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Applying Drive Installation Best Practices

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Objectives
After completing this lesson you should be able to: Understand basic drive startup guidelines Locate detailed drive installation information Avoid electrostatic damage to drive components

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives
After completing this lesson you should be able to: Identify electric measuring and installation equipment Identify protective clothing and PPE (personal protective equipment) Recognize hardware and installation implications when correcting line disturbances:
Harmonics Reflective wave Common mode ground current Motor noise

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Understanding Basic Drive Startup Guidelines


Basic drive startup guidelines can assist you in certifying a water/wastewater drive commissioning. These guidelines will also help protect you and your customers from potentially dangerous situations.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pre-site Visit Checklist


Verify the players of the various trades
Controls, electrical, mechanical

Verify where all the drives are located Verify the drives are ready for start up
Is all power and control wiring complete Has direction of rotation been verified

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pre-Site Visit Checklist


You need to know the electrical contractor in charge of the job You need to know the controls contractor responsible for the job You need to know the mechanical contractor responsible for the project Who on site is the contact for safety and lockout procedures
Typically assigned by superintendent (typically the tagout, lockout designee)

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pre-Site Visit Checklist


Who is responsible for all direction of rotation decisions?
Make sure you know who that is

Who is responsible for all control and interlock decisions? Who do you contact before the first rotation of the motors?
Typically is superintendent of construction or someone they have assigned

Who is the person that will sign you out when finished?
Typically is superintendent of construction or someone they have assigned

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pre-Site Visit Checklist


Here is a suggested list of equipment that should be on hand:
Fluke Model 87 digital multimeter or equivalent Extra fuses for your digital meter are always needed! Simpson or Triplett analog VOM A clamp on ammeter that can measure AC and DC Selection of alligator clip jumper wires A source of 4-20ma and 0-10vdc for simulated reference testing An oscilloscope is nice but not a requirement An electronic megohmmeter (megger) is often nice to have

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Start up Details and Considerations


3 conduits should be going into each drive cabinet:
One conduit for 3 phase input, one for 3 phase output and one for control wiring If wired incorrectly, bring it to the attention of the person checking you out and record it in your check out documentation.

Inspect drive cabinet:


Is it securely and properly mounted to the wall Check to make sure inside of cabinet is clean and dry Outdoor storage is common on construction sites look for water stains
Record any concerns of water damage on your check out documentation

Look overhead for possible future water hazards


Pipes running over drive (potential for leaks or dripping from condensation)

Make sure hole saw metal shavings are not inside the relays and contactors.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Start up Details and Considerations


Spend a few minutes and tighten everything inside bypass cabinet:
Check terminals inside the drive for tightness Check internal drive/bypass wiring from factory Check new field wiring

Tip: Verify connections are tight now to prevent a big problem later.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Pump Specific Considerations


Make absolutely certain of proper rotation
Significant damage will occur if run in reverse If youre not certain uncouple motor from pump If not possible, bump motor under direction or supervision of site manager

You must have a 100% direction check in both VFD and bypass

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Pump Specific Considerations


Check overload setting in bypass Site manager verification or approval of rotation Rotation arrows often cast right into pump housing Request minimum speed setting from site manager
Avoid cavitation or pump housing could break

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Preventing Future Problems


Verify connections with controls technician for logic and reference Loose connections will be an expensive troubleshooting call out Inspect the location of the drive for future water damage Inspect the location for mounting and vibration issues Inspect the location for direct sunshine or high temperatures Be sure the keypad display is not in direct sunlight Be sure the motor is grounded separate from the isolated base

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Locating Detailed Drive Installation Information


Knowing where to find detailed drive installation data is an important part of any startup, especially when working with higher-horsepower PowerFlex 700 VC drives (Frames 7-10). In addition to the applicable user manuals, be sure to download and/or print the respective installation instructions and reference manual (if available).

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Locating Detailed Drive Installation Information


These manuals may be on the documentation CD that ships with the drive. If the CD is not available and you have an Internet connection, you can download the needed files from the Literature Library:

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Understanding Drive Startup Guidelines


When starting a drive, you will be responsible for performing pre-power and power-on checks. The following steps will walk you through the process.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Performing Pre-Power Internal Drive Checks

To avoid a shock hazard, ensure all power to the drive has been removed before continuing. Also, verify that the voltage on the bus capacitors has discharged before performing any work on the drive. The DC bus voltage at the DC+ and DC- power block terminals must be zero.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Performing Pre-Power Internal Drive Checks

Remember to always follow all safety precautions. If in doubt about any procedure, equipment, or step, please see your instructor before continuing.

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Performing Pre-Power Internal Drive Checks


1. Check for any loose, unconnected, or damaged wires inside the drive. 2. Verify that all connectors are properly aligned and seated in the correct positions and that all jumper settings are correct. 3. Check for hardware that may have become loose or dislodged during shipment. 4. Verify that the incoming fuses, bus fuse (if applicable), and brake fuse (if applicable) are properly sized and not open.

5. Verify that all board mounting screws are tight and that all sheet metal is properly secured.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


To avoid a shock hazard, ensure all power to the drive has been removed before continuing. Also, verify that the voltage on the bus capacitors has discharged before performing any work on the drive. The DC bus voltage at the DC+ and DC- power block terminals must be zero.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


1. Verify that all external I/O wires are properly terminated in the terminal blocks. 2. Using a multimeter, perform a full point-to-point continuity check on all I/O wiring connected to the drive. 3. Verify that the incoming power connections to the drive are properly connected and tight. 4. Verify that the power source is properly sized and protected for the drive.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


5. Verify that the motor and drive are both grounded. 6. Remove the wires connected to the motor at the drive side. Be sure the wire markers are secure so connections can be re-made. 7. Open the access panel on the motor. 8. Inspect all wiring inside the access panel at the motor. All connections should be secure, clamped (if possible), and taped with heavy duty electrical tape.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring

The wires connecting the motor and the drive MUST be disconnected on the drive side before performing the next step. If the wires are still connected to the drive, severe damage may result to the drive.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring

The higher voltage and current a megger can produce may result in injury and equipment damage if the megger is used incorrectly. Always follow the direction of the operation manual for the megger.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


9. With the wires at the drive end still disconnected, using a megger, measure the phase-to-ground resistance for each phase of the motor. The value should be very high (in the megohm range) and uniform between phases. 10. Using a multimeter, measure the phase-to-phase resistance of the motor. This value should be small (in the <10 ohm range) and uniform between phases.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


11. If a temperature protection device is installed in the motor, using a multimeter, perform a point-to-point continuity check for this device. 12. Close the access panel on the motor 13. Reconnect the motor leads to the drive, making sure connections are tight and on the proper terminals.

Tip: If a torque screwdriver is available, torque the screws to the AC input and motor leads to proper torque specifications.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Checking Pre-Power External Wiring


14. Using a multimeter, measure the resistance between the following points: The DC+ terminal on TB1 and the incoming line terminals (R, S, and T) The DC- terminal on TB1 and the incoming line terminals (R, S, and T) The DC+ terminal on TB1 and the motor lead terminals (U, V, and W). The DC- terminal on TB1 and the motor lead terminals (U, V, and W). 15. Using the diode setting on the multimeter, take measurements and ensure that the values match those expected for your drive. Tip: The nominal diode readings vary from drive to drive. Consult the user manual for the drive(s) you have installed for the appropriate diode readings.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Performing Power-On Checks


Removing a drive access panel/cover exposes dangerous voltages on the terminals and negates the enclosure type rating. Do not operate the drive with the cover removed unless you are wearing NFPA-mandated personal protective equipment (PPE). Consult the latest version of the NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace documentation for the required PPE.
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Performing Power-On Checks


1. Apply power to the drive.

Do not stand in front of the drive when applying power for the first time.

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Performing Power-On Checks


2. Using a digital multimeter on the AC volts setting, measure the incoming AC voltage between L1 and L2, and L2 and L3, and L1 and L3. Verify that the voltage is balanced and correct for the drive.

Tip: The input voltage should equal the drive rated input voltage specified on the drive's nameplate within +/-10%.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Performing Power-On Checks


3. If the voltage is out of tolerance, verify that the drive rating is correct for the application. 4. If the drive rating is correct, adjust the incoming line voltage to within +/10%. 5. Using a clamp-on ammeter, measure the AC line current at TB1 on the drive, and check for a balanced condition.

To perform this check, the motor must be running and fully loaded.

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Performing Power-On Checks


6. Using a multimeter, measure the line-to-ground voltage for a balanced condition and ensure that the following items have the correct voltage: The floating system does not exceed 1000 V RMS. The grounded system is approximately 270 V RMS.

7. Using a multimeter, measure the DC voltage of the bus at TB1, measure terminals DC+ and DC-.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Avoiding Electrostatic Damage (ESD) to Drive Components


Whenever electrical components are handled, the risk of damage or degradation from electrostatic discharge exists. This discharge is caused by the effects of the electric field that surrounds all charged objects. Precautions must be taken to minimize the risk of ESD.

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Causes of ESD
The electric field causing ESD can be produced by the following events: Discharge: The transfer of a charge between items at different electrical potentials such as a positively charged hand and an electronic component. Induction: The interaction between a moving electric field and a stationary electronic component that generates an electric current within the component. Polarization: A form of induction caused by the attraction of a stationary electronic component to a nearby stationary positively charged nonconductor. Tip: Subsequent handling of the component first charges and then discharges it to result in damage to the component.
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Common Electrostatic Voltages


Everyday work situations can generate the following potentially damaging electrostatic voltages:
Situation Person walking on carpet on a: Humid day Dry day Person walking on a vinyl floor on a: Humid day Dry day Person in a padded chair Plastic foam coffee cup Plastic solder snipper Vinyl covered notebook Voltage Generated 2,000 V 35,000 V 400 V 12,000 V up to 18,000 V up to 5,000 V up to 8,000 V at the tip up to 8,000 V

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Long-Term Impact of ESD on Drive Components


ESD damage can produce the following effects in a drive: Erratic firing of silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) Memory loss due to EPROM damage Other board-level failures

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Static-Safe Work Area


The following practices will help create a static-safe work area that minimizes the danger of ESD: Cover your workbench with a grounded conductive surface. Cover the floor in your work area with a grounded conductive material. Remove the following types of non-conductive materials from your work area:
Plastics Nylon Plastic foam Cellophane

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Static-Safe Work Area


The following practices will help create a static-safe work area that minimizes the danger of ESD: Ground yourself by touching a conductive surface before approaching or touching electronic components. Monitor your loose clothing, such as sleeves, ties, and scarves, which can easily carry a charge. Avoid contact with electronic components in a module other than the one that you are working on.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components


The following practices will help protect electronic components against ESD: Use a wrist strap to stay grounded while working with electronic equipment:
Remove power to the equipment you are servicing.

Do not use a ground strap until you have verified that no power is present in the equipment you are servicing. Personal injury and/or equipment damage may result.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components


The following practices will help protect electronic components against ESD: Use a wrist strap to stay grounded while working with electronic equipment:
Put the wrist strap on before beginning work.

Before attaching the wrist strap to ground, verify that the point you have chosen is truly grounded. Not establishing a known safe grounding point could result in electrocution if an individual were to accidentally come into contact with a live electrical voltage.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components


The following practices will help protect electronic components against ESD: Use a wrist strap to stay grounded while working with electronic equipment:
Make sure the wrist strap ground lead is assembled properly and connected securely to ground each time you use it. Remove the wrist strap only when leaving the work area.

The wrist grounding strap is not a safety device against electric shock to the wearer. It only serves to prevent ESD to electronic components.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components

Remove the wrist grounding strap when power is applied to the workstation. Failure to do so may result in personal injury and/or equipment damage.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components


The following practices will help protect electronic components against ESD: Handle electronic components correctly by performing the following actions:
Use static-shielding containers to store and carry electronic components and modules

Tip: Avoid storing or packing electronic components and modules in boxes with foam peanuts because it can be very damaging.
Remove electronic components and modules from protective static shielding packages only in a static-safe work area Use proper handling procedures with all electronic components and modules, even those that are to be returned for repair

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ESD Protection of Electronic Components

Tip: For more information on how to prevent ESD in your workplace, visit the Electrostatic Discharge Association's (ESDA) Web site at www.esda.org.

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Identifying Electric Measuring and Installation Equipment


When starting up and/or troubleshooting drive problems, it is sometimes necessary to test drive components and operation to see if they are within tolerances. Electrical measuring tools are used to accomplish these tasks.

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Identifying Electric Measuring and Installation Equipment


Multimeters measure current, voltage, and resistance:

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Identifying Electric Measuring and Installation Equipment


Clamp-on ammeters are used to measure current through a conductor:

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Identifying Electric Measuring and Installation Equipment


A megohmmeter, or megger, induces a high voltage into a system to measure resistance:

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Identifying Electric Measuring and Installation Equipment


Hand-held tachometers are used to measure motor speed in terms of RPM or feet-per-minute:

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Identifying Protective Clothing and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)


The information contained in this section was adapted from NFPA 70E documentation. Refer to the latest version of this documentation for complete PPE and arc-flash information.

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Identifying Protective Clothing and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)


According to the NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace documentation, PPE is required when working on live voltages over 50 volts. The required PPE includes, but is not limited to: Flame-resistant clothing (natural fibers that will burn but will not melt) Voltage-rated gloves (rubber-insulated with leather protectors) Voltage-rated tools Arc-Flash suits (based on hazard category) Headgear

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Identifying Protective Clothing and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)


The following table shows the typical protective clothing systems for each hazard risk category:
Hazard Risk Clothing Description Category (Number of Layers) 0 Total Weight (oz/yd2) Required Minimum Arc Rating of PPE (cal/cm2) N/A

Non-melting, flammable 4.5 - 7 materials (i.e., untreated cotton, wool, rayon, or silk, or blends of these materials) with a fabric weight of at lest 4.5 oz/yd2 (1) FR shirt and FR pants, or FR coverall (1) 4.5 - 8

(Continued)
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Identifying Protective Clothing and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)


The following table shows the typical protective clothing systems for each hazard risk category:
Hazard Risk Clothing Description Category (Number of Layers) 2 3 Total Weight (oz/yd2) Required Minimum Arc Rating of PPE (cal/cm2) 8 25

Cotton underwear plus FR 9 - 12 shirt and FR pants (1 or 2) Cotton underwear plus FR 16 - 20 shirt and FR pants plus FR coverall (2 or 3) Cotton underwear plus FR 24 - 30 shirt and FR pants plus double-layer switching coat and pants (3 or more)
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Recognizing Hardware and Installation Issues When Correcting Line Disturbances


When adding AC drives to an existing power supply system, there are a number of potential issues that need to be investigated and fixed. These issues, which can cause degraded drive performance and impact incoming utility service, include: Harmonics Reflected wave Common mode ground current Motor noise

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Harmonics and Harmonic Mitigation Techniques


What are harmonics?
Deviations from the ideal AC line voltage and current waveforms All pulse width modulated (PWM) AC drives cause some amount of harmonic distortion

Ideal AC line input voltage waveform

Actual AC drive line input voltage waveform

Actual AC line input voltage from an application containing AC and DC Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. harmonics

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
IEEE519-1992 is a North American standard developed from input provided by:
Utilities Electrical equipment manufacturers Power consumers

Total harmonic distortion (THD) limits are recommended based upon the type of installation It is the defacto standard for power utilities and is often required of large consumers and medium voltage systems Becoming increasingly common in low voltage systems

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
Total voltage distortion not to exceed
3% in special applications of power systems (hospitals, airports) 5% in general power systems 10% in dedicated power systems
Special Applications1 General System Dedicated System2 Notch Depth 10% 20% 50% THD (Voltage) 3% 5% 10% Notch Area (AN)3 16 400 22 800 36 500 Note: The value AN for other than 480V systems should be multiplied by V/480. 1 Special applications include hospitals and airports. 2 A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to the converter load. 3 In volt-microseconds at rated voltage and current.

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
Total current distortion range from 5% to 20% maximum dependent upon Short Circuit Ratio
Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) ISC IL <11 11 h<17 17 h<23 23 h<35 35 h <20 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 20<50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 50<100 100.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 100<1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 >1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the harmonic limits above. Where ISC = maximum short circuit current at PCC IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC

TDD 5.0 8.0 12.0 15.0 20.0

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
Location of total harmonic distortion measurement, commonly called the Point of Common Coupling or PCC, shall be the point where two or more users share a common utility power source.

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IEEE519-1992 Standard

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
THD is dependent upon utility power capacity referred to as Short Circuit Current (lsc), measured at the PCC. For calculation purposes the lsc number must be supplied by the utility. It is dependent upon existing or planned linear and non-linear loads, also called Maximum Demand Load Current (IL), as required by the users system. The ratio of the two quantities above (Isc / IL) is referred to as Short Circuit Ratio.

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IEEE519-1992 Standard
When conducting a drives-based harmonic analysis, establishing the PCC at any point other than where the sharing of utility power occurs is not consistent with the intent of IEEE519-1992 and may lead to the purchase of unnecessary equipment.

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Harmonic Mitigation Techniques


18-pulse front end Passive and active harmonic filters Active front-end rectifiers As you move from an 18-pulse front end to an active front end, the solutions become more expensive.

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18-Pulse Front End


Benefits:
18 pulse input current

Meets IEEE-519 5% Harmonic Standard at the drive input Terminal Current THD 3.5% full load (typ.), 6 % no load Improves power factor More robust and trouble free than Harmonic Trap filters

18 pulse Utility input voltage

Somewhat more expensive than 12-pulse front end Less expensive than active front end rectifiers.

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18-Pulse Front End


Rectifier with isolation transformer:
18 pulse Rectifier Option using Isolation RA XFRM

DC Bus Link Choke 18-pulse Diode Bridge 18 pulse Isolation RA XFRM D P

Invertor

Cap-Bank

DC Bus Link Choke

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18-Pulse Front End


Rectifier with auto-transformer:
Rectifier diodes Input Breaker

Inverter Bay

Input fuses

Input choke for 3.5 % THD

18 pulse autotransformer
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Passive and Active Harmonic Filters


Passive Filters: Eliminate/reduce specific harmonics (tuned 5th and 7th filters) Reduce higher order harmonics (low pass, 5th through 17th)

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Passive and Active Harmonic Filters


Harmonic trap filter combines six-pulse rectifier with a filter tuned to eliminate 5th and 7th harmonics:

VSI

UTILITY

FEED
XFMR. 7th Filter

AC DRIVE

5th Filter

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Passive and Active Harmonic Filters


Active Filters: Use switching converters to compensate for specific harmonics and/or improve power factor Require a kVA rating approximately one-third of drive kVA rating Uses PWM inverter power structure switching to compensate for harmonics Inject equal and opposite drive harmonics into AC line

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Passive and Active Harmonic Filters


Active filter installation:
Transformer

Ls Isource

Li Irectifier AC drive &


6p rectifier input

Ifilter
Power Supply

Lf
V1 V3 V5

Cbus

V4

V6

V2

VDC

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Active Front End Rectifiers

A dual-direction converter that ... Supplies forward power to a common DC bus drive system with Sinusoidal input currents Regenerates excess power back to the 3-phase AC line with Sinusoidal input currents

Input Breaker

Inverter used as Front-end rectifier Input choke

Output: 200A DC Input: 460V AC, 145 kVA


(K-Code)
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Active Front End Rectifiers

An active front end must be used with drives that can share a common DC bus.

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Active Front End Rectifiers


The following line drawing shows how the active front-end interacts with the incoming power supply:
AC Line Reactors RGU Active Front-End

MCP

FUSES

Main Contactor

+ Bus Common 1336


DC Bus Common Bus Drive Drive

-Bus
Line filter

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Active Front End Rectifiers


You must use an active front-end PWM rectifier with IGBT devices that have gate turn-off capability. The rectifier is a replica of AC inverter devices found in drives. It operates at a high PWM switching frequency:
Requires less input filtering Needs 10%Z input line reactor

MCP

FUSES

Main Contactor

AC Line Reactors RGU Active Front-End

+ Bus Common 1336


DC Bus Common Bus Drive Drive

-Bus
Line filter

Copyright 2009 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.

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PowerFlex 700 Reflected Wave Mitigation


Reflected wave is an overvoltage condition that may produce potentially destructive voltage stress on the motor insulation: Whenever cable surge impedance does not match load (motor) surge impedance, a reflected wave may occur at the load terminals.

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PowerFlex 700 Reflected Wave Mitigation


Reflected wave is an overvoltage condition that may produce potentially destructive voltage stress on the motor insulation: Reflected wave magnitude depends on the extent of impedance mismatch occurring, with a maximum value equal to the incoming pulse voltage.

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PowerFlex 700 Reflected Wave Mitigation


Reflected wave is an overvoltage condition that may produce potentially destructive voltage stress on the motor insulation: Incoming pulse and reflected wave magnitudes interact to produce up to twice the expected bus voltage on line to line motor terminals for an uncharged cable condition.

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PowerFlex 700 Reflected Wave Mitigation


Reflected wave solutions: Select 240 V system voltage Specify NEMA MG1 Part 31 Inverter Duty Motors:
480 V systems have a 2 pu reflected wave voltage of 1,300 Vpk so that NEMA MG 1 Part 31 design of 1,600 Vpk insulation or higher is required. This motor eliminates the need for external motor protection on 480V systems.

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PowerFlex 700 Reflected Wave Mitigation


Reflected wave solutions: Limit motor cable length:
IGBT drives have output rise times from 50 ns to 400 ns. A 400 ns IGBT drive with a 1,200 Vpk motor can have a 150 ft cable length before external protection is required.

Pre- and post-installation solutions:


Line reactor at drive output Line Termination Network (LTN) near motor

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Common Mode Ground Currents


Common Mode (CM) noise is an unwanted electrical signal that produces undesirable effects in a control system: Communication errors Degraded equipment performance Equipment malfunction or non-operation

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Common Mode Ground Currents


CM noise can affect ultrasonic sensors, bar code systems, photoeyes, and more.

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Common Mode Ground Currents


Ways to reduce CM noise: Grounding (both PE and TE) Attenuating the noise source Shielding noise away from equipment

Tip: For more detailed information on CM noise currents and techniques to reduce them, see the Wiring and Grounding Guidelines for Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) AC Drives Installation Instructions.

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Motor Noise
In addition to the common mode ground currents we just discussed, motor noise can also be caused by a drive's carrier frequency. The carrier frequency determines how quickly PWM pulses are switched. The PowerFlex 700 VC drive can produce pulses at carrier frequencies of 2 kHz to 10 kHz. Tip: A very large majority of all drive applications perform adequately at 2-4 kHz.

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Motor Noise
Benefits of increasing carrier frequency: Less audible noise Less vibration in motor windings and laminations

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Motor Noise
Drawbacks to increasing the carrier frequency: More motor heating Derating ambient temperature versus load characteristics of the drive Higher cable charging currents Higher potential for common mode noise

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