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ACIDS, BASES and SALTS

Do you still remember….

HCl
HNO3 H2SO4
• ACIDS
CH3 COOH

NaOH
• ALKALIS Ca(OH)2 NH4OH
KOH

• SALTS NaCl K2SO4


MgCl2
ACIDS
What can you see common in acids?

What do all
H acids have in
H2SO
SO44 common?
H

HHClCl ALL acids contain


HYDROGEN – this
is important!
H NO
HNO 33
ACIDS

What is an ACID ?

An acid is a substance that produces


+
Hydrogen ions, H , in water
ACIDS

• Pure acids (without water) consists of


small covalent molecules.
When acid molecules forms ions
• In the presences of water, the acid
We say the acid is IONISED
molecules form ions

water + -
H Cl H Cl
(aq) (aq)
IONISATION

water + -
H Cl H Cl
(aq) (aq)

H 2-
water +
SO4 2 H SO4
H (aq) (aq)

water + -
H NO3 H NO 3
(aq) (aq)
Basicity of an Acid

Some acids just form one hydrogen ion when


dissolve in water whereas others form more
than one.

The maximum number of hydrogen ions


produced by a molecule of an acid is called the
basicity of the acid
Basicity of an Acid
ACID Reaction with Water Basicity
H2O
Hydrochloric H Cl H+ Cl-
acid (aq) (aq)
1
H2O
Nitric acid H NO3 H+ -
NO3
(aq) (aq)
1
CH3COOH
Ethanoic acid + - 1
H + CH3COO
H2O + 2-
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 2H + 2
SO4
BASICITY of ACIDS

• What about Phosphoric acids?


H3PO4

TRIBASIC ACID
ACIDS

• Properties of acids are due to the


hydrogen ions.

• It is the hydrogen ions that react with


metals
ACID: Hydrogen ion is important!

2
2HCl
2H (aq)
(aq) Mg(s) MgCl
Mg 2(aq) H2 H
(aq) (g)2 (g)

2H (aq) 2Cl (aq) Mg(s)

2
Mg (aq) 2Cl (aq) H2 (g)
SALTS & ACIDS SALTS

• Metal salts are produced when acids


reacts with alkali/base, carbonates and
metals.

• Examples: NaCl, Na2SO4, Mg(NO3)2

• pH of metal salts are NEUTRAL


SALTS & ACIDS SALTS

• ACID SALTS are produced when


dibasic or tribasic acids reacts with
alkali/base, carbonates and metals.

E.g. NaHSO4, K2HPO4 , KH2PO4

HOW TO GET IT?


(White board explained by teacher)
Properties of Acid

+ carbonates
 Salt + CO2 Sour
+ H2O
+
metals Changes
ACIDS
 Salt colour of
+ H2 indicators

+ base/alkali
 Salt + H2O Hazardou
s
Strength of Acid

Strong Acids
A strong acid is one that completely ionises in
water.

Weak Acids
A weak acid is one that partially ionises in
water.
Strong Acids
All the HCl
Strong Acids
molecule ionises into hydrogen ions
A strong
and HCl
chloride
acidion
(g) (aq) Clionises
is one thatHcompletely (aq) in
water.

+ - -
H Cl +
H Cl
+ -
H Cl
+ -
H Cl
Weak Acids
Weak Acids
CH 3COOH
A weak acid is one thatCH
(aq) 3COO
partially (aq) in H (aq)
ionises
water.

CH3COO H
CH3COO- H+
CH3COO H
CH3COO H
Strong Acids , Weak Acids

+ - - CH3COO H
H Cl +
H Cl
+ - CH3COO- H+
H Cl
CH3COO H
+ -
H Cl
CH3COO H

Strong Acid Weak Acid


Total Ionised Partially Ionised
USES of ACIDS

Sulphuric acid
Hydrochloric
acid Fertilisers, car
battery
Stomach
(digest food) ACIDS
Sulphuric acid
Ethanoic acid
Paint, artificial
Food, fibres, plastics
preservatives
ALKALIS
What can you see common in Alkalis?

What do all
alkalis have in
NH4 4OH
NH OH
common?

KOH
K OH ALL alkalis contain
HYDROXIDE ions
in aqueous solution
Ca (in water)
Ca(OH)
OH2
OH
ALKALIS

What is an ALKALI ?

An alkali is a substance that produces


-
hydroxide ions, OH , in water
BASES

What are BASES?

• Bases are oxides and hydroxides


of metals

• E.g. CuO, MgO, NaOH,


BASES and ALKALIS

What is the difference between a


base and an alkali?

• All alkalis are bases, but not all


bases are alkalis

• Bases are insoluble and alkalis are


soluble in water.
BASES and ALKALIS

BASES

ALKALI
e.g. NaOH

e.g. CuO

Example of a Base: Copper (II) oxide (Solid)


Example of an Alkali: Sodium hydroxide (aqueous)
Properties of Alkalis

+ soln metal ions


 precipitate Slippery

+ acids
 Salt Changes
ALKALIS
+ H2O colour of
indicators
+ ammonium
compound 
Hazardou
Salt + NH3 +
s
Properties of Bases

DEMONSTRATION OF CHEMICAL
EQUATIONS

(White board explained by teacher)


USES of ALKALIS

Neutralisation
Grease
remover Toothpaste,
stomach acid

ALKALIS

Agriculture Soaps

Balancing pH Detergents
of acidic soil cleaners
INDICATORS & pH
Indicators

An indicator is a substance that has


different colours in acidic and alkaline
solutions.
Example:
Phenolphtalein
Methyl orange & Screen methyl orange
Litmus solution or paper
Indicators
Indicator Colour in acids Colour in alkali

Phenolphthalein

Screen methyl
orange

Litmus
THE pH SCALE

How to see if an unknown solution is acidic or


alkaline?

How do you know if it is a strong acid or a weak


acid or strong alkali or weak alkali?
THE pH SCALE

Acids Alkalis
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Neutral
More acidic More alkali
Importance of pH

• pH in the body
- Acidic condition  Stomach (pH ~ 1.5)
- Alkaline condition  s.intestine ( ~ 8.4)
- Blood  contains CO2 ( ~ 6.5)
• pH and food preservation
- Ethanoic acid (vinegar) – Preserve veg.
- Benzoic acid – fruit juices, oyster sauce
- Citric acid – use in food for preservation
and flavouring.
Importance of pH

• pH in the garden

- most plants grow best when pH of soil is


~ pH 5.6

- Orchids – more acidic soil pH 4-5


- Strawberries, apples – weakly acidic pH 5-6
- Common vegetables – neutral pH 6-8
Acidic, Basic and Amphoteric
Oxides
Acidic Oxide

ACIDIC OXIDES are oxides of NON-METALS

Acidic oxides react with water and produce


acids
Acidic oxide Formula Acid produced with
water
Sulphur trioxide
SO 2(g) 2 SO
HO (l)3 Sulphuric 2Acid, H
H SO 2SO4
4(aq)
Carbon dioxide CO2 Carbonic Acid, H2CO3
Phosphorus (V) P4O10 Phosphoric acid, H3PO4
oxide
Acidic Oxide

Acidic oxides react with alkali to form salt and


Water.

CO2(g) 2NaOH (aq) Na2CO3(aq)

H2O(l)
The salt sodium carbonate is formed when
carbon dioxide is bubbled into dilute sodium
hydroxide
Basic Oxide

BASIC OXIDES are oxides of METALS

Basic oxides react with acids to form salt and


water

CaO(s) 2HCl (aq) CaCl2(aq)

H2O(l)
Amphoteric Oxide

Some metallic oxides are amphoteric.

This means they behave as an acidic oxide or


as a basic oxide

Amphoteric oxide Formula


Aluminium oxide Al2O3
Lead (ll) oxide PbO
Zinc oxide ZnO
Amphoteric Oxide

Amphoteric oxides react with acids and with


alkalis to form salts.

Aliminium oxide acts as:

• a base by reacting with hydrochloric acid


&
• an acid by reacting with sodium hydroxide
solution
Amphoteric Oxide

Aliminium oxide (Al2O3)

Al2O3 6HCl 2AlCl3 3H2O

Al2O3 NaOH Sodium H2O


aluminate
Amphoteric Oxide

Zinc oxide (ZnO)

ZnO 2HCl ZnCl2 H2O

ZnO NaOH Sodium


Zincate
H2O
Neutral Oxides

Neutral oxides DO NOT REACT with either


acids or bases, therefore they do not form
salts.

Neutral oxide Formula


Water H2O
Carbon monoxide CO
Nitrogen monoxide NO