and $4 million worth of silver each month from the western mines, the silver was to be purchased at market rates, not at a predetermined ratio pegged to the value of gold, and the metal was to be minted into silver dollars as legal tender. Greenback Labor party- represented a brief but potent Gilded Age expression of working-class antimonopoly sentiment. Included both black and white miners. Included farmer-labor planks that foreshadowed the Populist party's 1892 Omaha Platform, calling for government control of transportation and communications, a graduated federal income tax, opposition to a standing army, and the lifting of all restrictions on suffrage. Pendleton Act- George Pendleton, a United States Senator from Cincinnati, Ohio, authored the Pendleton Act. This legislation resulted from President James Garfield's assassination in 1881. Appointees had to prove their ability to hold positions by satisfactorily passing a civil service exam and forbade appointees from utilizing their offices to campaign for candidates and also protected government workers from termination for their political beliefs. GAR- The grand army of the republic. It was a secret society formed by veterans of the Union Army in the Civil War. These veterans remained in touch after the war ended in order to voice their common interests in politics, specifically as an arm to the Republican party. Mugwumps- This was a name for Republican activists who broke away from the party in order to advocate the Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. They did so in order to avoid the financial

corruption surrounding the Republican candidate, James Blaine. It was later used as a term for any party bolters in general. Leland Stanford- A business tycoon and politician who relocated to California during the Gold Rush to start businesses. He was one of the "Big Four" involved in the Central Pacific Railroad. He was also a prominent member of the Republican party and became California's first Republican governor in the mid 19th century. He later founded Stanford University. Alexander Graham Bell- A scientist credited with the invention of the first practical telephone in the late 19th century. He also did groundbreaking work with aeronautics and hydrofoils. J. Piermont Morgan- an American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. His dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business. Morgan redefined conservatism in terms of financial prowess coupled with strong commitments to religion and high culture. Collis P. Huntingon- One of the Big Four involved in the Central Pacific Railroad. He then helped lead and develop other major interstate lines such as the Southern Pacific Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, which he was recruited to help complete. Thomas Edison- He is credited with the invention of the light bulb, phonograph, and motion picture camera. He was one of the first to apply mass production to the process of invention. Terrence V. Powderly- He was a national spokesman for the working man as leader of the Knights of Labor. However, he had little power over the huge organization, which attracted over 600,000 members during his term. He advocated African Americans as part of the Knights of Labor, but he was opposed to immigrants and their effect on job opportunities for natives. James J. Hill- He was a Canadian- American railroad executive who held the position of chief executive for the Great Northern Railway, which exerted economic dominance in all its regions. He aided workers during the Panic of 1893 as well by cutting railway expenses and lowering tariffs, showing famous resilience during times of economic depression. Andrew Carnegie- He was a Scottish-American industrialist and entrepreneur. After starting out as a factory worker, he moved up the ladder as an investor working in a telegraph company and progressed to a point where he could build the Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh. His company later merged with other companies to create U.S. Steel. He made a fortune of this industry and took on philanthropy later in life, donating for causes in education and taking a place as one of the richest men in history. John P. Altgeld- Democratic governor of Illinois during the late 19th century. He was a leader in the Progressive movement and reformed child labor and worker safety. He was known for his benevolence.

Cornelius Vanderbilt- an American entrepreneur. He built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. He worked with the steamboat and railroad industries. John D. Rockefeller: Started out as a Cleveland grain dealer and sat out the Civil War. Borrowed heavily to invest in the budding oil industry. Eventually his Standard Oil of Ohio became Clevelands leading refiner. Monopolized Cleveland refining business by participating in the South Improvement Company scheme with railroads. Considered himself a Baptist angel of mercy who actually helped the competition he destroyed. Advocated vertical integration by adding in a vast distribution network, oil pipeline & tankers, and a stake in oil fields. Samuel Gompers: Dutch-Jewish cigar maker who emigrated from London to New York. Little educated but widely read worker-intellectual. Introduced pure-and-simple unionism that combined pure membership (limited to workers and organized by craft/occupation) with simple goals (wages, hours, working conditions). Aimed at collective bargaining with employers. American Federation of Labor was formed and Gompers was chosen as president. land grant: The principal means by which the federal government encouraged interregional rail construction. vertical integration: In microeconomics and management, the term vertical integration describes a style of management control. Vertically integrated companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. A monopoly produced through vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly, although it might be more appropriate to speak of this as some form of cartel. Nineteenth century steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie introduced the concept and use of vertical integration. This led other businesspeople to use the system to promote better financial growth and efficiency in their businesses. capital goods: In neoclassical economics, capital, capital goods, or real capital are the factor of production, used to create goods or services, that is not itself significantly consumed (though it may depreciate) in the production process. Capital goods may be acquired with money or financial capital. At any moment in time, total physical capital may be referred to as the capital stock, a usage different from the same term applied to a business entity. In a fundamental sense, capital consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work - a stone or an arrow is capital for a caveman who can use it as a hunting instrument, and roads are capital for inhabitants of a city. As such, capital is an input in the production function. stock watering: Watered stock is an asset with an artificially-inflated value. The term is most commonly used to refer to a form of securities fraud common under older corporate laws that placed a heavy emphasis upon the par value of stock. "Stock Watering" was originally a method used to increase the

weight of cows before sale. It entailed forcing a cow to bloat itself with water before it was weighed for sale. Its introduction to the New York financial district is popularly credited to Daniel Drew, a cattle driver turned financier. horizontal integration: It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. Horizontal integration in marketing is much more common than vertical integration is in production. Horizontal integration occurs when a firm is being taken over by, or merged with, another firm which is in the same industry and in the same stage of production as the merged firm, e.g. a car manufacturer merging with another car manufacturer. In this case both the companies are in the same stage of production and also in the same industry. This process is also known as a "buy out" or "take-over". A term that is closely related with horizontal integration is horizontal expansion. This is the expansion of a firm within an industry in which it is already active for the purpose of increasing its share of the market for a particular product or service. Plutocracy: Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy, or power provided by wealth. The combination of both plutocracy and oligarchy is called plutarchy. Trust: A special trust or business trust is a business entity formed with intent to monopolize business, to restrain trade, or to fix prices. Trusts gained economic power in the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Some, but not all, were organized as trusts in the legal sense. They were often created when corporate leaders convinced (or coerced) the shareholders of all the companies in one industry to convey their shares to a board of trustees, in exchange for dividend-paying certificates. The board would then manage all the companies in 'trust' for the shareholders (and minimize competition in the process). Eventually the term was used to refer to monopolies in general. Injunction: An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that requires a party to do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts. A party that fails to comply with an injunction faces criminal or civil penalties and may have to pay damages or accept sanctions. In some cases, breaches of injunctions are considered serious criminal offenses that merit arrest and possible prison sentences. Rebate: A rebate is an amount paid by way of reduction, return, or refund on what has already been paid or contributed. It is a type of sales promotion marketers use primarily as incentives or supplements to product sales. interlocking directorate: Interlocking directorate refers to the practice of members of a corporate board of directorsserving on the boards of multiple corporations. A person that sits on multiple boards is known as a multiple director. A direct interlock occurs when two firms share a director or when an executive of one firm sits on the board of second firm. An indirect interlock occurs when two corporations have directors who each also serve on the board of a third firm.

Yellow Dog Contact: An agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union. In the United States, such

contracts were, until the 1930s, widely used by employers to prevent the formation of unions, most often by permitting employers to take legal action against union organizers. They were outlawed in 1932 under the Norris-LaGuardia Act. Union Pacific Railroad: The Union Pacific Railroad was incorporated on July 1, 1862 in the wake of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. Under the guidance of Dr. Thomas Clark Durant, the first rails were laid in Omaha, Nebraska. The Union Pacific Railroad was joined together with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, in 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America. United States Steel: J. P. Morgan and the attorney Elbert H. Gary founded U.S. Steel in 1901 by combining the Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henrys National Steel Company. It was one of the first billion dollar companies, and at one time, U.S. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. National Labor Union: The National Labor Union (NLU) was the first national labor federation in the United States. Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. Central Pacific Railroad: The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) is the former name of the railroad network built between California and Utah, USA that formed part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It is now part of the Union Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental railroad failed because of the energy consumed by political disputes over slavery. Gospel of Wealth: An essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889[3] that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them. As a result, the wealthy entrepreneur must assume the responsibility of distributing his fortune in a way that it will be put to good use, and not wasted on frivolous expenditure. Haymarket riot: A demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. It is generally considered significant for the origin of international May Day observances for workers. The Grange: A historic mansion in Havertown, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. Built in 1700 and expanded several times through the 1850s, it was purchased by Haverford Township in 1974. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976 as The Grange. William Graham Sumner (1840-1910): An American academic and professor at Yale College. He was a polymath with numerous books and essays on American history, economic history, political

theory, sociology, and anthropology. He is credited with introducing the term "ethnocentrism," a term intended to identify imperialists' chief means of justification, in his book Folkways (1906). (AFL) American Federation of Labor: One of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions. In practice, AFL unions were important in industrial cities, where they formed a central labor office to coordinate the actions of different AFL unions. Wabash Case: A Supreme Court decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. New South: A phrase that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, after 1877. The term "New South" is used in contrast to the Old South of the plantation system of the antebellum period. Bessemer process: A process that was created by Henry Bessemer. It is an original, industrial process that mass-produced steel from pig iron. This process features a Bessemer converter that blasts compressed air through molten iron to burn out excess carbon and impurities. Jane Addams: Jane Addams was a social worker, feminist, and an internationalist in America during the Progressive Era. She was the first woman to have earned the Noble Peace Prize, and she was noted for her help in the community: aiding the needs of children, health, and world peace. Booker T. Washington: Booker T. Washington played a huge role in the African American community. He published a book called Up from Slavery; he was the first Afro-American invited to the White House; he was nicknamed The Great Accommodator; he was the principal of Tuskegee Institute. Within Tuskegee Institute, he expanded the education of African Americans. Horatio Alger: Horatio Alger was a 19th century author who wrote about impoverished boys from humble backgrounds. He believed in many virtues such as hard work, discipline, respect, and courage. Florence Kelley: Florence Kelley is a woman who was a social and political reformer. She worked against issues concerning sweatshops, minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, and childrens rights. W.E.B. duBois: William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was a man who fought against African-American racism. In doing so, he sought solutions in every way possible: scholarship, propaganda, integration, national self-determination, human rights, cultural and economic separatism, politics, international communism, expatriation, third world solidarity. Mark Twain: Samuel Langhorne Clemens is a well-known American author and humorist who used great satire. He is eminent for his novel, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Mary Baker Eddy (1821 - 1910) - religious leader; founder of the Christian Science movement and created her own system of spiritual healing William James (1842 - 1910) - psychologist and philosopher; founder of pragmatism and author of The Varieties of Religious Experience, Pragmatism, and Essays in Radical Empiricism Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860 - 1935) - feminists; famous for her advocacy of communal kitchens as a way to liberate women from homemaking and her novels, The Yellow Wallpaper, Herland, and Women and Economics

Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882) - English naturalist; wrote On the Origin of Species which outlined his theory of natural selection and the struggle for survival Henry George (1839 - 1897) - political economist and journalist; advocate of anti-chinese sentiment and Georgism, where everyone owns what he or she creates but nature belongs to everyone Carrie Chapman Catt (1859 - 1947) - president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and leader of the campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment, which granted women the right to vote in 1920 Megalopolis - a very large city Nativism- The antiforeigner feeling that caused people to be against immigration. Many native born US citizens were against the immigration of first Germans and Irish and later the Asians. This caused acts such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 to be passed in order to limit the amount of immigrants coming into the US. Pragmatism- It was developed mostly by William James who believed that problem solving, not the ends, was the proper concern of Philosophy. Pragmatism preached that there was no absolute truth and that things should be judged based on their practical consequences. Ethnicity- This refers to the heritage of different groups consisting of common languages, cultures and ancestors. Many groups faced discrimination due to their ethnicity. This included African Americans and immigrants especially Hispanics and Asians. Evolution- This is the idea that species change over time. While he did not approve of the term, Darwin stated that all living things struggle to survive and that certain animals have genetic mutations that allow them to do so better. This idea was taken by Spencer who applied the idea of survival of the fittest to human society (the idea was known as Social Darwinism.) This meant that the richer people were more fit than the poorer ones. Yellow journalism- This term is referring to newspapers that specialize in sensationalistic reporting which is when the paper deliberately over-hypes events or in other words exaggerating the importance of events. The term came from the ink color used by the New York Journal to print the first colored comic strip. Settlement house philanthropy- This refers to the building of settlement houses in slums. The model of most settlement houses is the Hull House which was built by Jane Addams who did so after visiting Toynbee Hall in the London slums. These houses were built in poor communities and served as community centers and spark plugs for neighborhood betterment. These houses were the hallmark of social progressivism. Comstock Law- This amended the Post Office Act, banning things like contraceptive devices from being sent over mail. It also banned information on abortion to be sent through mail. This law was named after Anthony Comstock, its chief proponent. New Immigration- During this time, new groups began to immigrate into America including Hispanics and Chinese. The Hispanics came north from Mexico becoming contract workers for railway gangs and harvest crews or other low paying jobs. Chinese immigrants were initially attracted by the gold rush. They first worked in the gold fields but once the gold ran out, they began to do low paying jobs like working on railroads. Both these groups were met with very negative reactions.

Modernist- These are people who are part modernism which is the new modern thinking or new cultural tendencies and movements that occurred between the late 1800s and the early 1900s. During this time period, the modernist pushed aside older norms and ideas and tried to come up with new ones. Women's Christian Temperance Union- This union was organized in Cleveland, Ohio in 1874. It was formed in order to go against the influence of alcohol. This group supported prohibition. The first and second presidents of this group were Annie Wittenmyer and Frances Willard respectively. Social gospel- This was a Protestant intellectual movement that applied Protestant ethics to social problems including social injustice inequality, liquor, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, weak labor unions, poor schools, and war. The leaders of this movement did this because they believed that the second coming of Christ would not come until humans would become pure. Chautauqua - is an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Chautauqua assemblies expanded and spread throughout rural America until the mid-1920s. The Chautauqua brought entertainment and culture for the whole community, with speakers, teachers, musicians, entertainers, preachers and specialists of the day. Hull House- is a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House immediately opened its doors to the recently arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings. In 1912 the Hull House complex was completed with the addition of a summer camp, the Bowen Country Club. With its innovative social, educational, and artistic programs, Hull House became the standard bearer for the movement that had grown, by 1920, to almost 500 settlement houses nationally. The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 (the Agricultural College Act of 1890 The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution, along with the Volstead Act, which defined "intoxicating liquors" excluding those used for religious purposes and sales throughout the U.S., established Prohibition in the United States. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919. It was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in 1933, the only instance of an amendment's repeal. The Eighteenth Amendment was also unique in setting a time delay before it would take effect following ratification and in setting a time limit for its ratification by the states. Sitting Bull, also nicknamed Slon-he or "Slow"; was a Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people as a war chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Born near the Grand River in Dakota Territory, he was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement.

Geronimo (Chiricahua: Goyaa, "one who yawns"; often spelled Goyathlay or Goyahkla[2] in English) (June 16, 1829 February 17, 1909) was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States and their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars. Oliver Hudson Kelley (January 7 or January 20, 1826 January 20, 1913) is considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange").Born in Boston, he moved to the Minnesota frontier in 1849, where he became a farmer. In 1864, he got a job as a clerk for the United States Bureau of Agriculture and traveled the Eastern and Southern United States following the American Civil War. He felt a great need to gather together farmers and their families to rebuild America as he once knew it, and thought an organization of fraternal strength would best serve the needs of the farm families. George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 June 25, 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. Today he is most remembered for a disastrous military engagement known as the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1858, where he graduated last in his class. However, with the outbreak of the Civil War, all potential officers were needed, and Custer was called to serve with the Union Army. Helen Maria Hunt Jackson (October 18, 1830 August 12, 1885) was an American writer who became an activist to improve United States government treatment of Native Americans. She wrote newspaper articles and directly to government officials. In 1881, she published A Century of Dishonor, about the adverse effects of government actions, and sent a copy to each member of the US Congress. James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election. Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840 September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Nez Perce to a reservation in Idaho. For his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker. Joseph F. Glidden patented barb wire Mary Elizabeth Lease (18531933) was an American lecturer, writer, and political activist. She was an advocate of the suffrage movement as well as temperance but she was best known for her work with the Populist party. She was born to Irish immigrants Joseph P. and Mary Elizabeth (Murray) Clyens, in Ridgway, Pennsylvania. In 1895, she wrote The Problem of Civilization Solved, and in 1896, she moved to

New York City where she edited the democratic newspaper, World. In addition, she worked as an editor for the National Encyclopedia of American Biography. Mary Elizabeth Lease was also known as Mary Ellen Lease. She was called "Queen Mary" (after the British Queen consort, Mary of Teck) and "Mother Lease" by her supporters, and "Mary Yellin" by her enemies. Lease died in Callicoon, New York. The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century. The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, when Indian warriors killed 29 U.S. soldiers after their chief was shot in the back, in what became known as the Grattan Massacre. The U.S. exacted revenge the next year by killing approximately 100 Sioux in Nebraska. 1. Dawes Severalty Act: a. Enacted by the U.S. Congress regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. b. Provided for the division of tribally held lands into individually-owned parcels and opening "surplus" lands to settlement by non-Indians and development by railroads. 2. Patrons of Husbandry: a. Fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. b. Served as the vehicle through which the Granger movement operated. c. Had a secret ritual like the Masons and admitted both men and women to membership. Each local unit was known as a "Grange." 3. Nez Perce a. A tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. b. The Nez Perce's name for themselves is Nimipuu meaning, "The People." c. Best known for their battles with the U.S. Army during the Nez Perc War of 1877. d. One of the most numerous and powerful tribes of the Plateau Culture area, living a semi-sedentary existence as fishermen, hunters, and gatherers. e. William Clark was the first American to meet any of the tribe. 4. Comstock Lode a. The first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City. b. The discovery of silver in Nevada was the greatest since the discovery of gold in California. c. Unlike most silver ore deposits, which occur in long thin veins, those of the Comstock Lode occurred in discrete masses often hundreds of feet thick. The ore was so soft it could be removed by shovel. The weakness of the surrounding material resulted in frequent and deadly caveins. 5. Granger Laws

a. Series of laws passed in western states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain elevator and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address longand short-haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers . b. When several Granger laws were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, the federal Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to secure the same reforms. c. The Granger laws were so called because they were passed in response to the Granger movement. d. Granger Laws were the deciding point of two very important court cases in the late 19th century, Munn v. Illinois and Wabash v. Illinois. 6. Apache a. The collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the American Southwest. b. Groups spoke seven different languages 7. Long Drive a. Large herds of longhorn cattle roamed freely throughout Texas. b. High meat prices in eastern cities attracted a variety of entrepreneurs and prompted cattlemen to search for a way to bring them to market. c. The building of the first transcontinental railroads offered a solution by providing an inexpensive mode of transporting cattle to large urban markets. d. Westward spread of homestead settlement, expanding railroad networks, and shrinking free-range cattle herds pushed the trails farther west. By 1890, long drives to reach railroad stations had become unnecessary, and professional ranchers had replaced the early entrepreneurs in supplying urban America with beef cattle. The Greenback Party was an American political party with an anti-monopoly ideology that was active between 1874 and 1884. Its name referred to paper money, or "greenbacks," that had been issued during the American Civil War and afterward. The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a bullion coin-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. It also condemned the use of militias and private police against union strikes. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war. This would better foster business and assist farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. It was established as a political party whose members were primarily farmers financially hurt by the Panic of 1873. The Ghost Dance (also called the Ghost Dance of 1890) was a religious movement which was incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems. The chief figure in the movement was the prophet of peace, Jack Wilson, known as Wovoka among the Paiute. He prophesied a peaceful end to white American expansion while preaching goals of clean living, an honest life, and cross-cultural cooperation by Native Americans.

The Homestead Act is one of two United States federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title to up to 160 acres of undeveloped federal land outside the original Thirteen Colonies. The law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for deed of title. The Farmer's Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. One of its goals was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers after the US Civil War. First formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas, the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was strongest in the South, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1892. The Wounded Knee Massacre happened on December 29,1890 near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening firing indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers. By the time it was over, at least 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed and 51. Twenty-five troopers also died, and thirty-nine were wounded. The Oklahoma Land Run of 1889 was the first land run into the Unassigned Lands. The land run started at high noon on April 22, 1889, with an estimated 50,000 people lined up for their piece of the available two million acres. The Unassigned Lands were considered some of the best unoccupied public land in the United States. The Indian Appropriations Bill of 1889 was passed and signed into law with an amendment by Illinois Representative William McKendree Springer, that authorized President Benjamin Harrison to open the two million for settlement. Due to the Homestead Act of 1862, signed by President Abraham Lincoln, legal settlers could claim lots up to 160 acres in size. Provided a settler lived on the land and improved it, the settler could then receive the title to the land. Populists- Member of the Populist or Peoples Party. Created in the late 19th century partly with the merging of the Farmers Alliance and somewhat of the Knights of Labor. Was the only party that threatened the national two-party system. Advantage was that they permitted women to join their party. Basically a party consisting of the poor who are going against the rich. Benjamin Harrison- 23rd president of the U.S. Known for McKinley Tariff (increased tariffs on goods) and Sherman Antitrust Act (limited monopolies). Believed in protecting the American industry by using the tariffs. Jacob S. Coxey- led Coxeys Army (group of unemployed men). Presented Petition in Booths which demanded Congress spend money to make jobs for the unemployed. Led to the Social Security Act. Richard Olney- U.S. attorney general. Allowed U.S. to be regarded as an equal of the worlds greatest nation. Instructed others to take physical action against those in the Pullman strike.

Thomas B. Reed- Thomas Brackett Reed: U.S. Representative and speaker of House of Representative. Powerful leader of Republican Party. Sought to circumscribe the ability of the minority party to block business. Also enforced 15th amendment. Eugene V. Debs- One of the founding members of the International Labor Union. Founded American Railway Union (which boycotted the Pullman palacy car company by refusing to handle trains that had Pullman goods, thus hurting the company itself.)

William McKinley : was the 25th President of the United States, McKinley was a national Republican leader; his signature issue was high tariffs on imports as a formula for prosperity, as typified by his McKinley Tariff of 1890. He upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups. William Jennings Bryan: was an American politician in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a supporter of popular democracy, an enemy of gold, banks and railroads, a leader of the silverite movement in the 1890s, a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, and an opponent of Darwinism on religious grounds. With his deep, commanding voice and wide travels, he was one of the best known orators and lecturers of the era. Because of his faith in the goodness and rightness of the common people, he was called "The Great Commoner." "Cross of Gold" speech: The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 8, 1896. The speech advocated bimetallism. Following the Coinage Act (1873), the United States abandoned its policy of bimetallism and began to operate a de facto gold standard. In 1896, the Democratic Party wanted to standardize the value of the dollar to silver and opposed a monometallic gold standard. The inflation that would result from the silver standard would make it easier for farmers and other debtors to pay off their debts by increasing their revenue dollars. It would also reverse the deflation which the U.S. experienced from 1873 to 1896. Marcus A. Hanna: Marcus Alonzo Hanna (September 24, 1837 February 15, 1904), best known as Mark Hanna, was an American industrialist and Republican politician from Cleveland, Ohio. He rose to fame as the campaign manager of the successful Republican Presidential candidate, William McKinley, in the U.S. Presidential election of 1896 in a well-funded political campaign and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate. James B. Weaver: James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election.

Injunction- is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that requires a party to do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts. When used by the government to outlaw the Pullman boycott in 1894 in the case of In re Debs, employers found that they could obtain federal court injunctions to ban strikes and organizing activities of all kinds by unions. free silver - an inflationary monetary policy using the "free coinage of silver.It largely pitted the financial establishment of the Northeast, who were creditors and would be hurt by inflation, against the more rural areas of the country, who were debtors and would benefit from inflation: farmers in the Midwest, miners in the West, and Southerners still chafing against federal government control. sixteen to one - that silver should be valued at a ratio of 16 to 1sixteen ounces of silver would equal one ounce of gold "Billion-Dollar" Congress - the Fifty-first United States Congress, referred to by some critics as the Billion Dollar Congress, was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of representatives. It was responsible for a number of pieces of landmark legislation, many of which asserted the authority of the federal government homestead strike- resistance to the placing of Oklahoma District under the homestead act after white homesteaders coveted the fertile land; April 22, 1889 horde of claimants rushed in and staked out territory, resulting in full swing resistance. Pension Act- on June 27, 1890, to provide a pension for any Civil War veteran of the Union Army. Created in response to political pressure from Union veterans, many of whom were members of the Grand Army of the Republic, it also provided a pension to a soldier's widow under certain conditions. Jim Crow laws- segregation laws applied in the late 1880s towards every type of public facilityrestaurants, hotels, street cars, and even cemeteries Sherman Silver Purchase Act- passed 1890 in which an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion was to be purchased monthly and serve as new basis for new issues of U.S. treasury notes depression of 1893- serious economic depression in the United States that began in that year; similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and a railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply and a policy of using both gold and silver metals as a peg for the US Dollar value

Dingley Tariff- introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, Jr. of Maine, raised tariffs in United States to counteract the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates; under the Act, tariff rates reached a new high, averaging 46.5%, and in some cases up to 57%. McKinley Tariff- direct contributing factor to the Panic of 1893 which resulted in the defeat of Democrats in the 1894 Congressional mid-term elections; increased the duties on wool, woolen manufactures, on tin plate, barley and some other agricultural products and remitted the duty on raw sugar Pullmann strike: (Great Pullman Boycott) Starting in Pullman, Illinoisbin 1893 with Goerge M. Pullman's wage cuts, his actions led to a nationwide railroad strike that adversely affected the United States economy. The American Railway Union aided the workers who had their wages cut and boycotted the moving of Pullman's luxury sleeping cars. These cars were very popular and were on almost every railway, so it led to a huge strike. Gold standard act- in 1900, this act was passed and established that gold was the only way to redeem paper money from the American government. Omaha platform- worked to consolidate Famer's Alliance and Greenback party. Backed the Knights of Labor. Wilson-Gorman Tariff- Reduced the tariffs to the ones set in 1890 by McKinley and established a 2% income tax. American Protective Association- An anti-catholic association. William Howard Taft- the 27th president of the United States and 10th Chief Justice. John Hay- Lincoln's secretary. His contributions included the adoption of an Open Door Policy in China (announced on January 2, 1900) which may have been a contributing factor in the Boxer Rebellion, and the preparations for the Panama Canal. He negotiated the HayPauncefote Treaty (1901), the HayHerran Treaty (1903), and the HayBunau Varilla Treaty (1903), all of which were instrumental in clearing the way for the construction and use of the Canal. Theodore Roosevelt- 26th president of the United States of America. He changed how the presidency was viewed forever, basing a president equally on character as policy. Backed progressiveness and trust busting.

Geurilla Warfare- Small mobile force harasses a large unmobile army with hit and run tactics. Spheres of influence- An area or state where a country has a significant effect on in politics, economics, and culture. Philippine Insurrection- 1899-1902- War against United States for Independence. Benevolent Assimilation- Basically the end of the Philippine war. Open Door notes-Earnestly desirous to remove any cause of irritation and to insure at the same time to the commerce of all nations in China... [the United States urges all nations claiming a sphere of influence in China to declare] that [all nations] shall enjoy perfect equality of treatment for their commerce and navigation within such spheres.... Within its respective sphere [a nation]... ? Boxer Rebellion a secret society of Chinese nationalists, the Boxers, who rebelled against foreigners in an attempt to drive them out of the country; America asserts open door policy: any country has the right to trade with China Big-Stick Diplomacy policy named by President Roosevelt to describe the assertion of U.S. dominance as a moral imperative Clayton-Bulwer Treaty compromise agreement designed to harmonize contending British and U.S. interests in Central America; provided that the two countries jointly control and protect what was to become the Panama Canal Hay-Pauncefote Treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across Central America, connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty an agreement of November 1903 to allow the United States to build a canal through a 10-mile-wide perpetually leased section of central Panama, to use more land if needed, and to intervene militarily in Panama; required the United States to guarantee Panama's independence and pay $10 million Panama Canal a ship canal crossing the Isthmus of Panama in the Canal Zone and connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean Roosevelt Corollary authorized U.S. intervention in the affairs of neighboring American countries in order to counter threats posed to U.S. security and interests; based on Monroe Doctrine Portsmouth Conference peace settlement that ended the Russo-Japanese War; Russia recognized Japan as the dominant power in Korea Great White Fleet popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe; ordered by President Roosevelt who sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability

Gentleman's Agreement an agreement guaranteed only by the pledged word or unspoken understanding of the parties Henry Demarest Lloyd a 19th century political activist and journalist; best known for his exposes of the Standard Oil Company Ida Tarbell a U.S. investigative journalist, lecturer, and chronicler of American industry; best known for The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904), an account of the rise of a business monopoly Charles Evans Hughes- He was the lawyer and the Republican senator from New York. He is also well known as an American conservative. Thorstein Veblen- He was an American economist and sociologist who lead one of the economic movements in the United States. David G. Phillips- He was an American journalist and novelist based on his life experiences Upton Sinclair- He was a famous writer in the U.S. who won many awards for his books, like The Jungle. Jacob Riis- He was an American social reformer who strongly advocated the use of photography in order to change society. Robert LaFollette- He was originally a U.S. senator who tried to run for the U.S. president but failed. William Howard Taft- He was the 27th president of the United States and made some social and economic reforms. Lincoln Steffens- He was an American journalist and lecturer who believed in making social reforms. Hiram Johnson- He was the governor of California who also served as a U.S. senator. rule of reason- It is a law made by the Congress that states that a monopoly power in the economy is not considered illegal. This is most applied to the oil industry. Initiative- It is known in politics as a form of petition that needs signatures in order for the change to be made. Referendum- In politics, it is known as a direct vote that asks the voter to confirm or decline a certain proposal. Recall The Norths claim after the Civil War to bring all of their soldiers out of the South. Conservation Ideology to achieve maximum efficiency in industry. Muckrakers Reporter who investigated social problems and published them for the public. Meat Inspection Act Act in 1906 that required the United States Department of Agriculture to inspect all cattle, sheep, goats, and horses when slaughtered and processed into products for human consumption.

17th Amendment - 17th Amendment established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote 18th Amendment - The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. dollar diplomacy Term used to the describe the United States efforts to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Elkins Act - The act required railroads to hold to their published rates and forbade rate cutting and rebates. Hepburn Act - The Hepburn Act was passed by Congress to increase the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission over railroads and certain other types of carriers by authorizing the commission to determine and prescribe just and reasonable maximum rates, establish through routes, and prescribe and enforce uniform systems of accounts. Northern Securities Case Ruling by the Supreme Court against monopolies in economics, this was then applied to all monopolies for them to be dissolved. Pure Food & Drug Act An act that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines. Desert Land Act - The act offered 640 acres of land to an adult married couple who would pay $1.25 an acre and promise to irrigate the land within three years to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western states. Forest Reserve Act A law that allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain. Carey Act This act allowed private companies in the U.S. to erect irrigation systems in the western semi-arid states, and profit from the sales of water. Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) Advocated by President Theodore Roosevelt Authorized irrigation projects for the reclamation and settlement of dry western lands by Americans. Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act (1909) Essentially a protective tariff Taft at first campaigned against this act, but ended up approving it after being won over by conservative Republicans Critics accused the act of sheltering eastern industry from foreign competitors Pinchot-Ballinger Affair Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot vs. Secretary of the Interior Richard A. Ballinger Pinchot, a friend of Roosevelts, accused Ballinger of plotting to transfer resource-rich Alaskan land to a private business group Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination, leading to his being labeled as one who plunders the nations resources Old Guard Republicans Libertarian faction in the U.S. that favored policies laissez-faire, classical liberalism, and nonintervention Root-Takahira Agreement

Formal accommodation between the U.S. and Japan Confirmed the status quo in the Pacific Free oceanic commerce and equal trade opportunity in China Alfred Thayer Mahan Naval officer who wrote The Influence of Seapower upon History (1890) Believed naval power was the key to the success of American expansionism Valeriano Weyler Spanish commander who tried to control the rebelling Cubans through reconcentration He forced entire populations into guarded camps, to no avail George Dewey Commander of the Pacific fleet during the Spanish-American War of 1898 Won a decisive naval victory over the Spanish fleet at Manila James G. Blaine Republican nominee who lost the presidential election of 1884 to Democrat Grover Cleveland During the campaign, mudslingers blamed him for corrupt railroad chartering Dupuy de Lome Spanish minister to the U.S. In a letter, he ridiculed McKinley for being a weak president and suggested that the Spanish government was not taking American demands seriously Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule Richard Olney--Attorney general of president Cleveland; obtained court orders demanding that Debs stop the Pullman strike. Debs and his followers refused, and were therefore jailedlack of leadership caused disintegration of the strike Louis Brandeis the peoples lawyer: represented the little guy and took onand defeated bigger interests, like railroads and big corporations; Also, adviser to Wilson who pushed for free market and competition between small firms; helped pass Clayton Antitrust Act which amended Sherman Act and made the definition of illegal company practices more flexible. New Nationalismroosevelts plan to have the nations industrial corporations overseen by government committees in order to ensure that they act according to the public interest New Freedomeconomic reform plan aimed at encouraging economic liberty, as opposed to the collectivism of New Nationalism Underwood Tariffpassed by Democrats in Congress, it reduced tariff rates especially in the trustdominated industries; it was expected to increase competition, thereby reducing prices 16th Amendmentpermitted income taxes to be used by the federal government; used during World War I to fund the fighting Federal Reserve Actset up 12 district reserve banks, funded and run by their member banks; Federal Reserve can now issue currency to avoid shortages during runs on the banks; Also Federal Reserve Board can set interest rate charged by the district reserves to member bankseffectively gives the Board control of flow of credit to the public Clayton Act--amended Sherman Act and made the definition of illegal company practices more flexible: this meant there could be more charges of illegal practices, which limits power of big corporations Federal Farm Loan Acta United States federal law that established twelve regional Farm Loan Banks to serve members of Farm Loan Associations. The act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

Fed. Trade Commission Actestablished a Federal Trade Commission to investigate companies and issue commands to stop unfair trade practices that violated antitrust laws Seaman's ActChampioned by Wilson during his presidency, it eliminated the established practice of abusing sailors onboard ships Adamson Act--8-hour law for railroad workers****thats all the book saysI assume that means it limited their work day, but I'm not sure Eugene V DebsLeader of the American Railway Union, led the Pullman Boycott, and was jailed for it; emerged from jail a radicalized socialist Industrial Workers of the WorldLed by Ed Boyce and Bill Haywood, socialist party, support Marxist class struggle at the point of productioneventually achieve a workers revolution through a general strike Woodrow WilsonDemocratic president elected in 1912, supported New Freedom, low tariffs, economic competition, championed the antitrust cause: supports small firms, not big corporation